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Sample records for space group pc

  1. Adapting PC104Plus for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the issues associated with adapting the commercial PC104Plus standard and its associated architecture to the requirements of space applications. In general, space applications exhibit extreme constraints on power, weight, and volume. EMI and EMC are also issues of significant concern. Additionally, space applications have to survive high radiation environment. Finally, NASA is always concerned about achieving cost effective solutions that are compatible with safety and launch constraints. Weight and volume constraints are directly related to high launch cost. Power on the other hand is not only related to the high launch costs, but are related to the problem of dissipating the resulting heat once in space. The article addresses why PC104Plus is an appropriate solution for the weight and volume issues. The article also addresses what NASA did electrically to reduce power consumption and mechanically dissipate the associated heat in a microgravity and vacuum environment, and how these solutions allow NASA to integrate various sizes of ruggedized custom PC104 boards with COTS, PC104 complaint boards for space applications. In addition to the mechanical changes to deal with thermal dissipation NASA also made changes to minimize EMI. Finally, radiation issues are addressed as well as the architectural and testing solutions and the implications for use of COTS PC104Plus boards.

  2. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-polycomb functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the polycomb-repressive and non-polycomb functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  3. Coset spaces for quantum groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoda, Zoran

    Consideration of symmetries often simplifies problems in physics and geometry. Quantum groups are analogues of groups, and they can describe a novel kind of symmetry. We view them as objects of noncommutative geometry. They may act on algebras of noncommutative or quantum observables. We propose a theory of coset spaces for quantum groups in the language of coactions of Hopf algebras and analyse an example which should be thought as a quantum group analogue of the flag variety. In the classical case the flag variety is the coset space of the special linear group modulo its Borel subgroup of lower triangular matrices. We introduce and study a notion of localized coinvariants; the quantum group coset space is viewed as a system of algebras of localized coinvariants, equipped with a quantum version of the locally trivial principal bundle where the total space is described by the quantum special linear group and the base space is described by the system of algebras of localized coinvariants. We use quasideterminants, the commutation relations between the quantum minors and the noncommutative Gauss decomposition to formulate and prove the main results. We apply our axiomatization of quantum group fibre bundles to obtain a generalization of a concept of Perelomov coherent states to the Hopf algebra setting and obtain the corresponding resolution of unity formula.

  4. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  5. The impact of Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) epigenetic factors in plant plasticity.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Sanchez, Maria; Aceves-García, Pamela; Petrone, Emilio; Steckenborn, Stefan; Vega-León, Rosario; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice

    2015-11-01

    Current advances indicate that epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the regulatory networks involved in plant developmental responses to environmental conditions. Hence, understanding the role of such components becomes crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying the plasticity and variability of plant traits, and thus the ecology and evolution of plant development. We now know that important components of phenotypic variation may result from heritable and reversible epigenetic mechanisms without genetic alterations. The epigenetic factors Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) are involved in developmental processes that respond to environmental signals, playing important roles in plant plasticity. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of TrxG and PcG functions in different developmental processes in response to internal and environmental cues and we also integrate the emerging evidence concerning their function in plant plasticity. Many such plastic responses rely on meristematic cell behavior, including stem cell niche maintenance, cellular reprogramming, flowering and dormancy as well as stress memory. This information will help to determine how to integrate the role of epigenetic regulation into models of gene regulatory networks, which have mostly included transcriptional interactions underlying various aspects of plant development and its plastic response to environmental conditions.

  6. Space transformation for understanding group movement.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Natalia; Andrienko, Gennady; Barrett, Louise; Dostie, Marcus; Henzi, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We suggest a methodology for analyzing movement behaviors of individuals moving in a group. Group movement is analyzed at two levels of granularity: the group as a whole and the individuals it comprises. For analyzing the relative positions and movements of the individuals with respect to the rest of the group, we apply space transformation, in which the trajectories of the individuals are converted from geographical space to an abstract 'group space'. The group space reference system is defined by both the position of the group center, which is taken as the coordinate origin, and the direction of the group's movement. Based on the individuals' positions mapped onto the group space, we can compare the behaviors of different individuals, determine their roles and/or ranks within the groups, and, possibly, understand how group movement is organized. The utility of the methodology has been evaluated by applying it to a set of real data concerning movements of wild social animals and discussing the results with experts in animal ethology.

  7. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  8. Aeritalia Space Systems Group, Turin, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Aeritalia has been involved in European space programs since the early 1960's. Space activities grew to the point that in 1984 Aeritalia established a separate Space Systems Group (SSG), located in Turin. Today, SSG is involved in dozens of projects, some of them jointly with NASA and U.S. aerospace companies. Here, several of the major projects, such as the Tethered Satellite system, HIPPARCOS, Columbus Pressurized Module, Italian Research Interim Stage, and others are briefly described.

  9. Distribution of mica polytypes among space groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    All the possible space groups for mica polytypes are deduced by making use of the characteristics of the mica unit layer and stacking mode. The algebraic properties of the vector-stacking symbol of Ross et al. (1966) are examined, and a simple algorithm for deducing the space group from this symbol is presented. A method considered for enumerating all possible stacking sequences of mica polytypes makes use of a computer.

  10. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  11. Fourier-Space Crystallography as Group Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabson, David; Fisher, Benji

    2001-03-01

    David Mermin has argued persuasively that the theoretical significance of quasicrystals lies not so much in relaxing the requirement of periodicity as in replacing exact identity of a density function (e.g., electronic or mass) under symmetry operations with indistinguishability of correlation functions, as expressed in Fourier space.(N.D. Mermin, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 151), 275 (1995) and references. After reviewing the formalism of Fourier-space crystallography (phase functions and gauge transformations), we present a new formulation in the language of cohomology of groups. First we reexpress the classification of space groups in terms of a first cohomology group; we then show how recent work by König and Mermin(A. König and N.D. Mermin, Am. J. Phys. 68), 525 (2000). on band sticking in nonsymmorphic crystals derives naturally from a first homology group and discuss its connection to a second cohomology group. The new language lets us prove generally several theorems previously known only in special cases. Finally, we let the listener decide whether we're just ``speaking prose.''(N.D. Mermin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 64), 3 (1992).

  12. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  13. Long-range repression by multiple polycomb group (PcG) proteins targeted by fusion to a defined DNA-binding domain in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, R R; Morgan, K; Mallin, D R; Roberson, R; Parnell, T J; Bornemann, D J; Simon, J A; Geyer, P K

    2001-01-01

    A tethering assay was developed to study the effects of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins on gene expression in vivo. This system employed the Su(Hw) DNA-binding domain (ZnF) to direct PcG proteins to transposons that carried the white and yellow reporter genes. These reporters constituted naive sensors of PcG effects, as bona fide PcG response elements (PREs) were absent from the constructs. To assess the effects of different genomic environments, reporter transposons integrated at nearly 40 chromosomal sites were analyzed. Three PcG fusion proteins, ZnF-PC, ZnF-SCM, and ZnF-ESC, were studied, since biochemical analyses place these PcG proteins in distinct complexes. Tethered ZnF-PcG proteins repressed white and yellow expression at the majority of sites tested, with each fusion protein displaying a characteristic degree of silencing. Repression by ZnF-PC was stronger than ZnF-SCM, which was stronger than ZnF-ESC, as judged by the percentage of insertion lines affected and the magnitude of the conferred repression. ZnF-PcG repression was more effective at centric and telomeric reporter insertion sites, as compared to euchromatic sites. ZnF-PcG proteins tethered as far as 3.0 kb away from the target promoter produced silencing, indicating that these effects were long range. Repression by ZnF-SCM required a protein interaction domain, the SPM domain, which suggests that this domain is not primarily used to direct SCM to chromosomal loci. This targeting system is useful for studying protein domains and mechanisms involved in PcG repression in vivo. PMID:11333237

  14. Functional renormalization group in Floquet space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissing, Anna Katharina; Meden, Volker; Kennes, Dante Marvin

    2016-12-01

    We present an extension of the functional renormalization group to Floquet space, which enables us to treat the long time behavior of interacting time periodically driven quantum dots. It is one of its strength that the method is neither bound to small driving amplitudes nor to small driving frequencies, i.e., very general time periodic signals can be considered. It is applied to the interacting resonant level model, a prototype model of a spinless, fermionic quantum dot. The renormalization in several setups with different combinations of time periodic parameters is studied, where the numerical results are complemented by analytic expressions for the renormalization in the limit of small driving amplitude. We show how the driving frequency acts as an infrared cutoff of the underlying renormalization group flow which manifests in novel power laws. We utilize the tunability of the effective reservoir distribution function in a periodically driven onsite energy setup to show how its shape is directly reflected in the renormalization group flow. This allows us to flexibly tune the power-law renormalization generically encountered in quantum dot structures. Finally, an in-phase quantum pump as well as a single parameter pump are investigated in the whole regime of driving frequency, demonstrating that the new power law in the driving frequency is reflected in the mean current of the latter.

  15. UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 years the UCLA IGPP Space Plasma Simulation Group has pursued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: the solar wind, the low- and high-latitude magnetospheric boundary, the near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and the auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations.

  16. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  17. Space 2: My Body. Space Orientation Group 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuyk, Jef J.

    Space orientation is a major area of development for preschool and early primary school children. Knowledge about one's own body and about body movements in space is a necessary condition for space orientation. Starting from their own bodies, children learn to focus on the space in which they move. They then learn to take a non-body perspective…

  18. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  19. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  20. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Executive summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a space shuttle payload planning group session are presented. The purpose of the workshop is: (1) to provide guidance for the design and development of the space shuttle and the spacelab and (2) to plan a space science and applications program for the 1980 time period. Individual groups were organized to cover the various space sciences, applications, technologies, and life sciences. Summaries of the reports submitted by the working groups are provided.

  1. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  2. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Spectroscopy of the Central 14 pc OF NGC 3998: Evidence for an Inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devereux, Nick

    2011-02-01

    Prior imaging of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 3998, with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 270 million solar mass black hole. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad emission line region (BELR) in NGC 3998 by modeling the shape of the broad Hα, Hβ, and Hγ emission line profiles. The analysis indicates that the BELR is large with an outer radius ~7 pc, regardless of whether the kinematic model is represented by an accretion disk or a spherically symmetric inflow. The electron temperature in the BELR is <= 28,800 K consistent with photoionization by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Indeed, the AGN is able to sustain the ionization of the BELR, albeit with a high covering factor ranging between 20% and 100% depending on the spectral energy distribution adopted for the AGN. The high covering factor favors a spherical distribution for the gas as opposed to a thin disk. If the gas density is >=7 × 103 cm-3 as indicated by the broad forbidden [S II] emission line ratio, then interpreting the broad Hα emission line in terms of a steady state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a rate <= 6.5 × 10-2 M sun yr-1 which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of a radiatively inefficient inflow by a factor of <=18.

  3. Effect of NGF on the subcellular localization of group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (GIIA) in PC12 cells: role in neuritogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, M; Nardicchi, V; Mannucci, R; Arcuri, C; Nicoletti, I; Donato, R; Goracci, G

    2010-12-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are involved in neuritogenesis but the identity of the isoforms(s) contributing to this process is still not defined. Several reports have focused on secretory PLA(2)s (sPLA(2)) as the administration of exogenous sPLA(2)s to PC12 neuronal cells stimulates neurite outgrowth. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous group IIA sPLA(2) (GIIA), constitutively expressed in mammalian neural cells, changes its subcellular localization when PC12 cells are induced to differentiate by NGF treatment. Indeed, confocal analysis showed a time-dependent accumulation of GIIA in growth cones and neurite tips. Under identical conditions the subcellular distribution of another isoform (GV) was unaffected by NGF. Contrary to GX, another sPLA(2) isoform expressed by PC12 cells, the contribution of GIIA to neuritogenesis does not require its release in the extracellular medium.

  4. Computations in isometry groups of finite metric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ganyushkin, A.G.; Sushchanskii, V.I.; Tsvirkunov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    A meaningful analysis of the structure or properties of a finite metric space requires using its isometry group. This is the group of permutations on the set of points in the space that preserves the binary relations {open_quotes}the points x and y are at a given distance from one another.{close_quotes} The theory of isometry groups of finite metric spaces is therefore a component of the theory of invariant relations of permutation groups. In the framework of their research, Kaluzhnin and his students have obtained a number of deep results. The theory of invariant relations is very useful also because it leads to an efficient programming system for computations in permutation groups defined by their invariant relations and in the associated combinatorial-algebraic objects. This suggests that the approaches and methodology of the general theory may be applied to study isometry groups of finite metric spaces. Direct extension of the results and the algorithms is not always the best strategy, because the specific features of metric spaces can be exploited to analyze the topic in greater detail and to construct more efficient computer algorithms. Section 1 considers the concept of isomorphism of metric spaces and shows that any finite metric space is isomorphic to a space with a metric whose nonzero values completely fill some interval of the natural series. We introduce the chromatic graph associated with a metric space and count the number of pairwise nonisomorphic metric spaces whose chromatic graphs are isomorphic to the given chromatic graph.

  5. Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2009-03-31

    In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.

  6. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  7. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  8. Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

  9. On spaces of commuting elements in Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Frederick R.; Stafa, Mentor

    2016-11-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a method to stabilize certain spaces of homomorphisms from finitely generated free abelian groups to a Lie group $G$, namely $Hom(\\mathbb Z^n,G)$. We show that this stabilized space of homomorphisms decomposes after suspending once with summands which can be reassembled, in a sense to be made precise below, into the individual spaces $Hom(\\mathbb Z^n,G)$ after suspending once. To prove this decomposition, a stable decomposition of an equivariant function space is also developed. One main result is that the topological space of all commuting elements in a compact Lie group is homotopy equivalent to an equivariant function space after inverting the order of the Weyl group. In addition, the homology of the stabilized space admits a very simple description in terms of the tensor algebra generated by the reduced homology of a maximal torus in favorable cases. The stabilized space also allows the description of the additive reduced homology of the individual spaces $Hom(\\mathbb Z^n,G)$, with the order of the Weyl group inverted.

  10. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  11. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ngendakumana, Ancille Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  12. Weighted adaptively grouped multilevel space time trellis codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Dharmvir; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    In existing grouped multilevel space-time trellis codes (GMLSTTCs), the groups of transmit antennas are predefined, and the transmit power is equally distributed across all transmit antennas. When the channel parameters are perfectly known at the transmitter, adaptive antenna grouping and beamforming scheme can achieve the better performance by optimum grouping of transmit antennas and properly weighting transmitted signals based on the available channel information. In this paper, we present a new code designed by combining GMLSTTCs, adaptive antenna grouping and beamforming using the channel state information at transmitter (CSIT), henceforth referred to as weighted adaptively grouped multilevel space time trellis codes (WAGMLSTTCs). The CSIT is used to adaptively group the transmitting antennas and provide a beamforming scheme by allocating the different powers to the transmit antennas. Simulation results show that WAGMLSTTCs provide improvement in error performance of 2.6 dB over GMLSTTCs.

  13. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  14. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

  15. Division II / Working Group International Collaboration in Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Liu, William; Sibeck, David G.; Schmieder, Brigitte; Wang, Jingxiu; Wang, Chi

    2007-12-01

    The IAU Division II WG on International Collaboration in Space Weather has as its main goal to help coordinate the many activities related to space weather at an international level. The WG currently includes the international activities of the International Heliospheric Year (IHY), the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program, the CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) Working Group on Sources of Geomagnetic Activity, and Space Weather Studies in China. The coordination of IHY activities within the IAU is led by Division II under this working group. The focus of this half-day meeting was on the activities of the IHY program. About 20 people were in attendance. The Chair of the WG, David F. Webb, gave a brief introduction noting that the meeting would have two parts: first, a session on IHY activities emphasizing IHY Regional coordination and, second, a general discussion of the other programs of the WG involving international Space Weather activities.

  16. Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

  17. NGF induces the expression of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 in PC12 cells: the newly synthesized enzyme is addressed to growing neurites.

    PubMed

    Nardicchi, Vincenza; Ferrini, Monica; Pilolli, Francesca; Angeli, Emanuela Biagioni; Persichetti, Emanuele; Beccari, Tommaso; Mannucci, Roberta; Arcuri, Cataldo; Donato, Rosario; Dorman, Robert V; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2014-08-01

    We proposed that group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (GIIA) participates in neuritogenesis based on our observations that the enzyme migrates to growth cones and neurite tips when PC12 cells are induced to differentiate by nerve growth factor (NGF) (Ferrini et al., Neurochem Res 35:2168-2174, 2010). The involvement of other secretory PLA(2) isoforms in neuronal development has been suggested by others but through different mechanisms. In the present study, we compared the subcellular distribution of GIIA and group X sPLA(2) (GX) after stimulation of PC12 cells with NGF. We found that GIIA, but not GX, localized at the neuritic tips after treatment with NGF, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis. We also found that NGF stimulated the expression and the activity of GIIA. In addition, NGF induced the expressed myc-tagged GIIA protein to migrate to neurite tips in its active form. We propose that GIIA expression, activity, and subcellular localization is regulated by NGF and that the enzyme may participate in neuritogenesis through intracellular mechanisms, most likely by facilitating the remodelling of glycerophospholipid molecular species by deacylation-reacylation reactions necessary for the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Space Group Symmetry Fractionalization in a Chiral Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Michael P; Zhu, Zhenyue; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin; White, Steven R

    2016-05-13

    The anyonic excitations of a spin liquid can feature fractional quantum numbers under space group symmetries. Detecting these fractional quantum numbers, which are analogs of the fractional charge of Laughlin quasiparticles, may prove easier than the direct observation of anyonic braiding and statistics. Motivated by the recent numerical discovery of spin-liquid phases in the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we theoretically predict the pattern of space group symmetry fractionalization in the kagome lattice SO(3)-symmetric chiral spin liquid. We provide a method to detect these fractional quantum numbers in finite-size numerics which is simple to implement in the density matrix renormalization group. Applying these developments to the chiral spin liquid phase of a kagome Heisenberg model, we find perfect agreement between our theoretical prediction and numerical observations.

  19. Gaussian distributions, Jacobi group, and Siegel-Jacobi space

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2014-12-15

    Let N be the space of Gaussian distribution functions over ℝ, regarded as a 2-dimensional statistical manifold parameterized by the mean μ and the deviation σ. In this paper, we show that the tangent bundle of N, endowed with its natural Kähler structure, is the Siegel-Jacobi space appearing in the context of Number Theory and Jacobi forms. Geometrical aspects of the Siegel-Jacobi space are discussed in detail (completeness, curvature, group of holomorphic isometries, space of Kähler functions, and relationship to the Jacobi group), and are related to the quantum formalism in its geometrical form, i.e., based on the Kähler structure of the complex projective space. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [M. Molitor, “Remarks on the statistical origin of the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics,” Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 9(3), 1220001, 9 (2012); M. Molitor, “Information geometry and the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics,” e-print arXiv (2012); M. Molitor, “Exponential families, Kähler geometry and quantum mechanics,” J. Geom. Phys. 70, 54–80 (2013)], where we studied the quantum formalism from a geometric and information-theoretical point of view.

  20. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  1. System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.

  2. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  3. Systematic prediction of new ferroelectrics in space group P3.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, S C

    2000-10-01

    The current release of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database contains a total of 57 entries under space group P3 that correspond to 50 different materials. There are 21 structures reported with this space group that satisfy the criteria for ferroelectricity, at a confidence level that depends on the reliability of the underlying structural determination. One ferroelectric discovered earlier is also listed. In addition, the database contains 19 entries that probably should be assigned to a centrosymmetric space group, seven that are polar but probably not ferroelectric and two that are without atomic coordinates. Seven entries are either duplicates or present additional structural studies of the same material. Structures in space group P3 identified as potentially new ferroelectrics include LiAsCu(0.93), Na(2)UF(6), BiTeI, BaGe(4)O(9), alpha-UMo(2)O(8), Cu(2)SiS(3), Co(IO(3))(2), Sr(7)Al(12)O(25), KSn(2)F(5), YbIn(2)S(4), Na(5)CrF(2)(PO(4))(2), Sn(ClO(2))(2)(ClO(4))(6), Eu(3)BWO(9), Li(H(2)O)(4)B(OH)(4).2H(2)O, Mn(3)V(1/2)(SiO(4))O(OH)(2), Ca(6)(Si(2)O(7))(OH)(6), Na(6. 9(2))[Al(5.6(1))Si(6.4(1))O(24)](S(2)O(3))(1.0(1)).2H(2)O, BaCa(2)In(6)O(12), Ni(H(2)O)(6)[Sb(OH)(6)](2), Sr(4)Cr(3)O(9) and Cu(5)O(2)(VO(4))(2).CuCl(2).

  4. The Lorentzian oscillator group as a geodesic orbit space

    SciTech Connect

    Batat, W.; Gadea, P. M.; Oubina, J. A.

    2012-10-15

    We prove that the four-dimensional oscillator group Os, endowed with any of its usual left-invariant Lorentzian metrics, is a Lorentzian geodesic (so, in particular, null-geodesic) orbit space with some of its homogeneous descriptions corresponding to certain homogeneous Lorentzian structures. Each time that Os is endowed with a suitable metric and an appropriate homogeneous Lorentzian structure, it is a candidate for constructing solutions in d-dimensional supergravity with at least 24 of the 32 possible supersymmetries.

  5. Quaternionic Heisenberg groups as naturally reductive homogeneous spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agricola, Ilka; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Storm, Reinier

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the geometry of the quaternionic Heisenberg groups from a Riemannian viewpoint. We show, in all dimensions, that they carry an almost 3-contact metric structure which allows us to define the metric connection that equips these groups with the structure of a naturally reductive homogeneous space. It turns out that this connection, which we shall call the canonical connection because of its analogy to the 3-Sasaki case, preserves the horizontal and vertical distributions and even the quaternionic contact (qc) structure of the quaternionic Heisenberg groups. We focus on the 7-dimensional case and prove that the canonical connection can also be obtained by means of a cocalibrated G2 structure. We then study the spinorial properties of this group and present the noteworthy fact that it is the only known example of a manifold which carries generalized Killing spinors with three different eigenvalues.

  6. Biharmonic maps into compact Lie groups, and symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, Hajime

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the reduction of the biharmonic map equation in terms of the Maurer-Cartan form for all smooth maps of a compact Riemannian manifold into a compact Lie group (G,h) with the bi-invariant Riemannian metric h is obtained. Due to this formula, all biharmonic curves into compact Lie groups are determined, and all the biharmonic maps of an open domain of R2, equipped with a Riemannian metric conformal to the standard Euclidean metric, into (G,h) are determined. Biharmonic maps into symmetric spaces are also treated.

  7. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  8. Quiver theories for moduli spaces of classical group nilpotent orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Kalveks, Rudolph

    2016-06-01

    We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of the moduli spaces of quivers, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3 d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKähler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for their decompositions into characters of irreducible representations and/or Hall Littlewood polynomials.

  9. Report of the Working Group on Space/Lunar Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The group discussed the advantages and disadvantages of five locations for an optical/infrared array: low-Earth orbit (LEO), Sun-synchronous Earth-orbit, geosynchronous orbit (GEO), Lagrangian points (L4 and L5), and the lunar surface. The factors affecting an array and our assessments of them are given and briefly discussed. In the discussions, two axioms are assumed: (1) Human expansion into space and to the Moon will occur; and (2) The Space Station will be constructed and operational. The major conclusion reached is that baselines of moderate size (greater than 300 m) are best done on the Moon and that large baselines (greater than 10 km) can be done only on the Moon. Three areas needing additional research were identified as follows. (1) Studies are needed on methods to steer long-baseline systems in orbit. This involves learning how to control free-flyers. It is not clear how the difficulty of control varies with orbital elevation. (2) More work is needed on the internal metrology of array systems, both orbital and lunar-surface systems.(3) We need to understand the radiation effects on detectors and electronics and learn how to mitigate them.

  10. The Polycomb group (PcG) protein EZH2 supports the survival of PAX3-FOXO1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma by repressing FBXO32 (Atrogin1/MAFbx).

    PubMed

    Ciarapica, R; De Salvo, M; Carcarino, E; Bracaglia, G; Adesso, L; Leoncini, P P; Dall'Agnese, A; Walters, Z S; Verginelli, F; De Sio, L; Boldrini, R; Inserra, A; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A; Alaggio, R; Ferrari, A; Collini, P; Locatelli, M; Stifani, S; Screpanti, I; Rutella, S; Yu, Q; Marquez, V E; Shipley, J; Valente, S; Mai, A; Miele, L; Puri, P L; Locatelli, F; Palacios, D; Rota, R

    2014-08-07

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate stem cell differentiation via the repression of gene transcription, and their deregulation has been widely implicated in cancer development. The PcG protein Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) works as a catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) by methylating lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3), a hallmark of PRC2-mediated gene repression. In skeletal muscle progenitors, EZH2 prevents an unscheduled differentiation by repressing muscle-specific gene expression and is downregulated during the course of differentiation. In rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma thought to arise from myogenic precursors, EZH2 is abnormally expressed and its downregulation in vitro leads to muscle-like differentiation of RMS cells of the embryonal variant. However, the role of EZH2 in the clinically aggressive subgroup of alveolar RMS, characterized by the expression of PAX3-FOXO1 oncoprotein, remains unknown. We show here that EZH2 depletion in these cells leads to programmed cell death. Transcriptional derepression of F-box protein 32 (FBXO32) (Atrogin1/MAFbx), a gene associated with muscle homeostasis, was evidenced in PAX3-FOXO1 RMS cells silenced for EZH2. This phenomenon was associated with reduced EZH2 occupancy and H3K27me3 levels at the FBXO32 promoter. Simultaneous knockdown of FBXO32 and EZH2 in PAX3-FOXO1 RMS cells impaired the pro-apoptotic response, whereas the overexpression of FBXO32 facilitated programmed cell death in EZH2-depleted cells. Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 by either 3-Deazaneplanocin A or a catalytic EZH2 inhibitor mirrored the phenotypic and molecular effects of EZH2 knockdown in vitro and prevented tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, these results indicate that EZH2 is a key factor in the proliferation and survival of PAX3-FOXO1 alveolar RMS cells working, at least in part, by repressing FBXO32. They also suggest that the reducing activity of EZH2 could represent a novel

  11. Distributed interactive communication in simulated space-dwelling groups.

    PubMed

    Brady, Joseph V; Hienz, Robert D; Hursh, Steven R; Ragusa, Leonard C; Rouse, Charles O; Gasior, Eric D

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the development and preliminary application of an experimental test bed for modeling human behavior in the context of a computer generated environment to analyze the effects of variations in communication modalities, incentives and stressful conditions. In addition to detailing the methodological development of a simulated task environment that provides for electronic monitoring and recording of individual and group behavior, the initial substantive findings from an experimental analysis of distributed interactive communication in simulated space dwelling groups are described. Crews of three members each (male and female) participated in simulated "planetary missions" based upon a synthetic scenario task that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic specimens with a range of grade values. The results of these preliminary studies showed clearly that cooperative and productive interactions were maintained between individually isolated and distributed individuals communicating and problem-solving effectively in a computer-generated "planetary" environment over extended time intervals without benefit of one another's physical presence. Studies on communication channel constraints confirmed the functional interchangeability between available modalities with the highest degree of interchangeability occurring between Audio and Text modes of communication. The effects of task-related incentives were determined by the conditions under which they were available with Positive Incentives effectively attenuating decrements in performance under stressful time pressure.

  12. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

  13. Sensor space group analysis for fNIRS data

    PubMed Central

    Tak, S.; Uga, M.; Flandin, G.; Dan, I.; Penny, W.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a method for monitoring hemoglobin responses using optical probes placed on the scalp. fNIRS spatial resolution is limited by the distance between channels defined as a pair of source and detector, and channel positions are often inconsistent across subjects. These challenges can lead to less accurate estimate of group level effects from channel-specific measurements. New method This paper addresses this shortcoming by applying random-effects analysis using summary statistics to interpolated fNIRS topographic images. Specifically, we generate individual contrast images containing the experimental effects of interest in a canonical scalp surface. Random-effects analysis then allows for making inference about the regionally specific effects induced by (potentially) multiple experimental factors in a population. Results We illustrate the approach using experimental data acquired during a colour-word matching Stroop task, and show that left frontopolar regions are significantly activated in a population during Stroop effects. This result agrees with previous neuroimaging findings. Compared with existing methods The proposed methods (i) address potential misalignment of sensor locations between subjects using spatial interpolation; (ii) produce experimental effects of interest either on a 2D regular grid or on a 3D triangular mesh, both representations of a canonical scalp surface; and (iii) enables one to infer population effects from fNIRS data using a computationally efficient summary statistic approach (random-effects analysis). Significance of regional effects is assessed using random field theory. Conclusions In this paper, we have shown how fNIRS data from multiple subjects can be analysed in sensor space using random-effects analysis. PMID:26952847

  14. Student "Facebook" Groups as a Third Space: Between Social Life and Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaen, Janus; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines educational potentials of "Facebook" groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed "Facebook" groups as a "third space" between the institutional space of teacher-managed "Facebook" groups and the…

  15. Space Systems Technology Working Group. Executive Report. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    and make the needed adjustments. Today, some noncritical technologies, such as all "space-qualified" cryocoolers , are controlled. Under the new export...energy, focused into a heat receiver, heats a working fluid. The working fluid drives a heat engine, using either a Brayton, Rankine, or Stirling ...and includes the development of microchannel heat exchangers, cryogenic refrigerators ( cryocoole . ) and heat pipes that have an effective thermal

  16. Group calls for space policies to transcend politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”

  17. Scanning of magnetic space groups and the analysis of non-magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Janovec, V; Litvin, D B

    2007-09-01

    Similarly to atomic positions in a crystal being fixed, or at least constrained by the space group of that crystal, the displacements of atoms in a domain wall are determined or constrained by the symmetry of the wall given by the sectional layer group of the corresponding domain pair. The sectional layer group can be interpreted as comprised of operations that leave invariant a plane transecting two overlapping structures, the domain states of the two domains adhering to the domain wall. The procedure of determining the sectional layer groups for all orientations and positions of a transecting plane is called scanning of the space group. Scanning of non-magnetic space groups has been described and tabulated. It is shown here that the scanning of magnetic groups can be determined from that of non-magnetic groups. The information provided by scanning of magnetic space groups can be utilized in the symmetry analysis of domain walls in non-magnetic crystals since, for any dichromatic space group, which expresses the symmetry of overlapped structures of two non-magnetic domains, there exists an isomorphic magnetic space group. Consequently, a sectional layer group of a magnetic space group expresses the symmetry of a non-magnetic domain wall. Examples of this are given in the symmetry analysis of ferroelectric domain walls in non-magnetic perovskites.

  18. Biomimicry 1: PC.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored.

  19. Real-Space Renormalization-Group Approach to the Integer Quantum Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Philipp; Römer, Rudolf A.

    We review recent results based on an application of the real-space renormalization group (RG) approach to a network model for the integer quantum Hall (QH) transition. We demonstrate that this RG approach reproduces the critical distribution of the power transmission coefficients, i.e., two-terminal conductances, Pc(G), with very high accuracy. The RG flow of P(G) at energies away from the transition yields a value of the critical exponent ν that agrees with most accurate large-size lattice simulations. A description of how to obtain other relevant transport coefficients such as RL and RH is given. From the non-trivial fixed point of the RG flow we extract the critical level-spacing distribution (LSD). This distribution is close, but distinctively different from the earlier large-scale simulations. We find that the LSD obeys scaling behavior around the QH transition with ν = 2.37±0.02. Away from the transition it crosses over towards the Poisson distribution. We next investigate the plateau-to-insulator transition at strong magnetic fields. For a fully quantum coherent situation, we find a quantized Hall insulator with RH≈h/e2 up to RL 20h/e2 when interpreting the results in terms of most probable value of the distribution function P(RH). Upon further increasing RL→∞, the Hall insulator with diverging Hall resistance R H∝ R Lκ is seen. The crossover between these two regimes depends on the precise nature of the averaging procedure for the distributions P(RL) and P(RH). We also study the effect of long-ranged inhomogeneities on the critical properties of the QH transition. Inhomogeneities are modeled by a smooth random potential with a correlator which falls off with distance as a power law r-α. Similar to the classical percolation, we observe an enhancement of ν with decreasing α. These results exemplify the surprising fact that a small RG unit, containing only five nodes, accurately captures most of the correlations responsible for the localization

  20. Polyimides Containing Pendent Phosphine Oxide Groups for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing materials development activity to produce high performance polymers that are durable to the space environment, phosphine oxide containing polyimides have been under investigation. A novel dianhydride was prepared from 2,5-dihydroxyphenyldiphenylphosphine oxide in good yield. The dianhydride was reacted with commercially available diamines, and a previously reported diamine was reacted with commercially available dianhydrides to prepare isomeric polyimides. The physical and mechanical properties, particularly thermal and optical properties, of the polymers were determined. One material exhibited a high glass transition temperature, high tensile properties, and low solar absorptivity. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of these resins will be discussed.

  1. On Spaces of Commuting Elements in Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-25

    Zn;G) follows from that of Comm(G) for any cohomology theory. The results for singular homology of Comm(G) are given in terms of the tensor algebra ...cohomology theory. The results for singular homology of Comm(G) are given in terms of the tensor algebra generated by the reduced homology of a maximal...components, for π the fundamental group of a closed oriented surface and G a finite cover of a projective special linear group. For non-negative integers n

  2. Faithful actions of locally compact quantum groups on classical spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Sutanu

    2017-03-01

    We construct examples of locally compact quantum groups coming from bicrossed product construction, including non-Kac ones, which can faithfully and ergodically act on connected classical (noncompact) smooth manifolds. However, none of these actions can be isometric in the sense of Goswami (Commun Math Phys 285(1):141-160, 2009), leading to the conjecture that the result obtained by Goswami and Joardar (Rigidity of action of compact quantum groups on compact, connected manifolds, 2013. arXiv:1309.1294) about nonexistence of genuine quantum isometry of classical compact connected Riemannian manifolds may hold in the noncompact case as well.

  3. Renormalization group equation for f (R ) gravity on hyperbolic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falls, Kevin; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    We derive the flow equation for the gravitational effective average action in an f (R ) truncation on hyperbolic spacetimes using the exponential parametrization of the metric. In contrast to previous works on compact spaces, we are able to evaluate traces exactly using the optimized cutoff. This reveals in particular that all modes can be integrated out for a finite value of the cutoff due to a gap in the spectrum of the Laplacian, leading to the effective action. Studying polynomial solutions, we find poorer convergence than has been found on compact spacetimes even though at small curvature the equations only differ in the treatment of certain modes. In the vicinity of an asymptotically free fixed point, we find the universal beta function for the R2 coupling and compute the corresponding effective action which involves an R2log (R2) quantum correction.

  4. The birth of an infant decreases group spacing in a zoo-housed lowland gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Laura M; Shender, Marisa A; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Changes in group composition can alter the behavior of social animals such as gorillas. Although gorilla births are presumed to affect group spacing patterns, there is relatively little data about how these events affect gorilla group cohesion. We investigated how members of a western lowland gorilla group (n = 6) at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL, USA) spaced themselves prior to and after the birth of an infant, to investigate changes in group cohesion. Gorillas were housed in an indoor-outdoor enclosure in which access to the outdoors was permitted when temperatures exceeded 5°C. We recorded spatial locations of each group member using 30-min group scans on tablet computers with an electronic map interface, as well as noting their access to outdoor areas. Data from the 4 months following the birth was compared to a control period corresponding to early pregnancy. We measured distances between all possible group dyads for each scan and subsequently calculated a mean distance between all group members. An ANOVA revealed that access to the outdoors had no effect on group spacing (F(1,56) = 0.066, P = 0.799). However, the presence of an infant resulted in a significant reduction in inter-individual distance (F(1,56) = 23.988, P = 0.000), decreasing inter-individual spacing by 12.5%. This information helps characterize the behavioral impact of a new birth on captive gorilla social structure and could potentially inform future management of breeding gorilla groups.

  5. Photodynamic therapy potential of thiol-stabilized CdTe quantum dot-group 3A phthalocyanine conjugates (QD-Pc).

    PubMed

    Tekdaş, Duygu Aydın; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yanık, Hülya; Ahsen, Vefa

    2012-07-01

    Thiol stabilized CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase and were used as energy donors to tetra-triethyleneoxythia substituted aluminum, gallium and indium phthalocyanines through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Energy transfer occurred from the QDs to phthalocyanines upon photoexcitation of the QDs. An enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer with the nature of the carboxylic thiol stabilizer on the QDs was observed. As a result of the nanoparticle and the phthalocyanine mixing, the photoluminescence efficiency of the phthalocyanine moieties in the mixtures does not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines. The photochemistry study of phthalocyanines in the presence of the QDs revealed high singlet oxygen quantum yield, hence the possibility of using QDs in combination with phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy of cancer. The fluorescence of the CdTe quantum dots-phthalocyanine conjugates (QDs-Pc) were effectively quenched by addition of 1,4-benzoquinone.

  6. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 6: Communications and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Communications and Navigation working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The basic goals to be accomplished are to increase the use of space systems and to develop new space capabilities for providing communication and navigation services to the user community in the 1980 time period. Specific experiments to be conducted for improving space communication and navigation capabilities are defined. The characteristics of the experimental equipment required to accomplish the mission are discussed.

  7. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-10-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  8. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-12-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  9. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-11-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  10. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2017-03-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  11. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-07-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  12. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-06-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  13. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2017-02-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at pc-facs@aahpm.org.

  14. NATO RTO Space Science and Technology Advisory Group (SSTAG) Recommendations for Space Research Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    4.25 Ionospheric Research 37 4.26 Space-Based Radar Technology and Applications 38 4.27 Space-Based Multi- and Hyperspectral Sensors Technology and...4 24 Upper Atmospheric Research 4 25 Ionospheric Research 3 16 Spacecraft Power Systems and Propulsion 2 23 Satellite and Sensor Protection 2...25 Ionospheric Research The topic will improve use and access to bandwidth and frequency spectrum, as well as worldwide, reliable, precise

  15. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  16. Unusual space-group pseudo symmetry in crystals of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) decarboxylase is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A and catalyzes the decarboxylation of PPC to phosphopantetheine. Human PPC decarboxylase has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The Laue class of the diffraction data appears to be {bar 3}m, suggesting space group R32 with two monomers per asymmetric unit. However, the crystals belong to the space group R3 and the asymmetric unit contains four monomers. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement and refined to a current R factor of 29%. The crystal packing can be considered as two interlaced lattices, each consistent with space group R32 and with the corresponding twofold axes parallel to each other but separated along the threefold axis. Thus, the true space group is R3 with four monomers per asymmetric unit.

  17. Stochastic formulation of the renormalization group: supersymmetric structure and topology of the space of couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2004-10-01

    The exact or Wilson renormalization group equations can be formulated as a functional Fokker-Planck equation in the infinite-dimensional configuration space of a field theory, suggesting a stochastic process in the space of couplings. Indeed, the ordinary renormalization group differential equations can be supplemented with noise, making them stochastic Langevin equations. Furthermore, if the renormalization group is a gradient flow, the space of couplings can be endowed with a supersymmetric structure a la Parisi-Sourlas. The formulation of the renormalization group as supersymmetric quantum mechanics is useful for analysing the topology of the space of couplings by means of Morse theory. We present simple examples with one or two couplings.

  18. Managing space for managed care: the challenge for a multispecialty group practice.

    PubMed

    Berkoff, M J; Burns, L A

    1996-07-01

    A project that began as an architectural study to determine space requirements and remedy space deficiencies for an academic medical center's faculty multispecialty group practice led to development of an analytical methodology for assessing real space needs and viable options for solutions in the context of the group's operational policies, physician practice patterns, and business goals. Major facility investments for new or renovated construction demand significant capital expenditure, which can severely affect a group's ability to complete as a financially viable player in a marketplace environment of increasingly competitive managed care delivery systems. The methodology created during this project helped the group practice to understand how they could optimize the use of existing space, minimize capital costs, and provide flexibility for future developments.

  19. SHELXT – Integrated space-group and crystal-structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    SHELXT automates routine small-molecule structure determination starting from single-crystal reflection data, the Laue group and a reasonable guess as to which elements might be present. The new computer program SHELXT employs a novel dual-space algorithm to solve the phase problem for single-crystal reflection data expanded to the space group P1. Missing data are taken into account and the resolution extended if necessary. All space groups in the specified Laue group are tested to find which are consistent with the P1 phases. After applying the resulting origin shifts and space-group symmetry, the solutions are subject to further dual-space recycling followed by a peak search and summation of the electron density around each peak. Elements are assigned to give the best fit to the integrated peak densities and if necessary additional elements are considered. An isotropic refinement is followed for non-centrosymmetric space groups by the calculation of a Flack parameter and, if appropriate, inversion of the structure. The structure is assembled to maximize its connectivity and centred optimally in the unit cell. SHELXT has already solved many thousand structures with a high success rate, and is optimized for multiprocessor computers. It is, however, unsuitable for severely disordered and twinned structures because it is based on the assumption that the structure consists of atoms.

  20. Effects of varying floor space on aggressive behavior and cortisol concentrations in group-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Morrison, R S; Tilbrook, A J; Butler, K L; Rice, M; Moeller, S J

    2016-11-01

    Floor space is an important determinant of aggression and stress in group-housed sows, and the aim of the present experiment was to comprehensively examine the effects of floor space in the range of 1.45 to 2.90 m/sow from mixing until 27 d after insemination on aggression, stress, and reproduction of group-housed sows. A previous experiment on the effects of floor space indicated spatial variability across and along the research facility in both sow aggression and stress. To minimize this spatial variability within the research facility, similar-sized pens but with varying groups sizes (10-20) in 4 separate blocks of 3 contiguous pens within each of 9 time replicates (180 sows/replicate) were used to examine 6 space allowances (1.45-2.9 m/sow). Space treatments were appropriately randomized to pens. Although it may be argued that space allowance is confounded with group size in this design, there was no evidence in our previous experiment of group size effects, for pens of 10 to 80 sows, or appreciable interactions between space and group size on aggression, stress, and reproduction. In the present experiment, sows were introduced to treatments within 4 d of insemination and were floor fed 4 times per day (2.5 kg/sow per d). On both Days 2 and 26 after mixing, aggressive behavior (bites and knocks) at feeding and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured. Restricted maximum likelihood mixed model analyses were used to examine the treatment effect after accounting for replicate and random spatial location effects within replicate. There was a consistent linear effect of floor space allowance on aggression at feeding at Day 2 ( < 0.0001) and plasma cortisol concentrations at Day 2 ( = 0.0003), with aggression and stress declining with increasing space. However, there were no effects of space allowance on aggression and stress at Day 26 ( = 0.14 and = 0.79, respectively). These results show that increased floor space in the immediate post-mixing period reduces

  1. Markov processes and partial differential equations on a group: the space-homogeneous case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendikov, A. D.

    1987-10-01

    CONTENTS Introduction Terminology and notation Chapter I. Potential theory of conjugate processes § 1.1. Markov processes and harmonic spaces § 1.2. Processes of class \\mathscr{A} and Brelot spaces § 1.3. Processes of class \\mathscr{B} and Bauer spaces Chapter II. Space-homogeneous processes on a group § 2.1. Space-homogeneous processes and harmonic structures § 2.2. Quasidiagonal processes § 2.3. An example of a non-quasidiagonal process Chapter III. Elliptic equations on a group § 3.1. Admissible distributions and multipliers § 3.2. Weak solutions of elliptic equations ( L_p-theory) § 3.3. Weyl's lemma and the hypoelliptic property References

  2. The effect of in-line spacing of two cylinder groups on the Morison force coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Haritos, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes some results from an experimental study undertaken in the University of Melbourne`s Michell Laboratory which has investigated the interference effect associated with closely spaced cylinder groups on the in-line Morison force coefficients. Previous experimental studies undertaken at the University of Melbourne identified that the closely spaced cylinder range, (spacing to diameter ratio less than 3), is critical to the determination of the Morison force coefficients for tandem cylinders. The current research extends the previous work conducted in the department by investigating in more detail the closely spaced cylinder regime whilst extending results into the drag dominant regime (Keulegan-Carpenter number > 20). Results presented herein are limited to the exploration of the effect of varying the spacing of two cylinder groups oriented in-line to the direction of the uni-directional waves.

  3. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  4. Current Activities and Capabilities of the Terrestrial Environment Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Batts, Wade

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designated Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the center of excellence for space transportation. The Aerospace Environments and Effects (AEE) team of the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch (EL23) in the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at MSFC, supports the center of excellence designation by providing near-Earth space, deep space, planetary, and terrestrial environments expertise to projects as required. The Terrestrial Environment (TE) group within the AEE team maintains an extensive TE data base. Statistics and models derived from this data are applied to the design and development of new aerospace vehicles, as well as performance enhancement of operational vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The TE is defined as the Earth's atmospheric environment extending from the surface to orbital insertion altitudes (approximately 90 km).

  5. Position and Orientation Distributions for Non-Reversal Random Walks using Space-Group Fourier Transforms

    PubMed Central

    Skliros, Aris; Park, Wooram; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient group-theoretic approach for computing the statistics of non-reversal random walks (NRRW) on lattices. These framed walks evolve on proper crystallographic space groups. In a previous paper we introduced a convolution method for computing the statistics of NRRWs in which the convolution product is defined relative to the space-group operation. Here we use the corresponding concept of the fast Fourier transform for functions on crystallographic space groups together with a non-Abelian version of the convolution theorem. We develop the theory behind this technique and present numerical results for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices (square, cubic and diamond). In order to verify our results, the statistics of the end-to-end distance and the probability of ring closure are calculated and compared with results obtained in the literature for the random walks for which closed-form expressions exist. PMID:21037950

  6. Spacing and Site Isolation of Amine Groups in 3-Aminopropyl-Grafted Silica Materials - The Role of Protecting Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Jason C; Dabestani, Reza T; Buchanan III, A C; Jones, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    The relative spacing of amines in 3-aminopropylsilyl-grafted silica is studied by solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy of 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid (PCA) and 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) bound to traditionally prepared, deprotected benzyl- or deprotected trityl-spaced aminosilicas. Thermogravimetric analysis and FT-Raman spectroscopy results show evidence that the protected imine can be cleaved to yield the corresponding amine in essentially quantitative yield. The steady-state fluorescence spectroscopic data of either PCA or PBA indicate that the number of amine pairs on the surface separated by a distance of 1 nm or less decreases as the total amine loading decreases. Both the intensity ratio of the excimer band to the monomer band (I{sub 470}/I{sub 384} or I{sub exc}/I{sub mon}) and lifetime decay studies of the fluorophore are useful probes of the amine spacing. Separation of amines on the surface can be achieved by either use of a protected synthesis route or through reduction of the concentration of the unprotected 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane used in the grafting solution. However, the two routes lead to materials with significantly different average amine spacings. Due to clustering of unprotected amines in solution before grafting or on the surface during the grafting process, amine-amine distances on the surface of materials prepared by an unprotected synthesis are on average smaller than when a protected synthesis is used. With the protected synthesis, evidence suggests that the amines are more isolated, with larger average amine-amine distances when compared to corresponding materials with a similar amine loading prepared via an unprotected synthesis. This is attributed to both the steric influence of the protecting groups and a reduction in silane clustering in solution due to protection of the amines before grafting. Thus, the mechanism of surface amine spacing when using the protection-deprotection strategy appears to involve both of these factors

  7. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  8. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  9. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 3: High energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the High Energy Astrophysics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives to be accomplished during space shuttle missions are defined as: (1) X-ray astronomy, (2) hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy, and (3) cosmic ray astronomy. The instruments and test equipment required to accomplish the mission are identified. Recommendations for managing the installation of the equipment and conducting the missions are included.

  10. Space group revsion of the triclinic polymorph of salicyl-aldehyde azine.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Bolte, Michael; Arshad, Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the title compound, C(14)H(12)N(2)O(2) {systematic name: 2,2'-[hydrazinediylidenebis(methanylyl-idene)]diphen-ol}, has already been determined in the triclinic space group P[Formula: see text] with Z = 4 [El-Medani, Aboaly, Abdalla & Ramadan (2004 ▶). Spectrosc. Lett.37, 619-632]. However, the correct space group should be P2(1)/c with Z = 4. This structure is a new polymorph of the already known monoclinic polymorph of salicyladehyde azine, which crystallizes in space group P2(1)/n with Z = 2. The benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 46.12 (9)°. Two intramolucular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur.

  11. A theorem on the Schwartz space of a reductive Lie group

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, James

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the Fourier transform of an arbitrary tempered distribution on a reductive Lie group. To this end we define a topological vector space, [unk](Ĝ), in terms of the classes of irreducible unitary representations of G, which plays role of a dual Schwartz space. Our main theorem then asserts that the usual L2 Fourier transform, when restricted to functions in the Schwartz space, [unk](G) defined by Harish-Chandra, provides a topological isomorphism from [unk](G) onto [unk](Ĝ). PMID:16592293

  12. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Amy P

    2012-03-01

    PC-FACS (Fast Article Critical Summaries for Clinicians in Palliative Care), an electronic publication of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, provides palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 50 medical and scientific journals. Each month, structured summaries and insightful commentaries on 6-10 articles help palliative care clinicians stay on top of the research that is critical to contemporary practice. PC-FACS is free to AAHPM members and members can earn up to 3 CME credits quarterly. Following are excerpts from recent issues, and comments from readers are welcomed at resources@aahpm.org.

  13. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2012-04-01

    PC-FACS (Fast Article Critical Summaries for Clinicians in Palliative Care), an electronic publication of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, provides palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 50 medical and scientific journals. Each month, structured summaries and insightful commentaries on 6-10 articles help palliative care clinicians stay on top of the research that is critical to contemporary practice. PC-FACS is free to AAHPM members. Following are excerpts from recent issues, and comments from readers are welcomed at resources@aahpm.org.

  14. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts

  15. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  16. The Local Population of White Dwarfs within 25 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; Sion, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We have extended the detailed survey of the local white dwarf population from 20 pc to 25 pc, effectively doubling the sample volume to now include 231 stars. The present 25 pc has an estimated completeness of 70% (the corresponding 20 pc sample is now 85% complete). The space density of white dwarfs remains at 4.8 ± 0.5 x 10-3 pc-3. There exists a curious excess of single stars in the sample 70% vs 30% in systems with one or more companions. A pronounced apparent deficiency remains between the eleven known Sirius-like systems present in the 20 pc sample and only a single such system presently known in the extended 25 pc sample. Also demonstrated, using explicit individual white dwarf cooling ages, is the feasibility of estimating the white dwarf birth rates over the last ~ 5 Gyr.This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1413537

  17. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, A.; Alvarez, G.

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  18. Definition of spacecraft standard interfaces by the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radtke, Robert; Woolley, Charles; Arnold, Lana

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG) is to study enabling technologies for on-orbit spacecraft maintenance and servicing. One key technology required for effective space logistics activity is the development of standard spacecraft interfaces, including the 'Basic Set' defined by NASA, the U.S. Space Command, and industry panelists to be the following: (1) navigation aids; (2) grasping, berthing, and docking; and (3) utility connections for power, data, and fluids. Draft standards have been prepared and referred to professional standards organizations, including the AIAA, EIA, and SAE space standards committee. The objective of the SASWG is to support these committees with the technical expertise required to prepare standards, guidelines, and recommended practices which will be accepted by the ANSI and international standards organizations, including the ISO, IEC, and PASC.

  19. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SPAWNING GROUP SIZE AND SPACE ON REPRODUCTION BY SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cripe, G.M., R.L. Hemmer and L.R. Goodman. In press. Influence of Spawning Group Size and Space on Reproduction Variability of Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB...

  1. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  2. Group and individual sow behavior is altered in early gestation by space allowance in the days immediately following grouping.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, E C; Plush, K J; van Wettere, W H E J; Hughes, P E

    2016-01-01

    Aggression between domestic sows is greatest when sows are first introduced to each other and hierarchies form. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a spacious "mixing pen" on sow aggression and stress. Sows were mixed into groups of 6 and allowed 2 (LOW; 8 groups and 48 sows), 4 (MED; 7 groups and 42 sows), or 6 m/sow (HIGH; 7 groups and 42 sows) for 4 d after mixing, at which point all pens were equalized to 2 m/sow. Salivary cortisol concentration and injury counts were measured on d -1, 0, 1, 3, and 4 relative to mixing, and behavior was also recorded on each of these days following mixing. Reproductive performance was assessed at farrowing. A linear mixed model was applied to the data. Data are presented as least squares means and standard error of the mean. Where transformations occurred, nontransformed adjusted means are presented in parentheses following the presentation of transformed data. In the primary analyses where measures were considered at the pen level, there were no effect of space allowance on fight number per sow, duration of fights, percentage of total time spent fighting, displacements, bites, knocks, and lunges ( > 0.05). These measures were higher on d 0 (i.e., fight number 1.0 ± 0.1 [13.8]) compared with d 1 (0.4 ± 0.1 [4.2]), 3 (0.7 ± 0.1 [5.3]), and 4 (0.7 ± 0.1 [5.5]; < 0.05), with no increase in aggression on d 4 when pen sizes were standardized ( > 0.05). There was increased percentage of time spent active (1.5 ± 0.02 [33.7] for LOW, 1.5 ± 0.02 [36.5] for MED, and 1.6 ± 0.02 [43.4] for HIGH) and time spent exploring (1.8 ± 0.1 [3.5] for LOW, 2.0 ± 0.1 [4.0] for MED, and 2.3 ± 0.1 [5.7] for HIGH) and number of nonaggressive sow-sow contacts (0.3 ± 0.09 [2.2] for LOW, 0.4 ± 0.07 [3.2] for MED, and 0.5 ± 0.07 [4.5] for HIGH) in HIGH compared with LOW ( < 0.05). Farrowing rate and total piglets born were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). A secondary analysis was conducted that examined individual sow

  3. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 8: Earth and ocean physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physics experiments, (2) development and demonstration of new and improved sensors and analytical techniques, (3) acquisition of surface truth data for evaluation of new measurement techniques, (4) conduct of critical experiments to validate geophysical phenomena and instrumental results, and (5) development and validation of analytical/experimental models for global ocean dynamics and solid earth dynamics/earthquake prediction. Tables of data are presented to show the flight schedule estimated costs, and the mission model.

  4. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  5. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 7: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Earth Observations working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Earth Observation experiments are: (1) establishment of quantitative relationships between observable parameters and geophysical variables, (2) development, test, calibration, and evaluation of eventual flight instruments in experimental space flight missions, (3) demonstration of the operational utility of specific observation concepts or techniques as information inputs needed for taking actions, and (4) deployment of prototype and follow-on operational Earth Observation systems. The basic payload capability, mission duration, launch sites, inclinations, and payload limitations are defined.

  6. Crystallographic point groups of five-dimensional space. 1. Their elements and their subgroups.

    PubMed

    Veysseyre, R; Veysseyre, H

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce a method with a view to obtaining the crystallographic point groups of five-dimensional space, i.e. the subgroups of the holohedries of these space crystal families. This paper is specifically devoted to numerical analysis, whereas the following ones deal with some applications to crystallography. These results have been obtained through a collaboration between two teams: H. Veysseyre (Institut Supérieur des Matériaux) for the numerical analysis, R. Veysseyre, D. Weigel and Th. Phan (Ecole Centrale Paris) for the crystallographic part.

  7. Space allowance and high fiber diet impact performance and behavior of group-kept gestating sows.

    PubMed

    DeDecker, A E; Hanson, A R; Walker, P M; Salak-Johnson, J L

    2014-04-01

    Identifying and optimizing housing and management systems that improve the well-being of the gestating sow is essential to sustaining animal agriculture. Therefore, the impact of 2 floor-space allowances and a high-fiber gestation diet on dry group-housed sows were evaluated using multiple measures of well-being. Groups of 10 multiparous sows/pen (n = 221) were assigned randomly to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to either a corn-soybean meal diet (CTL) or corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with soybean hulls and wheat middlings (FBR), and floor-space allowance of either 1.7 or 2.3 m(2)/sow. Sow BW, backfat (BF), and body condition score (BCS) were all recorded on d 34, 65, 90, and 110 of gestation, whereas skin lesions were scored on d 34, every 2 d for the first 2-wk postmixing, and then biweekly throughout gestation. Blood sample was collected only on d 34 for cortisol (baseline), and samples were collected on d 90 of gestation for other measures including cortisol. Behavior was registered on multiple days throughout gestation. Sows fed FBR and kept at 1.7 m(2) produced heavier litter and weaning weights and greater number of piglets born alive, compared to sows fed FBR but kept at 2.3 m(2) of floor space (diet × floor space, P ≤ 0.04). Sows fed FBR and kept at 1.7 m(2) performed fewer oral-nasal-facial and sham-chew behaviors than sows fed CTL and kept at the same floor space (diet × floor space, P ≤ 0.044). Sows kept at 1.7 m(2) of floor space had a greater (P < 0.05) total lesion severity score than sows kept at 2.3 m(2)/sow, and vulva lesion scores were more (P < 0.02) severe among CTL-fed sows than FBR-fed sows. Parities 2 and 3 sows fed FBR and kept at 1.7 m(2) of floor space were heavier (P < 0.001) than sows fed the same diet but kept at 2.3 m(2). These results indicate that keeping small groups of pregnant sows at a minimum floor-space allowance of 1.7 m(2)/sow and floor feeding these sows a high-fiber diet can improve short-term sow

  8. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  9. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  10. Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2004-01-01

    Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

  11. The IBM PC at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Like many large companies, Ames relies very much on its computing power to get work done. And, like many other large companies, finding the IBM PC a reliable tool, Ames uses it for many of the same types of functions as other companies. Presentation and clarification needs demand much of graphics packages. Programming and text editing needs require simpler, more-powerful packages. The storage space needed by NASA's scientists and users for the monumental amounts of data that Ames needs to keep demand the best database packages that are large and easy to use. Availability to the Micom Switching Network combines the powers of the IBM PC with the capabilities of other computers and mainframes and allows users to communicate electronically. These four primary capabilities of the PC are vital to the needs of NASA's users and help to continue and support the vast amounts of work done by the NASA employees.

  12. Bayesian probability theory applied to the space group problem in powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markvardsen, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data has become a viable option for molecules with less than 50 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit and this includes the majority of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. The solution of crystal structures, including space group determination, is more challenging from powder diffraction data than from single crystal diffraction data. Here, it will be demonstrated how a Bayesian probability analysis of this problem has helped to provide a new algorithm for the determination of the space group symmetry of a crystal from powder diffraction data. Specifically, the relative probabilities of different extinction symbols are accessed within a particular crystal system. Examples will be presented to illustrate this approach.

  13. Redshift-Space Distortions and f(z) from Group-Galaxy Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Bianchi, D.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the accuracy achievable on measurements of the the growth rate of structure f(z) using redshift-space distortions (RSD), when (a) these are measured on the group-galaxy cross correlation function; (b) the latter is expanded over a modified version of the conventional spherical armonics, ``truncated multipole moments''. Simulation results give first indications that this combination can push systematic errors on f(z) below 3%, using scales r >= 10h -1 Mpc.

  14. Fredholm and spectral properties of Toeplitz operators on H{sup p} spaces over ordered groups

    SciTech Connect

    Mirotin, Adolf R

    2011-05-31

    We consider Toeplitz operators on the spaces H{sup p}(G), 1< p<{infinity}, associated with a compact connected Abelian group G whose character group is ordered and, in the case of total order, prove a theorem on the Fredholm index for those operators which have continuous symbols which generalizes the classical Gohberg-Krein theorem. The results thus obtained are applied to the spectral theory of Toeplitz operators and examples where the index is evaluated explicitly are considered. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  15. Hybrid-space density matrix renormalization group study of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, G.; White, S. R.; Noack, R. M.

    2017-03-01

    The performance of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is strongly influenced by the choice of the local basis of the underlying physical lattice. We demonstrate that, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model, the hybrid-real-momentum-space formulation of the DMRG is computationally more efficient than the standard real-space formulation. In particular, we show that the computational cost for fixed bond dimension of the hybrid-space DMRG is approximately independent of the width of the lattice, in contrast to the real-space DMRG, for which it is proportional to the width squared. We apply the hybrid-space algorithm to calculate the ground state of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model on cylinders of width four and six sites; at n =0.875 filling, the ground state exhibits a striped charge-density distribution with a wavelength of eight sites for both U /t =4.0 and 8.0 . We find that the strength of the charge ordering depends on U /t and on the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the magnetic ordering as well as the decay of the static spin, charge, and pair-field correlation functions.

  16. Report from the MPP Working Group to the NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.; Grosch, Chester; Mcanulty, Michael; Odonnell, John; Storey, Owen

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) gave a select group of scientists the opportunity to test and implement their computational algorithms on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) located at Goddard Space Flight Center, beginning in late 1985. One year later, the Working Group presented its report, which addressed the following: algorithms, programming languages, architecture, programming environments, the way theory relates, and performance measured. The findings point to a number of demonstrated computational techniques for which the MPP architecture is ideally suited. For example, besides executing much faster on the MPP than on conventional computers, systolic VLSI simulation (where distances are short), lattice simulation, neural network simulation, and image problems were found to be easier to program on the MPP's architecture than on a CYBER 205 or even a VAX. The report also makes technical recommendations covering all aspects of MPP use, and recommendations concerning the future of the MPP and machines based on similar architectures, expansion of the Working Group, and study of the role of future parallel processors for space station, EOS, and the Great Observatories era.

  17. Space group symmetry applied to SCF calculations with periodic boundary conditions and Gaussian orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, Alexander A.

    We report theoretical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of exploiting space-group symmetry in self-consistent field (SCF) calculations, primarily Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), with periodic boundary conditions (PBC) and Gaussian-type orbitals. Incorporating exact exchange leads to generally better performance for a broad class of systems, but leads to a significant increase of computation time, especially for 3D solids, due to a large number of explicitly evaluated two-electron integrals. We exploit reduction of the list thereof based on the space-group symmetry of a crystal. As distinct from previous achievements, based on the use of symmorphic groups only, we extend our technique to non-symmorphic groups, thus enabling application of any of 230 3D space groups. Algorithms facilitating efficient reduction of the list of two-electron integrals and restoring the full Fock-type matrix have been proposed and implemented in the development version of Gaussian program. These schemes are applied not only to the HFx, but also to explicit evaluation of the near-field Coulomb contribution. In 3D solids with smallest unit cells speedup factors range from 2X to 9X for the near field Coulomb part and from 3X to 8X for the exact exchange, thus leading to a substantial reduction of the overall computational cost. Factors noticeably lower than the number of the operations are due to the highly symmetric atomic positions in crystals, as well as to the choice of primitive cells. In systems with atoms on general positions or in special positions of low multiplicity, the speedup factors readily exceed one order of magnitude being almost 70X (near-field Coulomb) and 57X (HFx) for the largest tested (16,7) single-walled nanotube with 278 symmetry operations.

  18. Endomorphisms of spaces of virtual vectors fixed by a discrete group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădulescu, F.

    2016-04-01

    A study is made of unitary representations π of a discrete group G that are of type II when restricted to an almost-normal subgroup Γ\\subseteq G. The associated unitary representation \\overlineπ {p} of G on the Hilbert space of `virtual' Γ_0-invariant vectors is investigated, where Γ_0 runs over a suitable class of finite-index subgroups of Γ. The unitary representation \\overlineπ {p} of G is uniquely determined by the requirement that the Hecke operators for all Γ_0 are the `block-matrix coefficients' of \\overlineπ {p}. If π\\vert_Γ is an integer multiple of the regular representation, then there is a subspace L of the Hilbert space of π that acts as a fundamental domain for Γ. In this case the space of Γ-invariant vectors is identified with L. When π\\vert_Γ is not an integer multiple of the regular representation (for example, if G=\\operatorname{PGL}(2, Z \\lbrack 1/p \\rbrack ), Γ is the modular group, π belongs to the discrete series of representations of \\operatorname{PSL}(2, R), and the Γ-invariant vectors are cusp forms), π is assumed to be the restriction to a subspace H_0 of a larger unitary representation having a subspace L as above. The operator angle between the projection P_L onto L (typically, the characteristic function of the fundamental domain) and the projection P_0 onto the subspace H_0 (typically, a Bergman projection onto a space of analytic functions) is the analogue of the space of Γ-invariant vectors. It is proved that the character of the unitary representation \\overlineπ {p} is uniquely determined by the character of the representation π. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  19. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  20. Subluminal group velocity and dispersion of Laguerre Gauss beams in free space

    PubMed Central

    Bareza, Nestor D.; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein’s postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light’s various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light’s group velocity vg. Here, we report the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam’s divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space. PMID:27231195

  1. Subluminal group velocity and dispersion of Laguerre Gauss beams in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareza, Nestor D.; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-05-01

    That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein’s postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light’s various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light’s group velocity vg. Here, we report the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam’s divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.

  2. Subluminal group velocity and dispersion of Laguerre Gauss beams in free space.

    PubMed

    Bareza, Nestor D; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-05-27

    That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein's postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light's various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light's group velocity vg. Here, we report the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam's divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.

  3. A Perceptual Phonetic Similarity Space for Languages: Evidence from Five Native Language Listener Groups1

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann; Clopper, Cynthia; Smiljanic, Rajka; Walter, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to devise a means of representing languages in a perceptual similarity space based on their overall phonetic similarity. In Experiment 1, native English listeners performed a free classification task in which they grouped 17 diverse languages based on their perceived phonetic similarity. A similarity matrix of the grouping patterns was then submitted to clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses. In Experiment 2, an independent group of native English listeners sorted the group of 17 languages in terms of their distance from English. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 2 with four groups of non-native English listeners: Dutch, Mandarin, Turkish and Korean listeners. Taken together, the results of these three experiments represent a step towards establishing an approach to assessing the overall phonetic similarity of languages. This approach could potentially provide the basis for developing predictions regarding foreign-accented speech intelligibility for various listener groups, and regarding speech perception accuracy in the context of background noise in various languages. PMID:21179563

  4. A Bruhat decomposition for the loop space of a compact group: A new approach to results of Bott

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Howard; Raghunathan, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    We give a new proof of Bott's result, that the loop space of a compact, simply connected, simple Lie group has a cellular decomposition of a certain type. In particular, one obtains the Poincaré polynomial for the loop space and Bott periodicity for the unitary group. PMID:16592292

  5. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  6. Group-galaxy correlations in redshift space as a probe of the growth of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the use of the cross-correlation between galaxies and galaxy groups to measure redshift-space distortions (RSD) and thus probe the growth rate of cosmological structure. This is compared to the classical approach based on using galaxy auto-correlation. We make use of realistic simulated galaxy catalogues that have been constructed by populating simulated dark matter haloes with galaxies through halo occupation prescriptions. We adapt the classical RSD dispersion model to the case of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function and estimate the RSD parameter β by fitting both the full anisotropic correlation function ξs(rp, π) and its multipole moments. In addition, we define a modified version of the latter statistics by truncating the multipole moments to exclude strongly non-linear distortions at small transverse scales. We fit these three observable quantities in our set of simulated galaxy catalogues and estimate statistical and systematic errors on β for the case of galaxy-galaxy, group-group, and group-galaxy correlation functions. When ignoring off-diagonal elements of the covariance matrix in the fitting, the truncated multipole moments of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function provide the most accurate estimate, with systematic errors below 3 per cent when fitting transverse scales larger than 10 h-1 Mpc. Including the full data covariance enlarges statistical errors but keep unchanged the level of systematic error. Although statistical errors are generally larger for groups, the use of group-galaxy cross-correlation can potentially allow the reduction of systematics while using simple linear or dispersion models.

  7. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search for extraterrestrial evidence of life, (2) biomedical research to understand mechanisms and provide criteria for support of manned flight, (3) technology development for life support, protective systems, and work aids for providing environmental control, and (4) to study basic biological functions at all levels or organization influenced by gravity, radiation, and circadian rhythms. Examples of candidate experimental schedules and the experimental package functional requirements are included.

  8. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

  9. Real space renormalization group and totalitarian paradox of majority rule voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2000-09-01

    The effect of majority rule voting in hierarchical structures is studied using the basic concepts from real space renormalization group. It shows in particular that a huge majority can be self-eliminated while climbing up the hierarchy levels. This majority democratic self-elimination articulates around the existence of fixed points in the voting flow. An unstable fixed point determines the critical threshold to full and total power. It can be varied from 50% up to 77% of initial support. Our model could shed new light on the last century eastern European communist collapse.

  10. Local Group and Star Cluster Dynamics from HSTPROMO: The Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, R. P.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Besla, G.; Bianchini, P.; Boylan-Kolchin, M.; Chaname, J.; Deason, A.; Do, T.; Guhathakurta, P.; Kallivayalil, N.; Lennon, D.; Massari, D.; Meyer, E.; Platais, I.; Sabbi, E.; Sohn, S. T.; Soto, M.; Trenti, M.; Watkins, L.

    2014-03-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has proven to be uniquely suited for the measurement of proper motions (PMs) of stars and galaxies in the nearby Universe. Here we summarize the main results and ongoing studies of the HSTPROMO collaboration, which over the past decade has executed some two dozen observational and theoretical HST projects on this topic. This is continuing to revolutionize our dynamical understanding of many objects, including: globular clusters; young star clusters; stars and stellar streams in the Milky Way halo; Local Group galaxies, including dwarf satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and the Andromeda galaxy; and AGN black hole Jets.

  11. Crystallization of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Targeting (FAT) Domain in a Primitive Orthorhombic Space Group

    SciTech Connect

    Magis,A.; Bailey, K.; Kurenova, E.; Hernandez Prada, J.; Cance, W.; Ostrov, D.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data from the targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were collected from a single crystal that diffracted to 1.99 Angstroms resolution and reduced to the primitive orthorhombic lattice. A single molecule was predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient. The data were phased using molecular-replacement methods using an existing model of the FAK FAT domain. All structures of human focal adhesion kinase FAT domains solved to date have been solved in a C-centered orthorhombic space group.

  12. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  13. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  14. Intraspecific variation in space use, group size, and mating systems of caviomorph rodents

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Christine R.; Burger, Joseph Robert

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in social systems is widely recognized across many taxa, and specific models, including polygamy potential, resource defense, and resource dispersion, have been developed to explain the relationship between ecological variation and social organization. Although mammals from temperate North America and Eurasia have provided many insights into this relationship, rodents from the Neotropics and temperate South America have largely been ignored. In this review we focus on reports documenting intraspecific variation in spacing systems, group size, and mating systems of caviomorphs. This large group of New World hystricognath rodents occupies a diverse array of habitats; thus, members of the same species potentially exhibit different social systems in response to different ecological conditions. Spatial patterns vary in response to a diverse array of factors, including predation, food availability, population density, and soil characteristics. Changes in group size typically correlate with changes in resource availability, particularly food. Mating systems generally reflect the ability of males to control access to females, which may depend on population density or food distribution. In general, social organization in caviomorphs fits predictions of resource-based models; however, most studies have been purely observational, involving small numbers of animals over short time periods and reporting qualitative rather than quantitative levels of ecological correlates. In future studies the use of molecular techniques and controlled, experimental manipulations can increase our understanding of intraspecific variation in caviomorph social systems. This understudied group of rodents offers excellent opportunities to provide insights into the influence of ecological conditions on behavior such as social systems. PMID:22328790

  15. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  16. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of…

  17. NASA PC software evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  18. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  19. Structure of recombinant prolidase from Thermococcus sibiricus in space group P21221.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Vladimir; Slutskaya, Elvira; Gorbacheva, Marina; Boyko, Konstantin; Rakitina, Tatiana; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry; Lipkin, Alexey; Popov, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structure of recombinant prolidase from Thermococcus sibiricus was determined by X-ray diffraction at a resolution of 2.6 Å and was found to contain a tetramer in the asymmetric unit. A protein crystal grown in microgravity using the counter-diffusion method was used for X-ray studies. The crystal belonged to space group P21221, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.60, b = 123.72, c = 136.52 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The structure was refined to an Rcryst of 22.1% and an Rfree of 29.6%. The structure revealed flexible folding of the N-terminal domain of the protein as well as high variability in the positions of the bound metal ions. The coordinates of the resulting model were deposited in the Protein Data Bank as entry 4rgz.

  20. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  1. Outreach of Astronomy with emphasis to the Solar System by the Space group in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussas, X.; Dialynas, K.; Babasides, G.; Fasoulopoulos, G.; Dimitropoulou, V.; Prassopoulos, D.; Kouphos, S.; Spandagos, E.; Strikis, J.

    We have a long tradition in Space and Solar System outreach at the University of Athens (Space Group). We have contributed with many popular science articles in encyclopaedias (a total of some 200000 words), magazines and newspapers, public lectures around Greece and radio and TV programmes. We contribute in exhibitions for the public on many occasions (e.g. The British Exploration of the Planets, an exhibition organized by the British Council, at Eugenides Foundation and The Planetarium, where I prepared some 15 posters). We are preparing an outreach site of Astrophysics with sections for the planets, the exploration of the solar system and solar terrestrial relations. I am preparing several posters for the planets. We organize with the Hellenic Physical Union a series of Astrophysics Lectures at the University of Athens. Together with the Hellenic Physical Union we are planning to produce a theatrical play and CD or DVD concerning the planets. We have excellent collaboration with the amateur astronomers allover Greece and Cyprus. We organize, together with Physics or mathematics teachers in high schools several events related to astronomical observations (e.g. Venus transit, solar eclipe, astronomy nights). 1 We also organize popular science programmes in TV channels. I brief we consider Astronomy and especially the planetary system as a "Great Attractor" of pupil and the general public to science and we use it on every occasion for the benefit of the pupil and science. 2

  2. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  3. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  4. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, Harold

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group Uq(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin ≥ 1, "naive" representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of "pure gauges", as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of Uq(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of Uq(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin ≥ 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard "truncated" tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  5. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  6. CfDS attends the first meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Astronomy and Space Environment Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, B.

    1999-06-01

    This group first met on March 11th, 1999, as 'a forum for discussion to further parliamentary interest in astronomy and the space environment affecting terrestrial life and its climate; and to increase awareness of the social, political and philosophical implications of present and future space technologies connected with exploring and understanding the cosmos'. CfDS coordinator Bob Mizon attended the first meeting of the group.

  7. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study commercialization working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The benefits for each of the following commercial areas was investigated: communications, remote sensing, materials processing in space, low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite assembly, testing, and servicing, and space tourism. In each case, where economic benefits are derived, the costs for accomplishing tasks with the Space Station are compared with the cost with the Space Transportation System only.

  8. Dimorphic forms of 3,6-dinitrodurene in a single space group.

    PubMed

    Galicia Aguilar, José Alberto; Bernès, Sylvain

    2009-04-01

    3,6-Dinitrodurene (1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-dinitrobenzene), C(10)H(12)N(2)O(4), has been crystallized in two polymorphic forms which may be distinguished by their colours in the solid state. Polymorph I gives clear colourless prismatic crystals, while polymorph II crystallizes in the dark and under an inert atmosphere as irregular purple blocks. Both forms belong to the space group C2/c, with both asymmetric units containing two half-molecules. One molecule is located on an inversion centre and the other lies on a twofold axis. The polymorphism arises from different orientations of the twofold axis: in form I, this axis passes through the mid-points of two C-C bonds of the benzene ring and, as a consequence, all atoms in the asymmetric unit are in general positions. In form II, the N atoms of the nitro groups and the C(ipso) atoms are located on the binary axis. Comparing phases I and II, slightly different conformations are observed for the nitro substituents, while the stacking structures are very similar.

  9. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive.

  10. Space Allowance of the Littered Area Affects Lying Behavior in Group-Housed Horses.

    PubMed

    Burla, Joan-Bryce; Rufener, Christina; Bachmann, Iris; Gygax, Lorenz; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2017-01-01

    Horses can sleep while standing; however, recumbency is required for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore essential. Previous research indicated a minimal duration of recumbency of 30 min per 24 h to perform a minimal duration of REM sleep. For group-housed horses, suitable lying area represents a potentially limited resource. In Switzerland, minimal dimensions for the space allowance of the littered area are therefore legally required. To assess the effect of different space allowances of the littered area on lying behavior, 38 horses in 8 groups were exposed to 4 treatments for 11 days each; T0: no litter provided, T0.5: 0.5× minimal dimensions, T1: minimal dimensions, and T1.5: 1.5× minimal dimensions. Non-littered areas were covered with hard rubber mats. Lying behavior was observed during the last 72 h of each treatment. The total number of lying bouts per 24 h was similar in treatments providing litter, whereas in treatment T0, recumbency occurred only rarely (F1,93 = 14.74, p = 0.0002) with the majority of horses lying down for less than 30 min per 24 h ([Formula: see text], p = 0.0006). Overall, the total duration of recumbency per 24 h increased with increasing dimensions of the littered area, whereby the effect attenuated between treatment T1 and T1.5 in high-ranking horses but continued in low-ranking horses (F1,91 = 3.22, p = 0.076). Furthermore, low-ranking horses showed considerably more forcedly terminated lying bouts in treatments T0.5 and T1, but were similar to high-ranking horses in T1.5 (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005). Nonetheless, a number of individuals showed durations of recumbency of less than 30 min per 24 h even in treatment T1.5. The lying behavior was dependent on the availability of a soft and deformable surface for recumbency. A beneficial effect of enlarged dimensions of the littered area was shown by increased durations of recumbency and decreased proportion of forcedly terminated

  11. Space Allowance of the Littered Area Affects Lying Behavior in Group-Housed Horses

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Joan-Bryce; Rufener, Christina; Bachmann, Iris; Gygax, Lorenz; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2017-01-01

    Horses can sleep while standing; however, recumbency is required for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore essential. Previous research indicated a minimal duration of recumbency of 30 min per 24 h to perform a minimal duration of REM sleep. For group-housed horses, suitable lying area represents a potentially limited resource. In Switzerland, minimal dimensions for the space allowance of the littered area are therefore legally required. To assess the effect of different space allowances of the littered area on lying behavior, 38 horses in 8 groups were exposed to 4 treatments for 11 days each; T0: no litter provided, T0.5: 0.5× minimal dimensions, T1: minimal dimensions, and T1.5: 1.5× minimal dimensions. Non-littered areas were covered with hard rubber mats. Lying behavior was observed during the last 72 h of each treatment. The total number of lying bouts per 24 h was similar in treatments providing litter, whereas in treatment T0, recumbency occurred only rarely (F1,93 = 14.74, p = 0.0002) with the majority of horses lying down for less than 30 min per 24 h (χ12=11.82, p = 0.0006). Overall, the total duration of recumbency per 24 h increased with increasing dimensions of the littered area, whereby the effect attenuated between treatment T1 and T1.5 in high-ranking horses but continued in low-ranking horses (F1,91 = 3.22, p = 0.076). Furthermore, low-ranking horses showed considerably more forcedly terminated lying bouts in treatments T0.5 and T1, but were similar to high-ranking horses in T1.5 (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005). Nonetheless, a number of individuals showed durations of recumbency of less than 30 min per 24 h even in treatment T1.5. The lying behavior was dependent on the availability of a soft and deformable surface for recumbency. A beneficial effect of enlarged dimensions of the littered area was shown by increased durations of recumbency and decreased proportion of forcedly terminated lying

  12. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  13. On the reflection type decomposition of the adjoint reduced phase space of a compact semisimple Lie group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.

    2013-08-01

    We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.

  14. 75 FR 62002 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the AMM... and B2-H4 models. For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2-H4, a new ALS document has been implemented... Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the...

  15. 76 FR 5467 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the AMM... and B2-H4 models. For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2-H4, a new ALS document has been implemented... Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the...

  16. Space station needs, attributes and architecture options study technology development working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The structural criteria for a space station is lack of risk by the technology employed. Orbiter technology can be transferred for use in construction with improvement in three areas: fiber optic data bus, water reclamation, and; improved space suit design.

  17. A Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Study of Star-forming Regions in the Local Group. II. Young Stellar Populations in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Hodge, Paul; Kang, Yongbeom

    2012-11-01

    We studied the young stellar populations of 22 star-forming regions in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging from far-UV to I. The regions were selected from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) wide-field far-UV imaging; they sample different environments and galactocentric distances from 6 to 22 kpc. They were imaged with 30 HST fields (360 distinct images, in six bandpasses), with a pixel scale of 0.38 pc projected on the sky, at the distance of M31. This study is part of HST treasury survey program HST-GO-11079, which includes star-forming regions in eight Local Group galaxies. We provide a merged catalog of six-band stellar photometry in the 30 M31 fields, containing 118,036 sources brighter than V and B ~ 23 mag. Each HST field covers about 0.3 kpc2 in M31, and contains up to ~7000 stars, of which the number varies by a factor of >7 among the target regions; a large fraction of the sample are hot massive stars, due to our choice of filters and exposures. We derived stellar physical parameters and interstellar extinction for individual sources by spectral energy distribution analysis with model-atmosphere colors, and used the results to infer ages, massive stars content, and extinction of the star-forming regions. Reddening is up to E(B - V) <~ 0.6 mag in some OB associations, and lowest in the outermost regions (average of lsim0.12 mag in OB184 at 21.9 kpc). We examined the spatial distribution (clustering) of the hot massive stars, and defined OB associations on various spatial scales from compact to wider, more spread out ones. A hierarchical structuring is observed, with small compact groups arranged within large complexes. Their areas vary from less than 10 to 105 pc2, and masses are up to ≈105 M ⊙, in the scales sampled by our analysis. Their cumulative mass distribution follows a power law, at least in part of the sampled regime. Hot-star counts in the young regions compare very well with integrated

  18. Chromosomal Distribution of PcG Proteins during Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Nègre, Nicolas; Hennetin, Jérôme; Sun, Ling V; Lavrov, Sergey; Bellis, Michel; White, Kevin P

    2006-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are able to maintain the memory of silent transcriptional states of homeotic genes throughout development. In Drosophila, they form multimeric complexes that bind to specific DNA regulatory elements named PcG response elements (PREs). To date, few PREs have been identified and the chromosomal distribution of PcG proteins during development is unknown. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with genomic tiling path microarrays to analyze the binding profile of the PcG proteins Polycomb (PC) and Polyhomeotic (PH) across 10 Mb of euchromatin. We also analyzed the distribution of GAGA factor (GAF), a sequence-specific DNA binding protein that is found at most previously identified PREs. Our data show that PC and PH often bind to clustered regions within large loci that encode transcription factors which play multiple roles in developmental patterning and in the regulation of cell proliferation. GAF co-localizes with PC and PH to a limited extent, suggesting that GAF is not a necessary component of chromatin at PREs. Finally, the chromosome-association profile of PC and PH changes during development, suggesting that the function of these proteins in the regulation of some of their target genes might be more dynamic than previously anticipated. PMID:16613483

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  20. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  1. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  2. Effects of incentives on psychosocial performances in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.; Emurian, Henry H.

    Prior research with individually isolated 3-person crews in a distributed, interactive, planetary exploration simulation examined the effects of communication constraints and crew configuration changes on crew performance and psychosocial self-report measures. The present report extends these findings to a model of performance maintenance that operationalizes conditions under which disruptive affective responses by crew participants might be anticipated to emerge. Experiments evaluated the effects of changes in incentive conditions on crew performance and self-report measures in simulated space-dwelling groups. Crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crew performance effectiveness was unaffected by either positive or negative incentive conditions, while self-report measures were differentially affected—negative incentive conditions produced pronounced increases in negative self-report ratings and decreases in positive self-report ratings, while positive incentive conditions produced increased positive self-report ratings only. Thus, incentive conditions associated with simulated spaceflight missions can significantly affect psychosocial adaptation without compromising task performance effectiveness in trained and experienced crews.

  3. Nonperturbative renormalization group for scalar fields in de Sitter space: Beyond the local potential approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilleux, Maxime; Serreau, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Nonperturbative renormalization group techniques have recently proven a powerful tool to tackle the nontrivial infrared dynamics of light scalar fields in de Sitter space. In the present article, we develop the formalism beyond the local potential approximation employed in earlier works. In particular, we consider the derivative expansion, a systematic expansion in powers of field derivatives, appropriate for long wavelength modes, that we generalize to the relevant case of a curved metric with Lorentzian signature. The method is illustrated with a detailed discussion of the so-called local potential approximation prime which, on top of the full effective potential, includes a running (but field-independent) field renormalization. We explicitly compute the associated anomalous dimension for O (N ) theories. We find that it can take large values along the flow, leading to sizable differences as compared to the local potential approximation. However, it does not prevent the phenomenon of gravitationally induced dimensional reduction pointed out in previous studies. We show that, as a consequence, the effective potential at the end of the flow is unchanged as compared to the local potential approximation, the main effect of the running anomalous dimension being merely to slow down the flow. We discuss some consequences of these findings.

  4. Quadruple space-group ambiguity owing to rotational and translational noncrystallographic symmetry in human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Armin; Tetaz, Tim; Schott, Brigitte; Joseph, Catherine; Rudolph, Markus G

    2016-11-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a key regulator of gluconeogenesis and a potential drug target for type 2 diabetes. FBPase is a homotetramer of 222 symmetry with a major and a minor dimer interface. The dimers connected via the minor interface can rotate with respect to each other, leading to the inactive T-state and active R-state conformations of FBPase. Here, the first crystal structure of human liver FBPase in the R-state conformation is presented, determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å in a tetragonal setting that exhibits an unusual arrangement of noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) elements. Self-Patterson function analysis and various intensity statistics revealed the presence of pseudo-translation and the absence of twinning. The space group is P41212, but structure determination was also possible in space groups P43212, P4122 and P4322. All solutions have the same arrangement of three C2-symmetric dimers spaced by 1/3 along an NCS axis parallel to the c axis located at (1/4, 1/4, z), which is therefore invisible in a self-rotation function analysis. The solutions in the four space groups are related to one another and emulate a body-centred lattice. If all NCS elements were crystallographic, the space group would be I4122 with a c axis three times shorter and a single FBPase subunit in the asymmetric unit. I4122 is a minimal, non-isomorphic supergroup of the four primitive tetragonal space groups, explaining the space-group ambiguity for this crystal.

  5. Quadruple space-group ambiguity owing to rotational and translational noncrystallographic symmetry in human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Armin; Tetaz, Tim; Schott, Brigitte; Joseph, Catherine; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2016-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a key regulator of gluconeogenesis and a potential drug target for type 2 diabetes. FBPase is a homotetramer of 222 symmetry with a major and a minor dimer interface. The dimers connected via the minor interface can rotate with respect to each other, leading to the inactive T-state and active R-state conformations of FBPase. Here, the first crystal structure of human liver FBPase in the R-state conformation is presented, determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å in a tetragonal setting that exhibits an unusual arrangement of noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) elements. Self-Patterson function analysis and various intensity statistics revealed the presence of pseudo-translation and the absence of twinning. The space group is P41212, but structure determination was also possible in space groups P43212, P4122 and P4322. All solutions have the same arrangement of three C 2-symmetric dimers spaced by 1/3 along an NCS axis parallel to the c axis located at (1/4, 1/4, z), which is therefore invisible in a self-rotation function analysis. The solutions in the four space groups are related to one another and emulate a body-centred lattice. If all NCS elements were crystallographic, the space group would be I4122 with a c axis three times shorter and a single FBPase subunit in the asymmetric unit. I4122 is a minimal, non-isomorphic supergroup of the four primitive tetragonal space groups, explaining the space-group ambiguity for this crystal. PMID:27841754

  6. THE ORIGIN OF OB CLUSTERS: FROM 10 pc TO 0.1 pc

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Wang Ke; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou; Quintana-Lacaci, Guillermo; Li Zhiyun; Zhang Zhiyu E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: quintana@iram.es E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu

    2012-01-20

    We observe the 1.2 mm continuum emission around the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4, using the MAMBO-2 bolometer array of the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Comparison of the Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m images with our 1.2 mm continuum maps reveal an ionization front of an H II region, the photon-dominated layer, and several 5 pc scale filaments that follow the outer edge of the photon-dominated layer. The filaments, which are resolved in the MAMBO-2 observations, show regularly spaced parsec-scale molecular clumps, embedded with a cluster of dense molecular cores as shown in the SMA 0.87 mm observations. Toward the center of the G10.6-0.4 region, the combined SMA+IRAM 30 m continuum image reveals several parsec-scale protrusions. They may continue down to within 0.1 pc of the geometric center of a dense 3 pc scale structure, where a 200 M{sub Sun} OB cluster resides. The observed filaments may facilitate mass accretion onto the central cluster-forming region in the presence of strong radiative and mechanical stellar feedback. Their filamentary geometry may also facilitate fragmentation. We did not detect any significant polarized emission at 0.87 mm in the inner 1 pc region with SMA.

  7. Global space-group optimization problem: Finding the stablest crystal structure without constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Zunger, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Finding the most stable structure of a solid is one of the central problems in condensed matter physics. This entails finding both the lattice type (e.g., fcc, bcc, and orthorhombic) and (for compounds) the decoration of the lattice sites by atoms of types A , B , etc. (“configuration”). Most approaches to this problem either assumed that both lattice type and configuration are known, optimizing instead the cell volume and performing local relaxation. Other approaches assumed that the lattice type is known, searching for the minimum-energy decoration. We present here an approach to the global space-group optimization (GSGO) problem, i.e., the problem of predicting both the lattice structure and the atomic configuration of a crystalline solid. This search method is based on an evolutionary algorithm within which a population of crystal structures is evolved through mating and mutation operations, improving the population by substituting the highest total-energy structures with new ones. The crystal structures are not represented by bit strings as in conventional genetic algorithms. Instead, the evolutionary search is performed directly on the atomic positions and the unit-cell vectors after a similarity transformation is applied to bring structures of different unit-cell shapes to a common basis. Following this transformation, we can define a crossover operation that treats, on the same footing, structures with different unit-cell shapes. Once a new structure has been generated by mating or mutation, it is fully relaxed to the closest local total-energy minimum. We applied our procedure for the GSGO in the context of pseudopotential total-energy calculations to the semiconductor systems Si, SiC, and GaAs and to the metallic alloy AuPd with composition Au8Pd4 . Starting from random unit-cell vectors and random atomic positions, the present search procedure found for all semiconductor systems studied the correct lattice structure and configuration. In the case of

  8. Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Sortie Workshop. Volume 2: Working group reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Details are presented on the mission planning progress in each of the working paper reports. The general topics covered are the following: space technology; materials processing and space manufacturing; communications and navigation; earth and ocean physics; oceanography; earth resources and surface environmental quality; meteorology and atmospheric environmental quality; life sciences; atmospheric and space physics; solar physics; high energy cosmic rays; X-ray and gamma ray astronomy; ultraviolet-optical astronomy; planetary astronomy; and infrared astronomy.

  9. Predicting stable stoichiometries of compounds via evolutionary global space-group optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Zunger, Alex

    2009-09-01

    Whereas the Daltonian atom-to-atom ratios in ordinary molecules are well understood via the traditional theory of valence, the naturally occurring stoichiometries in intermetallic compounds ApBq , as revealed by phase-diagram compilations, are often surprising. Even equal-valence elements A and B give rise to unequal (p,q) stoichiometries, e.g., the 1:2, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios in AlpScq . Moreover, sometimes different stoichiometries are associated with different lattice types and hence rather different physical properties. Here, we extend the fixed-composition global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach used to predict, via density-functional calculations, fixed-composition lattice types [G. Trimarchi and A. Zunger, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 295212 (2008)] to identify simultaneously all the minimum-energy lattice types throughout the composition range. Starting from randomly selected lattice vectors, atomic positions and stoichiometries, we construct the T=0 “convex hull” of energy vs composition. Rather than repeat a set of GSGO searches over a fixed list of stoichiometries, we minimize the distance to the convex hull. This approach is far more efficient than the former one as a single evolutionary search sequence simultaneously identifies the lowest-energy structures at each composition and among these it selects those that are ground states. For Al-Sc we correctly identify the stable stoichiometries and relative structure types: AlSc2-B82 , AlSc-B2, and Al2Sc-C15 in the Nat=6 periodic cells, and Al2Sc6-D019 , AlSc-B2, and Al3Sc-L10 in the Nat=8 periodic cells. This extended evolutionary GSGO algorithm represents a step toward a fully ab initio materials synthesis, where compounds are predicted starting from sole knowledge of the chemical species of the constituents.

  10. On the perturbation of the group generalized inverse for a class of bounded operators in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-González, N.; Vélez-Cerrada, J. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Given a bounded operator A on a Banach space X with Drazin inverse AD and index r, we study the class of group invertible bounded operators B such that I+AD(B-A) is invertible and . We show that they can be written with respect to the decomposition as a matrix operator, , where B1 and are invertible. Several characterizations of the perturbed operators are established, extending matrix results. We analyze the perturbation of the Drazin inverse and we provide explicit upper bounds of ||B#-AD|| and ||BB#-ADA||. We obtain a result on the continuity of the group inverse for operators on Banach spaces.

  11. Responding to the Concerns of Student Cultural Groups: Redesigning Spaces for Cultural Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Anise Mazone; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the engagement of a student committee in redesigning an entire floor of a university union to accommodate student cultural centers and provide space in a fair and equitable manner. The reorganization focused on the process as well as the task of allocating space, with an emphasis on the opportunity to foster the development of…

  12. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    PubMed

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  13. Canonical Groups for Quantization on the Two-Dimensional Sphere and One-Dimensional Complex Projective Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sumadi A. H.; H, Zainuddin

    2014-11-01

    Using Isham's group-theoretic quantization scheme, we construct the canonical groups of the systems on the two-dimensional sphere and one-dimensional complex projective space, which are homeomorphic. In the first case, we take SO(3) as the natural canonical Lie group of rotations of the two-sphere and find all the possible Hamiltonian vector fields, and followed by verifying the commutator and Poisson bracket algebra correspondences with the Lie algebra of the group. In the second case, the same technique is resumed to define the Lie group, in this case SU (2), of CP'.We show that one can simply use a coordinate transformation from S2 to CP1 to obtain all the Hamiltonian vector fields of CP1. We explicitly show that the Lie algebra structures of both canonical groups are locally homomorphic. On the other hand, globally their corresponding canonical groups are acting on different geometries, the latter of which is almost complex. Thus the canonical group for CP1 is the double-covering group of SO(3), namely SU(2). The relevance of the proposed formalism is to understand the idea of CP1 as a space of where the qubit lives which is known as a Bloch sphere.

  14. Real Space Renormalization Group Study of the S=1/2 XXZ Chains with Fibonacci Exchange Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Ground state properties of the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic XXZ chain with Fibonacci exchange modulation are studied using the real space renormalization group method for strong modulation. The quantum dynamical critical behavior with a new universality class is predicted in the isotropic case. Combining our results with the weak coupling renormalization group results by Vidal et al., the ground state phase diagram is obtained.

  15. Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST Conference (Origins Conference and UV-Optical Working Group Support)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Morse, Jon

    2001-01-01

    This grant supported three major activities, from 1997-2001. (1) Origins Conference. The funds from this grant were used, initially, to support a Conference on "Origins", held May 19-23, 1997 at Estes Park, CO and attended by a wide range of astronomers, planetary scientists, and astrobiologists. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1998 by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: "Origins" (1998) "Proceedings of the International Origins Conference". (2) UV-Optical Space Astronomy. Conference Additional funds provided by the NASA Office of Space Science were used to support a meeting held August 5-7, 1998 at Boulder, CO and attended by ultraviolet and optical astronomers and instrumentalists interested in a UV-O successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. The scientific proceedings of this meeting were published in 1999: "Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope" (1999), NASA provided funds and commissioned the UVOWG (Ultraviolet-Optical Working Group), charged with recommending a set of fundamental scientific problems and new space missions in the UV/Optical wavelength bands. The working group was chaired by J. M. Shull, and included ten other astrophysicists. Their report was published as a "White Paper" (Nov. 1999) entitled "The Emergence of the Modern Universe: Tracing the Cosmic Web" available. The results of this report were used in the NASA Strategic Planning ("Roadmap") exercise and by the NRC Astronomy/Astrophysics Decade Committee.

  16. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  17. Harmonic analysis of the Euclidean group in three-space. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rno, Jung Sik

    1985-09-01

    We develop the harmonic analysis for spinor functions which are defined by the matrix elements of the unitary irreducible representations of E(3) with the representation space on the translation subgroup.

  18. D2PC sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.P.

    1992-08-01

    The Chemical Hazard Prediction Model (D2PC) developed by the US Army will play a critical role in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program by predicting chemical agent transport and dispersion through the atmosphere after an accidental release. To aid in the analysis of the output calculated by D2PC, this sensitivity analysis was conducted to provide information on model response to a variety of input parameters. The sensitivity analysis focused on six accidental release scenarios involving chemical agents VX, GB, and HD (sulfur mustard). Two categories, corresponding to conservative most likely and worst case meteorological conditions, provided the reference for standard input values. D2PC displayed a wide variety of sensitivity to the various input parameters. The model displayed the greatest overall sensitivity to wind speed, mixing height, and breathing rate. For other input parameters, sensitivity was mixed but generally lower. Sensitivity varied not only with parameter, but also over the range of values input for a single parameter. This information on model response can provide useful data for interpreting D2PC output.

  19. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  20. Space station needs attributes and architectural options study costing working group briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Individuals in the United States who understand the promise of materials processing in space and who also are senior technical personnel associated with commercial firms that process materials: (1) endorsed the concept of a space station as a desirable national asset; (2) stated that a commercial MPS research program is mandatory to extend commericalization of space for materials processing; and (3) described in general terms a national research laboratory and free flying facilities that are needed. Participants agreed that industry R&D is motivated largely by market pull rather than by technology push, that initial interest is low-g materials research; and that to farther, commercial market assurance (a salable product) is a must.

  1. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  2. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

    2008-12-01

    suggested distinguishable mission phase model, the Lewis and Clark Expedition will be analyzed for similarities to these space findings. Factors of consideration in support of this analysis involve an understanding of the leadership qualities of Lewis and Clark (and relations established and maintained with one another), the selection and diversity of their crew, and the group dynamics that were developed and maintained so carefully during the expedition. With this knowledge and understanding one can gain enormous insights useful in the planning and preparation for future long-duration space exploratory missions with high level of autonomy, mobility, minimal primary life support supply and high dependence on material re-circulation and In-Situ Resource Utilization approach.

  3. Multi-Group Analysis of Nuclear Reactors in Three Space Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-04-20

    conditions. For each energy group, g, the program computes 0 , the neutron flux , by a numerical approximation to the age-diffusion equation. When 0...program computes • , the neutron flux , by a numerical approximation to the age-diffusion equation. When (p has been calculated for all groups, the...average flux for each of the different composition regions of the mesh for each group, and e. The number of fissions per source neutron (f), and the

  4. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  5. Poster session ELIPGRID-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-02-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program, has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of detection versus cost data for graphing with spreadsheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the published ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  6. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman works with replacement WF/PC II for HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Anchored to the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman works with the replacement Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC II) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the third of five space walks. Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, who joined Hoffman for three of the five space walks, helps with alignment at center frame.

  7. Dynamic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Zhi Yong; Li, Zhi Xiong; Wang, Li Hua

    2016-12-01

    The time-harmonic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group embedded in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space is investigated using a finite element and indirect boundary element coupling method. The piles are solved by the finite element method (FEM), while the soil can be modeled by the indirect boundary element method (BEM) with the aid of the fundamental solution for a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space in a cylindrical coordinate system. The governing equation of the pile-soil-pile dynamic interaction is established by applying the FEM-BEM coupling method. Numerical examples are carried out to validate the presented theory and to investigate influences of the soil's anisotropy and layering on the dynamic response of pile groups.

  8. Working group report on advanced high-voltage high-power and energy-storage space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, H. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Evans, R. W.; Hastings, D.; Jongeward, G.; Laframboise, J. G.; Mahaffey, D.; Mcintyre, B.; Pfizer, K. A.; Purvis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Space systems in the future will probably include high-voltage, high-power energy-storage and -production systems. Two such technologies are high-voltage ac and dc systems and high-power electrodynamic tethers. The working group identified several plasma interaction phenomena that will occur in the operation of these power systems. The working group felt that building an understanding of these critical interaction issues meant that several gaps in our knowledge had to be filled, and that certain aspects of dc power systems have become fairly well understood. Examples of these current collection are in quiescent plasmas and snap over effects. However, high-voltage dc and almost all ac phenomena are, at best, inadequately understood. In addition, there is major uncertainty in the knowledge of coupling between plasmas and large scale current flows in space plasmas. These gaps in the knowledge are addressed.

  9. Creating a Space for Acknowledgment and Generativity in Reflective Group Supervision.

    PubMed

    Paré, David

    2016-06-01

    Small group supervision is a powerful venue for generative conversations because of the multiplicity of perspectives available and the potential for an appreciative audience to a practitioner's work. At the same time, the well-intentioned reflections by a few practitioners in a room can inadvertently duplicate normative discourses that circulate in the wider culture and the profession. This article explores the use of narrative practices for benefiting from the advantages of group supervision while mindful of the vulnerability that comes with sharing one's work among colleagues. The reflective group supervision processes described were modified from the work of Tom Andersen and Michael White to provide a venue that encourages the creative multiplicity of group conversation while discouraging unhelpful discourses which constrain generative conversation.

  10. A Quantile Domain Perspective on the Relationships between Optimal Grouping, Spacing and Stratification Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    these results a quantile domain analog of a theorem due to Adatia and Chan (1981, Scand. Actuar . J., 193-202) on the equi- valence of optimal grouping...10 REFERENCES Adatia, A. and Chan, L. K. (1981). Relations between stratified, grouped and selected order statistics samples. Scand. Actuar . J., 193...these results a quantile domain analog of a theorem due to Adatia and Chan (1981, Scand. Actuar . J., DD I .o 1473 EDIo, TION O1 1 ov $is OSOLEE S/N

  11. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  12. Cryoannealing-induced space-group transition of crystals of the carbonic anhydrase psCA3.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Kurian, Justin J; Aggarwal, Mayank; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Cryoannealing has been demonstrated to improve the diffraction quality and resolution of crystals of the β-carbonic anhydrase psCA3 concomitant with a change in space group. After initial flash-cooling in a liquid-nitrogen cryostream an X-ray diffraction data set from a psCA3 crystal was indexed in space group P21212 and was scaled to 2.6 Å resolution, but subsequent cryoannealing studies revealed induced protein rearrangements in the crystal contacts, which transformed the space group to I222, with a corresponding improvement of 0.7 Å in resolution. Although the change in diffraction resolution was significant, only minor changes in the psCA3 structure, which retained its catalytic `open' conformation, were observed. These findings demonstrate that cryoannealing can be successfully utilized to induce higher diffraction-quality crystals while maintaining enzymatically relevant conformations and may be useful as an experimental tool for structural studies of other enzymes where the initial diffraction quality is poor.

  13. PC25{trademark} product and manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.W.; Riley, W.C.; Sandelli, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Product and manufacturing experience accumulated since the beginning of PC25. A production in 1991 provides a strong base of demonstration and experience for establishing future improvements to the PC25 power plant.

  14. Finding a Space for Professional Development: Creating Thirdspace through After-School Writing Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Robert; Coyle, Deborah; Walden, Anne; Healey, Conniem; Larson, Kim; Laughridge, Virginia; Ridder, Kim; Williams, Molly; Williams, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a teacher study group focusing on After School Writing Circles for elementary students as a site of Thirdspace professional development. Borrowing the concept of Thirdspace from postmodern geographer Edward Soja, the authors argue that professional development works best when teachers engage in the dual work of imagining and…

  15. Unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the post-critical flow around a closely spaced group of silos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillewaere, J.; Dooms, D.; Van Quekelberghe, B.; Degroote, J.; Vierendeels, J.; De Roeck, G.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.

    2012-04-01

    During a storm in October 2002, wind induced ovalling vibrations were observed on several empty silos of a closely spaced group (pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.05) consisting of 8 by 5 silos in the port of Antwerp (Belgium). Numerical simulations of the turbulent wind flow are performed to clarify the occurrence of the observed ovalling vibrations near the lee side corner of the group by studying the dynamic wind pressures on the silo surfaces and linking to the dynamic properties of the silo structures. As the orientation of the group largely affects the pressure distribution around the cylinders of the group, the influence of the angle of incidence of the wind flow on these ovalling vibrations is examined while other parameters, such as spacing ratio and Reynolds number are unchanged. To achieve results within a reasonable computation time, 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations using Menter's shear stress transport turbulence model were performed. In order to elucidate the influence of the applied turbulence model and to qualitatively validate the spatial and temporal discretization of the 2D highly turbulent post-critical (Re=1.24×107) flow simulations for the silo group, single cylinder simulations were used. The geometric resemblance of the group arrangement with rectangular cylinders on the one hand and of the interstitial spaces with tube arrays (e.g. heat exchangers) on the other hand is used to qualitatively compare the observed flow phenomena. The simulations show that the silo group can be treated neither as a tube array nor as a solid bluff body. Subsequent linking of dynamic wind pressures to dynamic properties of the silo structures reveals strong narrow band frequency peaks in the turbulent pressure coefficient spectra of the silos near the lee side corners of the group that match the structural natural frequencies of the third and fourth ovalling mode shape of the silos. This match indicates a forced, resonant response which

  16. Development and evaluation of a set of group delay standards. [deep space tracking station calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Beatty, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A set of cable assemblies serving as group delay standards having nominal delays of 15, 30, and 60 nsec are described. Various types of measurements were performed on the cable standards, including impedance, microwave phase shift, RF pulse burst delay, modulation pulsed delay, and envelope phase shift measurements. The results of these tests are given, and various sources of error are discussed, in particular, dispersion and internal reflections.

  17. Density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method as a common tool for large active-space CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Guo, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an interface between the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method and its analytical gradient, as well as an extension to the second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) method. This interfacing allows large active-space multi-reference computations to be easily performed. The interface and its extension are both implemented in terms of reduced density matrices (RDMs) which can be efficiently computed via the DMRG sweep algorithm. We also present benchmark results showing that, in practice, the DMRG-CASSCF calculations scale with active-space size in a polynomial manner in the case of quasi-1D systems. Geometry optimization of a binuclear iron-sulfur cluster using the DMRG-CASSCF analytical gradient is demonstrated, indicating that the inclusion of the valence p-orbitals of sulfur and double-shell d-orbitals of iron lead to non-negligible changes in the geometry compared to the results of small active-space calculations. With the exception of the selection of M values, many computational settings in these practical DMRG calculations have been tuned and black-boxed in our interface, and so the resulting DMRG-CASSCF and DMRG-CASPT2 calculations are now available to novice users as a common tool to compute strongly correlated electronic wavefunctions.

  18. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  19. Building a research group of Space Physics at UAHuntsville -- the impact of an NSF career award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.

    2011-12-01

    G. Li (1,2) (1) Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 (2) CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 The author joined the faculty of the department of Physics at University of Alabama in Huntsville in August 2008. He was awarded the NSF Career award ATM-0847719 in 2009. To date, the Career award has provided partial supports to one postdoc, two graduate students and three undergraduate students for a variety of periods. Three publications came out as a result of the award (one of which is first authored by one undergraduate). Another two publications are in preparation. The award also helped the PI to be further recognized by the field of space plasma physics and cosmic ray physics. For example, in July 2009, the PI was awarded the Young Scientist Medal by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); in April 2010, the PI won an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) 2010 Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award. In short, the NSF CAREER has helped the PI to start his career at a level without which, will be impossible.

  20. Real-space renormalization group for spectral properties of hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan

    2015-10-01

    We derive the determinant of the Laplacian for the Hanoi networks and use it to determine their number of spanning trees (or graph complexity) asymptotically. While spanning trees generally proliferate with increasing average degree, the results show that modifications within the basic patterns of design of these hierarchical networks can lead to significant variations in their complexity. To this end, we develop renormalization group methods to obtain recursion equations from which many spectral properties can be obtained. This provides the basis for future applications to explore the physics of several dynamic processes.

  1. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is pictured with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC I) during the third of the five STS-61 space walks. Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, stationed at the stowage area at bottom of frame, assists. WF/PC II is in place on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

  2. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  3. Software and Space: Investigating How a Cosmology Research Group Enacts Infrastructure by Producing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Drew

    Software is a pervasive element of twenty-first century life and an integral element of scientific research. Research in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) in recent decades investigates how distributed, collaborative scientific projects take place across different geographical and temporal scales through the enactment of research infrastructures. This dissertation expands upon existing CSCW research with a qualitative, episodic study of a group of cosmologists who are themselves enacting and working among multiple research infrastructures by producing data analysis software as part of a multinational radio telescope project. I describe this cosmology group's software production practices to explain how software is a material for expressing their scientific method. Software operationalizes and encapsulates their cosmology theory, a model of the telescope, observation data, and ongoing analysis decisions. I demonstrate how by using plots (visualizations of observation data, their software, and the physical telescope) they engage in rigorous and thoughtful testing and analysis of infrastructural components in their work. Doing this data-intensive scientific work requires that they collectively develop a deep understanding of multiple infrastructures to isolate and remove flaws in their data and do a high-precision scientific analysis, interrogating the many embedded relations among conventions of practice that make up their work. My dissertation offers a novel perspective on the production, use, and work of software in science that emphasizes that software in scientific research is not some static product to simply be sustained but a perpetually mutable expression of method to be iterated upon and improved through unfolding research work.

  4. Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science (IACG): Handbook of Missions and Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ACE spacecraft design is based on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) built by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Applied Physics Lab (APL) for the AMPTE program. ACE is designed as a spinning spacecraft with its spin axis aligned to the Earth-Sun axis. The ACE launch weight will be approx. 633 kg, including 105 kg of scientific instruments and 184 kg of propellant. Using a Delta-class expendable launch vehicle, ACE will be launched into an L1 libration point (240 R(sub e)) orbit. Telemetry will be 6.7 kbps average, using tape recorder storage with daily readout to DSN. The experiment power requirement is approximately 76 W nominal and 96 W peak. The prime objective of the ACE mission is: (1) to determine accurate elemental and isotropic abundances including solar matter, local interstellar matter and local galactic matter; (2) to study the origin of elements and evolutionary processing in galactic nucleosynthesis, galactic evolution, origin and evolution of the solar system; (3) to study coronal formation and solar-wind acceleration processes; and (4) to study particle acceleration and transport, including coronal shock acceleration, stochastic flare acceleration, interplanetary shock acceleration, and interstellar acceleration and propagation. To accomplish this objective, ACE will perform comprehensive and coordinated determinations of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic nuclei accelerated on the Sun, in interplanetary space, and from galactic sources. These observations will span five decades in energy, from solar wind to galactic cosmic ray energies, and will cover the element range from H-1 to Zr-40. Comparison of these samples of matter will be used to study the origin and subsequent evolution of both solar system and galactic material by isolating the effects of fundamental processes that include nucleosynthesis, charged and neutral particle separation, bulk plasma acceleration, and the acceleration of suprathermal and high

  5. Behavioral and biological effects of autonomous versus scheduled mission management in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, Peter G.; Hursh, Steven R.; Hienz, Robert D.; Emurian, Henry H.; Gasior, Eric D.; Brinson, Zabecca S.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2011-05-01

    Logistical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability of Earth-based mission control personnel to manage their astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. Despite this inevitability, little research exists regarding crew performance and psychosocial adaptation under such autonomous conditions. To this end, a newly-initiated study on crew management systems was conducted to assess crew performance effectiveness under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. Nine volunteers formed three long-term crews and were extensively trained in a simulated planetary geological exploration task over the course of several months. Each crew then embarked on two separate 3-4 h missions in a counterbalanced sequence: Scheduled, in which the crews were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous, in which the well-trained crews received equivalent baseline support from Mission Control but were free to explore the planetary surface as they saw fit. Under the autonomous missions, performance in all three crews improved (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), subjective self-reports of negative emotional states decreased, unstructured debriefing logs contained fewer references to negative emotions and greater use of socially-referent language, and salivary cortisol output across the missions was attenuated. The present study provides evidence that crew autonomy may improve performance and help sustain if not enhance psychosocial adaptation and biobehavioral health. These controlled experimental data contribute to an emerging empirical database on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing missions.

  6. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  7. The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

    2006-09-01

    This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

  8. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.

  9. The Exploration Atmospheres Working Group's Report on Space Radiation Shielding Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Thibeault, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    This part of Exploration Atmospheres Working Group analyses focuses on the potential use of nonmetallic composites as the interior walls and structural elements exposed to the atmosphere of the spacecraft or habitat. The primary drive to consider nonmetallic, polymer-based composites as an alternative to aluminum structure is due to their superior radiation shielding properties. But as is shown in this analysis, these composites can also be made to combine superior mechanical properties with superior shielding properties. In addition, these composites can be made safe; i.e., with regard to flammability and toxicity, as well as "smart"; i.e., embedded with sensors for the continuous monitoring of material health and conditions. The analysis main conclusions are that (1) smart polymer-based composites are an enabling technology for safe and reliable exploration missions, and (2) an adaptive, synergetic systems approach is required to meet the missions requirements from structure, properties, and processes to crew health and protection for exploration missions.

  10. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between

  11. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  12. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Observations of the Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Leo I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Carme; Freedman, Wendy L.; Mateo, Mario; Chiosi, Cesare; Thompson, Ian B.; Aparicio, Antonio; Bertelli, Gianpaolo; Hodge, Paul W.; Lee, Myung G.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Stetson, Peter B.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    1999-04-01

    We present deep HST F555W (V) and F814W (I) observations of a central field in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy Leo I. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches I~=26 and reveals the oldest ~=10-15 Gyr old turnoffs. Nevertheless, a horizontal branch is not obvious in the CMD. Given the low metallicity of the galaxy, this likely indicates that the first substantial star formation in the galaxy may have been somehow delayed in Leo I in comparison with the other dSph satellites of the Milky Way. The subgiant region is well and uniformly populated from the oldest turnoffs up to the 1 Gyr old turnoff, indicating that star formation has proceeded in a continuous way, with possible variations in intensity but no big gaps between successive bursts, over the galaxy's lifetime. The structure of the red clump of core He-burning stars is consistent with the large amount of intermediate-age population inferred from the main sequence and the subgiant region. In spite of the lack of gas in Leo I, the CMD clearly shows star formation continuing until 1 Gyr ago and possibly until a few hundred Myr ago in the central part of the galaxy.

  14. Creating space for citizenship: The impact of group structure on validating the voices of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C; O'Connor, Deborah L; Loiselle, Lisa; Hickman, Kathy; Heibein, Bill; Hounam, Brenda; Mann, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been increasing attention given to finding ways to help people diagnosed with dementia 'live well' with their condition. Frequently however, the attention has been placed on the family care partner as the foundation for creating a context that supports the person with dementia to live well. A recent participatory action research (PAR) study highlighted the importance of beginning to challenge some of the assumptions around how best to include family, especially within a context of supporting citizenship. Three advisory groups consisting of 20 people with dementia, 13 care partners, and three service providers, were set up in three locations across Canada to help develop a self-management program for people with dementia. The hubs met monthly for up to two years. One of the topics that emerged as extremely important to consider in the structuring of the program revolved around whether or not these groups should be segregated to include only people with dementia. A thematic analysis of these ongoing discussions coalesced around four inter-related themes: creating safe spaces; maintaining voice and being heard; managing the balancing act; and the importance of solidarity Underpinning these discussions was the fifth theme, recognition that 'one size doesn't fit all'. Overall an important finding was that the presence of family care-partners could have unintended consequences in relation to creating the space for active citizenship to occur in small groups of people with dementia although it could also offer some opportunities. The involvement of care partners in groups with people with dementia is clearly one that is complex without an obvious answer and dependent on a variety of factors to inform a solution, which can and should be questioned and revisited.

  15. Free q-Schrödinger equation from homogeneous spaces of the 2-dim Euclidean quantum group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonechi, F.; Ciccoli, N.; Giachetti, R.; Sorace, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1996-01-01

    After a preliminary review of the definition and the general properties of the homogeneous spaces of quantum groups, the quantum hyperboloid qH and the quantum plane qP are determined as homogeneous spaces of F q ( E(2)). The canonical action of E q (2) is used to define a natural q-analog of the free Schrödinger equation, that is studied in the momentum and angular momentum bases. In the first case the eigenfunctions are factorized in terms of products of two q-exponentials. In the second case we determine the eigenstates of the unitary representation, which, in the qP case, are given in terms of Hahn-Exton functions. Introducing the universal T-matrix for E q (2) we prove that the Hahn-Exton as well as Jackson q-Bessel functions are also obtained as matrix elements of T, thus giving the correct extension to quantum groups of well known methods in harmonic analysis.

  16. On Eigen's Quasispecies Model, Two-Valued Fitness Landscapes, and Isometry Groups Acting on Finite Metric Spaces.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Yuri S; Novozhilov, Artem S

    2016-05-01

    A two-valued fitness landscape is introduced for the classical Eigen's quasispecies model. This fitness landscape can be considered as a direct generalization of the so-called single- or sharply peaked landscape. A general, non-permutation invariant quasispecies model is studied, and therefore the dimension of the problem is [Formula: see text], where N is the sequence length. It is shown that if the fitness function is equal to [Formula: see text] on a G-orbit A and is equal to w elsewhere, then the mean population fitness can be found as the largest root of an algebraic equation of degree at most [Formula: see text]. Here G is an arbitrary isometry group acting on the metric space of sequences of zeroes and ones of the length N with the Hamming distance. An explicit form of this exact algebraic equation is given in terms of the spherical growth function of the G-orbit A. Motivated by the analysis of the two-valued fitness landscapes, an abstract generalization of Eigen's model is introduced such that the sequences are identified with the points of a finite metric space X together with a group of isometries acting transitively on X. In particular, a simplicial analog of the original quasispecies model is discussed, which can be considered as a mathematical model of the switching of the antigenic variants for some bacteria.

  17. Incorporating Space Science Content Into the Undergraduate Curriculum by the NASA Education Forums' Higher Education Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Fraknoi, A.; Moldwin, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA Education Forums, the Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) strives to support undergraduate science education through a variety of activities. These activities include: providing resource that incorporate space science topics into the existing undergraduate curriculum, understanding the role that community colleges play in STEM education and preparing STEM teachers, and identifying issues in diversity related to STEM education. To assess the best way of including space science into the undergraduate curriculum, the HEWG held a series of workshops and conducted surveys of undergraduate faculty who are conducting research in space science. During this engagement, the faculty expressed a need for a centralized repository of materials that can be used as part of already existing undergraduate courses in astronomy, physics, and earth science. Such a repository has since been developed, the 'EarthSpace Higher Education Clearing House (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) and it is still growing. Additional community tools, such as a newsletter, are provided through this website. To better understand the role and needs of community colleges, the HEWG undertook and extensive survey of community college STEM faculty. 187 faculty responded to the survey and the results show the extensive teaching load these faculty have, as well as the diverse demographics and the extent to which STEM teachers begin their preparation at 2 year institutions. Finally, the HEWG has begun to work on understanding the issues faced in increasing the diversity of the STEM work force. Progress and results of all this work will be summarized in this presentation.

  18. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  19. Casing centralization calculation in horizontal wells using PC's

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Wu, J. )

    1991-09-01

    In this paper the three-moments-equation method is used to calculate casing deflection and centralizer spacing in horizontal wells. This method, when used with a PC, makes it possible to study in detail the deflection of a casing string as a continuous beam in a horizontal wellbore. In particular, this approach makes it possible to study the near-end effect of the casing shoe on the deflection of the other spans in the casing string. Casing deflection in the transition zone where the centralizer spacing changes from one value to another and the casing deflection for an overhang at the casing shoe can also be studied. Examples are presented.

  20. Estimated proinsulin processing activity of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 rather than PC2 is decreased in pancreatic β-cells of type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachihiko; Katsuta, Hidenori; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Nishida, Susumu; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients exhibit fasting relative hyperproinsulinemia owing to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. To clarify the mechanism underlying this hyperproinsulinemic state, we evaluated the activities of the endopeptidases prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2 in T2D patients. Fasting blood levels of intact proinsulin (IPI), total proinsulin (t-PI) and C-peptide were measured simultaneously, and intravenous glucagon loading was performed to investigate the dynamics of circulating proinsulin-related molecules released from pancreatic β-cells in 12 healthy volunteers and 18 T2D patients. Taking advantage of the 95% cross-reactivity between proinsulin and des-31,32-proinsulin (des-31,32-PI) with the human proinsulin radioimmunoassay kit used in this study, we estimated PC1/3 and PC2 activities using the following formulas: des-31,32-PI = (t-PI-IPI)/0.95; PC1/3 activity = des-31,32-PI/IPI; and PC2 activity = C-peptide/des-31,32-PI. C-peptide responses to glucagon were slightly lower among T2D patients. IPI and the IPI/C-peptide ratio were significantly higher in T2D patients (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). There was no difference in des-31,32-PI levels or PC2 activity between the two groups. However, PC1/3 activity was significantly lower in T2D patients than in the control group (p<0.01). We propose that decreased activity of PC1/3 rather than PC2 in pancreatic β-cells is involved in the impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in elevated IPI levels in T2D patients.

  1. PC-based fault finder

    SciTech Connect

    Bengiamin, N.N. ); Jensen, C.A. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Otter Tail Power Co., Fergus Falls, MN . System Protection Group); McMahon, H. )

    1993-07-01

    Electric utilities are continually pressed to stay competitive while meeting the increasing demand of today's sophisticated customer. Advances in electron equipment and the improved array of electric driven devices are setting new standards for improved reliability and quality of service. Besides the specifications on voltage and frequency regulation and the permitted harmonic content, to name a few, the number and duration of service interruptions have a dramatic direct effect on the customer. Accurate fault locating reduces transmission line patrolling and is of particular significance in repairing long lines in rough terrain. Shortened outage times, reduced equipment degrading and stress on the system, fast restored service, and improved revenue are immediate outcomes of fast fault locating which insure minimum loss of system security. This article focuses on a PC-based (DOS) computer program that has unique features for identifying the type of fault and its location on overhead transmission/distribution lines. Balanced and unbalanced faults are identified and located accurately while accounting for changes in conductor sizes and network configuration. The presented concepts and methodologies have been spurred by Otter Tail Power's need for an accurate fault locating scheme to accommodate multiple feeders with mixed lone configurations. A case study based on a section of the Otter Tail network is presented to illustrate the features and capabilities of the developed software.

  2. Calculating field emission current in nanodiodes—A multi-group formalism with space charge and exchange-correlation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2014-03-21

    Inclusion of electron-electron interaction is essential in nano-diodes to understand the underlying physical phenomenon and tailor devices accordingly. However, both space charge and exchange-correlation interaction involve electrons at different energies and hence a self-consistent multi-energy-group solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson system is required. It is shown here that the existence of a limiting density-dependent potential at low applied voltages allows calculation of the field emission current. Despite additional interactions, a Fowler-Nordheim behaviour is observed. It is also found that the exchange-correlation potential dominates at these voltages in nanogaps and possibly leads to a higher turn-on voltage.

  3. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space.

    PubMed

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-08-31

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam.

  4. Cooperation between SMYD3 and PC4 drives a distinct transcriptional program in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyunghwan; Schmidt, Thomas; Punj, Vasu; Tucker, Haley; Rice, Judd C.; Ulmer, Tobias S.; An, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription. PMID:26350217

  5. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  6. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Whitley, Ryan; Klem, Mark D.; Johnson, Wesley; Alexander, Leslie; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Manfletti, Chiara; Caruana, Jean-Noel; Ueno, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion. LOx/Methane propulsion systems are enabling for future human missions Mars by significantly reducing the landed mass of the Mars ascent stage through the use of in-situ propellant production, for improving common fluids for life support, power and propulion thus allowing for diverse redundancy, for eliminating the corrosive and toxic propellants thereby improving surface operations and resusabilty, and for inceasing the performance of propulsion systems. The goals and objectives of the international team are to determine the gaps in technology that must be closed for LOx/Methane to be used in human exploration missions in cis-lunar, lunar, and Mars mission applications. An emphasis is placed on near term lunar lander applications with extensibility to Mars. Each agency provided a status of the substantial amount of Lox/Methane propulsion system development to date and their inputs on the gaps in the technology that are remaining. The gaps, which are now opportunities for collaboration, are then discussed.

  7. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is pictured with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC I) during the third of the five STS-61 space walks. Astronauts Hoffman and F. Story Musgrave, seen near the stowage area for the WF/PC, had earlier installed the new camera (note white rectangle) on lower portion of telescope.

  8. LiB12PC, the first boron-rich metal boride with phosphorus--synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Vojteer, Natascha; Sagawe, Vanessa; Stauffer, Julia; Schroeder, Melanie; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2011-03-07

    We present synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, and IR/Raman and UV/Vis spectra of a new compound with the mean composition LiB(12)PC. Transparent single crystals were synthesised from Ga, Li, B, red phosphorus and C at 1500 °C in boron nitride crucibles welded in Ta ampoules. Depending on the type of boron used for the synthesis we obtained colourless, brown and red single crystals with slightly different P/C ratios. Colourless LiB(12)PC crystallizes orthorhombic in the space group Imma (No. 74) with a=10.188(2) Å, b=5.7689(11) Å, c=8.127(2) Å and Z=4. Brown LiB(12)P(0.89)C(1.11) is very similar, but with a lower P content. Red single crystals of LiB(12)P(1.13)C(0.87) have a larger unit cell with a=10.4097(18) Å, b=5.9029(7) Å, c=8.2044(12) Å. EDX measurements confirm that the red crystals contain more phosphorus than the other ones. The crystal structure is characterized by a covalent network of B(12) icosahedra connected by exohedral B-B bonds and P-P, P-C or C-C units. Li atoms are located in interstitials. The structure is closely related to MgB(7), LiB(13)C(2) and ScB(13)C. LiB(12)PC fulfils the electron counting rules of Wade and also Longuet-Higgins. Measurements of Vickers micro-hardness (H(V)=27 GPa) revealed that LiB(12)PC is a hard material. The optical band gaps obtained from UV/Vis spectra match the colours of the crystals. Furthermore we report on the IR and Raman spectra.

  9. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  10. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications.

  11. Effects of group-size-floor space allowance during the nursery phase of production on growth, physiology, and hematology in replacement gilts.

    PubMed

    Callahan, S R; Cross, A J; DeDecker, A E; Lindemann, M D; Estienne, M J

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine effects of nursery group-size-floor space allowance on growth, physiology, and hematology of replacement gilts. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used wherein gilts classified as large, medium, or small ( = 2537; BW = 5.6 ± 0.6 kg) from 13 groups of weaned pigs were placed in pens of 14, 11, or 8 pigs resulting in floor space allowances of 0.15, 0.19, or 0.27 m/pig, respectively. Pigs were weighed on d 0 (weaning) and d 46 (exit from nursery). The ADG was affected by group-size-floor space allowance × pig size ( = 0.04). Large- and medium-size gilts allowed the most floor space had greater ( < 0.05) ADG than similar size gilts allowed the least floor space but for small size gilts there was no effect ( > 0.05) of group size-floor space allowance. Mortality in the nursery was not affected ( > 0.05) by treatment, size, or treatment × size and overall was approximately 2.1%. Complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses were performed on samples collected at d 6 and 43 from a subsample of gilts ( = 18/group-size-floor space allowance) within a single group. The concentration ( < 0.01) and percentage ( = 0.03) of reticulocytes was the least and red blood cell distribution width the greatest ( < 0.01) in gilts allowed 0.15 m floor space (effects of treatment). Blood calcium was affected by treatment ( = 0.02) and concentrations for gilts allowed the greatest and intermediate amounts of floor space were greater ( < 0.05) than for gilts allowed the least floor space. Serum concentrations of cortisol were not affected by treatment × day ( = 0.27). Cortisol concentrations increased from d 6 to d 43 in all groups and were affected by day ( < 0.01) but not treatment ( = 0.53). Greater space allowance achieved by placing fewer pigs per pen in the nursery affected blood parameters and resulted in large- and medium-size replacement gilts displaying increased ADG. Further study will determine if these effects influence

  12. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  13. Space-group and origin ambiguity in macromolecular structures with pseudo-symmetry and its treatment with the program Zanuda.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Andrey A; Isupov, Michail N

    2014-09-01

    The presence of pseudo-symmetry in a macromolecular crystal and its interplay with twinning may lead to an incorrect space-group (SG) assignment. Moreover, if the pseudo-symmetry is very close to an exact crystallographic symmetry, the structure can be solved and partially refined in the wrong SG. Typically, in such incorrectly determined structures all or some of the pseudo-symmetry operations are, in effect, taken for crystallographic symmetry operations and vice versa. A mistake only becomes apparent when the R(free) ceases to decrease below 0.39 and further model rebuilding and refinement cannot improve the refinement statistics. If pseudo-symmetry includes pseudo-translation, the uncertainty in SG assignment may be associated with an incorrect choice of origin, as demonstrated by the series of examples provided here. The program Zanuda presented in this article was developed for the automation of SG validation. Zanuda runs a series of refinements in SGs compatible with the observed unit-cell parameters and chooses the model with the highest symmetry SG from a subset of models that have the best refinement statistics.

  14. "I am a waste of breath, of space, of time": metaphors of self in a pro-anorexia group.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carolina Figueras

    2015-02-01

    According to recent research on eating disorders, heavy users of pro-anorexia (pro-ana) sites show higher levels of disordered eating and more severe impairment of quality of life than non-heavy users. A better understanding of how pro-ana members self-present in the virtual world could shed some light on these offline behaviors. Through discourse analysis, I examined the metaphors the members of a pro-ana group invoked in their personal profiles on a popular social networking site, to talk about the self. I applied the Metaphor Identification Procedure to 757 text profiles. I identified four key metaphorical constructions in pro-ana members' self-descriptions: self as space, self as weight, perfecting the self, and the social self. These four main metaphors represented discourse strategies, both to create a collective pro-ana identity and to enact an individual identity as pro-ana. In this article, I discuss the implications of these findings for the treatment of eating disorders.

  15. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/PC runs on IBM PCs under PC-DOS or MS-DOS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  16. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes

    PubMed Central

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors—and how this cross talk influences physiological processes—is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein–mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein–mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  17. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro; Lanzuolo, Chiara

    2015-11-09

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors--and how this cross talk influences physiological processes--is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein-mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors.

  18. A proposed medium-term strategy for optical interferometry in space. Report to the ESA astronomy working group by the ESA Space Interferometry Study Team (SIST).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, J. E.; Bely, P. Y.; Faucherre, M.; Greenaway, A. H.; Merkle, F.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Roussel, P. H.; Vakili, F.; Volonté, S.; Weigelt, G. P.

    1990-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the scientific arguments leading to the requirements for space interferometry, both in terms of its astronomical objectives, and in view of the possibilities attainable from the ground. It is shown that, at optical wavelengths, space missions will be driven by the requirement to achieve diffraction limited images beyond the magnitude limits achievable from the ground. At ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, similar considerations naturally apply but, in addition, other fundamental physical atmospheric properties enhance further the justification to go to space. It is shown that several issues, albeit important to the efficiency and applicability of both ground and space-based interferometry, are not critical to the scientific case and technological issues facing space interferometry. Amongst these topics are discussions of image reconstruction techniques (speckle, phase closure, etc.), and aperture distribution (redundant, non-redundant). Image restoration techniques and other technical issues have made rapid advances in the context of radio aperture synthesis and VLBI techniques, and, in this field, optical interferometry will be well placed to exploit these advances. There has also been considerable progress in methods, theory and results of speckle imaging from the ground.

  19. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  20. D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2005-01-01

    "To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

  1. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  2. Application of Polar Cap (PC) indices in analyses and forecasts of geophysical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices could be considered to represent the input of power from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere. The indices have been used to analyse interplanetary electric fields, effects of solar wind pressure pulses, cross polar cap voltages and polar cap diameter, ionospheric Joule heating, and other issues of polar cap dynamics. The PC indices have also been used to predict auroral electrojet intensities and global auroral power as well as ring current intensities. For specific space weather purposes the PC indices could be used to forecast substorm development and predict associated power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The presentation shall outline the general background for applying the PC indices in analyses or forecasts of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and provide illustrative examples of the use of the Polar Cap indices in specific cases

  3. Separating the impact of group size, density, and enclosure size on broiler movement and space use at a decreasing perimeter to area ratio.

    PubMed

    Leone, Erin Hoerl; Christman, Mary C; Douglass, Larry; Estevez, Inma

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of enclosure size on space use and movement patterns of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), independent of group size and density. Research designed to estimate the effects of group size, density, or enclosure size involves inherent confounding between factors, clouding their individual effects. This experimental design enabled us to conduct multiple contrasts in order to tease apart the specific impacts. Treatments consisted of five combinations of three square enclosures: small (S; 1.5m(2)), medium (M; 3.0m(2)), and large (L; 4.5m(2)), and three group sizes of 10, 20, and 30 birds. We made comparisons while holding group size constant, holding density constant, and the third while maintaining a constant enclosure size. Nearest neighbor distances increased with enclosure size but appeared to be constrained by density. Net displacement and minimum convex polygons increased with enclosure size regardless of group size or density. We found no evidence of social restriction on space use. Results indicate that broilers adapted their use of space and movement patterns to the size of the enclosures, spreading out and utilizing a greater amount of space when it was available.

  4. Ternary phase diagram of dipalmitoyl-PC/dilauroyl-PC/cholesterol: nanoscopic domain formation driven by cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Feigenson, G W; Buboltz, J T

    2001-01-01

    A ternary phase diagram is proposed for the hydrated lamellar lipid mixture dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (DPPC/DLPC/cholesterol) at room temperature. The entire composition space has been thoroughly mapped by complementary experimental techniques, revealing interesting phase behavior that has not been previously described. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows a regime of coexisting DPPC-rich ordered and DLPC-rich fluid lamellar phases, having an upper boundary at apparently constant cholesterol mole fraction chi(chol) approximately 0.16. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirm the identification and extent of this two-phase regime and, furthermore, reveal a 1-phase regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25, consisting of ordered and fluid nanoscopic domains. Dipyrene-PC excimer/monomer measurements confirm the new regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25 and also show that rigidly ordered phases seem to disappear around chi(chol) approximately 0.25. This study should be considered as a step toward a more complete understanding of lateral heterogeneity within biomembranes. Cholesterol may play a role in domain separation on the nanometer scale. PMID:11371452

  5. Broad spectral sensitivity and improved efficiency in CuPc/Sub-Pc organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hemant; Kumar, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Ramil; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Jain, S. C.; Kumar, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic devices incorporating two donors, namely, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and boron sub-phthalocyanine chloride (Sub-Pc) in association with single acceptor fullerene (C60) with sensitivity extending across the visible solar spectrum. It has been found that the absorption in different spectral regions in CuPc and Sub-Pc results in efficient harvesting of incident light photons which leads to enhanced power conversion efficiency (η). An enhancement in η from 0.64%, in the device architecture indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/CuPc(20 nm)/C60(40 nm)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen) (8 nm)/Al(150 nm), to ~1.3% in the optimized device having a 2 nm layer of Sub-Pc in the geometry ITO/CuPc(18 nm)/Sub-Pc(2 nm)/C60 (40 nm)/BPhen (8 nm)/Al(150 nm) has been observed. This enhancement in η is dominantly attributed to the increment in short circuit current density (Jsc) due to efficient photon harvesting by incorporation of dual donors.

  6. CtBP Levels Control Intergenic Transcripts, PHO/YY1 DNA Binding, and PcG Recruitment to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arindam; Atchison, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a well-known corepressor of several DNA binding transcription factors in Drosophila as well as in mammals. CtBP is implicated in Polycomb Group (PcG) complex-mediated transcriptional repression because it can bind to some PcG proteins, and mutation of the ctbp gene in flies results in lost PcG protein recruitment to Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and lost PcG repression. However, the mechanism of reduced PcG DNA binding in CtBP mutant backgrounds is unknown. We show here that in a Drosophila CtBP mutant background, intergenic transcripts are induced across several PRE sequences and this corresponds to reduced DNA binding by PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and Polycomb (Pc), and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27, a hallmark of PcG repression. Restoration of CtBP levels by expression of a CtBP transgene results in repression of intergenic transcripts, restored PcG binding, and elevated trimethylation of H3 on lysine 27. Our results support a model in which CtBP regulates expression of intergenic transcripts that controls DNA binding by PcG proteins and subsequent histone modifications and transcriptional activity. PMID:20082324

  7. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE...

  9. "Con Café, Compañerismo, y Calidad": Latina Women Fashioning a Writing Group into a Space of Praxis and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Janise

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the spatial practices through which a group of Mexican immigrant women, participants in a school-based writing workshop I facilitated for four years, molded and gave meaning to our weekly writing routine to foster inclusivity as the basis for collective teaching and learning--creating what I refer to as a space of praxis and…

  10. Photograph by KSC Kennedy Space Center Firing room during launch of Space Shuttle Discovery Hubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Photograph by KSC Kennedy Space Center Firing room during launch of Space Shuttle Discovery Hubble Space Telescope deployment Mission STS-31 (The Shuttle can be seen through window) (ref: KSC-90PC-626)

  11. PC-based PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) telemetry data reduction system hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1990-02-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM data acquisition system to facilitate quick PCM data analysis in the field. The SERI PC-PCM system consists of AT-compatible hardware boards for decoding and combining PCM data streams and DOS software for control and management of data acquisition. Up to four boards can be installed in a single PC, providing the capability to combine data from four PCM streams direct to disk or memory. This paper describes the SERI PC-PCM system hardware, focusing on the practicality of PC-based PCM data reduction. A related paper highlights our comprehensive PCM data management software program which can be used in conjunction with this hardware to provide full quick-look'' data processing and display. The PC-PCM hardware boards support a subset of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) PCM standard, designed to synchronize and decommutate NRZ or Bi-Phase L PCM streams in the range of 1 to 800 Kbits/sec at 8 to 12 bits per word and 2 to 64 words per frame. Multiple PCM streams (at various rates) can be combined and interleaved into a contiguous digital time series. Maximum data throughput depends on characteristics of the PC hardware, such as CPU rate and disk access speed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. A normalized family of representations of the group of motions of a Euclidean space and the inverse problem of the representation theory of this group

    SciTech Connect

    Ismagilov, R S; Sultanov, Sh Sh

    2004-12-31

    There exists a well-known holomorphic family T{sup {lambda}} of representations of the isometry group of R such that T{sup -{lambda}}{approx}T{sup {lambda}} for {lambda}{ne}0. This paper presents a holomorphic family V{sub R}{sup {lambda}}, |{lambda}|

  13. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  14. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  15. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus…

  16. Multitasking Operating Systems for the IBM PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1985-01-01

    The ability of a microcomputer to execute several programs at the same time is called "multitasking." The nature and use of one multitasking operating system Concurrent PC-DOS from Digital Research (the developers of the CP/M operating system) are discussed. (JN)

  17. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment.

  18. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

  19. Experience in setting up a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we summary and present our thinking and experience in setting up a PC cluster, with a consideration that the described thinking and experience may be relevant to or useful for those who intend to buy a similar cluster in the near future.

  20. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  1. Bifurcation Diagrams and Quotient Topological Spaces Under the Action of the Affine Group of a Family of Planar Quadratic Vector Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerba Diaconescu, Oxana; Schlomiuk, Dana; Vulpe, Nicolae

    In this article, we consider the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, ∞ } of all real quadratic differential systems (dx)/(dt) = p(x, y), (dy)/(dt) = q(x, y) with gcd(p, q) = 1, having invariant lines of total multiplicity four and two complex and one real infinite singularities. We first construct compactified canonical forms for the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, ∞ } so as to include limit points in the 12-dimensional parameter space of this class. We next construct the bifurcation diagrams for these compactified canonical forms. These diagrams contain many repetitions of phase portraits and we show that these are due to many symmetries under the group action. To retain the essence of the dynamics we finally construct the quotient spaces under the action of the group G = Aff(2, ℝ) × ℝ* of affine transformations and time homotheties and we place the phase portraits in these quotient spaces. The final diagrams retain only the necessary information to capture the dynamics under the motion in the parameter space as well as under this group action. We also present here necessary and sufficient conditions for an affine line to be invariant of multiplicity k for a quadratic system.

  2. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Cal: Non-Sv PC Flats 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to obtain the "instrument signature" for flat field corrections. This proposal contains observations for all PC filters used by GOs and GTOs during Cycle 1 which were not included in the SV program. The camera - filter combinations done in this proposal are: PC: F368M,F588N,F631N,F648M,F875M,F1042M These are the PC flats which are not expected to saturate on the bright earth.

  3. 107 Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group Meeting (RCC-MG): NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Mission Systems Office (ZP).

  4. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

  5. Group-theoretical approach to the construction of bases in 2{sup n}-dimensional Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Romero, J. L.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-06-15

    We propose a systematic procedure to construct all the possible bases with definite factorization structure in 2{sup n}-dimensional Hilbert space and discuss an algorithm for the determination of basis separability. The results are applied for classification of bases for an n-qubit system.

  6. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  7. A "safe space" for learning and reflection: one school's design for continuity with a peer group across clinical clerkships.

    PubMed

    Chou, Calvin L; Johnston, C Bree; Singh, Bobby; Garber, Jonathan D; Kaplan, Elizabeth; Lee, Kewchang; Teherani, Arianne

    2011-12-01

    The value of continuity in medical education, particularly during clerkships, is increasingly recognized. Previous clerkship-based models have described changes that emphasize continuity in patient care, learner supervision, and curriculum. The creation of continuous student peer groups can foster interactions that enhance mutual support through uncomfortable professional transitions during the clerkship years. Here, the authors describe a third-year clerkship model based at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center called VA Longitudinal Rotations (VALOR), designed explicitly to establish a supportive learning environment for small peer groups.Seven groups of medical students (42 total) completed VALOR across three academic years between 2007 and 2009. On clerkships during VALOR, one hour per week was designated for faculty-facilitated sessions amongst peer groups. Students' perceptions of peer group support and overall program satisfaction were determined with immediate post surveys and focus groups at the end of VALOR, and with follow-up surveys 5 to 27 months after completing VALOR. Students strongly valued several elements of VALOR peer groups, including support through clerkship challenges, meeting for facilitated reflection, and appreciating patient experiences across the continuum of care. Students' appreciation for their peer group experiences persisted well after the conclusion of VALOR. VALOR students performed the same as or better than traditional clerkship students on knowledge and skill-based outcomes. The authors demonstrate that their third-year clerkship program using peer groups has built supportive learning networks and facilitated reflection, allowing students to develop critical professional skills. Student communication around patient care was also feasible and highly valued.

  8. 2-aminohydroxamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine preferred phospholipase C PC-PLC(Bc).

    PubMed

    González-Bulnes, Patricia; González-Roura, Albert; Canals, Daniel; Delgado, Antonio; Casas, Josefina; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2010-12-15

    Phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is an important enzyme that plays a key role in a variety of cellular events and lipid homoeostases. Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PC-PLC(Bc)) has antigenic similarity with the elusive mammalian PC-PLC, which has not thus far been isolated and purified. Therefore the discovery of inhibitors of PC-PLC(Bc) is of current interest. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new type of compounds inhibiting PC-PLC(Bc). These compounds have been designed by evolution of previously described 2-aminohydroxamic acid PC-PLC(Bc) inhibitors that block the enzyme by coordination of the zinc active site atoms present in PC-PLC(Bc) [Gonzalez-Roura, A.; Navarro, I.; Delgado, A.; Llebaria, A.; Casas, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2004, 43, 862]. The new compounds maintain the zinc coordinating groups and possess an extra trimethylammonium function, linked to the hydroxyamide nitrogen by an alkyl chain, which is expected to mimic the trimethylammonium group of the phosphatidylcholine PC-PLC(Bc) substrates. Some of the compounds described inhibit the enzyme with IC(50)'s in the low micromolar range. Unexpectedly, the most potent inhibitors found are those that possess a trimethylammonium group but have chemically blocked the zinc coordinating functionalities. The results obtained suggest that PC-PLC(Bc) inhibition is not due to the interaction of compounds with the phospholipase catalytic zinc atoms, but rather results from the inhibitor cationic group recognition by the PC-PLC(Bc) amino acids involved in choline lipid binding.

  9. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are targeted to dense core secretory granules by a common mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Seidah, Nabil G; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-08-01

    There are seven members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family of secreted serine proteases that cleave their substrates at basic amino acids, thereby activating a variety of hormones, growth factors, and viruses. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are the only members of the PC family that are targeted to dense core secretory granules, where they carry out the processing of proteins that are secreted from the cell in a regulated manner. Previous studies have identified alpha-helices in the C-termini of the PC1/3 and PC2 proteases that are required for this subcellular targeting. In the current study, we demonstrate that a predicted alpha-helix in the C-terminus of PC5/6A is also critical for the ability of this domain to target a heterologous protein to the regulated secretory pathway of mouse endocrine AtT-20 cells. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal domains of PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A confirmed that all three domains have the capacity to redirect a constitutively secreted protein to the granule-containing cytoplasmic extensions. Analysis of the predicted structures formed by these three granule-sorting helices shows a correlation between their granule-sorting efficiency and the clustering of hydrophobic amino acids in their granule-targeting helices.

  10. PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

    1992-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

  11. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working Group Summary. 5: Propulsion (P-1). A. Summary Statement. B. Technology Needs (Form 1). C. Priority Assessments (Form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    All themes require some form of advanced propulsion capabilities to achieve their stated objectives. Requirements cover a broad spectrum ranging from a new generation of heavy lift launch vehicles to low thrust, long lift system for on-orbit operations. The commonality extant between propulsive technologies was established and group technologies were grouped into vehicle classes by functional capability. The five classes of launch vehicles identified by the space transportation theme were augmented with a sixth class, encompassing planetary and on-orbit operations. Propulsion technologies in each class were then ranked, and assigned priority numbers. Prioritized technologies were matched to theme requirements.

  12. PC12 differentiation on biopolymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, Marco; Bumma, Giorgia; Serresi, Michela; Beltram, Fabio

    2007-12-01

    The study of nervous system regeneration and axonal outgrowth control are relevant in several research areas, like neurophysiology or biomedical engineering. Among the elements that control neuron dynamics, the host substrate topography is a key parameter in determining cell differentiation. We present time-lapse experiments to analyze the differentiation dynamics of PC12 cells on nanopatterned biocompatible substrates. 200 nm depth gratings were fabricated on tissue-culture polystyrene substrates by nanoimprint lithography; different linewidths and pitches were compared down to 500 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. PC12 cells were cultured on these substrates and, following NGF administration to the medium, body morphology, cell movement and neuritogenesis were monitored at different time periods. In addition to demonstrating guided differentiation, our studies show complex time variations in body morphology and axon length, and guided cell movement. We show unstable synaptic connections and cell-body polarization, and the competition between topographical guidance and cell-cell interactions.

  13. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  14. Controlled crystal dehydration triggers a space-group switch and shapes the tertiary structure of cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein.

    PubMed

    Klingl, Stefan; Scherer, Myriam; Stamminger, Thomas; Muller, Yves A

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein is a key viral effector protein that reprograms host cells. Controlled dehydration experiments with IE1 crystals not only extended their diffraction limit from 2.85 to 2.3 Å resolution but also triggered a monoclinic to tetragonal space-group transition with only minor alterations in the unit-cell parameters. An analysis of the pre-dehydration and post-dehydration crystal structures shows how dehydration rearranges the packing of IE1 molecules to meet the unit-cell constraints of the higher lattice symmetry. The transition from P21 to P43 reduces the number of copies in the asymmetric unit from four to two, and molecules previously related by noncrystallographic symmetry merge into identical crystallographic copies in the tetragonal space group. At the same time, dehydration considerably alters the tertiary structure of one of the two remaining IE1 chains in the asymmetric unit. It appears that this conformational switch is required to compensate for a transition that is assumed to be unfavourable, namely from a highly preferred to a rarely observed space group. At the same time, the dehydration-triggered molecular reshaping could reveal an inherent molecular flexibility that possibly informs on the biological function of IE1, namely on its binding to target proteins from the host cell.

  15. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  16. Spent fuel pin temperature PC code

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.

    1985-03-01

    During an annual outage, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) may discharge 60 or more spent fuel bundles into its storage pool. Most early PWRs were built to store 3 to 5 years of spent fuel in their pools and are beginning to exceed their capacities. One method currently being developed and licensed for expanding spent fuel storage capabilities is the dry storage of spent fuel in large casks. To reduce the probability of gross failures of fuel cladding during dry storage in casks, the fuel pin temperatures must be shown to remain within acceptable limits. LLNL has developed, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a personal computer (PC) code for calculating fuel pin temperatures on the IBM PC. The code uses the Wooton-Epstein Correlation to calculate the pin temperatures and has been benchmarked against test data. An iterative type of solution is used to calculate the fuel pin temperatures for specified heat fluxes and pin configurations. The PC code is useful in performing confirmatory analyses and comparing the results with those submitted by applicants applying for storage licenses. 5 references, 2 tables.

  17. Effects of oridonin nanosuspension on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiumei; Xue, Wei; Yangyang, Yuna; Xu, Derong; Zhao, Yunxue; Lou, Haiyan

    2010-10-05

    This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin nanosuspension on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line in vitro. The PC-3 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of oridonin solution and nanosuspensions for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to measure cellular viability and investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth of PC-3. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method was used to determine the effect of oridonin by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Nanosuspension on early apoptosis of PC-3 cells was also evaluated. Oridonin significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Compared with the same concentration of oridonin solution, oridonin nanosuspension enhanced the inhibition ratio of proliferation. The observation of propidium iodide fluorescence staining confirmed the MTT assay results. The cell proportion of PC-3 at the G2/M phase in the nanosuspension treatment group was upregulated compared with that of the control and oridonin solution groups. Both oridonin solution and nanosuspension promoted the early apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Furthermore, while improving the ratio of early apoptosis, oridonin nanosuspensions also enhanced growth suppression, and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. This shows great potential in the treatment of androgen-independent carcinoma of prostate by oridonin nanosuspensions.

  18. Detection of overall space-time clustering in a non-uniformly distributed population. DiMe Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ranta, J; Pitkäniemi, J; Karvonen, M; Virtala, E; Rusanen, J; Colpaert, A; Naukkarinen, A; Tuomilehto, J

    1996-12-15

    We developed a test statistic based on an approach of Whittemore et al. (1987) to detect space-time clustering for non-infectious diseases. We extended the spatial test of Whittemore et al. by deriving conditional probabilities for Poisson distributed random variables. To combine spatial and time distances we defined a distance matrix D, where dij is the distance between the ith and jth cell in a three-dimensional space-time grid. Spatial and temporal components are controlled by a weight. By altering the weight, both marginal tests and the intermediate test can be reached. Allowing a continuum from a pure spatial to a pure temporal test, the best result will be gained by trying different weights, because the occurrence of a disease might show some temporal and some spatial tendency to cluster. We examined the behaviour of the test statistic by simulating different distributions for cases and the population. The test was applied to the incidence data of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Finland. This test could be used in the analysis of data which are localized according to map co-ordinates, by addresses or postcodes. This information is important when using the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to compute the pairwise distances needed for the proposed test.

  19. Young Stars near Earth: The Octans-Near Association and Castor Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam

    2013-11-01

    All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages <=100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a "good box" with dimensions ~20 km s-1 on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age "20 Myr?" and located ~140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity -3.6 km s-1 that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call "Octans-Near"; these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages <=200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age <=100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ~200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

  20. Summary Report of the NASA Management Study Group: Recommendations to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Samuel C.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Management Study Group (NMSG) was established under the auspices of the National Acedamy of Public Administration at the request of the Administrator of NASA to assess NASA's management practices and to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA organization. This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the NMSG on the overall management and organization of NASA.

  1. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  2. Semi-Group Theory for the Stokes Operator with Navier-Type Boundary Conditions on L p -Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Baba, Hind; Amrouche, Chérif; Escobedo, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    In this article we consider the Stokes problem with Navier-type boundary conditions on a domain {Ω}, not necessarily simply connected. Since, under these conditions, the Stokes problem has a non trivial kernel, we also study the solutions lying in the orthogonal of that kernel. We prove the analyticity of several semigroups generated by the Stokes operator considered in different functional spaces. We obtain strong, weak and very weak solutions for the time dependent Stokes problem with the Navier-type boundary condition under different hypotheses on the initial data u 0 and external force f. Then, we study the fractional and pure imaginary powers of several operators related with our Stokes operators. Using the fractional powers, we prove maximal regularity results for the homogeneous Stokes problem. On the other hand, using the boundedness of the pure imaginary powers, we deduce maximal {Lp-Lq} regularity for the inhomogeneous Stokes problem.

  3. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  4. Trending in Pc Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Mixed Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matthew; Stamey, James

    2015-01-01

    Two satellites predicted to come within close proximity of one another, usually a high-value satellite and a piece of space debris moving the active satellite is a means of reducing collision risk but reduces satellite lifetime, perturbs satellite mission, and introduces its own risks. So important to get a good statement of the risk of collision in order to determine whether a maneuver is truly necessary. Two aspects of this Calculation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) based on the most recent set of position velocity and uncertainty data for both satellites. Examination of the changes in the Pc value as the event develops. Events should follow a canonical development (Pc vs time to closest approach (TCA)). Helpful to be able to guess where the present data point fits in the canonical development in order to guide operational response.

  5. Human/Nonhuman Primate AC-PC Ratio - Considerations for Translational Brain Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Salegio, Ernesto Aguilar; Yin, Dali; Richardson, R. Mark; Valles, Francisco E.; Larson, Paul S.; Starr, Philip A.; Lonser, Russell R.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis evaluated the ratio of AC-PC (anterior commissure to posterior commissure) distance measures in selected groups of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). An understanding of the basis of this ratio between primate species may allow more accurate translation of NHP stereotactic targeting measurements to upcoming human trials. MRI datasets of adult humans [n=21], and juvenile and adult NHPs (Macaca fascicularis [n=40], and Macaca mulatta [n=32]), were evaluated in a mid-sagittal plane to obtain the AC-PC distance measure for each examined subject. Two trained evaluators, blinded to each other’s results, carried out three separate measurements of the AC-PC length for each subject. Each observer carried out measurements of the entire dataset [n=93] before repeating the measurements two additional times. Previous dataset measures were not available for review at the time of subsequent measures. Inter- and intra-observer variabilities were not statistically significant. Minimal intraspecies variation was found in the AC-PC measurement of our human and NHP groups. We found significant interspecies differences, however, more between humans and NHPs, and less between the NHP groups. Regression analysis confirms the strong linear relationship of AC-PC distance based primarily on species in our study groups. Human/NHP AC-PC ratios varied between 2.1 to 2.3 based on the compared NHP species groups. We conclude that the scale differences in brain measurements between NHPs and humans described in this study allows improved translation of stereotactic targeting coordinates in future human clinical trials, which may lead to improved efficacy and safety. PMID:21185868

  6. Magnetic properties of copper hexadecaphthalocyanine (F16CuPc) thin films and powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Rochford, L. A.; Felton, S.; Wu, Zhenlin; Yang, J. L.; Heutz, S.; Aeppli, G.; Jones, T. S.; Harrison, N. M.; Fisher, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of F16CuPc thin films and powder, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and theoretical modelling of exchange interactions are reported. Analysis of XRD from films, with thickness ranging between 100 and 160 nm, deposited onto Kapton and a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) interlayer shows that the stacking angle (defined in the text) of the film is independent of the thickness, but that the texture is modified by both film thickness and substrate chemistry. The SQUID measurements suggest that all samples are paramagnetic, a result that is confirmed by our theoretical modelling including density functional theory calculations of one-dimensional molecular chains and Green's function perturbation theory calculations for a molecular dimer. By investigating theoretically a range of different geometries, we predict that the maximum possible exchange interaction between F16CuPc molecules is twice as large as that in unfluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc). This difference arises from the smaller intermolecular spacing in F16CuPc. Our density functional theory calculation for isolated F16CuPc molecule also shows that the energy levels of Kohn-Sham orbitals are rigidly shifted ˜1 eV lower in F16CuPc compared to CuPc without a significant modification of the intra-molecular spin physics, and that therefore the two molecules provide a suitable platform for independently varying magnetism and charge transport.

  7. Equivalent currents associated with morning-sector geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations during auroral substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Uspensky, M. V.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Van De Kamp, M. M. J. L.; Dubyagin, S. V.; Massetti, S.

    2016-04-01

    Space and time variations of equivalent currents during morning-sector Pc5 pulsations (T ˜ 2-8 min) on 2 days (18 January and 19 February 2008) are studied in the context of substorm activity with THEMIS and MIRACLE ground-based instruments and THEMIS P3, P5, and P2 probes. These instruments covered the 22:00-07:00 magnetic local time during the analyzed events. In these cases abrupt changes in the Pc5 amplitudes, intensifications and/or weakenings, were recorded some minutes after auroral breakups in the midnight sector. We analyze three examples of Pc5 changes with the goal to resolve whether substorm activity can have an effect on Pc5 amplitude or not. In two cases (on 19 February) the most likely explanation for Pc5 amplitude changes comes from the solar wind (changes in the sign of interplanetary magnetic field Bz). In the third case (on 18 January) equivalent current patterns in the morning sector show an antisunward-propagating vortex which replaced the Pc5-related smaller vortices and consequently the pulsations weakened. We associate the large vortex with a field-aligned current system due to a sudden, although small, drop in solar wind pressure (from 1 to 0.2 nPa). However, the potential impact of midnight substorm activity cannot be totally excluded in this case, because enhanced fluxes of electrons with high enough energies (˜ 280 keV) to reach the region of Pc5 within the observed delay were observed by THEMIS P2 at longitudes between the midnight and morning-sector instrumentation.

  8. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer...

  9. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  10. Auditing Consistency and Usefulness of LOINC Use among Three Large Institutions - Using Version Spaces for Grouping LOINC Codes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M.C.; Vreeman, D.J.; Huff, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We wanted to develop a method for evaluating the consistency and usefulness of LOINC code use across different institutions, and to evaluate the degree of interoperability that can be attained when using LOINC codes for laboratory data exchange. Our specific goals were to: 1) Determine if any contradictory knowledge exists in LOINC. 2) Determine how many LOINC codes were used in a truly interoperable fashion between systems. 3) Provide suggestions for improving the semantic interoperability of LOINC. Methods We collected Extensional Definitions (EDs) of LOINC usage from three institutions. The version space approach was used to divide LOINC codes into small sets, which made auditing of LOINC use across the institutions feasible. We then compared pairings of LOINC codes from the three institutions for consistency and usefulness. Results The number of LOINC codes evaluated were 1,917, 1,267 and 1,693 as obtained from ARUP, Intermountain and Regenstrief respectively. There were 2,022, 2,030, and 2,301 version spaces among ARUP & Intermountain, Intermountain & Regenstrief and ARUP & Regenstrief respectively. Using the EDs as the gold standard, there were 104, 109 and 112 pairs containing contradictory knowledge and there were 1,165, 765 and 1,121 semantically interoperable pairs. The interoperable pairs were classified into three levels: 1) Level I – No loss of meaning, complete information was exchanged by identical codes. 2) Level II – No loss of meaning, but processing of data was needed to make the data completely comparable. 3) Level III – Some loss of meaning. For example, tests with a specific ‘method’ could be rolled-up with tests that were ‘methodless’. Conclusions There are variations in the way LOINC is used for data exchange that result in some data not being truly interoperable across different enterprises. To improve its semantic interoperability, we need to detect and correct any contradictory knowledge within LOINC and add

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: Non-Sv PC Flats 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to obtain the "instrument signature" for flat field corrections. This proposal series contains observations for all PC filters used by GOs and GTOs during Cycle 1 which were not included in the SV program. The camera - filter combinations done in this proposal are: PC: F569W, F606W, F675W, F725LP, F791W, F814W, F850LP (these are done in combination with F122M) These are the PC flats which are expected to saturate on the bright earth without a neutral density filter. The following observations are also included to permit correction for the F122M filter: F517N+F122M, F517N, F664N+F122M, F664N, F718M+F122M, F718M, F875M+F122M, F875M

  12. Symmetry-Protected Line Nodes in Non-symmorphic Magnetic Space Groups: Applications to UCoGe and UPd2Al3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    We present the group-theoretical classification of gap functions in superconductors coexisting with some magnetic order in non-symmorphic magnetic space groups. On the basis of the weak-coupling BCS theory, we show that UCoGe-type ferromagnetic superconductors must have horizontal line nodes on either the kz = 0 or ±π/c plane. Moreover, it is likely that additional Weyl point nodes exist at the axial point. On the other hand, in UPd2Al3-type antiferromagnetic superconductors, gap functions with Ag symmetry possess horizontal line nodes in the antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone boundary perpendicular to the c-axis. In other words, the conventional fully gapped s-wave superconductivity is forbidden in this type of antiferromagnetic superconductor, regardless of the pairing mechanism, as long as the Fermi surface crosses a zone boundary. UCoGe and UPd2Al3 are candidate unconventional superconductors possessing hidden symmetry-protected line nodes, peculiar to non-symmorphic magnetic space groups.

  13. Fluence rate-dependent photobleaching of intratumorally administered Pc 4 does not predict tumor growth delay.

    PubMed

    Baran, Timothy M; Foster, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    We examined effects of fluence rate on the photobleaching of the photosensitizer Pc 4 during photodynamic therapy (PDT) and the relationship between photobleaching and tumor response to PDT. BALB/c mice with intradermal EMT6 tumors were given 0.03 mg kg(-1) Pc 4 by intratumor injection and irradiated at 667 nm with an irradiance of 50 or 150 mW cm(-2) to a fluence of 100 J cm(-2). While no cures were attained, significant tumor growth delay was demonstrated at both irradiances compared with drug-only controls. There was no significant difference in tumor responses to these two irradiances (P = 0.857). Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor the bleaching of Pc 4 during irradiation, with more rapid bleaching with respect to fluence shown at the higher irradiance. No significant correlation was found between fluorescence photobleaching and tumor regrowth for the data interpreted as a whole. Within each treatment group, weak associations between photobleaching and outcome were observed. In the 50 mW cm(-2) group, enhanced photobleaching was associated with prolonged growth delay (P = 0.188), while at 150 mW cm(-2) this trend was reversed (P = 0.308). Thus, it appears that Pc 4 photobleaching is not a strong predictor of individual tumor response to Pc 4-PDT under these treatment conditions.

  14. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  15. Human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-ligand complexes: crystals of different space groups with various cations and combined seeding and co-crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.-W.; Han, Q.; Qiu, W.; Campbell, R. L.; Xie, B.-X.; Azzi, A.; Lin, S.-X.

    1999-01-01

    Human estrogenic 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD1) is responsible for the synthesis of active estrogens that stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The enzyme has been crystallized using a Mg 2+/PEG (3500)/β-octyl glucoside system [Zhu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 234 (1993) 242]. The space group of these crystals is C2. Here we report that cations can affect 17β-HSD1 crystallization significantly. In the presence of Mn 2+ instead of Mg 2+, crystals have been obtained in the same space group with similar unit cell dimensions. In the presence of Li + and Na + instead of Mg 2+, the space group has been changed to P2 12 12 1. A whole data set for a crystal of 17ß-HSD1 complex with progesterone grown in the presence of Li + has been collected to 1.95 Å resolution with a synchrotron source. The cell dimensions are a=41.91 Å, b=108.21 Å, c=117.00 Å. The structure has been preliminarily determined by molecular replacement, yielding important information on crystal packing in the presence of different cations. In order to further understand the structure-function relationship of 17β-HSD1, enzyme complexes with several ligands have been crystallized. As the steroids have very low aqueous solubility, we used a combined method of seeding and co-crystallization to obtain crystals of 17β-HSD1 complexed with various ligands. This method provides ideal conditions for growing complex crystals, with ligands such as 20α-hydroxysteroid progesterone, testosterone and 17β-methyl-estradiol-NADP +. Several complex structures have been determined with reliable electronic density of the bound ligands.

  16. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  17. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  18. Observation of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton groups from space using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy on SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Astrid; Dinter, Tilman; Burrows, John P.; Vountas, Marco; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Peeken, Ilka

    In order to understand the marine phytoplankton's role in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles it is necessary to derive global information on the distribution of major functional phytoplankton types (PFT) in the world oceans. In our study we use instead of the common ocean color sensors such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, with rather low spectral resolution, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to study the retrieval of phytoplankton distribution and absorption with the satellite sensor Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). SCIAMACHY measures back scattered solar radiation in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral region with a high spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm). We used in-situ measured phytoplankton absorption spectra from two different RV Polarstern expeditions where different phytoplankton groups were representing or dominating the phytoplankton composition in order to identify these characteristic absorption spectra in SCIAMACHY data in the range of 430 to 500 nm and also to identify absorption from cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment phycoerythrin. Our results show clearly these absorptions in the SCIAMACHY data. The conversion of these differential absorptions by including the information of the light penetration depth (according to Vountas et al., Ocean Science, 2007) globally distributed pigment concentrations for these characteristic phytoplankton groups for two monthly periods (Feb-March 2004, Oct-Nov 2005 and Oct-Nov 2007) are derived. The satellite retrieved information on cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp. and Prochlorococcus sp.) and diatoms distribution matches well with the concentration measured from collocated water samples with HPLC technique and also to global model analysis with the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM from http://reason.gsfc.nasa.gov/OPS/Giovanni/) according to Gregg and Casey 2006 and Gregg 2006. Results are of great importance for global modelling of

  19. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  20. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Nuisance cyanobacterial blooms degrade water resources through accelerated eutrophication, odor generation, and production of toxins that cause adverse effects on human health. Quick and effective methods for detecting cyanobacterial abundance in drinking water supplies are urgently needed to compliment conventional laboratory methods, which are costly and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be an effective approach for rapid assessment of cyanobacterial blooms. Samples (n=250) were collected from five drinking water sources in central Indiana (CIN), USA, and South Australia (SA), which experience nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. In situ hyperspectral data were used to develop models by relating spectral signal with handheld fluorescence probe (YSI 6600 XLM-SV) measured phycocyanin (PC in cell/ml), a proxy pigment unique for indicating the presence of cyanobacteria. Three-band model (TBM), which is effective for chlorophyll-a estimates, was tuned to quantify cyanobacteria coupled with the PC probe measured cyanobacteria. As a comparison, two band model proposed by Simis et al. (Limnol Oceanogr, 50(11): 237-245, 2005; denoted as SM05) was paralleled to evaluate TBM model performance. Our observation revealed a high correlation between measured and estimated PC for SA dataset (R (2) =0.96; range: 534-20,200 cell/ml) and CIN dataset (R (2) =0.88; range: 1,300-44,500 cell/ml). The potential of this modeling approach for imagery data were assessed by simulated ESA/Centinel3/OLCI spectra, which also resulted in satisfactory performance with the TBM for both SA dataset (RMSE % =26.12) and CIN dataset (RMSE % =34.49). Close relationship between probe-measured PC and laboratory measured cyanobacteria biovolume was observed (R (2) =0.93, p<0.0001) for the CIN dataset, indicating a stable performance for PC probe. Based on our observation, field spectroscopic measurement coupled with PC probe measurements can provide quantitative cyanobacterial bloom

  1. Space group analysis of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 ceramics with x = 0.20, 0.27 and 0.30 through electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahid; Lalla, N. P.

    2007-10-01

    The space groups of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 in the composition range 0.20<=x<=0.30 have been investigated using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction has been used in selected area diffraction (SAD), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and micro-diffraction modes to record zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) and higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns. For the 0.20<=x<=0.30 composition range there is still controversy regarding the correct space group: P 21/m, Pnma, Imma or I4/mcm. By invoking Rietveld refinement, detailed analysis of CBED patterns containing A2-type GM-lines and comparison between simulated ZOLZ/FOLZ and experimentally observed SAD patterns, we have established that for Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (0.20<=x<=0.30) two types of phase coexist at room temperature. These are the Pnma and P 21212 orthorhombic phases, coexisting with volume fractions of about 40% and 60% respectively.

  2. On the Hodge-type decomposition and cohomology groups of k-Cauchy-Fueter complexes over domains in the quaternionic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Der-Chen; Markina, Irina; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The k-Cauchy-Fueter operator D0(k) on one dimensional quaternionic space H is the Euclidean version of spin k / 2 massless field operator on the Minkowski space in physics. The k-Cauchy-Fueter equation for k ≥ 2 is overdetermined and its compatibility condition is given by the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex. In quaternionic analysis, these complexes play the role of Dolbeault complex in several complex variables. We prove that a natural boundary value problem associated to this complex is regular. Then by using the theory of regular boundary value problems, we show the Hodge-type orthogonal decomposition, and the fact that the non-homogeneous k-Cauchy-Fueter equation D0(k) u = f on a smooth domain Ω in H is solvable if and only if f satisfies the compatibility condition and is orthogonal to the set ℋ(k)1 (Ω) of Hodge-type elements. This set is isomorphic to the first cohomology group of the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex over Ω, which is finite dimensional, while the second cohomology group is always trivial.

  3. Similarities in the structure of the transcriptional repressor AmtR in two different space groups suggest a model for the interaction with GlnK.

    PubMed

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Hasselt, Kristin; Grau, Florian C; Burkovski, Andreas; Muller, Yves A

    2017-03-01

    AmtR belongs to the TetR family of transcription regulators and is a global nitrogen regulator that is induced under nitrogen-starvation conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum. AmtR regulates the expression of transporters and enzymes for the assimilation of ammonium and alternative nitrogen sources, for example urea, amino acids etc. The recognition of operator DNA by homodimeric AmtR is not regulated by small-molecule effectors as in other TetR-family members but by a trimeric adenylylated PII-type signal transduction protein named GlnK. The crystal structure of ligand-free AmtR (AmtRorth) has been solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P21212. Comparison of its quaternary assembly with the previously solved native AmtR structure (PDB entry 5dy1) in a trigonal crystal system (AmtRtri) not only shows how a solvent-content reduction triggers a space-group switch but also suggests a model for how dimeric AmtR might stoichiometrically interact with trimeric adenylylated GlnK.

  4. Adducts of hexamethylenetetramine with ferrocenecarboxylic acid and ferrocene-1,1'-dicarboxylic acid: multiple disorder in space groups Fmm2 and Cmcm.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Choudhury M; Ferguson, George; Lough, Alan J; Glidewell, Christopher

    2003-07-01

    Hexamethylenetetramine, C(6)H(12)N(4), and ferrocenecarboxylic acid, C(11)H(10)FeO(2), form a 1:2 adduct, (I), which is a salt, viz. hexamethylenetetraminium(2+) bis(ferrocenecarboxylate), (C(6)H(14)N(4))[Fe(C(5)H(5))(C(6)H(4)O(2))](2). The dication in (I) is disordered with two orientations at a site of mm2 symmetry in space group Fmm2, while the anion lies across a mirror plane with its unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl ring disordered over two sets of sites. With ferrocene-1,1'-dicarboxylic acid, C(12)H(10)FeO(4), hexamethylenetetramine forms a 1:1 adduct, (II), in which both components are neutral, viz. hexamethylenetetramine-ferrocene-1,1'-dicarboxylic acid (1/1), [Fe(C(6)H(5)O(2))(2)].C(6)H(12)N(4). The amine component in (II) is disordered with two orientations at a site of mm2 symmetry in space group Cmcm, while the acid component is disordered with two orientations at a site of 2/m symmetry. The components in (I) are linked into a finite three-ion aggregate by a single N-H.O hydrogen bond, while the components of (II) are linked into continuous chains by a single O-H.N hydrogen bond.

  5. (TFPP)Eu[Pc(OPh)8]Eu[Pc(OPh)8]/CuPc two-component bilayer heterojunction-based organic transistors with high ambipolar performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dameng; Zhang, Xia; Kong, Xia; Chen, Yanli; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-02-04

    Organic thin film transistor (OTFT) devices fabricated by the solution-based QLS technique from a mixed (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium complex (TFPP)Eu[Pc(OPh)8]Eu[Pc(OPh)8] exhibit air-stable ambipolar performance with mobilities of 6.0 × 10(-5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-)1 for holes and 1.4 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electrons, respectively. In good contrast, the two-component bilayer heterojunction thin film devices constructed by directly growing (TFPP)Eu[Pc(OPh)8]Eu[Pc(OPh)8] on vacuum deposited (VCD) CuPc film using solution based QLS method were revealed to show unprecedented ambipolar performance with carrier mobilities of 0.16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for holes and 0.30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electrons. In addition to the intrinsic role of p-type organic semiconductor, the VCD CuPc film on the substrate also acts as a good template that induces significant improvement over the molecular ordering of triple-decker compound in the film. In particular, it results in the change in the aggregation mode of (TFPP)Eu[Pc(OPh)8]Eu[Pc(OPh)8] from J-type in the single-layer film to H-type in the bilayer film according to the UV-vis, XRD, and AFM observations.

  6. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC

  7. Daidzin protects PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao-Ning; Liu, Guo-Qing

    2002-12-01

    This article examines the effect of daidzin on PC12 cell apoptosis induced by serum-free medium. PC12 cell survival was measured by MTT assay. The DNA content and percentage of apoptosis were monitored by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that serum-free (12 h) medium induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. When the cells had been treated with daidzin (0.1, 1 microM) for 12 h, the percentage of PC12 cell apoptosis was significantly decreased to 12.21 and 4.24% from 91.94% in the group with serum deprivation, and DNA fragmentation was prevented. Daidzin (0.01-10 microM) attenuated the cytotoxic effect of sodium cyanide (20 mM), glutamate (0.5 mM) and sodium nitroprusside (0.5 mM) in a manner dependent on concentration. The results suggested that daidzin prevented PC12 cell from serum free-induced apoptosis.

  8. Silymarin protects against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity via Nrf2 signalling in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sun, Hong-Yang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Hong-Yu; Shao, Mei-Li

    2017-04-01

    Silymarin (SM) is a well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound extracted from the milk thistle. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SM against acrylamide (AA)-induced neurotoxicity, mainly caused by oxidative stress, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway in PC12 cells. The MTT reduction assay was used to measure cell viability in various drug-treated groups and demonstrated that SM could increase cell viability in AA-treated PC12 cells. We then measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by the peroxide-sensitive fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and intracellular glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by absorption spectrophotometry. Our data revealed that SM could reduce ROS and MDA levels and increase GSH levels in AA-induced PC12 cells. To identify a potential mechanism for SM-induced protection, we measured the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream target antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results suggested that SM could activate Nrf2 signalling and increase the expression of Nrf2, Gpx, GCLC and GCLM in AA-treated PC12 cells. In conclusion, SM can effectively alleviate AA-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

  9. Determining user preferences between touch and pen data entry methods in the Tablet PC computing environment.

    PubMed

    Silvey, Garry M; Haga, Susanne B; O'Daniel, Julianne M; Deverka, Patricia; Ermentrout, Dania M; Anstrom, Kevin J; Lobach, David F

    2007-10-11

    Tablet personal computers (PCs) are becoming common in the clinical environment. In a recent survey comparing mobile devices, the Tablet PC was perceived to have made the most significant difference in the delivery of healthcare. As the use of Tablet PC technology increases, understanding which features are most usable for data entry becomes important. The modality used for data entry on the Tablet PC has evolved. Initially, most Tablet PCs required the use of a stylus or specialized pen for user interaction with the system. Recently, touch screen technology has become available on the Tablet PCs. Tablet PCs with touch screens allow the user to interact with the system using their finger instead of a pen. Little information is available is available concerning user preferences regarding the modality used for data entry on the Tablet PC. In this project we assessed the usability of the two data entry modalities by directly comparing a pen-based and a touch-based Tablet PC through focus groups. This project was part of a Duke IRB approved study designed to assess patient attitudes towards the clinical use of pharmacogenetic data.

  10. [Report on the VDÄPC Fellowship].

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, E

    2016-04-01

    "Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano" ("You should pray for a healthy mind in a healthy body"). This phrase is a shortened citation from the satirical work of the Roman poet Juvenal. It highlights the significant role of physical as well as mental health. Aesthetic ideals have existed since the Archaic age, but they are not necessarily the same in different continents. Being familiar with aesthetic ideals in different cultures might help to accommodate patients' needs and wishes in today's globalised world. Therefore, fellowship programs such as the program organised by the Association of German Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons ("VDÄPC") are very important for young plastic surgeons who are interested in improving their surgical skills and experience. After all, aesthetic surgery is a dynamic specialty, which requires aesthetic plastic surgeons to undergo continued medical education.

  11. Microcomputer Applications with PC LAN (Local Area Network) in Battleships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    9 G. INTEL 80386 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE 9 1. Cache Strategy 10 2. Memory Management 10 3. Multitasking 11 4. Software...shrinks, it becomes more clear that the traditional modes of battle planning and management are no longer practical. Many of these problems, like...Card in it. Each PC must run the PC Network program to manage its participation in the network. Each PC must have a cable to connect it to the

  12. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  13. Electronic properties of CuPc and H2Pc: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Marco Vittorio; Detto, Francesca; Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Casarin, Maurizio

    2013-08-21

    Phthalocyanine (H2Pc) and its open-shell copper complex (CuPc) deposited on amorphous gold films have been studied by combining the outcomes of several synchrotron based spectroscopic tools (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, NEXAFS, spectroscopy) with those of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The assignment of experimental evidence has been guided by the results of DFT numerical experiments carried out on isolated molecules. With specific reference to CuPc NEXAFS data collected at the N K-edge, they have been assigned by using the open-shell time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) in the framework of the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) scalar relativistic approach. The agreement between theory and experiment has been found to be satisfactory, thus indicating that the open-shell TDDFT (F. Wang and T. Ziegler, Mol. Phys., 2004, 102, 2585) may be used with some confidence to look into the X-ray absorption spectroscopy results pertinent to transition metal complexes. As far as the metal-ligand interaction is concerned, the combined use of NEXAFS spectroscopy and DFT outcomes ultimately testified the significant ionic contribution characterizing the bonding between the metal centre and the nitrogen atoms of the phthalocyanine coordinative pocket.

  14. A Position-Space Renormalization-Group Approach for Driven Diffusive Systems Applied to the One-Dimensional Driven Asymmetric Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.

    2001-03-01

    We present a position-space renormalization-group method for nonequilibrium systems, and illustrate its application using the one-dimensional driven asymmetric chain. The dynamics in this case are characterized by three parameters: the probability α that a particle will enter the chain from the left boundary, the probability β that a particle will exit the chain at the right boundary, and the probability p that a particle will jump to its right neighboring site if that site is empty. Rescaling trajectories flow in the space of these probabilities and the dynamics are implemented sequentially. The phase diagram for the steady states consists of three distinct regions, one with high current and two others distinguished by their average densities. This method yields a multicritical point at α_c=β_c=0.5, in agreement with the exact solution.(B. Derrida, et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26), 1493 (1993); G. Schutz and E. Domany, J. Stat. Phys. 72, 277 (1993). We find the exponent ν = 2.71 associated with this fixed point, as compared with the exact value of 2.00.

  15. Upstream-generated Pc3 ULF wave signatures observed near the Earth's cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Kim, H.

    2012-03-01

    Pc3 pulsations (frequency ˜20-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind are frequently observed in ground-based pulsation magnetometer data. Previous studies have noted increased Pc3 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard, during times when an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations on a statistical basis. These observations are more consistent with wave entry to the magnetosphere along closed field lines equatorward of the cusp via the ionospheric transistor mechanism of Engebretson et al. (1991a), or weakly coupled fast and Alfvén wave modes, which then map to the low-latitude boundary layer or outer magnetosphere, rather than with wave entry into the magnetosphere via the cusp proper or exterior cusp.

  16. Operational Implementation of a Pc Uncertainty Construct for Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Johnson, L.

    2016-09-01

    Earlier this year the NASA Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) project presented the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of a method to include the uncertainties in the calculation inputs when computing the probability of collision (Pc) between two space objects, principally uncertainties in the covariances and the hardbody radius. The output of this calculation approach is to produce rather than a single Pc value an entire probability density function that will represent the range of possible Pc values given the uncertainties in the inputs and bring CA risk analysis methodologies more in line with modern risk management theory. The present study provides results from the exercise of this method against an extended dataset of satellite conjunctions in order to determine the effect of its use on the evaluation of conjunction assessment (CA) event risk posture. The effects are found to be considerable: a good number of events are downgraded from or upgraded to a serious risk designation on the basis of consideration of the Pc uncertainty. The findings counsel the integration of the developed methods into NASA CA operations.

  17. Operational Implementation of a Pc Uncertainty Construct for Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier this year the NASA Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) project presented the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of a method to include the uncertainties in the calculation inputs when computing the probability of collision (Pc) between two space objects, principally uncertainties in the covariances and the hard-body radius. The output of this calculation approach is to produce rather than a single Pc value an entire probability density function that will represent the range of possible Pc values given the uncertainties in the inputs and bring CA risk analysis methodologies more in line with modern risk management theory. The present study provides results from the exercise of this method against an extended dataset of satellite conjunctions in order to determine the effect of its use on the evaluation of conjunction assessment (CA) event risk posture. The effects are found to be considerable: a good number of events are downgraded from or upgraded to a serious risk designation on the basis of consideration of the Pc uncertainty. The findings counsel the integration of the developed methods into NASA CA operations.

  18. PcG-Mediated Higher-Order Chromatin Structures Modulate Replication Programs at the Drosophila BX-C

    PubMed Central

    Comoglio, Federico; De Bardi, Marco; Paro, Renato; Orlando, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) exert conserved epigenetic functions that convey maintenance of repressed transcriptional states, via post-translational histone modifications and high order structure formation. During S-phase, in order to preserve cell identity, in addition to DNA information, PcG-chromatin-mediated epigenetic signatures need to be duplicated requiring a tight coordination between PcG proteins and replication programs. However, the interconnection between replication timing control and PcG functions remains unknown. Using Drosophila embryonic cell lines, we find that, while presence of specific PcG complexes and underlying transcription state are not the sole determinants of cellular replication timing, PcG-mediated higher-order structures appear to dictate the timing of replication and maintenance of the silenced state. Using published datasets we show that PRC1, PRC2, and PhoRC complexes differently correlate with replication timing of their targets. In the fully repressed BX-C, loss of function experiments revealed a synergistic role for PcG proteins in the maintenance of replication programs through the mediation of higher-order structures. Accordingly, replication timing analysis performed on two Drosophila cell lines differing for BX-C gene expression states, PcG distribution, and chromatin domain conformation revealed a cell-type-specific replication program that mirrors lineage-specific BX-C higher-order structures. Our work suggests that PcG complexes, by regulating higher-order chromatin structure at their target sites, contribute to the definition and the maintenance of genomic structural domains where genes showing the same epigenetic state replicate at the same time. PMID:23437006

  19. Quantification of PrPC in bovine peripheral tissues: Analysis in wild-type and PrPC-deficient cattle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi; Ano, Yasuhisa; Sakudo, Akikazu; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Sigiura, Katsuaki; Manabe, Noboru; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Cellular PrP (PrPC) is necessary for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection. The purpose of the present experiment was the quantification of PrPC in peripheral tissues to assess the risk of BSE infection from these tissues. The tissue distribution of PrPC was examined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) and histochemical analysis. PrPC-deficient cows were used as a negative control. The sELISA revealed that the brain contained the highest PrPC content (10.7 µg/g tissue), while other organs/tissues harbored lower amounts, in decreasing order as follows: longissimus capitis muscle, iliocostalis thoracis muscle, splenius muscle, biceps femoris muscle, triceps brachii muscle, longissimus thoracis muscle, ileum, jejunum, duodenum, colon, cecum, apex linguae, omotransversarius muscle, posterior part of the corpus linguae, anterior part of the corpus linguae and radix linguae (5.2- to 31-fold less PrPC than the brain). In the tissue/organs of PrP-deficient cows, PrPC levels were under the limit of detection. Histochemical analysis showed that PrPC was expressed in nerve cells in intestinal tissues. The presence of PrPC in the bovine tongue, skeletal muscles and intestines raises the possibility of PrPSc accumulation in these tissues, indicating that these organs/tissues may serve as potential sources of BSE infection.

  20. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  1. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K α radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  2. Pc-Based Floating Point Imaging Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzak, Chris J.; Pier, Richard M.; Chinn, Patty; Kim, Yongmin

    1989-07-01

    The medical, military, scientific and industrial communities have come to rely on imaging and computer graphics for solutions to many types of problems. Systems based on imaging technology are used to acquire and process images, and analyze and extract data from images that would otherwise be of little use. Images can be transformed and enhanced to reveal detail and meaning that would go undetected without imaging techniques. The success of imaging has increased the demand for faster and less expensive imaging systems and as these systems become available, more and more applications are discovered and more demands are made. From the designer's perspective the challenge to meet these demands forces him to attack the problem of imaging from a different perspective. The computing demands of imaging algorithms must be balanced against the desire for affordability and flexibility. Systems must be flexible and easy to use, ready for current applications but at the same time anticipating new, unthought of uses. Here at the University of Washington Image Processing Systems Lab (IPSL) we are focusing our attention on imaging and graphics systems that implement imaging algorithms for use in an interactive environment. We have developed a PC-based imaging workstation with the goal to provide powerful and flexible, floating point processing capabilities, along with graphics functions in an affordable package suitable for diverse environments and many applications.

  3. Attention selection, distractor suppression and N2pc.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Turatto, Massimo; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    N2pc is generally interpreted as the electrocortical correlate of the distractor-suppression mechanisms through which attention selection takes place in humans. Here, we present data that challenge this common N2pc interpretation. In Experiment 1, multiple distractors induced greater N2pc amplitudes even when they facilitated target identification, despite the suppression account of the N2pc predicted the contrary; in Experiment 2, spatial proximity between target and distractors did not affect the N2pc amplitude, despite resulting in more interference in response times; in Experiment 3, heterogeneous distractors delayed response times but did not elicit a greater N2pc relative to homogeneous distractors again in contrast with what would have predicted the suppression hypothesis. These results do not support the notion that the N2pc unequivocally mirrors distractor-suppression processes. We propose that the N2pc indexes mechanisms involved in identifying and localizing relevant stimuli in the scene through enhancement of their features and not suppression of distractors.

  4. PC2 Ovotransferrin: Characterization and Alternative Immunotherapeutic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiurciu, Constantin; Chiurciu, Viorica; Oporanu, Mariana; Pătrașcu, Ionel Victor; Mihai, Iuliana; Tablică, Mădălina

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation of immunotherapeutic potential of ovotransferrin PC2 (OTf PC2) were performed in this study. The ovoprotein was obtained from egg white from hens immunized with bacterial antigens, pathogenic for humans. For the negative control samples, OTf was extracted from eggs collected from Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) hens and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G-agarose column with two eluting peaks: I, representing ovalbumin, and II, ovotransferrin. The final apo-OTf form was reached by successive precipitation with ammonium sulfate and citric acid and the holo-OTf form by saturating the apo-form with FeCl3. Multiple OTf PC2 samples were analyzed through Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and, based on the molecular marker migration model, the ovotransferrin (76.5 kDa) and ovalbumin (45 kDa) were detected. The agglutination reaction exhibited statistically significant high specificity of the multiple OTf PC2, by reacting with the antigens used for hens' immunization. Following ELISA, it was established that OTf PC2 from hyperimmune eggs has specificity for all antigens; the antibody titer was high, indicating that OTf PC2 possesses immunological properties similar to immunoglobulin Y (Ig Y). This study suggests that OTf PC2 immunological activity may play a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of infections resistant to antibiotics and OTf PC2 can also act as a valuable nutraceutical.

  5. Hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-15

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) structure. The results indicate that PC{sub 61}BM combines into C–H⋯O{sub d} bonded molecular chains, where O{sub d} denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯O{sub s} bonds, where O{sub s} denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC{sub 61}BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) PC{sub 61}BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯O{sub d} bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC{sub 61}BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC{sub 61}BM.

  6. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Hirsch, Théo Z.; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Launay, Jean-Marie; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knockout animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumors. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:25364760

  7. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  8. Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM{reg_sign} PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within {plus_minus}0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error.

  9. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  10. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  11. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  12. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  13. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  14. Statistical Analysis of Deflation in Covariance and Resultant Pc Values for AQUA, AURA and TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Syed O.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will display statistical analysis performed for raw conjunction CDMs received for the EOS Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites within the period of February 2015 through July 2016. The analysis performed indicates a discernable deflation in covariance calculated at the JSpOC after the utilization of the dynamic drag consider parameter was implemented operationally in May 2015. As a result, the overall diminution in the conjunction plane intersection of the primary and secondary objects appears to be leading to reduced probability of collision (Pc) values for these conjunction events. This presentation also displays evidence for this theory with analysis of Pc trending plots using data calculated by the SpaceNav CRMS system.

  15. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  16. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  17. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in prion protein (PrPc)-null mice: evidence for a critical role of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a host-encoded glycoprotein whose transconformation into PrP scrapie (PrPSc) initiates prion diseases. The role of PrPc in health is still obscure, but many candidate functions have been attributed to the protein, both in the immune and the nervous systems. Recent data show that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is worsened in mice lacking PrPc. Disease exacerbation has been attributed to T cells that would differentiate into more aggressive effectors when deprived of PrPc. However, alternative interpretations such as reduced resistance of neurons to autoimmune insult and exacerbated gliosis leading to neuronal deficits were not considered. Method To better discriminate the contribution of immune cells versus neural cells, reciprocal bone marrow chimeras with differential expression of PrPc in the lymphoid or in the central nervous system (CNS) were generated. Mice were subsequently challenged with MOG35-55 peptide and clinical disease as well as histopathology were compared in both groups. Furthermore, to test directly the T cell hypothesis, we compared the encephalitogenicity of adoptively transferred PrPc-deficient versus PrPc-sufficient, anti-MOG T cells. Results First, EAE exacerbation in PrPc-deficient mice was confirmed. Irradiation exacerbated EAE in all the chimeras and controls, but disease was more severe in mice with a PrPc-deleted CNS and a normal immune system than in the reciprocal construction. Moreover, there was no indication that anti-MOG responses were different in PrPc-sufficient and PrPc-deficient mice. Paradoxically, PrPc-deficient anti-MOG 2D2 T cells were less pathogenic than PrPc-expressing 2D2 T cells. Conclusions In view of the present data, it can be concluded that the origin of EAE exacerbation in PrPc-ablated mice resides in the absence of the prion protein in the CNS. Furthermore, the absence of PrPc on both neural and immune cells does not synergize for disease worsening

  19. Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization method.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Akira; Kojo, Masashi; Hirose, Kikuji; Goto, Hidekazu

    2011-11-02

    The path-integral renormalization group and direct energy minimization method of practical first-principles electronic structure calculations for multi-body systems within the framework of the real-space finite-difference scheme are introduced. These two methods can handle higher dimensional systems with consideration of the correlation effect. Furthermore, they can be easily extended to the multicomponent quantum systems which contain more than two kinds of quantum particles. The key to the present methods is employing linear combinations of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) as multi-body wavefunctions. As one of the noticeable results, the same accuracy as the variational Monte Carlo method is achieved with a few SDs. This enables us to study the entire ground state consisting of electrons and nuclei without the need to use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Recent activities on methodological developments aiming towards practical calculations such as the implementation of auxiliary field for Coulombic interaction, the treatment of the kinetic operator in imaginary-time evolutions, the time-saving double-grid technique for bare-Coulomb atomic potentials and the optimization scheme for minimizing the total-energy functional are also introduced. As test examples, the total energy of the hydrogen molecule, the atomic configuration of the methylene and the electronic structures of two-dimensional quantum dots are calculated, and the accuracy, availability and possibility of the present methods are demonstrated.

  20. Structural study of hydrated/dehydrated manganese thiophene-2,5-diphosphonate metal organic frameworks, Mn2(O3P-C4H2S-PO3)·2H2O.

    PubMed

    Rueff, Jean-Michel; Perez, Olivier; Pautrat, Alain; Barrier, Nicolas; Hix, Gary B; Hernot, Sylvie; Couthon-Gourvès, Hélène; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis of thiophene-2,5-diphosphonic acid 2 is reported, and its use for synthesis of the original pristine materials Mn(2)(O(3)P-C(4)H(2)S-PO(3))·2H(2)O 3 is reported. The structure of material 3 has been fully resolved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Mn(2)(O(3)P-C(4)H(2)S-PO(3))·2H(2)O 3 crystallizes in a monoclinic cell (space group P2) with the following parameters: a = 11.60(1) Å, b = 4.943(5) Å, c = 19.614(13) Å, β = 107.22°. A noticeable feature of the structure of compound 3 is the orientation of the thiophene heterocycles that adopt two different orientations in two successive layers (along c). Thermal analysis of compound 3 indicates that the water molecules are easily removed from 160 to 230 °C while the dehydrated structure is stable up to 500 °C. The dehydrated compound obtained from 3 can be rehydrated to give the polymorphic compound Mn(2)(O(3)P-C(4)H(2)S-PO(3))·2H(2)O 4, which crystallizes in an orthorhombic cell (space group Pnam) with the following parameters: a = 7.5359(3) Å, b = 7.5524(3) Å, c = 18.3050(9) Å. The main difference between the structures of 3 and 4 arises from both the orientation of the thiophene rings (herringbone-type organization in 4) and the structure of the inorganic layers. The thiophene-2,5-diphosphonic acid moieties engaged in materials 3 and 4 adopt a different orientation likely due to rotation around the P-C bonds and via the dehydrated state 5, which is likely more flexible than the hydrated states. Study of the magnetic properties performed on compound 3 and 4 and on the dehydrated compounds Mn(2)(O(3)P-C(4)H(2)S-PO(3)) 5 complemented by the structural study has permitted us to characterize the antiferromagnetic ground state of sample 3, a weak ferromagnetic component in sample 4, and complete paramagnetic behavior in sample 5.

  1. Pc 3-4 Pulsations Near the Cusp: Latitude dependence near the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Clausen, L. B.; Engebretson, M.; Lu, F.; Posch, J.; Lessard, M.; Kim, H.

    2008-12-01

    Dayside ground magnetometer records at high latitudes frequently show evidence of Pc 3-4 pulsations (f ~ 10-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind. Previous studies have noted increased Pc 3-4 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3-4 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard. Three intervals are chosen when the upstream conditions are favourable for Pc3-4 generation, clear band-limited Pc3-4 wave power is observed near local noon, and an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. A stereo mode of radar operation is employed, such that 3 s time resolution is available on one radar beam, whilst the high latitude convection is revealed with 1 min. resolution. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3-4 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations. The radar data show clear evidence of transient ionospheric flows and high spectral widths associated with field lines newly- opened by dayside reconnection processes, but no evidence of oscillations in the Pc3-4 frequency range. In the ground magnetic field a peak in Pc3-4 power is generally observed in the equatormost magnetometer, except when the cusp is significantly poleward of the stations, consistent with a peak in wave power ~4 degrees equatorward of the cusp, but suggesting a modest dependence of wave power with latitude on closed field lines When the cusp does move equatorward of the magnetometer stations the Pc3-4 power drops rapidly, and does so earliest at the most poleward magnetometer station, suggesting a sharp drop in

  2. Different Polycomb group complexes regulate common target genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Makarevich, Grigory; Leroy, Olivier; Akinci, Umut; Schubert, Daniel; Clarenz, Oliver; Goodrich, Justin; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Köhler, Claudia

    2006-09-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins convey epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. Although the mechanism of the action of PcG is not completely understood, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) is important in establishing PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. We show that the plant PcG target gene PHERES1 is regulated by histone trimethylation on H3K27 residues mediated by at least two different PcG complexes in plants, containing the SET domain proteins MEDEA or CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. Furthermore, we identify FUSCA3 as a potential PcG target gene and show that FUSCA3 is regulated by MEDEA and CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. We propose that different PcG complexes regulate a common set of target genes during the different stages of plant development.

  3. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on NGF induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Noh, Ran; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2014-10-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) affect various cellular processes and systems, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolic pathways. The present study investigated ELF-MFs effect on nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells using proteomic applications to understand its role in the enhancement of neuronal differentiation. After 50 Hz, 1 mT ELF-MFs 5-day exposure on NGF induced PC12 cells, it was observed to increase neurite length as well as an increase in the number of neurite bearing cells. It was also discovered that there was a decrease in proliferation activity, which is associated with an increase in differentiated cells. Neuronal differentiation related mRNA levels and protein levels were increased in NGF induced PC12 cells. Compared with NGF induced group, ELF-MFs stimulated PC12 cells had different protein expression as measured with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. Consequently six differentially expressed spots were detected between the 2-DE maps, which were identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF LC/MS/MS) as: peripherin, neurosecretory protein nerve growth factor inducible (VGF8a) precursor, dnaK-type molecular chaperone sp72-ps1 (HSP72-psI), low molecular weight (Mr) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase isoenzyme AcP1 (LMW-PTP/ACP1), Tubulin alpha-1A (TUBA1A) chain, outcome predictor in acute leukemia 1 homolog (OPA1L). The identification of these proteins provides clues to the mechanism of ELF-MFs stimulation on NGF induced PC12 cells that occur during neuronal differentiation and may contribute to the development novel treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. PC-SPES (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  5. OCEAN-PC and a distributed network for ocean data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-PC', would run on low cost PC microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-PC will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-PC will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.

  6. PC-SPES (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  8. Single-event upset in advanced PowerPC microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, F.; Swift, G. M.; Farmanesh, F.; Millward, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Proton and heavy-ion single-event upset susceptibility has been measured for the MotorolaPowerPC7400. The results show that this advanced device has low upset susceptibility, despite the scaling and design advances.

  9. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 6: Power (P-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Power requirements for the multipurpose space power platform, for space industrialization, SETI, the solar system exploration facility, and for global services are assessed for various launch dates. Priorities and initiatives for the development of elements of space power systems are described for systems using light power input (solar energy source) or thermal power input, (solar, chemical, nuclear, radioisotopes, reactors). Systems for power conversion, power processing, distribution and control are likewise examined.

  10. A PC-Windows-Based program for geostatistical modeling application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.G.; Yang, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a technically advanced, user-friendly, PC-Windows{sup TM} based reservoir simulation tool (SIMTOOLS) that allows construction of realistic reservoir models using a geostatistical approach. This PC-Windows based product has three application tools: Digitizing, mapping, and geostatistics. It has been designed primarily to enable reservoir engineers to apply the geostatistical gridding technique in mapping and reservoir simulation practices.

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  12. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  13. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  14. Unraveling the neuroprotective mechanisms of PrPC in excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Franc; del Río, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the natural roles of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is essential to an understanding of the molecular basis of prion pathologies. This GPI-anchored protein has been described in synaptic contacts, and loss of its synaptic function in complex systems may contribute to the synaptic loss and neuronal degeneration observed in prionopathy. In addition, Prnp knockout mice show enhanced susceptibility to several excitotoxic insults, GABAA receptor-mediated fast inhibition was weakened, LTP was modified and cellular stress increased. Although little is known about how PrPC exerts its function at the synapse or the downstream events leading to PrPC-mediated neuroprotection against excitotoxic insults, PrPC has recently been reported to interact with two glutamate receptor subunits (NR2D and GluR6/7). In both cases the presence of PrPC blocks the neurotoxicity induced by NMDA and Kainate respectively. Furthermore, signals for seizure and neuronal cell death in response to Kainate in Prnp knockout mouse are associated with JNK3 activity, through enhancing the interaction of GluR6 with PSD-95. In combination with previous data, these results shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind the role of PrPC in excitotoxicity. Future experimental approaches are suggested and discussed. PMID:22437735

  15. Photodynamic therapy with Pc 4 induces apoptosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Minh; Jou, Paul C; Lattif, Ali A; Lee, Yoojin; Malbasa, Christi L; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Oleinick, Nancy L; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antifungal agents against infections caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans. Elucidation of apoptosis in yeast-like fungi may provide a basis for future therapies. In mammalian cells, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated to generate reactive oxygen species, leading to immediate oxidative modifications of biological molecules and resulting in apoptotic cell death. In this report, we assess the in vitro cytotoxicity and mechanism of PDT, using the photosensitizer Pc 4, in planktonic C. albicans. Confocal image analysis confirmed that Pc 4 localizes to cytosolic organelles, including mitochondria. A colony formation assay showed that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by light at 2.0 J cm(-2) reduced cell survival by 4 logs. XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide) assay revealed that Pc 4-PDT impaired fungal metabolic activity, which was confirmed using the FUN-1 (2-chloro-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenylquinolinium iodide) fluorescence probe. Furthermore, we observed changes in nuclear morphology characteristic of apoptosis, which were substantiated by increased externalization of phosphatidylserine and DNA fragmentation following Pc 4-PDT. These data indicate that Pc 4-PDT can induce apoptosis in C. albicans. Therefore, a better understanding of the process will be helpful, as PDT may become a useful treatment option for candidiasis.

  16. The effect of a proline residue on the rate of growth and the space group of alpha-spectrin SH3-domain crystals.

    PubMed

    Cámara-Artigas, Ana; Andújar-Sánchez, Monserrat; Ortiz-Salmerón, Emilia; Cuadri, Celia; Casares, Salvador

    2009-12-01

    alpha-Spectrin SH3-domain (Spc-SH3) crystallization is characterized by very fast growth of the crystals in the presence of ammonium sulfate as a precipitant agent. The origin of this behaviour can be attributed to the presence of a proline residue that participates in a crystal contact mimicking the binding of proline-rich sequences to SH3 domains. This residue, Pro20, is located in the RT loop and is the main contact in one of the interfaces present in the orthorhombic Spc-SH3 crystal structures. In order to understand the molecular interactions that are responsible for the very fast crystal growth of the wild-type (WT) Spc-SH3 crystals, the crystal structure of a triple mutant in which the residues Ser19-Pro20-Arg21 in the RT loop have been replaced by Gly19-Asp20-Ser21 (GDS Spc-SH3 mutant) has been solved. The removal of the critical proline residue results in slower nucleation of the Spc-SH3 crystals and a different arrangement of the protein molecules in the unit cell, leading to a crystal that belongs to the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 42.231, c = 93.655 A, and that diffracts to 1.45 A resolution. For both WT Spc-SH3 and the GDS mutant, light-scattering experiments showed that a dimer was formed in solution within a few minutes of the addition of 2 M ammonium sulfate at pH 6.5 and allowed the proposal of a mechanism for the nucleation and crystal growth of Spc-SH3 in which the Pro20 residue plays a key role in the rate of crystal growth.

  17. Structure determination of a major facilitator peptide transporter: Inward facing PepTSt from Streptococcus thermophilus crystallized in space group P3121

    PubMed Central

    Quistgaard, Esben M.; Martinez Molledo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) peptide transporters (typically referred to as PepT, POT or PTR transporters) mediate the uptake of di- and tripeptides, and so play an important dietary role in many organisms. In recent years, a better understanding of the molecular basis for this process has emerged, which is in large part due to a steep increase in structural information. Yet, the conformational transitions underlying the transport mechanism are still not fully understood, and additional data is therefore needed. Here we report in detail the detergent screening, crystallization, experimental MIRAS phasing, and refinement of the peptide transporter PepTSt from Streptococcus thermophilus. The space group is P3121, and the protein is crystallized in a monomeric inward facing form. The binding site is likely to be somewhat occluded, as the lobe encompassing transmembrane helices 10 and 11 is markedly bent towards the central pore of the protein, but the extent of this potential occlusion could not be determined due to disorder at the apex of the lobe. Based on structural comparisons with the seven previously determined P212121 and C2221 structures of inward facing PepTSt, the structural flexibility as well as the conformational changes mediating transition between the inward open and inward facing occluded states are discussed. In conclusion, this report improves our understanding of the structure and conformational cycle of PepTSt, and can furthermore serve as a case study, which may aid in supporting future structure determinations of additional MFS transporters or other integral membrane proteins. PMID:28264013

  18. Drosophila melanogaster dHCF interacts with both PcG and TrxG epigenetic regulators.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jato, Sara; Busturia, Ana; Herr, Winship

    2011-01-01

    Repression and activation of gene transcription involves multiprotein complexes that modify chromatin structure. The integration of these complexes at regulatory sites can be assisted by co-factors that link them to DNA-bound transcriptional regulators. In humans, one such co-factor is the herpes simplex virus host-cell factor 1 (HCF-1), which is implicated in both activation and repression of transcription. We show here that disruption of the gene encoding the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of HCF-1, dHCF, leads to a pleiotropic phenotype involving lethality, sterility, small size, apoptosis, and morphological defects. In Drosophila, repressed and activated transcriptional states of cell fate-determining genes are maintained throughout development by Polycomb Group (PcG) and Trithorax Group (TrxG) genes, respectively. dHCF mutant flies display morphological phenotypes typical of TrxG mutants and dHCF interacts genetically with both PcG and TrxG genes. Thus, dHCF inactivation enhances the mutant phenotypes of the Pc PcG as well as brm and mor TrxG genes, suggesting that dHCF possesses Enhancer of TrxG and PcG (ETP) properties. Additionally, dHCF interacts with the previously established ETP gene skd. These pleiotropic phenotypes are consistent with broad roles for dHCF in both activation and repression of transcription during fly development.

  19. Transcriptional Silencing by Polycomb-Group Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Ueli; Paro, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) genes encode chromatin proteins involved in stable and heritable transcriptional silencing. PcG proteins participate in distinct multimeric complexes that deposit, or bind to, specific histone modifications (e.g., H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub1) to prevent gene activation and maintain repressed chromatin domains. PcG proteins are evolutionary conserved and play a role in processes ranging from vernalization and seed development in plants, over X-chromosome inactivation in mammals, to the maintenance of stem cell identity. PcG silencing is medically relevant as it is often observed in human disorders, including cancer, and tissue regeneration, which involve the reprogramming of PcG-controlled target genes. PMID:25367972

  20. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin; Vilkov, Oleg; Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup δ} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup δ} {sup −} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co 3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  1. YOUNG STARS NEAR EARTH: THE OCTANS-NEAR ASSOCIATION AND CASTOR MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam E-mail: lvican@ucla.edu E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu

    2013-11-20

    All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages ≤100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a 'good box' with dimensions ∼20 km s{sup –1} on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age '20 Myr?' and located ∼140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity –3.6 km s{sup –1} that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call {sup O}ctans-Near{sup ;} these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages ≤200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age ≤100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ∼200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

  2. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  3. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D.

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  4. Hands-on program of IBM-PC training at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Since December 1983, the Laboratory has offered introductory courses of IBM-PC training. A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted and a nine-course module of classes was designed and implemented. Forty classes were completed in the one-year period. The target group includes the novice computer user in the scientific, management, administrative, and secretarial personnel groups. The development, needs assessment, course implementation and design, course evaluations, and future direction of computer training will be discussed. Lab-automation, robotics, design of the lab and office and the impact of computer on society will be discussed briefly.

  5. Space Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-15

    sponsored Survivability Analysis Group (SAG), (b) Reviewing for the Air Force some spacecraft radioisotope - thermoelectric - generator (RTG) and... Thermoelectric Generator SADA Solar Array Drive Assembly SAG Survivahilily Analysis Group SAMSO Space and Missile Systems Organization SAOS Solar Array Drive...over was accomplished without incident except that the third- generation gyro (TGG) drift-rate compensation was observed to have changed sometime after

  6. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point PC6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna; Chan, Simon KC; Fan, Lawrence TY

    2015-01-01

    imprecision. Using trial sequential analysis, none of the boundaries for benefit, harm or futility were crossed for PONV. The need for rescue antiemetic was lower in the combination PC6 acupoint stimulation and antiemetic group than the antiemetic group (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.86; 5 trials, 419 participants). The side effects associated with PC6 acupoint stimulation were minor, transient and self-limiting (e.g. skin irritation, blistering, redness and pain) in 14 trials. Publication bias was not apparent in the contour-enhanced funnel plots. Authors’ conclusions There is low-quality evidence supporting the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation over sham. Compared to the last update in 2009, no further sham comparison trials are needed. We found that there is moderate-quality evidence showing no difference between PC6 acupoint stimulation and antiemetic drugs to prevent PONV. Further PC6 acupoint stimulation versus antiemetic trials are futile in showing a significant difference, which is a new finding in this update. There is inconclusive evidence supporting the use of a combined strategy of PC6 acupoint stimulation and antiemetic drug over drug prophylaxis, and further high-quality trials are needed. PMID:26522652

  7. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-02-23

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S `chn' and `SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.

  8. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes by a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. The variances explained by the first PC increase with time and show a drastic change during the crisis. A sharp change in PC coefficient implies a transition of market state, a situation which occurs frequently in the American and Asian indices. However, the European indices remain stable over time. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spaces due to crises. Finally, after a financial crisis, the difference of PCs between the European and American indices narrows.

  9. Taurine inhibits 2,5-hexanedione-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, Shuangyue; GUAN, Huai; QIAN, Zhiqiang; SUN, Yijie; GAO, Chenxue; LI, Guixin; YANG, Yi; PIAO, Fengyuan; HU, Shuhai

    2016-01-01

    2,5-hexanedione (HD) is the ultimate neurotoxic metabolite of hexane, causing the progression of nerve diseases in human. It was reported that HD induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taurine has been shown to be a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the protection of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Our results showed the decreased viability and increased apoptosis in HD-exposed PC12 cells. HD also induced the disturbance of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the loss of MMP, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, HD resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a decline in the activities of superoxidedismutase and catalase in PC12 cells. However, taurine pretreatment ameliorated the increased apoptosis and the alterations in key regulators of mitochondria-dependent pathway in PC12 exposed to HD. The increased ROS level and the decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes in HD group were attenuated by taurine. These results indicate that pretreatment of taurine may, at least partly, prevent HD-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-dependent pathway. It is also suggested that the potential of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis may benefit from its anti-oxidative property. PMID:27840369

  10. Dependence of radiation belt enhancements on the radial extent of Pc5 waves and the plasmapause location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Zesta, E.; Balasis, G.; Katsavrias, C.; Mann, I. R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies through different mechanisms, transporting them across their drift shells to the outer radiation belt. Among the different acceleration mechanisms, radial diffusion describes the result of ULF magnetic field pulsations resonantly interacting with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, the radial positioning of the relativistic electron population during 39 intense and moderate magnetic storms is examined against that of ULF Pc5 wave power and the plasmapause location. The relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt appeared enhanced in the 2 - 6 MeV electron flux data from SAMPEX and in > 2 MeV electron flux data from the geosynchronous GOES satellites following 27 of the magnetic storms. We compared relativistic electrons observations with concurrent radial distribution of wave power enhancements at Pc5 frequencies as detected by the IMAGE and CARISMA magnetometer arrays, as well as by additional magnetic stations collaborating in SuperMAG. We discuss the growth and decay characteristics of Pc5 waves in association with the plasmapause location, determined from IMAGE EUV observations, as the controlling factor for wave power penetration deep into the magnetosphere. We show that, during magnetic storms characterized by increased post-storm fluxes, Pc5 wave power penetrates to L shells of 4 and lower. On the other hand, magnetic storms which were characterised by loss of electrons were related to low Pc5 wave activity, which was not intensified at low L shells. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that enhanced Pc5 wave activity deep into the magnetosphere during the main and recovery phase can discriminate between storms that result in increases of electron fluxes from those that do not. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE

  11. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  12. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity.

  13. Expression of dystrophin Dp71 during PC12 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, B; Rendon, A; Genty, V; Aranda, G; Marquez, F; Mornet, D; Montañez, C

    1996-08-02

    The expression of dystrophin-protein 71 (Dp71) was investigated during nerve growth factor (NGF) induced differentiation of PC12 cells. A semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was designed to measure Dp71 mRNA, whereas the Dp71 protein amount was evaluated by immunoblot analysis using an anti-dystrophin monoclonal antibody. Comparison with control cultures showed that Dp71 mRNA and protein levels increased in parallel with NGF treatment peaking with increments of 60% and 1.4 times, respectively. The upregulation of Dp71 expression during PC12 cells differentiation point at PC12 cells as a suitable model for studying the function of Dp71 in neuronal cells.

  14. Modelling of Pc5 pulsation structure in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. D. M.

    1980-03-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic resonance theory is used to model the structure of the magnetospheric and ionospheric electric and magnetic fields associated with Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations. In this paper the variation of the fields across the invariant latitude of the resonance are computed. The results are combined with calculations of the variation along a field line to map the fields down to the ionosphere. In one case the results are compared with measurements obtained by the STARE auroral radar and show good agreement. The relationship between the width of the resonance region and ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductivity is computed and it is shown how auroral radar measurements of Pc5 oscillations could be used to determine ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductivity. It is pointed out that from these calculations it would be possible to identify the field line on which a satellite was located by comparing a Pc5 pulsation observed by the satellite, and the same pulsation observed by STARE.

  15. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Tablet PC as a mobil PACS terminal using wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Bo-Shen; Ching, Yu-Tai; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Chang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jung; Yen, York; Lee, Yuan-Ten

    2003-05-01

    A PACS mobile terminal has applications in ward round, emergency room and remote teleradiology consultation. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have the highest mobility and are used for many medical applications. However, their roles are limited in the field of radiology due to small screen size. In this study, we built a wireless PACS terminal using a hand-held tablet-PC. A tablet PC (X-pilot, LEO systems, Taiwan) running the WinCE operating systems was used as our mobile PACS terminal. This device is equipped with 800×600 resolution 10.4 inch TFT monitor. The network connection between the tablet PC and the server was linked via wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b).

  17. Path-consistency: When space misses time

    SciTech Connect

    Chmeiss, A.; Jegou, P.

    1996-12-31

    Within the framework of constraint programming, particulary concerning the Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), the techniques of preprocessing based on filtering algorithms were shown to be very important for the search phase. In particular, two filtering methods have been studied, these methods exploit two properties of local consistency: arc- and path-consistency. Concerning the arc-consistency methods, there is a linear time algorithm (in the size of the problem) which is efficient in practice. But the limitations of the arc-consistency algorithms requires often filtering methods with higher order like path-consistency filterings. The best path-consistency algorithm proposed is PC-6, a natural generalization of AC-6 to path-consistency. Its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) and its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}), where n is the number of variables and d is the size of domains. We have remarked that PC-6, though it is widely better than PC-4, was not very efficient in practice, specially for those classes of problems that require an important space to be run. Therefore, we propose here a new path-consistency algorithm called PC-7, its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) but its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) i.e. worse than that of PC-6. However, the simplicity of PC-7 as well as the data structures used for its implementation offer really a higher performance than PC-6. Furthermore, it turns out that when the size of domains is a constant of the problems, the time complexity of PC-7 becomes. like PC-6, optimal i.e. O(n{sup 3}).

  18. Realizing broad-bandwidth visible wavelength photodiode based on solution-processed ZnPc/PC71BM dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Fatima, Noshin; Karimov, Khasan S.; Ahmed, Muhammad M.; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a solution-processed visible wavelength organic photodiode (OPD) using donor/acceptor dyad of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric-acid methyl ester (PC71BM), respectively. The synergic absorption profiles of both ZnPc and PC71BM moieties have been exploited to realize broader (350 and 800 nm) and consistent absorption spectrum of the photoactive film. The optimum loading ratio (by volume) of D/A dyad has been estimated to be 1:0.8, via quenching phenomenon in ZnPc photoluminescence spectrum. The performance of the OPD has been evaluated by detecting the photocurrent density with respect to varied illumination levels (0-150 mW/cm2) of impinging light at different reverse bias conditions. Under identical reverse bias mode, the photocurrent density has shown significant upsurge as the incident intensity of light is increased; ultimately leading to the significantly higher responsivity (162.4 μA/W) of the fabricated diode. The light to dark current density ratio (Jph/Jd) of the device at 3 V reverse bias has been calculated to be ∼20.12. The transient photocurrent density response of the fabricated OPD has also been characterized at -4 V operational bias under switch ON/OFF illumination. The measured response and recovery time for the fabricated OPD are ∼200 and 300 ms, respectively.

  19. Oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of zirconia nanoparticles on PC12 and N2a cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R.; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sedaghat, Mehran; Boroushaki, Mohammad T.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest in the application of nanoparticles like zirconium dioxide (zirconia <100 nm), for many purposes. Since a comprehensive study on the toxic effects of zirconia has not been done, we decided to investigate the effects of zirconia nanoparticles on cultured PC12 and N2a cells. In this study, cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of zirconia nanoparticles at three different time intervals were evaluated using MTT and ROS (reactive oxygen species) assays. Also, Lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content changes, and DNA damage were measured. Zirconia nanoparticles caused a significant reduction in cell viability and GSH content of the cells, and induce a significant increase in intracellular ROS and MDA content of PC12 and N2a cells. Moreover, it increases the percentage of DNA tail of treated cells as compared with control group. Zirconia nanoparticles have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in PC12 and N2a cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner in concentration more than 31 µg/mL.

  20. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-07

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool.

  1. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 2: Data handling, communications (E-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technologies required to support the stated OAST thrust to increase information return by X1000, while reducing costs by a factor of 10 are identified. The most significant driver is the need for an overall end-to-end data system management technology. Maximum use of LSI component technology and trade-offs between hardware and software are manifest in most all considerations of technology needs. By far, the greatest need for data handling technology was identified for the space Exploration and Global Services themes. Major advances are needed in NASA's ability to provide cost effective mass reduction of space data, and automated assessment of earth looking imagery, with a concomitant reduction in cost per useful bit. A combined approach embodying end-to-end system analysis, with onboard data set selection, onboard data processing, highly parallel image processing (both ground and space), low cost, high capacity memories, and low cost user data distribution systems would be necessary.

  2. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 1: Navigation, guidance, control (E-1) A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The six themes identified by the Workshop have many common navigation guidance and control needs. All the earth orbit themes have a strong requirement for attitude, figure and stabilization control of large space structures, a requirement not currently being supported. All but the space transportation theme have need for precision pointing of spacecraft and instruments. In addition all the themes have requirements for increasing autonomous operations for such activities as spacecraft and experiment operations, onboard mission modification, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft assembly and maintenance, navigation and guidance, and self-checkout, test and repair. Major new efforts are required to conceptualize new approaches to large space antennas and arrays that are lightweight, readily deployable, and capable of precise attitude and figure control. Conventional approaches offer little hope of meeting these requirements. Functions that can benefit from increasing automation or autonomous operations are listed.

  3. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  4. PC-Based Applications Programming on the SRS Control System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martlew, Brian; Owen, Hywel; Pugh, Martin; Rawlinson, Bill; Smith, Susan

    1997-05-01

    The CERN PC-based ISOLDE control system has been installed at the SRS electron storage ring at Daresbury Laboratory. The use of Windows NT for the control consoles together with PC and VME front-end computers running under several operating systems has resulted in a flexible and reliable system for accelerator control. The implementation and philosophy of control application programs, based around a suite of Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel programs, is described. In particular, the use of Excel to provide adaptable programs online allows rapid generation of new control functions; orbit correction and servoing at the application level are described as examples of this.

  5. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  6. PC Windows finite element modeling of landfill gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, S.R.; Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Cota, H.

    1996-09-01

    A two dimensional demonstration program, GAS, has been developed for the solution of landfill gas (LFG) flow problems on a personal computer (PC). The program combines a Windows{trademark} graphical user interface, object oriented programming (OOP) techniques, and finite element modeling (FEM) to demonstrate the practicality of performing LFG flow modeling on the PC. GAS is demonstrated on a sample LFG problem consisting of a landfill, one gas extraction well, the landfill liner, cap, and surrounding soil. Analyses of the program results are performed for successively finer grid resolutions. Element flux imbalance, execution time, and required memory are characterized as a function of grid resolution.

  7. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Internal Delta Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This calibration takes internal flats periodically to permit the repair of external (earth-target) flat fields changed by pixel dependent QE changes which occur whenever the WF/PC is decontaminated. Note that the internal flat lamp is also useful with relatively wide filters in the red. This obtains intflats for: WFC: F439W, F547M, F555W, F622W, F702W, F785LP PC: F439W, F547M, F555W, F622W, F702W, F718M, F785LP

  8. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 7: Material (M-1). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The approach of matching technology areas with various themes needs was not effective for the materials and thermal control discipline because of the diversity of requirements for each. Top priorities were evolved from the advanced space transportation system and the space power platform because these are essential building blocks in fulfilling some of the other themes. Important needs identified include life long-life cryogenic cooling systems for sensors, masers, and other devices and the needs for lightweight nuclear shielding materials for nuclear electric propulsion.

  9. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  10. Binding of bovine T194A PrPC by PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madampage, Claudia A; Määttänen, Pekka; Marciniuk, Kristen; Brownlie, Robert; Andrievskaia, Olga; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil R; Lee, Jeremy S; Napper, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are based on the misfolding of a cellular prion protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological conformation (PrPSc). There is proof-of-principle evidence that a prion vaccine is possible but this is tempered with concerns of the potential dangers associated with induction of immune responses to a widely-expressed self-protein. By targeting epitopes that are specifically exposed upon protein misfolding, our group developed a vaccine that induces PrPSc-specific antibody responses. Here we consider the ability of this polyclonal antibody (SN6b) to bind to a mutant of PrPC associated with spontaneous prion disease. Polyclonal antibodies were selected to mimic the vaccination outcome and also explore all possible protein conformations of the recombinant bovine prion protein with mutation T194A [bPrP(T194A)]. This mutant is a homolog of the human T183A mutation of PrPC that is associated with early onset of familial dementia. With nanopore analysis, under non-denaturing conditions, we observed binding of the SN6b antibody to bPrP(T194A). This interaction was confirmed through ELISAs as well as immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and cellularly expressed forms of bPrP(T194A). This interaction did not promote formation of a protease resistant conformation of PrP in vitro. Collectively, these findings support the disease-specific approach for immunotherapy of prion diseases but also suggest that the concept of conformation-specific immunotherapy may be complicated in individuals who are genetically predisposed to PrPC misfolding. PMID:23787697

  11. Methylmercury decreases NGF-induced TrkA autophosphorylation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Parran, Damani K; Barone, Stanley; Mundy, William R

    2003-03-14

    Neurotrophin signaling through Trk receptors is important for differentiation and survival in the developing nervous system. The present study examined the effects of CH(3)Hg on (125)I-nerve growth factor (NGF) binding to the TrkA receptor, NGF-induced activation of the TrkA receptor, and neurite outgrowth in an in vitro model of differentiation using PC12 cells. Whole-cell binding assays using (125)I-NGF revealed a single binding site with a K(d) of approximately 1 nM. Methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) at 30 nM (EC(50) for neurite outgrowth inhibition) did not affect NGF binding to TrkA. TrkA autophosphorylation was measured by immunoblotting with a phospho-specific antibody. TrkA autophosphorylation peaked between 2.5 and 5 min of exposure and then decreased but was still detectable at 60 min. Concurrent exposure to CH(3)Hg and NGF for 2.5 min resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in TrkA autophosphorylation, which was significant at 100 nM CH(3)Hg. To determine whether the observed inhibition of TrkA was sufficient to alter cell differentiation, NGF-stimulated neurite outgrowth was examined in PC12 cells after exposure to 30 nM CH(3)Hg, a concentration that inhibited TrkA autophosphorylation by approximately 50%. For comparison, a separate group of PC12 cells were exposed to a concentration of the selective Trk inhibitor K252a (30 nM), which had been shown to produce significant inhibition of TrkA autophosphorylation. Twenty-four hour exposure to either CH(3)Hg or K252a reduced neurite outgrowth to a similar degree. Our results suggest that CH(3)Hg may inhibit differentiation of PC12 cells by interfering with NGF-stimulated TrkA autophosphorylation.

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the anuran pituitary gland: subcellular localization in corticotrope and melanotrope cells.

    PubMed

    Kurabuchi, S; Tanaka, S

    1997-06-01

    Specific antisera against mammalian prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 have been used to examine, light-immunocytochemically, the distribution of these enzymes in the pituitary gland of five different species of anuran amphibians (Rana catesbeiana, Bufo japonicus formosus, Xenopus laevis, Rana brevipoda porosa, and Buergeria japonica). A differential pattern of immunoreactivity of PC1 and PC2 was found among these species. Only PC1 was found in the corticotrope cells of the pars distalis in R. catesbeiana, B. japonicus formosus, and X. laevis. Only PC2 was observed in these cells in B. japonica, whereas both PC1 and PC2 were present in these cells in R. brevipoda porosa. PC2 immunoreactivity was always observed in melanotrope cells in the pars intermedia of all of the species, but it coexisted with PC1 immunoreactivity only in R. catesbeiana and X. laevis. The nerve fibers and terminals in the pars nervosa in all of the species were intensely immunopositive with both PC1 and PC2 antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy on B. japonicus formosus and B. japonica, by means of double-labeling with gold particles of different sizes, revealed that almost all the adrenocorticotropin-positive secretory granules in the corticotrope cells and alpha-melanophore-stimulating-hormone-positive secretory granules in the melanotrope cells were also labeled with either PC1 or PC2 antibodies. This study suggests that PC1 and PC2 are involved in the intracellular proteolytic cleavage of proopiomelanocortin in amphibian pituitary glands, a situation similar to that proposed for mammals.

  13. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  14. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  19. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  20. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C. -W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2016-08-16

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.

  1. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    DOE PAGES

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; ...

    2016-08-16

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensitymore » showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.« less

  2. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  3. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit…

  4. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  5. Using a PC as a Frequency Meter or a Counter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes hardware that enables the use of an IBM PC microcomputer as a frequency meter or a counter by using the parallel printer port. Eliminates the 16-bit time-day counter through the use of an external time base that can be conveniently set depending on the desired frequency range. (JRH)

  6. Teaching Mathematics in the PC Lab--The Students' Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten; Kohler, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was carried…

  7. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  8. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  9. What's Under Your PC's 'Hood': A Primer for Today's Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li; Mills, Joyce White

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to decide what type of computer to buy for a small academic library, based on software requirements, staff and patron use, and PC technology. Topics include the central processing unit; types of memory; storage devices; ports; multimedia capabilities; modems; operating systems; and monitors. (LRW)

  10. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Wang, Peng; Shen, Ying; Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Li, Hong-Nian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC60BA and PC71BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C60, C70 and PC61BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC60BA and PC71BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (EICT-), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC71BM. The EICT- of IC60BA is smaller than 4.14 eV.

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Single Chip UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only following a UV decontamination.

  12. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: 4-CHIP UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done for each CCD detector using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only during a UV campaign.

  13. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... examination of its PC Postage system and any other applications and technology infrastructure that may have a... organization uses another service organization (sub-service provider), Postal Service Management should... contribution of the sub-service organization's processes and controls in the achievement of the Postal...

  14. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... examination of its PC Postage system and any other applications and technology infrastructure that may have a... organization uses another service organization (sub-service provider), Postal Service Management should... contribution of the sub-service organization's processes and controls in the achievement of the Postal...

  15. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examination of its PC Postage system and any other applications and technology infrastructure that may have a... uses another service organization (sub-service provider), Postal Service management should consider the... of the sub-service organization's processes and controls in the achievement of the Postal...

  16. Multi-Purpose, Multi-Reservoir Simulation on a PC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    The methodology and difficulties in converting a large, general purpose, mainframe, batch oriented computer program (for reservoir simulation ) to...work effectively in the PC environment are described in this paper. A brief overview of the present capabilities of the general purpose reservoir ... simulation program (HEC-5), that works on mainframe and MS DOS compatible computers, is also presented. Keywords: Simulation, Personal computer, Reservior

  17. PC-CUBE: A Personal Computer Based Hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Alex; Fox, Geoffrey; Walker, David; Snyder, Scott; Chang, Douglas; Chen, Stanley; Breaden, Matt; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-band via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and CUBIX. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  18. Wf/pc Cycle 1 CALIBRATION:UV Flats 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to obtain the "instrument signature" for flat field corrections for the UV filters. The camera - filter combinations done in this proposal are: WFC: F194W, F230W, F284W PC: F194W, F230W, F284W This calibration should be part of each UV campaign.

  19. Deciding when It's Time to Buy a New PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    How to best decide when it's time to replace your PC, whether at home or at work, is always tricky. Spending on computers can make you more productive, but it's money you otherwise cannot spend, invest or save, and faster systems always await you in the future. What is clear is that the computer industry really wants you to buy, and the computer…

  20. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  2. Privacy Impact Assessment for the PC Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PC Label System collects contact information for individuals with an interest in EPA's Region 1. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  3. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Developments required to support the space power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the space power system. Highly sophisticated receivers for narrowband detection of microwave sensors and sensors for automated stellar cataloging to provide a mapping data base for SETI are needed. Various phases of solar system exploration require large area solid state imaging arrays from UV to IR; a long focal plane telescope; high energy particle detectors; advanced spectrometers; a gravitometer; and atmospheric distanalyzer; sensors for penetrometers; in-situ sensors for surface chemical analysis, life detection, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of surface soils, and for meteorological measurements. Active and passive multiapplication sensors, advanced multispectral scanners with improved resolution in the UV and IR ranges, and laser techniques for advanced probing and oceanographic characterization will enhance for global services.

  4. Sex comb on midleg (Scm) is a functional link between PcG-repressive complexes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyuckjoon; McElroy, Kyle A; Jung, Youngsook Lucy; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Zee, Barry M; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2015-06-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key regulators of development in Drosophila and are strongly implicated in human health and disease. How PcG complexes form repressive chromatin domains remains unclear. Using cross-linked affinity purifications of BioTAP-Polycomb (Pc) or BioTAP-Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], we captured all PcG-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) or PRC2 core components and Sex comb on midleg (Scm) as the only protein strongly enriched with both complexes. Although previously not linked to PRC2, we confirmed direct binding of Scm and PRC2 using recombinant protein expression and colocalization of Scm with PRC1, PRC2, and H3K27me3 in embryos and cultured cells using ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing). Furthermore, we found that RNAi knockdown of Scm and overexpression of the dominant-negative Scm-SAM (sterile α motif) domain both affected the binding pattern of E(z) on polytene chromosomes. Aberrant localization of the Scm-SAM domain in long contiguous regions on polytene chromosomes revealed its independent ability to spread on chromatin, consistent with its previously described ability to oligomerize in vitro. Pull-downs of BioTAP-Scm captured PRC1 and PRC2 and additional repressive complexes, including PhoRC, LINT, and CtBP. We propose that Scm is a key mediator connecting PRC1, PRC2, and transcriptional silencing. Combined with previous structural and genetic analyses, our results strongly suggest that Scm coordinates PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing.

  5. Architectural and Functional Diversity of Polycomb Group Response Elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Lesley; Kassis, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group response elements (PREs) play an essential role in gene regulation by the Polycomb group (PcG) repressor proteins in Drosophila. PREs are required for the recruitment and maintenance of repression by the PcG proteins. PREs are made up of binding sites for multiple DNA-binding proteins, but it is still unclear what combination(s) of binding sites is required for PRE activity. Here we compare the binding sites and activities of two closely linked yet separable PREs of the Drosophila engrailed (en) gene, PRE1 and PRE2. Both PRE1 and PRE2 contain binding sites for multiple PRE–DNA-binding proteins, but the number, arrangement, and spacing of the sites differs between the two PREs. These differences have functional consequences. Both PRE1 and PRE2 mediate pairing-sensitive silencing of mini-white, a functional assay for PcG repression; however, PRE1 requires two binding sites for Pleiohomeotic (Pho), whereas PRE2 requires only one Pho-binding site for this activity. Furthermore, for full pairing-sensitive silencing activity, PRE1 requires an AT-rich region not found in PRE2. These two PREs behave differently in a PRE embryonic and larval reporter construct inserted at an identical location in the genome. Our data illustrate the diversity of architecture and function of PREs. PMID:23934890

  6. Group Dynamics in Long -term blind endeavors on Earth as an analog for Remote Space Missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1803 - 1806, Dynamic Analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.; Reilly, J.

    In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains newline M Lewis and W Clark L C Expedition on an exploration to learn more about the large territory of land the U S had just purchased from France Cavan 1991 Their mission was to find a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of commerce and further industrial development Edwards 1999 Looking back at the events of this exploration there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond NASA Vision for Space Exploration 2004 - The L C Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean newline - The expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in early 18th century newline - The expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew newline - Supplies brought on the mission were limited mainly a mass weight issue rather than cost therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources In-Situ Resource Utilization approach including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty was necessary for crew survival The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar

  7. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasan, S. Karimov; Zubair, Ahmad; Farid, Touati; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; M. Muqeet, Rehman; S. Zameer, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30-40 μm. For the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120-150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ˜ 80-100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I-V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. Project supported by the GIK Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Pakistan and Physical Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

  8. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Simpson, E M

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei)F1 x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-müllerian hormone) locus; in human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipocortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previously mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting.

  9. Flow synthesis of arylboronic esters bearing electrophilic functional groups and space integration with Suzuki-Miyaura coupling without intentionally added base.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, Aiichiro; Moriwaki, Yuya; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2012-11-25

    We found that an integrated flow microreactor system enables the preparation of boronic esters bearing electrophilic functional groups using organolithium chemistry and that it allows for their use in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling without intentionally added base. Based on this method, cross-coupling of two aryl halides bearing electrophilic functional groups was accomplished to obtain the corresponding biaryl compounds in one flow.

  10. PcG Proteins, DNA Methylation, and Gene Repression by Chromatin Looping

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vijay K; McGarvey, Kelly M; Licchesi, Julien D.F; Ohm, Joyce E; Herman, James G; Schübeler, Dirk; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced genes in adult cancers are Polycomb group (PcG) marked in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that a large region upstream (∼30 kb) of and extending ∼60 kb around one such gene, GATA-4, is organized—in Tera-2 undifferentiated embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells—in a topologically complex multi-loop conformation that is formed by multiple internal long-range contact regions near areas enriched for EZH2, other PcG proteins, and the signature PcG histone mark, H3K27me3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of EZH2 in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of long-range associations at the GATA-4 locus, seemingly dependent on affecting the H3K27me3 enrichments around those chromatin regions, accompanied by a modest increase in GATA-4 transcription. The chromatin loops completely dissolve, accompanied by loss of PcG proteins and H3K27me3 marks, when Tera-2 cells receive differentiation signals which induce a ∼60-fold increase in GATA-4 expression. In colon cancer cells, however, the frequency of the long-range interactions are increased in a setting where GATA-4 has no basal transcription and the loops encompass multiple, abnormally DNA hypermethylated CpG islands, and the methyl-cytosine binding protein MBD2 is localized to these CpG islands, including ones near the gene promoter. Removing DNA methylation through genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferases (DKO cells) leads to loss of MBD2 occupancy and to a decrease in the frequency of long-range contacts, such that these now more resemble those in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells. Our findings reveal unexpected similarities in higher order chromatin conformation between stem/precursor cells and adult cancers. We also provide novel insight that PcG-occupied and H3K27me3-enriched regions can form chromatin loops and physically interact in cis around a single gene in mammalian cells. The loops associate with a

  11. Afternoon Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere (STARE radars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Vlasov, A. A.; Uspensky, M. V.; Kauristie, K.

    2010-06-01

    Two cases when Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations were registered at the IMAGE Scandinavian network of stations and with STARE radars in the afternoon sector (1700-1800 MLT) during the recovery phase of the moderate magnetic storm are analyzed in detail. Using the ground-based observations, it has been indicated that classical quasimonochromatic resonance Pc5 pulsations were observed in the first case (on October 12, 1999; Kp = 5); in this case the maximal amplitude of the spectral maximum at a frequency of 2.5 mHz was registered at Φ ˜ 65°. Two maximums were observed in the spectrum in the second case (on October 13, 1999; Kp = 4): ˜2.5 mHz (the same maximum) and 2.9 mHz; in this case the maximal oscillation amplitude (2.5 mHz) shifted to Φ > 67°. These results were compared with the echo signal intensity simultaneously registered with the STARE Finland radar on a beam oriented along the 105° geomagnetic meridian. The spatial-temporal maps of the Pc5 pulsation amplitude latitudinal distribution (“keograms”), constructed based on the radar measurements in the wide range of geomagnetic latitudes (63°-70°) where the resolution was substantially higher than that of the ground-based observations, made it possible to detect two regions spaced in latitude (Φ ˜ 65° and Φ ˜ 67°-68°) with the simultaneous excitation of oscillations (double resonance?), between which the plasmapause projection was supposedly located.

  12. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided

  13. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  14. The secretory proprotein convertases furin, PC5, and PC7 activate VEGF-C to induce tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Geraldine; Basak, Ajoy; Cromlish, James A.; Benjannet, Suzanne; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chrétien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Khatib, Abdel-Majid

    2003-01-01

    The secretory factor VEGF-C has been directly implicated in various physiological processes during embryogenesis and human cancers. However, the importance of the conversion of its precursor proVEGF-C to mature VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, and vessel formation and the identity of the protease(s) that regulate these processes is/are not known. The intracellular processing of proVEGF-C that occurs within the dibasic motif HSIIRR227SL suggests the involvement of the proprotein convertases (PCs) in this process. In addition, furin and VEGF-C were found to be coordinately expressed in adult mouse tissues. Cotransfection of the furin-deficient colon carcinoma cell line LoVo with proVEGF-C and different PC members revealed that furin, PC5, and PC7 are candidate VEGF-C convertases. This finding is consistent with the in vitro digestions of an internally quenched synthetic fluorogenic peptide mimicking the cleavage site of proVEGF-C (220Q-VHSIIRR↓SLP230). The processing of proVEGF-C is blocked by the inhibitory prosegments of furin, PC5, and PACE4, as well as by furin-motif variants of α2-macroglobulin and α1-antitrypsin. Subcutaneous injection of CHO cells stably expressing VEGF-C into nude mice enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, but not tumor growth. In contrast, expression of proVEGF-C obtained following mutation of the cleavage site (HSIIRR227SL to HSIISS227SL) inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the processing of proVEGF-C by PCs and highlight the potential use of PC inhibitors as agents for inhibiting malignancies induced by VEGF-C. PMID:12782675

  15. Establishment and characterization of methylmercury-resistant PC12 cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, K; Clarkson, T W; Ikeda, K; Naganuma, A; Imura, N

    1994-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg)-resistant sublines of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were isolated by repeated exposure to stepwise increased concentrations of MeHg. One of the sublines (PC12/TM) showed an 8- to 10-fold increase in resistance to MeHg compared with parent PC12 cells on the basis of the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of growth. PC12/TM cells accumulated smaller amounts of MeHg than parent PC12 cells. This reduction in MeHg accumulation in PC12/TM cells resulted from slow uptake and rapid efflux. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) level in PC12/TM cells was four times higher than that of PC12 cells. Pretreatment of PC12/TM cells with buthionine sulfoximine, which decreased the GSH level to that of the parent PC12 cells, increased the sensitivity of PC12/TM cells to MeHg. A close correlation between the MeHg accumulation and MeHg sensitivity was found among seven sublines of PC12 cells and parent PC12 cell line. The GSH level in PC12 sublines was also correlated with their sensitivity to MeHg. PMID:7843125

  16. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  17. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  18. Ground-satellite observation of Pc 4 pulsations by MAGDAS/CPMN and ETS-VIII geosynchronous orbit satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, A.; Yumoto, K.; Koga, K.; Obara, T.; Baishev, D. G.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.; Shishime, A.

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic pulsations in ULF range have been studied extensively using ground and satellite observations. However, how Pc 4 pulsations (6.7-22.2 mHz) propagate from the magnetosphere to the ground is not fully understand. Especially the propagation to low latitudes is unclear. We examined data obtained by the ETS-VIII satellite at the geosynchronous orbit (G.M.Lat. -12 degree, G.G.Lon. 146.0 degree) (Koga et al., 2010). We also analyzed ground data of MAGDAS/CPMN (Yumoto and the MAGDAS Group, 2006). The ground data were obtained at high-latitude CHD station (G.M.Lat. 64.9 degree, G.M.Lon. 212.7 degree) and at low-latitude KUJ station (G.M.Lat. 26.1 degree, G.M.Lon. 203.0 degree). The magnetic longitudes of these ground stations are almost same as that of the ETS-VIII. Pc 4 events at ETS-VIII were selected by an automated routine using FFT method which was developed by Takahashi and Ukhorskiy (2007). These Pc 4 events were classified into 2 types. One type is a poloidal Pc 4, in which Hp (northward) component is dominant. Another type is a toroidal mode, in which Hn (eastward) component is dominant. About 10 % of the poloidal/toroidal Pc 4 pulsations, the peak frequency is identical with that of ground Pc 4 pulsations, and the coherence between pulsations observed aboard ETS-VII and on the ground stations is high at the peak frequencies. Thus, about 10 % of the poloidal/toroidal Pc 4 in the magnetosphere can be concluded to transmit to high-latitude ground stations as well as low-latitude stations. For such Pc 4 events, H (horizontal northward) and D (horizontal eastward) components at CHD showed higher amplitude (delta(H)/delta(Hn) = 6.8, delta(H)/delta(Hp) = 10.8, delta(D)/delta(Hn) = 6.8, delta(D)/delta(Hp) = 7.4) than that at the geosynchronous orbit. On the other hand, H and D components at KUJ was attenuated considerably (delta(H)/delta(Hn) = 0.66, delta(H)/delta(Hp) = 0.89, delta(D)/delta(Hn) = 0.35, delta(D)/delta(Hp) = 0.37).

  19. Space smarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of design and development work in space data processors at the Honeywell Space Systems Group in Florida. Space computers, some hardened for the first time against radiation from both man-made nuclear events and the natural space environment, are described. A specific illustration of this is the Space Shuttle main engine control which monitors some 120 engine parameters 50 times per second and operates the actuators that control the liquid-fueled engine through its eight minute burn. It is further pointed out that Space Station processors will be tied together by three different data buses, each with its own protocol, while the backbone of the data management system will be an optical fiber distributed data interface handling up to 100 Mbits/sec. Radiation hardening without heavy shielding can be accomplished in several ways, i.e., at the materials level, by insulating substrates which can limit the photo-currents generated by a nuclear event, and at the topological level, by spacing transistors so that photocurrents cannot concentrate at any particular node.

  20. Number of free hydroxyl groups on bile acid phospholipids determines the fluidity and hydration of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, Vedagopuram; Bajaj, Avinash

    2013-10-10

    Interactions of synthetic phospholipids with model membranes determines the drug release capabilities of phospholipid vesicles at diseased sites. We performed 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-based fluorescence anisotropy, Laurdan-based membrane hydration, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies to cognize the interactions of three bile acid phospholipids, lithocholic acid-phosphocholine (LCA-PC), deoxycholic acid-phosphocholine (DCA-PC), and cholic acid-phosphocholine (CA-PC) with model membranes. These studies revealed that bile acid phospholipids increases membrane fluidity in DCA-PC > CA-PC > LCA-PC order, indicating that induction of membrane fluidity is contingent on the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids. Similarly, DCA-PC causes maximum membrane perturbations due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group, whereas LCA-PC induces gel phase in membranes due to hydrophobic bile acid acyl chain interactions. These DCA-PC-induced membrane perturbations induce a drastic decrease in phase transition temperature (Tm) as determined by calorimetric studies, whereas doping of LCA-PC causes phase transition broadening without change in Tm. Doping of CA-PC induces membrane perturbations and membrane hydration like DCA-PC but sharpening of phase transition at higher doping suggests self-association of CA-PC molecules. Therefore these differential mode of interactions between bile acid phospholipids and model membranes would help in the future for their use in drug delivery.

  1. Design and implementation of a PC-based image-guided surgical system.

    PubMed

    Stefansic, James D; Bass, W Andrew; Hartmann, Steven L; Beasley, Ryan A; Sinha, Tuhin K; Cash, David M; Herline, Alan J; Galloway, Robert L

    2002-11-01

    In interactive, image-guided surgery, current physical space position in the operating room is displayed on various sets of medical images used for surgical navigation. We have developed a PC-based surgical guidance system (ORION) which synchronously displays surgical position on up to four image sets and updates them in real time. There are three essential components which must be developed for this system: (1) accurately tracked instruments; (2) accurate registration techniques to map physical space to image space; and (3) methods to display and update the image sets on a computer monitor. For each of these components, we have developed a set of dynamic link libraries in MS Visual C++ 6.0 supporting various hardware tools and software techniques. Surgical instruments are tracked in physical space using an active optical tracking system. Several of the different registration algorithms were developed with a library of robust math kernel functions, and the accuracy of all registration techniques was thoroughly investigated. Our display was developed using the Win32 API for windows management and tomographic visualization, a frame grabber for live video capture, and OpenGL for visualization of surface renderings. We have begun to use this current implementation of our system for several surgical procedures, including open and minimally invasive liver surgery.

  2. Real-time visualization of large volume datasets on standard PC hardware.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kai; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Y M

    2008-05-01

    In medical area, interactive three-dimensional volume visualization of large volume datasets is a challenging task. One of the major challenges in graphics processing unit (GPU)-based volume rendering algorithms is the limited size of texture memory imposed by current GPU architecture. We attempt to overcome this limitation by rendering only visible parts of large CT datasets. In this paper, we present an efficient, high-quality volume rendering algorithm using GPUs for rendering large CT datasets at interactive frame rates on standard PC hardware. We subdivide the volume dataset into uniform sized blocks and take advantage of combinations of early ray termination, empty-space skipping and visibility culling to accelerate the whole rendering process and render visible parts of volume data. We have implemented our volume rendering algorithm for a large volume data of 512 x 304 x 1878 dimensions (visible female), and achieved real-time performance (i.e., 3-4 frames per second) on a Pentium 4 2.4GHz PC equipped with NVIDIA Geforce 6600 graphics card ( 256 MB video memory). This method can be used as a 3D visualization tool of large CT datasets for doctors or radiologists.

  3. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  4. Implementation of WASP-III on an IBM PC

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Huber, C.C.; Hamilton, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently developing a microcomputer-based energy planning package entitled ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP). As presently constructed, ENPEP consists of six analytic modules that can be run sequentially or independently: (1) macroeconomic analysis, (2) energy demand forecasting, (3) integrated energy demand/supply analysis, (4) electric load forecasting, (5) expansion planning for electrical generating systems, and (6) impacts of alternative supply systems. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is the fifth module of ENPEP and forms the heart of the ENPEP analytic capability. The experience in converting WASP-III to the IBM PC is reviewed and some recommendations for good performance on the PC are given. Finally, a few suggestions are presented for WASP improvements from the point of view of the user of the personal computer version of WASP.

  5. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  6. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  7. Structure of pentaquarks Pc+ in the chiral quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Ping, Jialun; Wang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The recent experimental results of the LHCb Collaboration suggested the existence of pentaquark states with a charmonium. To understand the structure of the states, a dynamical calculation of 5-quark systems with quantum numbers I JP=1/2 (1/2 )±,1/2 (3/2 )±and1/2 (5/2 )±is performed in the framework of the chiral quark model with the help of the Gaussian expansion method. The results show that there are several negative parity resonance states while all of the positive parity states are the scattering states. The Pc(4380 ) state is suggested to be the pentaquark state of Σc*D ¯. Although the energy of ΣcD ¯* is very close to the mass of Pc(4450 ), the inconsistent parity prevents the assignment. The calculated distances between quarks confirm the molecular nature of the states.

  8. Dystrophin Dp71 in PC12 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Enríquez-Aragón, Jose Arturo; Cerna-Cortés, Joel; Bermúdez de León, Mario; García-Sierra, Francisco; González, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we reported that PC12 cells with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells) display deficient nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth. In this study, we show that disturbed neurite outgrowth of antisense-Dp71 cells is accompanied by decreased adhesion activity on laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In wild-type cells, the immunostaining of Dp71 and _1-integrin overlaps in the basal area contacting the substrate, but staining of both proteins decrease in the antisense-Dp71 cells. Morphology of antisense-Dp71 cells at the electron microscopic level is characterized by the lack of filopodia, cellular projections involved in adhesion. Our findings suggest that Dp71 is required for the efficient PC12 cell attachment to b1-integrin-dependent substrata and that decreased adhesion activity of the anti-sense-Dp71 cells could determine their deficiency to extend neurites. PMID:15706226

  9. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Nitha V.; Kumar, A. Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  10. Nausea control by needling at acupuncture point Neiguan (PC6) during an intraoral impression-taking procedure.

    PubMed

    Zotelli, Vera Lucia Rasera; Grillo, Cássia Maria; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture point PC6 (Neiguan) in controlling nausea during intraoral impression taking. This study was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 33 adult volunteers with nausea, who were randomly divided into control and study groups, and treated with nonpenetrating sham acupuncture and real acupuncture, respectively, at acupoint PC6. The two groups had two maxillary impressions taken, one prior to acupuncture and the other after acupuncture. The nausea assessment was made using the visual analog scale, Gagging Severity Index (GSI), and Gagging Prevention Index. Volunteers' expectation that nausea would be reduced through acupuncture was also assessed. For statistical analysis, we used the t test and the Spearman correlation (p < 0.05). When assessed by Gagging Severity Index/Gagging Prevention Index, nausea was reduced in the real acupuncture group (p < 0.01). In the visual analog scale assessment, similar reductions of nausea were noted in both groups (p > 0.05). No correlation existed between the expected and the actual reductions in nausea. Our results indicate that acupoint PC6 was effective for controlling nausea during the maxillary impression-taking procedure. Patients' expectation did not influence the results.

  11. The PC Dugout Micro-Mainframe Integration System: PAX Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    System Mainframe Implementation Language PC Implementation Language Communications Package and File Transfer Protocol Requirements 5 DUGOUT DESIGN...remember any commands or language syntax. In some cases users are asked to answer a few simple, nontechnical prompts. To download or upload files, a...problem. The database management systems Focus and Structured Query Language /Data System (SQL/DS) successfully circumvent this restriction in the PAX VM/CMS

  12. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  13. The photodynamic antibacterial effects of silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4.

    PubMed

    Dimaano, Matthew L; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D

    2015-04-08

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2-5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens.

  14. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  15. Global nature of Pc 5 magnetic pulsation during the WHI observation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.; Group, M.

    2008-12-01

    In conjunction with the activities of IHY(International Heliophysical Year), an international observation campaign was planned and carried out from March 20 to April 16 of 2008. The name of this campaign is Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI). During WHI, the nations of the world worked together to collect relevant scientific data. As a result, there now exists an exceptionally good data set of multi-point ground-based and satellite magnetometer data for this time frame. There were no clear and outstanding geomagnetic storms during WHI, but there were some moderate geomagnetically active moments. For example, on March 26, Dst index decreased from 25 nT to -41 nT for 10 hours(1000 -1900 UT). The amplitude of Pc 5 pulsation in the frequency band between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz at the MAGDAS stations increased for few days after March 26. Using magnetometer data obtained globally from ULTIMA(Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array) stations, we will investigate the occurrence and wave characteristics(amplitude, period and phase) of Pc 5 pulsations. Particularly high-latitude Pc 5 observed at THEMIS (the Time History of Events and Macroscopic Interactions during Substorms), CARISMA(Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity) and McMaC (Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain) stations will be compared with equatorial-latitude Pc 5 observed at MAGDAS stations(TIR, DAV, YAP, ANC, EUS, ILR, and UT=LT+5h, +8h, +9h, -5h, -2h and 0h, respectively). Acknowledgment: MAGDAS data used in this paper were obtained in mutual collaborations with the following representatives of various organizations; Prof. Archana Bhattacharya(Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, TIR), Fr. Daniel McNamara(Manila Observatory, DAV), Dr. David Aranug(Weather Service Office YAP, YAP), Dr. Ronald Woodman Pollitt(Instituto Geofisico del Peru, ANC), Dr. Severino L. G. Dutra(Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE), EUS), Dr. A. Babatunde Rabiu(Federal University of Technology

  16. Four-Channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 Circuit Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The mini bus interface card (miniBIC) is the first four-channel electronic circuit board that conforms to MIL-STD-1553 and to the electrical-footprint portion of PC/104. [MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical- interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. PC/104 is an industry standard for compact, stackable modules that are fully compatible (in architecture, hardware, and software) with personal-computer data- and power-bus circuitry.] Prior to the development of the miniBIC, only one- and two-channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 boards were available. To obtain four channels, it was necessary to include at least two boards in a PC/104 stack. In comparison with such a two-board stack, the miniBIC takes up less space, consumes less power, and is more reliable. In addition, the miniBIC includes 32 digital input/output channels. The miniBIC (see figure) contains four MIL-STD-1553B hybrid integrated circuits (ICs), four transformers, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) interface. Each hybrid IC includes a MILSTD-1553 dual transceiver, memory-management circuitry, processor interface logic circuitry, and 64Kx16 bits of shared static random access memory. The memory is used to configure message and data blocks. In addition, 23 16-bit registers are available for (1) configuring the hybrid IC for, and starting it in, various modes of operation; (2) reading the status of the functionality of the hybrid IC; and (3) resetting the hybrid IC to a known state. The miniBIC can operate as a remote terminal, bus controller, or bus monitor. The FPGA provides the chip-select and data-strobe signals needed for operation of the hybrid ICs. The FPGA also receives interruption signals and forwards them to the ISA bus. The ISA interface connects the address, data, and control interfaces of the hybrid ICs to the ISA backplane. Each channel is, in effect, a MIL

  17. Kinetics of alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu isothermal conversion in air and thermal behavior of beta-PcCu from in situ real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ballirano, Paolo; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-07-09

    The kinetics of the alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu conversion in air has been followed, under isothermal conditions, in situ real-time in the 423-443 K temperature range. Data have been fitted following the JMAK model. The reaction order of the kinetics at 423 K is consistent with a diffusion controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles, whereas at higher temperatures it is consistent with a phase boundary controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles. At 423 K, the overall transformation mechanism implies three steps: growth of the alpha-PcCu phase, disordering of adjacent columns of molecules of phthalocyanine, and nucleation and growth of the beta-PcCu phase. The calculated empirical activation energy is of 187 kJ/mol significantly greater than that for the alpha-PcCo --> beta-PcCo conversion. This fact seems to support the reported different structures of alpha-PcCo and alpha-PcCu. Investigation of the thermal behavior of beta-PcCu indicates a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion that follows the alpha(c) > alpha(a) approximately = alpha(b) trend. Moreover, the beta angle decreases with increasing temperature. Such anisotropy is consistent with the geometry of the very weak N3...H3 hydrogen bond which acts mainly along the c axis.

  18. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  19. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-07-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO3 layers and organic layers of C60, SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO3/organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO3. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (EHL) of C60, SubPc, and MgPc and the effective EHL of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔEL) or HOMO (ΔEH) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C60, respectively, and to -0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C60, respectively. Exponential tails below EHL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states.

  20. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  1. Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects group characteristics and use of space by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  2. Novel phthalocyaninatobis(alkylcarboxylato)silicon(IV) compounds: NMR data and X-ray structures to study the spacing provided by long hydrocarbon tails that enhance their solubility.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Sánchez, Jose L; Sosa-Sánchez, Arturo; Farfán, Norberto; Zamudio-Rivera, Luis S; López-Mendoza, Gerson; Pérez Flores, Javier; Beltrán, Hiram I

    2005-07-04

    The reaction between trans-PcSiCl2 (1) and the potassium salts of six fatty acids (2 a-2 f) led to the trans-PcSi[OOC(CH2)nCH3]2 compounds (3 a-3 f), which were characterised by elemental analysis, IR, UV/Vis and 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. From a detailed study of the NMR spectra, the strong anisotropic currents of the Pc macrocycle were found to have an effect on up to the sixth methylenic group. As expected, the length of the hydrocarbon tail does not affect the chemical shift of the 29Si nucleus of any of the compounds, appearing at around -222.6. The structures of PcSi[OOC(CH2)nCH3]2, where n = 7, 10, 12, 13 and 20, were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the compounds were found to be triclinic with a P1 space group. In all cases the observed crystallographic pseudosymmetry is Ci and the asymmetric unit consists of half a molecule. The silicon atom is at the centre of a distorted octahedron and hence its coordination number is six. The carboxylate fragments are in a trans configuration with respect to the Pc macrocycle. The supramolecular structures are discussed in detail herein. The correlation between the 1H NMR chemical shifts and the position of the corresponding carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon tail reveals that the dicarboxylate substituents exhibit a spacer-like behaviour that enhances the solubility. A detailed study of the tail variable allowed us to evaluate the loss of radial shielding along the Pc2- ligand.

  3. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C60, PC61BM, C70, and PC71BM Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Zheng, Zilong; Aziz, Saadullah G; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder.

  4. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  5. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  6. Is the Metallic Phosphorus Carbide (β0-PC) Monolayer Stable? An Answer from a Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2017-02-16

    Phosphorus carbide (PC) has been the subject of major research efforts in recent years. In this regard, very recently, a stoichiometric metallic phosphorus carbide (β0-PC) monolayer has been proposed as locally stable with one lone nonbonding electron in each C atom. Therefore, the ambiguity of coexistence of a nonbonding electron with metallic properties for β0-PC is reported and hence deserves further explanation. Herein, using first-principles calculations, we have explored the stability and electronic properties of β0-PC to resolve this ambiguity. The metallic behavior of β0-PC is explained on the basis of electron delocalization involving P and C atoms along a zigzag chain of β0-PC. We have also explored the possibility of getting a β0-PC monolayer via homogeneous doping of C (P) into phosphorene (graphene) and layer exfoliation of 3D bulk PC with β-InS-like structure, which has been experimentally synthesized.

  7. Ascorbic acid protects against colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Chongshan; Gao, Ruixia; Li, Jichang

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced neurotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress, a potential mechanism. An in vitro neurotoxicity model was established with PC12 cells exposed to 125 µg/mL colistin sulfate for 24 h. PC12 cells were treated with colistin (125 µg/mL) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µM/mL) for 24 h. Both 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were carried out to evaluate cell viability. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed. Moreover, we tested the level of DNA fragmentation, the release of cytochrome-c and the expressions of caspase-9 and -3 mRNA. The results showed that 1 and 10 µM/mL ascorbic acid significantly increased the cell viability and the levels of SOD and GSH (both p<0.05), while 0.1, 1 and 10 µM/mL ascorbic acid significantly decreased the generation of ROS, the release of cytochrome-c, formation of DNA fragmentation and the expressions of caspase-9 and -3 mRNA in colistin-treated PC12 cells, compared with the colistin model group. These results suggest that ascorbic acid could reduce colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity through the resistance of oxidative stress and the prevention of apoptosis mediated via mitochondria pathway. They also highlight the potential of coadministering ascorbic acid to widen the therapeutic dose of colistin.

  8. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical Group "SPACE-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (SPACE) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays” which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.

  9. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  10. Molecular Modeling on the PC (by Matthew F. Schlecht)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Reviewed Frank

    2000-06-01

    "Computeraided molecular modeling doesn't exist for its own sake, but to contribute to scientific endeavor, and enable the scientist to work smarter." This is the last sentence of Schlecht's preface and it says something very important about contemporary scientific research in the academic and industrial venues. Owing to the accelerating improvement in computer technology (hardware and software) and its widespread availability, molecular modeling has become a reliable and important tool in chemical research. Consequently, experimentalists have incorporated molecular modeling techniques in their research, and partnerships with computational chemists have become common. This is a wellorganized and thorough monograph that devotes its attention to one type of molecular modeling, molecular mechanics, and one molecular modeling software package, PCMODEL. Schlecht targets two reader-user groups, the novice and the journeyman modeler, and articulates three goals. He wants to provide the novice with an introduction to molecular mechanics, and after that with some practical examples of the use of empirical force field calculations. His third goal is to provide the journeyman modeler with a reference work that will aid "further study and practice". These are potentially conflicting goals, but Schlecht is, in my opinion, successful because of the way his book is organized. A comprehensive treatment such as this one is not meant to be read from cover to cover, because it is both an exposition of basic principles and a user's manual. Therefore, the novice and the experienced modeler will undoubtedly use this book in different ways. For example, a novice modeler might be advised to read the Preface and Chapter 1, which together provide a broad introduction to the historical development and goals of molecular mechanics. From there the novice could go to Chapter 5 and read section 5.1 on the components of the molecular mechanics force field, which is presented in 22 pages with

  11. Characterization of μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 in Multiple Organic Photovoltaic Device Architectures: Comparing against and Combining with Cl-BsubPc.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Jeffrey S; Garner, Richard K; Dang, Jeremy D; Thibau, Emmanuel; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Bender, Timothy P

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate the first application of a unique boron subphthalocyanine (BsubPc) derivative, the oxygen bridged dimer μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2, as a multifunctional material within planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. We first explored the pairing of μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 with well-known electron accepting and electron donating materials to explore its basic functionality. These preliminary device structures and metrics indicated that μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 is best applied as an electron donating material when used in simple bilayer structures, as it yielded comparable OPV device efficiencies to that of the more well-established and highly optimized chloro-boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) OPV device structures. Thereafter we established that the HOMO/LUMO energy levels of μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 are well-placed to apply it as a bifunctional donor/acceptor interlayer material in both energy and charge cascade OPV device architectures. Within this context, we found that μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 was particularly effective in a charge cascade device as an interlayer between Cl-BsubPc and C70. We finally found evidence of an alloying-like effect for devices with mixed electron donor layers of (Cl-BsubPc) and μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2, achieved through co-deposition. The overarching conclusion is therefore that μ-oxo-(BsubPc)2 has the ability to improve the performance of Cl-BsubPc OPV devices and is a multifunctional material worthy of further study.

  12. PC index as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere: 2. Relation to the interplanetary electric field E KL before substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, OA; Sormakov, DA

    2015-10-01

    This paper (the second of a series) presents the results of statistical investigation of relationship between the interplanetary electric field E KL and the Polar Cap (PC) index in case of magnetic substorms (1998-2001), which have been analyzed in Troshichev et al. (J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014). The PC index is directly related to the E KL field variations on interval preceding the substorm sudden onset (SO): correlation R > 0.5 is typical of more than 90 % of isolated substorms, 80 % of expanded substorms, and 99 % of events with coordinated E KL and PC jumps. The low or negative correlation observing in ~10 % of examined substorms suggests that the solar wind flow measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in the Lagrange point L1 did not encounter the magnetosphere in these cases. Examination of the delay times Δ T in the response of PC index to E KL variations provides the following results: (1) delay times do not depend on separate solar wind parameters, such as solar wind speed V X and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B Z component, contrary to general conviction, (2) the Δ T value is best controlled by the E KL field growth rate (d E KL/dt), (3) the lower Δ T limit (5-7 min is attained under conditions of the higher E KL growth rate, and (4) the PC index provides the possibility to verify the solar wind flow transportation time from ACE position (where the solar wind speed is estimated) to magnetosphere. These results, in combination with data testifying that the substorm onsets are related to the PC precursors, demonstrate that the PC index is an adequate ground-based indicator of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere.

  13. Space Boundary Tool (SBT)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Cody

    2012-07-01

    SBT is an application that automatically calculates thermal zone boundaries suitable for input to the EnergyPlus simulation engine from building element and space geometry defined in IFC. SBT has multiple components. There is a general computational core, a DLL for reading and writing IFC files, and a GUI front end. The GUI also has the capability to create ready-to-simulate IDF files for EnergyPlus. Hardware req: PC; Operating Syst/Version: MSVC++2010; Type of files: source code; Documentation: User Manual (Electronic).

  14. Study parameters influencing NOAEL and LOAEL in toxicity feeding studies for pesticides: exposure duration versus dose decrement, dose spacing, group size and chemical class.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Engeli, Barbara E; Schlatter, Josef R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic studies. There was no statistical significant effect of exposure duration on ratio distributions. Whereas geometric means of ratios were in a narrow range of 1.1-2.5, the geometric standard deviations and 95th percentiles increased with dose spacing of the involved studies. With the exception of carbamates, the chemical class of pesticides had no influence on the ratio distributions. However, the number of animals in the shorter-term study of ratio couples being ≤ 1 was statistically significantly higher than in ratio couples being >1. Ratios ≤ 1 may be partly explained by the dose decrement over time observed in feeding studies applying the test substances in constant concentrations. The dose decrement possibly converts initially toxic doses to less toxic doses beyond the subacute phase. Ratios >1 seem to be caused predominantly by differences in study design parameters. In dietary risk assessment, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is compared to pesticide intake estimates based on mean food consumption (i.e. the so called theoretical maximum daily intake, TMDI) being orders of magnitude lower than actual food consumption on eating occasions for certain food commodities. As subacute, subchronic and chronic NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentration in feed did not differ statistically significantly, the TMDI as benchmark for the ADI may underestimate the significance of the toxicity of subacute exposure.

  15. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  16. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  18. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  3. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  6. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Soler, David C; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-06-08

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3(+) T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6-59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0-300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6-81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300 nM, p < 0.001 between 50 and 150 nM, n = 8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150 nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3(+) T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin

  7. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  8. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J.; Anderson, B.J. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Arnoldy, R.L. ); Rosenberg, T.J. ); Carpenter, D.L. ); Gail, W.B. ); Eather, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors have compared search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica, during selected days in March and April 1986. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the daysie cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light a 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. When Pc 3 pulsations are present, they exhibit nearly identical frequencies, proportional to the magnitude of the IMF, in magnetometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver signals at South Pole Station and in magnetometer signals at McMurdo. Singals from the 30-MHz riometer at South Pole are modulated in concert with the magnetic and optical variations during periods of broadband pulsation activity, but no riometer variations are noted during periods of narrow-band activity. Because riometers are sensitive to electrons of auroral energies (several keV and above), while the 427.8-nm photometer is sensitive to precipitation with much lower energies, they interpret these observatons as showing that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons (with energies {le} 1 keV) at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. They suggest that these particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  9. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  10. Chemogenomic analysis of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jack Yu-Shih; Wu, Chien Liang; Liao, Chia Nan; Higuchi, Akon; Ling, Qing-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a system level. Through high throughput experiments and system biology analysis, we investigated the genes and pathways associated with NGF induced neuronal differentiation. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, system biology analysis, and annotation of pathway functions to study NGF-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. We identified 2020 NGF-induced genes with altered expressions over time. Cross-matching with the KEGG database revealed 830 genes; among which, 395 altered genes were found to have a 2-fold increase in gene expression over a two-hour period. We then identified 191 associated biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 pathways showed correlation with neural differentiation. These included the neurotrophin pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, genes associated with axonal guidance and the Wnt pathways. The activation of these pathways synchronized with nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. In summary, we have established a model system that allows one to systematically characterize the functional pathway changes in a group of neuronal population after an external stimulus.

  11. A Simple HPLC-UV Method for the Determination of Glutathione in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Appala, Raju N.; Appala, Raju V. V. S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the assay of glutathione (GSH) in PC-12 cells. Glutathione is a major intracellular antioxidant having multiple biological effects, best known for its cytoprotective effects against cell damage from reactive oxygen species and toxic reactive metabolites and regulating the cellular redox homeostasis. Due to its own sulfhydryl (SH) group, GSH readily reacts with Ellman's reagent to form a stable dimer which allows for quantitative estimation of GSH in biological systems by UV detection. The separation was achieved using a C8 column with a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 2.5 (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B), running in a segmented gradient manner at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and UV detection was performed at 280 nm. The developed HPLC-UV method was validated with respect to precision, accuracy, robustness, and linearity within a range of 1–20 μg/mL. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the method shows the applicability for monitoring the oxidative stress in PC-12 cells. PMID:27127683

  12. A STAR-FORMING RING AROUND κ Ori 250 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250–280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5–8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  13. A versatile, PC-based gamma ray monitor.

    PubMed

    Drndarevic, V; Jevtic, N

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new computer-based gamma ray monitor for laboratory and field measurements. The monitor consists of a universal peripheral device, and GM counter gamma ray probe, connected via USB to the PC. The peripheral device is generic; in addition to the GM probe, it accepts sensors for spectrometric measurements as well as sensors for the measurement of other environmental parameters. Owing to its low-power consumption, it is used with laptop or palmtop computer, as a portable field measurement instrument. The proposed solution has advantages over conventional instrument: (1) open architecture; (2) user-defined functions and (3) easy network connection.

  14. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  15. Wf/pc Cycle 1 CALIB:RECIPROCITY Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the "reciprocity" effect observed in earth calib observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Watch for discrete changes in this behavior 2. Look for long term variability 3. Have before/after checks in place for decontaminations safings, or UVflood. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every week. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  16. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  17. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  18. Secretory phospholipases A2 induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Satoru; Ikeno, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Kuwana, Masakazu; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2003-01-01

    sPLA(2)s (secretory phospholipases A(2)) belong to a broad and structurally diverse family of enzymes that hydrolyse the sn -2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. We previously showed that a secreted fungal 15 kDa protein, named p15, as well as its orthologue from Streptomyces coelicolor (named Scp15) induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at nanomolar concentrations. We report here that both p15 and Scp15 are members of a newly identified group of fungal/bacterial sPLA(2)s. The phospholipid-hydrolysing activity of p15 is absolutely required for neurite outgrowth induction. Mutants with a reduced PLA(2) activity exhibited a comparable reduction in neurite-inducing activity, and the ability to induce neurites closely matched the capacity of various p15 forms to promote fatty acid release from live PC12 cells. A structurally divergent member of the sPLA(2) family, bee venom sPLA(2), also induced neurites in a phospholipase activity-dependent manner, and the same effect was elicited by mouse group V and X sPLA(2)s, but not by group IB and IIA sPLA(2)s. Lysophosphatidylcholine, but not other lysophospholipids, nor arachidonic acid, elicited neurite outgrowth in an L-type Ca(2+) channel activity-dependent manner. In addition, p15-induced neuritogenesis was unaffected by various inhibitors that block arachidonic acid conversion into bioactive eicosanoids. Altogether, these results delineate a novel, Ca(2+)- and lysophosphatidylcholine-dependent neurotrophin-like role of sPLA(2)s in the nervous system. PMID:12967323

  19. Astaxanthin Inhibits PC-3 Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaofeng; Yu, Haining; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shen, Shengrong

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common malignancy in men, is a major cause of cancer deaths. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor initiation and progression may identify actionable targets to improve treatment of this patient group. As a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against inflammation, cardiovascular disease, oxidative damage, or different cancer sites. This study used intragastric administration of astaxanthin to detect its role on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) overexpression, and microbacteria composition change by establishing androgen-independent PCa cell PC-3 xenograft nude mice. Nude mice were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. The intervention was started when tumors reached 0.5–0.6 cm in diameter. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (HA), 25 mg/kg astaxanthin (LA), or olive oil (TC). The results showed that 100 mg/kg astaxanthin significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the TC group, with an inhibitory rate of 41.7%. A decrease of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as an increase of cleaved caspase-3 were observed in HA-treated tumors, along with increasing apoptotic cells, obtained by TUNEL assay. The HA significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressors miR-375 and miR-487b in tumor tissues and the amount of Lactobacillus sp. and Lachnospiraceae in mice stools, while there was no significant difference between LA and TC groups. These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect in a dietary supplement manner. PMID:28282880

  20. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.