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Sample records for space suit glove

  1. Compression under a mechanical counter pressure space suit glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldie, James M A.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tourbier, Dietmar; Webb, Paul; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Current gas-pressurized space suits are bulky stiff shells severely limiting astronaut function and capability. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) space suit in the form of a tight elastic garment could dramatically improve extravehicular activity (EVA) dexterity, but also be advantageous in safety, cost, mass and volume. The purpose of this study was to verify that a prototype MCP glove exerts the design compression of 200 mmHg, a pressure similar to the current NASA EVA suit. Methods: Seven male subjects donned a pressure measurement array and MCP glove on the right hand, which was placed into a partial vacuum chamber. Average compression was recorded on the palm, the bottom of the middle finger, the top of the middle finger and the dorsum of the hand at pressures of 760 (ambient), 660 and 580 mmHg. The vacuum chamber was used to simulate the pressure difference between the low breathing pressure of the current NASA space suits (approximately 200 mmHg) and an unprotected hand in space. Results: At ambient conditions, the MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand at 203.5 +/- 22.7 mmHg, the bottom of the middle finger at 179.4 +/- 16.0 mmHg, and the top of the middle finger at 183.8 +/- 22.6 mmHg. The palm compression was significantly lower (59.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, p<0.001). There was no significant change in glove compression with the chamber pressure reductions. Conclusions: The MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand and middle finger at the design pressure.

  2. Compression under a mechanical counter pressure space suit glove.

    PubMed

    Waldie, James M A; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tourbier, Dietmar; Webb, Paul; Jarvis, Christine W; Hargens, Alan R

    2002-12-01

    Current gas-pressurized space suits are bulky stiff shells severely limiting astronaut function and capability. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) space suit in the form of a tight elastic garment could dramatically improve extravehicular activity (EVA) dexterity, but also be advantageous in safety, cost, mass and volume. The purpose of this study was to verify that a prototype MCP glove exerts the design compression of 200 mmHg, a pressure similar to the current NASA EVA suit. Seven male subjects donned a pressure measurement array and MCP glove on the right hand, which was placed into a partial vacuum chamber. Average compression was recorded on the palm, the bottom of the middle finger, the top of the middle finger and the dorsum of the hand at pressures of 760 (ambient), 660 and 580 mmHg. The vacuum chamber was used to simulate the pressure difference between the low breathing pressure of the current NASA space suits (approximately 200 mmHg) and an unprotected hand in space. At ambient conditions, the MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand at 203.5 +/- 22.7 mmHg, the bottom of the middle finger at 179.4 +/- 16.0 mmHg, and the top of the middle finger at 183.8 +/- 22.6 mmHg. The palm compression was significantly lower (59.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, p<0.001). There was no significant change in glove compression with the chamber pressure reductions. The MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand and middle finger at the design pressure.

  3. EV space suit gloves (passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

  4. Skin microvascular flow during hypobaric exposure with and without a mechanical counter-pressure space suit glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Waldie, James; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Webb, Paul; Tourbier, Dietmar; Knudsen, Jeffrey; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current space suits are rigid, gas-pressurized shells that protect astronauts from the vacuum of space. A tight elastic garment or mechanical-counter-pressure (MCP) suit generates pressure by compression and may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with and without a prototype MCP glove. METHODS: The right hand of eight normal volunteers was studied at normal ambient pressure and during exposure to -50, -100 and -150 mm Hg with and without the MCP glove. Measurements included the pressure against the hand, skin microvascular flow, temperature on the dorsum of the hand, and middle finger girth. RESULTS: Without the glove, skin microvascular flow and finger girth significantly increased with negative pressure, and the skin temperature decreased compared with the control condition. The MCP glove generated approximately 200 mm Hg at the skin surface; all measured values remained at control levels during exposure to negative pressure. DISCUSSION: Without the glove, skin microvascular flow and finger girth increased with negative pressure, probably due to a blood shift toward the hand. The elastic compression of the material of the MCP glove generated pressure on the hand similar to that in current gas-pressurized space suit gloves. The MCP glove prevented the apparent blood shift and thus maintained baseline values of the measured variables despite exposure of the hand to negative pressure.

  5. Space suit glove design with advanced metacarpal phalangeal joints and robotic hand evaluation.

    PubMed

    Southern, Theodore; Roberts, Dustyn P; Moiseev, Nikolay; Ross, Amy; Kim, Joo H

    2013-06-01

    One area of space suits that is ripe for innovation is the glove. Existing models allow for some fine motor control, but the power grip--the act of grasping a bar--is cumbersome due to high torque requirements at the knuckle or metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCP). This area in particular is also a major source of complaints of pain and injury as reported by astronauts. This paper explores a novel fabrication and patterning technique that allows for more freedom of movement and less pain at this crucial joint in the manned space suit glove. The improvements are evaluated through unmanned testing, manned testing while depressurized in a vacuum glove box, and pressurized testing with a robotic hand. MCP joint flex score improved from 6 to 6.75 (out of 10) in the final glove relative to the baseline glove, and torque required for flexion decreased an average of 17% across all fingers. Qualitative assessments during unpressurized and depressurized manned testing also indicated the final glove was more comfortable than the baseline glove. The quantitative results from both human subject questionnaires and robotic torque evaluation suggest that the final iteration of the glove design enables flexion at the MCP joint with less torque and more comfort than the baseline glove.

  6. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  7. NASA Research Announcement Phase 2 Final Report for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingo, Robert; Cadogan, Dave; Sanner, Rob; Sorenson, Beth

    1997-01-01

    The main goal of this program was to develop an unobtrusive power-assisted EVA glove metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint that could provide the crew member with as close to nude body performance as possible, and to demonstrate the technology feasibility of power assisted space suit components in general. The MCP joint was selected due to its being representative of other space suit joints, such as the shoulder, hip and carpometacarpal joint, that would also greatly benefit from this technology. In order to meet this objective, a development team of highly skilled and experienced personnel was assembled. The team consisted of two main entities. The first was comprised of ILC's experienced EVA space suit glove designers, who had the responsibility of designing and fabricating a low torque MCP joint which would be compatible with power assisted technology. The second part of the team consisted of space robotics experts from the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory. This team took on the responsibility of designing and building the robotics aspects of the power-assist system. Both parties addressed final system integration responsibilities.

  8. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

  10. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  11. Mobility of the elastic counterpressure space suit glove.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Danaher, Patrick; Webb, Paul; Hargens, Alan R

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the mobility of the current gas-pressurized glove of the extravehicular mobility unit (G-glove) and the elastic counterpressure glove (E-glove), we investigated range of motion (ROM) and indices of fatigue during grip endurance with both gloves using a bare hand as a control. In nine healthy male right-handed subjects, ROM of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left middle finger was measured. The median frequency of electromyography (EMG) of the left flexor carpi radialis during grip with 25% of maximum strength was measured with the bare hand, G-glove, and E-glove. Using Borg's scale, discomfort was assessed during each grip test. ROM of the E-glove was similar to that of the bare hand (91 +/- 3 degrees and 97 +/- 1 degree for the E-glove and bare hand, respectively) and significantly higher than that of the G-glove (74 +/- 2 degrees). The change in the median frequency of the EMG, which is correlated with Borg's scale, was significantly smaller using the E-glove at marker time points of 1/4 and 1/2 of the total endurance time (-3.5 +/- 1.5 and -10.4 +/- 1.2 Hz) compared to those for the G-glove (-10.1 +/- 1.1 and -16.7 +/- 1.9 Hz). Thus, the G-glove had faster onset of fatigue than the E-glove. These results suggest the E-glove has better mobility and is more suitable for fine motor tasks as compared to the G-glove.

  12. RoboGlove-A Grasp Assist Device for Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Rogers, J. M.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. Work is underway to integrate the RoboGlove system with a space suit glove to add strength or reduce fatigue during spacewalks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove in an assembly-line configuration and discusses work toward the space suit application.

  13. Monitoring Human Performance During Suited Operations: A Technology Feasibility Study Using EMU Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekdash, Omar; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Mobility tracking of human subjects while conducting suited operations still remains focused on the external movement of the suit and little is known about the human movement within it. For this study, accelerometers and bend sensitive resistors were integrated into a custom carrier glove to quantify range of motion and dexterity from within the pressurized glove environment as a first stage feasibility study of sensor hardware, integration, and reporting capabilities. Sensors were also placed on the exterior of the pressurized glove to determine if it was possible to compare a glove joint angle to the anatomical joint angle of the subject during tasks. Quantifying human movement within the suit was feasible, with accelerometers clearly detecting movements in the wrist and reporting expected joint angles at maximum flexion or extension postures with repeatability of plus or minus 5 degrees between trials. Bend sensors placed on the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints performed less well. It was not possible to accurately determine the actual joint angle using these bend sensors, but these sensors could be used to determine when the joint was flexed to its maximum and provide a general range of mobility needed to complete a task. Further work includes additional testing with accelerometers and the possible inclusion of hardware such as magnetometers or gyroscopes to more precisely locate the joint in 3D space. We hope to eventually expand beyond the hand and glove and develop a more comprehensive suit sensor suite to characterize motion across more joints (knee, elbow, shoulder, etc.) and fully monitor the human body operating within the suit environment.

  14. Sensory substitution for space gloves and for space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach-Y-rita, P.; Webster, J. G.; Tompkins, W. J.; Crabb, T.

    1987-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems for space applications are described. Physical sensors replace missing human receptors and feed information to the interpretive centers of a different sense. The brain is plastic enough so that, with training, the subject localizes the input as if it were received through the missing receptors. Astronauts have difficulty feeling objects through space suit gloves because of their thickness and because of the 4.3 psi pressure difference. Miniature force sensors on the glove palm drive an electrotactile belt around the waist, thus augmenting the missing tactile sensation. A proposed teleoperator system with telepresence for a space robot would incorporate teleproprioception and a force sensor/electrotactile belt sensory substitution system for teletouch.

  15. Field protection effectiveness of chemical protective suits and gloves evaluated by biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chang, F K; Chen, M L; Cheng, S F; Shih, T S; Mao, I F

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of protective suits and gloves by biomonitoring. Methods Fifteen male spray painters at a ship coating factory were studied for two weeks. Workers wore no protective clothing during the first week and wore protective suits and gloves during the second week. Sampling was conducted on four consecutive working days each week. Ethyl benzene and xylene in the air were collected by using 3M 3500 organic vapour monitors. Urine was collected before and after each work shift. Results Urinary mandelic acid (MA) and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) levels were divided by the personal exposure concentrations of ethyl benzene and xylene, respectively. Mean (SE) corrected MA and MHA concentrations in the first week were 1.07 (0.18) and 2.66 (0.68) (mg/g creatinine)/(mg/m3), and concentrations in the second week were 0.50 (0.12) and 1.76 (0.35) (mg/g creatinine)/(mg/m3) in the second week, respectively. Both MA and MHA concentrations in the second week (when spray painters wore protective suits and gloves) were lower than in the first week, respectively (p<0.001, p = 0.011). Mean decrease in MA and MHA biomarkers were 69% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion This study successfully evaluated the effectiveness of chemical protective suits and gloves by using biomarkers as urinary MA and MHA. This method is feasible for determining the performance of workers wearing personal protective equipment. Moreover, the experimental results suggest that dermal exposure may be the major contributor to total body burden of solvents in spray painters without protective suits and gloves. PMID:17522137

  16. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 -- 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a dust free, manufactured microgravity EVA environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 -- 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 -- 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of International Space Station (ISS)-based EVA tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected periodically throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the

  17. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Claire E.

    2015-01-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects’ hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  18. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits.

    PubMed

    Millard, Claire E; Vaughan, Nicholas P

    2015-10-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects' hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  19. Skin blood flow with elastic compressive extravehicular activity space suit.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Taro M; Morita, Hironobu; Hargens, Alan R

    2003-10-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), current space suits are pressurized with 100% oxygen at approximately 222 mmHg. A tight elastic garment, or mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit that generates pressure by compression, may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative ambient pressure with an MCP sleeve. The MCP glove and sleeve generated pressures similar to the current space suit. MCP remained constant during negative pressure due to unchanged elasticity of the material. Decreased skin capillary blood flow and temperature during MCP compression was counteracted by greater negative pressure or a smaller pressure differential.

  20. Use of DSC and DMA to Study Rubber Crystallization as a Possible Cause for a Tear in a Neoprene Glove Used in a Space Shuttle Pressurized Astronaut Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) is a pressurized suit normally worn by astronauts during launch and landing phases of Space Shuttle operations. In 2008, a large tear (0.5 -1 in. long, between the pinky and ring finger) in the ACES left-hand glove made of neoprene latex rubber was found during training for Shuttle flight STS-124. An investigation to help determine the cause(s) of the glove tear was headed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Efforts at JSC to reproduce the actual glove tear pattern by cutting/tearing or rupturing were unsuccessful. Chemical and material property data from JSC such as GC-MS, FTIR, DSC and TGA mostly showed little differences between samples from the torn and control gloves. One possible cause for the glove tear could be a wedding ring/band worn by a male astronaut. Even with a smooth edge, such a ring could scratch the material and initiate the tear observed in the left-hand glove. A decision was later made by JSC to not allow the wearing of such a ring during training or actual flight. Another possible cause for the ACES glove tear is crystallinity induced by strain in the neoprene rubber over a long period of time and use. Neoprene is one several elastomeric materials known to be susceptible to crystallization, and such a process is accelerated with exposure of the material to cold temperatures plus strain. When the temperature is lowered below room temperature, researchers have shown that neoprene crystallization may be maintained at temperatures as high as 45-50 F, with a maximum crystallization rate near 20-25 F (1). A convenient conditioning temperature for inducing neoprene crystallization is a typical freezer that is held near 0 F. For work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), samples were cut from several areas/locations (pinky/ring finger crotch, index finger and palm) on each of two pairs of unstrained ACES gloves for DSC and DMA thermal analysis testing. The samples were conditioned

  1. RoboGlove: Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grip strength or endurance for a user. In applying this Robonaut 2 spinoff technology to the Phase VI Space Suit glove, the project is using robotic tendons and actuators to regain some of the hand performance that is lost when wearing a pressurized glove. An array of sensors embedded into the finger softgoods provides input to the control system which retracts the tendons, helping to close the user's hand. While active, this system provides augmentation, but is nonintrusive to glove usage when disabled.

  2. Calculating and Mitigating the Risk of a Cut Glove to a Space Walking Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2013-01-01

    One of the high risk operations on the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting a space walk, or an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Threats to the space walking crew include airlock failures, space suit failures, and strikes from micro ]meteoroids and orbital debris (MM/OD). There are risks of becoming untethered from the space station, being pinched between the robotic arm and a piece of equipment, tearing your suit on a sharp edge, and other human errors that can be catastrophic. For decades NASA identified and tried to control sharp edges on external structure and equipment by design; however a new and unexpected source of sharp edges has since become apparent. Until recently, one of the underappreciated environmental risks was damage to EVA gloves during a spacewalk. The ISS has some elements which have been flying in the environment of space for over 14 years. It has and continues to be bombarded with MM/OD strikes that have created small, sharp craters all over the structure, including the dedicated EVA handrails and surrounding structure. These craters are capable of cutting through several layers of the EVA gloves. Starting in 2006, five EVA crewmembers reported cuts in their gloves so large they rendered the gloves unusable and in some cases cut the spacewalk short for the safety of the crew. This new hazard took engineers and managers by surprise. NASA has set out to mitigate this risk to safety and operations by redesigning the spacesuit gloves to be more resilient and designing a clamp to isolate MM/OD strikes on handrails, and is considering the necessity of an additional tool to repair strikes on non ]handrail surfaces (such as a file). This paper will address how the ISS Risk Team quantified an estimate of the MM/OD damage to the ISS, and the resulting likelihood of sustaining a cut glove in order to measure the effectiveness of the solutions being investigated to mitigate this risk to the mission and crew.

  3. 20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND TERRY WEST, A SPACE SUIT ASSEMBLY TECHNICIAN LOGGING SUIT PART DATA. PARTS ON THE TABLE ARE A HARD UPPER TORSO (HUT) (REAR LEFT), FULL HELMET (FRONT LEFT), TWO HELMETS WITHOUT PROTECTIVE VISORS, A PAIR OF GLOVES, AND A BACKPACK WITHOUT VOLUMETRIC COVER (REAR RIGHT). THE BACKPACK ATTACHES TO THE HUT TO MAKE-UP THE UPPER TORSO COMPONENTS OF THE SUIT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  5. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  6. Development and Test of Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two years, the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project under NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) funded an effort to develop an electromechanically-assisted space suit glove. The project was a collaboration between the Johnson Space Center's Software, Robotics, and Simulation Division and the Crew and Thermal Systems division. The project sought to combine finger actuator technology developed for Robonaut 2 with the softgoods from the ILC Phase VI EVA glove. The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) uses a system of three linear actuators to pull synthetic tendons attached to the glove's fingers to augment flexion of the user's fingers. To detect the user's inputs, the system utilizes a combination of string potentiometers along the back of the fingers and force sensitive resistors integrated into the fingertips of the glove cover layer. This paper discusses the development process from initial concepts through two major phases of prototypes, and the results of initial human testing. Initial work on the project focused on creating a functioning proof of concept, designing the softgoods integration, and demonstrating augmented grip strength with the actuators. The second year of the project focused on upgrading the actuators, sensors, and software with the overall goal of creating a system that moves with the user's fingers in order to reduce fatigue associated with the operation of a pressurized glove system. This paper also discusses considerations for a flight system based on this prototype development and address where further work is required to mature the technology.

  7. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  8. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  9. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  10. RoboGlove - A Robonaut Derived Multipurpose Assistive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. The technology holds great promise for use with space suit gloves to reduce fatigue during space walks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove.

  11. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  12. Thermal and Mechanical Testing of Neoprene Gloves Used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Neoprene gloves are used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box (MGBX) experiment. In 1999, significant corrosion was observed in the work area and on the outer surface of the left glove ring. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that they contained chlorine. The Neoprene gloves used in this glove box were obtained in 1995, with a recommended shelf life of 3 years. After storage of these gloves in a cabinet drawer until 1999, significant signs of corrosion were also observed in the drawer. Mechanical and thermal properties were determined on samples cut from the finger and sleeve areas of the "good" and "bad" gloves. This data showed significant aging of the left-hand glove, particularly in the sleeve area. Thermal analysis data by DSC and TGA was complimentary to tensile data in showing this aging. However, this test data did not pinpoint the cause of the left-hand glove aging, or of the corrosion products.

  13. Mobility of an elastic glove for extravehicular activity without prebreathing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ikeda, Mizuki; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-09-01

    The current U.S. extravehicular activity (EVA) suit is pressurized at 0.29 atm, which is much lower than the pressures of sea level and inside a space station. Higher pressure can reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS), but mobility would be sacrificed. We have demonstrated that a glove and sleeve made of elastic material increased mobility when compared with those made of nonelastic material, such as that found in the current suit. We hypothesized that an elastic glove of 0.65 atm that has no risk of DCS also has greater mobility compared with a non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm. The right hands of 10 healthy volunteers were studied in a chamber with their bare hands at normal ambient pressure, after donning a non-elastic glove with a pressure differential of 0.29 atm, and after donning an elastic glove with a pressure differential of 0.29 and 0.65 atm. Range of motion (ROM) of the index finger and surface electromyography (EMG) amplitudes during finger flexion were measured. ROM with gloves was significantly smaller than that of bare hands, but was similar between conditions of gloves regardless of elasticity and pressure differentials. However, EMG amplitudes with the elastic glove of 0.29 and 0.65 atm were significantly smaller than those with the non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm. The results suggest that mobility of the elastic glove of 0.65 atm may be better than that of the non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm, similar to that used in the current EVA suit.

  14. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  15. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  16. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  17. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  18. Suited for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the basic functions of space suits for EVA astronauts. Space suits are also described from the past, present and future space missions. The contents include: 1) Why Do You Need A Space Suit?; 2) Generic EVA System Requirements; 3) Apollo Lunar Surface Cycling Certification; 4) EVA Operating Cycles for Mars Surface Missions; 5) Mars Surface EVA Mission Cycle Requirements; 6) Robustness Durability Requirements Comparison; 7) Carry-Weight Capabilities; 8) EVA System Challenges (Mars); 9) Human Planetary Surface Exploration Experience; 10) NASA Johnson Space Center Planetary Analog Activities; 11) Why Perform Remote Field Tests; and 12) Other Reasons Why We Perform Remote Field Tests.

  19. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  20. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  1. Development of a test protocol for evaluating EVA glove performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Testing gloved hand performance involves work from several disciplines. Evaluations performed in the course of reenabling a disabled hand, designing a robotic end effector or master controller, or hard-suit design have all yielded relevant information, and, in most cases, produced performance test methods. Most times, these test methods have been primarily oriented toward their parent discipline. For space operations, a comparative test which would provide a way to quantify pressure glove and end effector performance would be useful in dividing tasks between humans and robots. Such a test would have to rely heavily on sensored measurement, as opposed to questionnaires, to produce relevant data. However, at some point human preference would have to be taken into account. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating gloved hand performance which attempts to respond to these issues. Glove testing of a prototype glove design using this method is described.

  2. 19. NBS SUIT LAB. STORAGE SHELF WITH LIQUID COOLING VENTILATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. NBS SUIT LAB. STORAGE SHELF WITH LIQUID COOLING VENTILATION GARMENT (LCVG), SUIT GLOVES, WAIST INSERTS, UPPER AND LOWER ARMS (LEFT, FROM TOP TO BOTTOM), LOWER TORSO ASSEMBLIES (LTA) (MIDDLE RIGHT TO LOWER RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Newly designed launch and entry suit (LES) modeled by technician

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-11-14

    Space shuttle orange launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit, is modeled by a technician. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life raft, life preserver unit (LPU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear.

  4. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  5. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  6. Space Suit Spins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Space is a hostile environment where astronauts combat extreme temperatures, dangerous radiation, and a near-breathless vacuum. Life support in these unforgiving circumstances is crucial and complex, and failure is not an option for the devices meant to keep astronauts safe in an environment that presents constant opposition. A space suit must meet stringent requirements for life support. The suit has to be made of durable material to withstand the impact of space debris and protect against radiation. It must provide essential oxygen, pressure, heating, and cooling while retaining mobility and dexterity. It is not a simple article of clothing but rather a complex modern armor that the space explorers must don if they are to continue exploring the heavens

  7. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; McBarron JW 2nd; Severin, G I

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronauts initiated in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mother-craft of different combinations are discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  8. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  9. Constellation Space Suit System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Daniel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program has initiated the first new flight suit development project since the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed for the Space Shuttle Program in the 1970s. The Constellation suit system represents a significant challenge to designers in that the system is required to address all space suit functions needed through all missions and mission phases. This is in marked contrast to the EMU, which was designed specifically for micro-gravity space walks. The Constellation suit system must serve in all of the following scenarios: launch, entry and abort crew survival; micro-gravity extravehicular activity (EVA); and lunar (1/6th-gravity) surface EVA. This paper discusses technical efforts performed from May 2006 through February 2007 for the Constellation space suit system pressure garment.

  10. Using the Space Glove to Teach Spatial Thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of extending students' skills in spatial thinking to astronomical scales was the central focus of our K-8 curriculum development. When the project's lead teacher requested a curriculum that cumulatively built on each prior year's learning in a spiral fashion, I knew exactly what the school was asking for. Second and third graders began by noticing the cyclical patters that the sun, moon, and stars make in the sky. Fourth graders explored the phases of the moon by taking turns modeling and sketching them in their classroom and then comparing them to the real sky. Sixth !graders used real telescopes to observe a moving model of our solar system and walked a scale model of the planets' orbits. The curriculum is designed to expand students' capacity to visualize space in a hierarchical fashion that asks them to imagine themselves from a broader number of spatial perspectives through hands-on activities. The "situational awareness" Peter's story describes is a hallmark of high-performance engineering and innovation. Keeping in mind the potential outcomes of multiple paths of pursuit from multiple perspectives while keeping track of their relative merits and performance requirements is a demanding spatial task. What made it possible for Peter to transform the failure of his first glove into triumph was the mental space in which that failure provided exactly the information needed for a new breakthrough. In at least two cases, Peter could immediately "see" the full implications of what his hands were telling him. He tells the story of how putting his hands in a Phase VI astronaut glove instantly transformed his understanding of the glove challenge. Six months into his development, the failure of circumferentially wrapped cords to produce a sufficiently flexible glove again forced him to abandon his assumptions. His situational awareness was so clear and compelling it became a gut-level response. Peter's finely developed spatial skills enabled him to almost

  11. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  12. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  13. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  14. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  15. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  16. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  17. PHYSX Glove Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A mock-up of the stainless-steel Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Projects experimental 'glove' undergoes hot-loads tests at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The thermal ground test simulates heats and pressures the wing glove will experience at hypersonic speeds. Quartz heat lamps subject this model of a Pegasus booster rocket's right wing glove to the extreme heats it will experience at speeds approaching Mach 8. The glove has a highly reflective surface, underneath which are hundreds of temperature and pressure sensors that will send hypersonic flight data to ground tracking facilities during the experimental flight. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was

  18. Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The `fit? of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA?s need to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.

  19. Investigation of the effects of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) and Launch and Entry (LES) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.

    1992-01-01

    Human capabilities such as dexterity, manipulability, and tactile perception are unique and render the hand as a very versatile, effective and a multipurpose tool. This is especially true for unknown environments such as the EVA environment. In the microgravity environment interfaces, procedures, and activities are too complex, diverse, and defy advance definition. Under these conditions the hand becomes the primary means of locomotion, restraint, and material handling. Facilitation of these activities, with simultaneous protection from the cruel EVA environment are the two, often conflicting, objectives of glove design. The objectives of this study was (1) to assess the effects of EVA gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities, (2) to devise a protocol for evaluating EVA gloves, (3) to develop force time relations for a number of EVA glove pressure combinations, and (4) to evaluate two types of launch and entry suit gloves. The objectives were achieved through three experiments. The experiments for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3 were performed in the glove box in building 34. In experiment 1 three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. A number of performance measures were recorded. In experiment 2 the same gloves as in experiment 1 were evaluated in a reduced number of pressure conditions. The performance measure was endurance time. Six subjects participated in both the experiments. In experiment 3 two types of launch and entry suit gloves were evaluated using a paradigm similar to experiment 1. Currently the data is being analyzed. However for this report some summary analyses have been performed. The results indicate that a) With EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, b) performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, c) TMG effects are not consistent across the three gloves tested, d) some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the

  20. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  1. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  2. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  3. Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Line drawings illustrate the front and back of the space shuttle launch and entry suit (LES) and labels identify various components. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life preserver unit (LPU), life raft unit (LRU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear. Details of larger components are also identified.

  4. Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-09-22

    Line drawings illustrate the front and back of the space shuttle launch and entry suit (LES) and labels identify various components. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life preserver unit (LPU), life raft unit (LRU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear. Details of larger components are also identified.

  5. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting.

  6. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  7. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

  8. Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

  9. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  10. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  11. SOAR 89: Space Station. Space suit test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; West, Philip; Rouen, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The elements of the test program for the space suit to be used on Space Station Freedom are noted in viewgraph form. Information is given on evaluation objectives, zero gravity evaluation, mobility evaluation, extravehicular activity task evaluation, and shoulder joint evaluation.

  12. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A space suit's mobility is critical to an astronaut's ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. Mobility can be broken down into two parts: range of motion (ROM) and torque. These two measurements describe how the suit moves and how much force it takes to move. Two methods were chosen to define mobility requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). One method focuses on range of motion and the second method centers on joint torque. A joint torque test was conducted to determine a baseline for current advanced space suit joint torques. This test utilized the following space suits: Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), I-Suit, D-Suit, Enhanced Mobility (EM)- ACES, and Mark III (MK-III). Data was collected data from 16 different joint movements of each suit. The results were then reviewed and CSSE joint torque requirement values were selected. The focus of this paper is to discuss trends observed during data analysis.

  13. Testing of Space Suit Materials for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in our approach to EVA suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete 50 EVAs in the dirt under intense UV exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising its mobility. We conducted ground testing on both current and new space suit materials to determine performance degradation after exposure to 2500 hours of Mars mission equivalent UV. This testing will help mature the material technologies and provide performance data that can be used by not only the space suit development teams but for all Mars inflatable and soft goods derived structures from airlocks to habitats.

  14. Preliminary Shuttle Space Suit Shielding Model. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, J. E.; Qualls, G. D.; Staritz, P. J.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Ware, J.; hide

    2003-01-01

    There are two space suits in current usage within the space program: EMU [2] and Orlan-M Space Suit . The Shuttle space suit components are discussed elsewhere [2,5,6] and serve as a guide to development of the current model. The present model is somewhat simplified in details which are considered to be second order in their effects on exposures. A more systematic approach is ongoing on a part-by-part basis with the most important ones in terms of exposure contributions being addressed first with detailed studies of the relatively thin space suit fabric as the first example . Additional studies to validate the model of the head coverings (bubble, helmet, visors.. .) will be undertaken in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the model as it is now and to examine its impact on estimates of astronaut health risks. In this respect, the nonuniform distribution of mass of the space suit provides increased shielding in some directions and some organs. These effects can be most important in terms of health risks and especially critical to evaluation of potential early radiation effects .

  15. Suitport Feasibility: Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a space suit prototype on the second generation MMSEV cabin, and testing is planned using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. Pressurized testing will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, a suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents

  16. Shuttle Space Suit: Fabric/LCVG Model Validation. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed space suit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the space suit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of space suit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric layup (Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and LCVG could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present space suit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the space suit s protection properties.

  17. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  18. Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet; Cencer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for long-duration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

  19. Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for longduration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

  20. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  1. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  2. Emergency Medical Considerations in a Space-Suited Patient.

    PubMed

    Garbino, Alejandro; Nusbaum, Derek M; Buckland, Daniel M; Menon, Anil S; Clark, Jonathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency. For this reason the Medical Support Team coordinated with the pressure suit assembly engineer team for integration, training in suit removal, definition of a priori contingency leadership on site, creation of color-coded extraction scenarios, and extraction drills with a suit mock-up that provided insight into limitations to immediate access. This paper discusses novel extraction processes and contrasts the required medical preparation for this type of equipment with the needs of the prior record-holding jump that used a different space suit with easier immediate access. Garbino A, Nusbaum DM, Buckland DM, Menon AS, Clark JB, Antonsen EL. Emergency medical considerations in a space-suited patient. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):958-962.

  3. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  4. Evaluation of hole sizes in structures requiring EVA services as a means to prevent gloved-hand finger entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the concerns of Space Station designers was making sure that the suited crewmembers' gloved fingers are not trapped in the holes that may be present in the structures during EVA activities. A study was conducted on 11 subjects to determine the minimum and maximum possible hole sizes that would eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment. Subjects wore pressurized gloves and attempted to insert their fingers into holes of various sizes. Based on the experimental results, it is recommended that the smallest diameter should be less than 13.0 mm and the largest diameter should be greater than 35.0 mm in order to eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment while wearing gloves. It is also recommended that the current requirements specified by the MSIS-STD-3000 (Section 6.3.3.4) should be modified accordingly.

  5. NASA CONNECT(TradeMark): Space Suit Science in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, William B.; Giersch, Chris; Bensen, William E.; Holland, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA CONNECT's(TradeMark) program titled Functions and Statistics: Dressed for Space initially aired on Public Broadcasting Stations (PBS) nationwide on May 9, 2002. The program traces the evolution of past space suit technologies in the design of space suits for future flight. It serves as the stage to provide educators, parents, and students "space suit science" in the classroom.

  6. Comparison of air exhausts for surgical body suits (space suits) and the potential for periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Halabi, S; Jones, C

    2018-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection is a major complication of total joint replacement surgery and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial burden. Surgical body suits (space suits), originally designed to reduce the incidence of infection, have paradoxically been implicated in increased periprosthetic joint infection rates recently. Air exhausted from space suits may contribute to this increased rate of periprosthetic joint infection. To investigate the flow of air exhausted from space suits commonly used in modern operating theatres. The exhaust airflow patterns of four commercially available space suit systems were compared using a fog machine and serial still photographs. The space suit systems tested all air exhausted into the operating room. The single fan systems with a standard surgical gown exhausted air laterally from the posterior gown fold at approximately the level of the surgical field. The single fan system with a dedicated zippered suit exhausted air at a level below the surgical field. The dual fan system exhausted air out of the top of the helmet at a level above the surgical field. Space suit systems currently in use in joint replacement surgery differ significantly from traditional body exhaust systems; rather than removing contaminated air from the operating environment, modern systems exhaust this air into the operating room, in some cases potentially towards the sterile instrument tray and the surgical field. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    A space suit s mobility is critical to an astronaut s ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. The term mobility, with respect to space suits, is defined in terms of two key components: joint range of motion and joint torque. Individually these measures describe the path which in which a joint travels and the force required to move it through that path. Previous space suits mobility requirements were defined as the collective result of these two measures and verified by the completion of discrete functional tasks. While a valid way to impose mobility requirements, such a method does necessitate a solid understanding of the operational scenarios in which the final suit will be performing. Because the Constellation space suit system requirements are being finalized with a relatively immature concept of operations, the Space Suit Element team elected to define mobility in terms of its constituent parts to increase the likelihood that the future pressure garment will be mobile enough to enable a broad scope of undefined exploration activities. The range of motion requirements were defined by measuring the ranges of motion test subjects achieved while performing a series of joint maximizing tasks in a variety of flight and prototype space suits. The definition of joint torque requirements has proved more elusive. NASA evaluated several different approaches to the problem before deciding to generate requirements based on unmanned joint torque evaluations of six different space suit configurations being articulated through 16 separate joint movements. This paper discusses the experiment design, data analysis and results, and the process used to determine the final values for the Constellation pressure garment joint torque requirements.

  8. The EVA space suit development in Europe.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1994-01-01

    The progress of the European EVA space suit predevelopment activities has resulted in an improved technical reference concept, which will form the basis for a start of the Phase C/D development work in 1992. Technology development work over the last 2 years has resulted in a considerable amount of test data and a better understanding of the characteristics and behaviour of individual parts of the space suit system, in particular in the areas of suits' mobility and life support functions. This information has enabled a consolidation of certain design features on the one hand, but also led to the challenging of some of the design solutions on the other hand. While working towards an improved situation with respect to the main design drivers mass and cost, the technical concept has been improved with respect to functional safety and ease of handling, taking the evolving Hermes spaceplane requirements into consideration. Necessary hardware and functional redundancies have been implemented taking the operational scenario with Hermes and Columbus servicing into consideration. This paper presents the latest design status of the European EVA space suit concept, with particular emphasis on crew safety, comfort and productivity, in the frame of the predevelopment work for the European Space Agency.

  9. [A dynamic model of the extravehicular (correction of extravehicuar) activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Yuan, Xiu-gan

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish a dynamic model of the space suit base on the particular configuration of the space suit. Method. The mass of the space suit components, moment of inertia, mobility of the joints of space suit, as well as the suit-generated torques, were considered in this model. The expressions to calculate the moment of inertia were developed by simplifying the geometry of the space suit. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and it was implemented numerically basing on the observed suit parameters. Result. A dynamic model considering mass, moment of inertia and suit-generated torques was established. Conclusion. This dynamic model provides some elements for the dynamic simulation of the astronaut extravehicular activity.

  10. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' humanrated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

  11. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

  12. The experience in operation and improving the Orlan-type space suits.

    PubMed

    Abramov, I P

    1995-07-01

    Nowadays significant experience has been gained in Russia concerning extravehicular activity (EVA) with cosmonauts wearing a semi-rigid space suit of the "Orlan" type. The conditions for the cosmonauts' vital activities, the operational and ergonomic features of the space suit and its reliability are the most critical factors defining the efficiency of the scheduled operation to be performed by the astronaut and his safety. As the missions performed by the cosmonauts during EVA become more and more elaborate, the requirements for EVA space suits and their systems become more and more demanding, resulting in their consistent advancement. This paper provides certain results of the space suit's operation and analysis of its major problems as applied to the Salyut and MIR orbiting stations. The modification steps of the space suit in the course of operation (Orlan-D, Orlan-DM, Orlan-DMA) and its specific features are presented. The concept of the suited cosmonauts' safety is described as well as trends for future space suit improvements.

  13. Astronauts Greg Harbaugh and Joe Tanner suit up for training in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-11

    S96-12830 (10 June 1996) --- Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, STS-82 mission specialist assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) involved with the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), dons the gloves for his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suit. He is about to be submerged in a 25-ft. deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F) to participate in simulations for some of the EVA work. Out of frame, astronaut Gregory J. Harbaugh was on the other side of the platform, waiting to join Tanner in the spacewalk rehearsal.

  14. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  15. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  16. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y; Doodnik, Michail N

    2002-01-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit. After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Ultraviolet Testing of Space Suit Materials for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine; Fries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in the approach to extra-vehicular (EVA) suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete multiple EVAs under intense ultraviolet (UV) light exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising the suit's mobility. To study how the materials degrade on Mars in-situ, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invited the Advanced Space Suit team at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to place space suit materials on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument's calibration target of the Mars 2020 rover. In order to select materials for the rover and understand the effects from Mars equivalent UV exposure, JSC conducted ground testing on both current and new space suit materials when exposed to 2500 hours of Mars mission equivalent UV. To complete this testing, JSC partnered with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to utilize their UV vacuum chambers. Materials tested were Orthofabric, polycarbonate, Teflon, Dacron, Vectran, spectra, bladder, nGimat coated Teflon, and nGimat coated Orthofabric. All samples were measured for mass, tensile strength, and chemical composition before and after radiation. Mass loss was insignificant (less than 0.5%) among the materials. Most materials loss tensile strength after radiation and became more brittle with a loss of elongation. Changes in chemical composition were seen in all radiated materials through Spectral Analysis. Results from this testing helped select the materials that will fly on the Mars 2020 rover. In addition, JSC can use this data to create a correlation to the chemical changes after radiation-which is what the rover will send back while on Mars-to the mechanical changes, such as tensile strength.

  18. The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Nicogossian, A.

    The majority of the environmental factors which comprise the spacecraft and space suit environments can be controlled at "Earth normal" values, at optimum values, or at other values decided upon by spacecraft designers. Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of these parameters include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. Several of the physiologic considerations, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness are identified and their impact on space craft and space suit atmosphere selection are considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physiological responses are reviewed. Current areas of physiological investigation relating to environmental factors in spacecraft are discussed, particularly decompression sickness which can occur as a result of change in pressure from Earth to spacecraft or spacecraft to space suit. Physiological considerations for long-term lunar or Martian missions will have different impacts on atmosphere selection and may result in the selection of atmospheres different than those currently in use.

  19. [Study of mechanical effects of the EVA glove on finger base with finite element modeling].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuoyou; Ding, Li; Yue, Guodong

    2013-08-01

    The hand strength of astronauts, when they are outside the space capsule, is highly influenced by the residual pressure (the pressure difference between inside pressure and outside one of the suit) of extravehicular activity spacesuit glove and the pressure exerted by braided fabric. The hand strength decreases significantly on extravehicular activity, severely reducing the operation efficiency. To measure mechanical influence caused by spacesuit glove on muscle-tendon and joints, the present paper analyzes the movement anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of gripping, and then proposes a grip model. With phalangeal joint simplified as hinges, seven muscles as a finger grip energy unit, the Hill muscle model was used to compute the effects. We also used ANSYS in this study to establish a 3-D finite element model of an index finger which included both bones and muscles with glove, and then we verified the model. This model was applied to calculate the muscle stress in various situations of bare hands or hands wearing gloves in three different sizes. The results showed that in order to achieve normal grip strength with the influence caused by superfluous press, the finger's muscle stress should be increased to 5.4 times of that in normal situation, with most of the finger grip strength used to overcome the influence of superfluous pressure. When the gap between the finger surface and the glove is smaller, the mechanical influence which superfluous press made will decrease. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the design of the EVA Glove.

  20. Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Although fitting a garment is often considered more of an art than a science, experts suggest that a subjectively poor fit is a symptom of inappropriate ease, the space between the wearer and the garment. The condition of poor suit fit is a unique problem for the space program and it can be attributed primarily to: a) NASA s policy to accommodate a wide variety of people (males and females from 1st to 99th percentile range and with various shapes and sizes) and b) its requirement to deploy a minimum number of suit sizes for logistical reasons. These factors make the space suit fit difficult to assess, where a wide range of people must be fit by the minimum possible number of suits, and yet, fit is crucial for operability and safety. Existing simplistic sizing scheme do not account for wide variations in shape within a diverse population with very limited sizing options. The complex issue of fit has been addressed by a variety of methods, many of which have been developed by the military, which has always had a keen interest in fitting its diverse population but with a multitude of sizing options. The space program has significantly less sizing options, so a combination of these advanced methods should be used to optimize space suit size and assess space suit fit. Multivariate methods can be used to develop sizing schemes that better reflect the wearer population, and integrated sizing systems can form a compromise between fitting men and women. Range of motion and operability testing can be combined with subjective feedback to provide a comprehensive evaluation of fit. The amount of ease can be tailored using these methods, to provide enough extra room where it is needed, without compromising mobility and comfort. This paper discusses the problem of fit in one of its most challenging applications: providing a safe and comfortable spacesuit that will protect its wearer from the extreme environment of space. It will discuss the challenges and necessity of closely

  1. Defining Operational Space Suit Requirements for Commercial Orbital Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    As the commercial spaceflight industry transitions from suborbital brevity to orbital outposts, spacewalking will become a major consideration for tourists, scientists, and hardware providers. The challenge exists to develop a space suit designed for the orbital commercial spaceflight industry. The unique needs and requirements of this industry will drive space suit designs and costs that are unlike any existing product. Commercial space tourists will pay for the experience of a lifetime, while scientists may not be able to rely on robotics for all operations and external hardware repairs. This study was aimed at defining space suit operational and functional needs across the spectrum of spacewalk elements, identifying technical design drivers and establishing appropriate options. Recommendations from the analysis are offered for consideration

  2. Glove Use and Glove Education in Workers with Hand Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Kyle; Ajami, Daana; Gervais, Denise; Mooney, Lindsay; Belote, Amy; Kudla, Irena; Switzer-McIntyre, Sharon; Holness, D Linn

    2016-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases are common. The occurrence of occupational skin diseases represents a failure of primary prevention strategies that may include the use of personal protective equipment, most commonly gloves. The objective of this study was to describe current glove use and education practices related to gloves in workers being assessed for possible work-related hand dermatitis. Participants included consecutive patients being assessed for possible work-related hand dermatitis. A self-administered questionnaire obtained information on demographics, workplace characteristics and exposures, glove use, and education regarding gloves. Ninety percent of the 105 participants reported using gloves. Only 44% had received training related to glove use in the workplace. Major gaps in training content included skin care when using gloves, warning signs of skin problems, and glove size. If the worker indicated no glove training received, the majority reported they would have used gloves if such training was provided. Although the majority of workers being assessed wore gloves, the minority had received training related to glove use. Particular gaps in training content were identified. Those who had not received training noted they would likely have used gloves if training had been provided.

  3. Membrane-Based Water Evaporator for a Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; McCann, Charles J.; O'Connell, Mary K.; Andrea, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A membrane-based water evaporator has been developed that is intended to serve as a heat-rejection device for a space suit. This evaporator would replace the current sublimator that is sensitive to contamination of its feedwater. The design of the membrane-based evaporator takes advantage of recent advances in hydrophobic micropore membranes to provide robust heat rejection with much less sensitivity to contamination. The low contamination sensitivity allows use of the heat transport loop as feedwater, eliminating the need for the separate feedwater system used for the sublimator. A cross section of the evaporator is shown in the accompanying figure. The space-suit cooling loop water flows into a distribution plenum, through a narrow annulus lined on both sides with a hydrophobic membrane, into an exit plenum, and returns to the space suit. Two perforated metal tubes encase the membranes and provide structural strength. Evaporation at the membrane inner surface dissipates the waste heat from the space suit. The water vapor passes through the membrane, into a steam duct and is vented to the vacuum environment through a back-pressure valve. The back-pressure setting can be adjusted to regulate the heat-rejection rate and the water outlet temperature.

  4. An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

  5. Don/Doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Tri, Terry O. (Inventor); Spenny, William E. (Inventor); West, Philip R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future space-craft, lunar or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protruding lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suit. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

  6. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  7. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Space Suit Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Ray, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 pounds per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing designs without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race: 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approximately 2 years), bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination around a maximum contact stress that will allow the bearing to survive the life of an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an exploration mission.

  8. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a rubber glove and its attachment ring for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  9. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  10. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  11. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    PubMed

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (P<0.001), with an average of 46.7% less contamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (P<0.001). Comparing all sites over the entire six-week period, gloves from modified boxes had 88.9% less bacterial contamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  12. System and method for changing a glove attached to a glove box

    DOEpatents

    Aluisi, Alan

    2001-01-01

    A system for changing the gloves of a glove box. The system requires the use of a new glove and a glove change ring to form a temporary secondary barrier to the exchange of atmospheres between the inner glove box and the room in which the glove box is operated. The system describes specific means for disengaging a used glove from the glove box port. The means for disengaging the used glove include use of a glove change hook and use of a glove with an attached tab for use in removal. A method for changing the gloves of a glove box is also described.

  13. Comparison of nitrile gloves and nitrile over Nomex gloves.

    PubMed

    Vorih, Deirdre Cronin; Bolton, Lauri D; Marcelynas, James; Nowicki, Thomas A; Jacobs, Lenworth; Robinson, Kenneth J

    2009-01-01

    Aeromedical flight crews must perform many tasks in flight requiring manual dexterity and fine precision. A common perception is that safety-enhancing fire-retardant gloves compromise patient care if worn during such tasks by providing added bulk and barrier to the hand. This study is a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this possible compromise to patient care. Sixteen practicing flight nurses and respiratory therapists were asked to perform 10 different standard patient care tasks while wearing either nitrile gloves or a nitrile-Nomex glove pair. Tasks were timed, rated as completed successfully or not, and were subsequently judged subjectively by the participants. Whereas the time required to insert an intravenous catheter and to insert a central line while wearing only nitrile gloves was significantly faster than when wearing both gloves, the time to perform all other tasks was not significantly different. In subjective ratings, the nitrile glove alone was scored significantly better than the two-glove combination by the study participants. Comfort, dexterity, tactile discrimination, and ease of use were all adversely affected by wearing a Nomex glove under a nitrile glove. Although the differences in times for most tasks may not be clinically significant, the difference in the subjective parameters may be great enough to cause helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) practitioners to not wear Nomex gloves under nitrile gloves while performing procedures.

  14. Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

  15. The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run transition.

    PubMed

    Carr, Christopher E; McGee, Jeremy

    2009-08-12

    How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v(2)/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (approximately 0.5) with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below approximately 0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g) or completely (lunar-g) support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M) as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run) and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0) and run (1), yielding Fr* (0.36+/-0.11, mean+/-95% CI) and Ap* (0.68+/-0.20). The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

  16. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  17. Don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Tri, Terry O. (Inventor); Spenny, William E. (Inventor); West, Philip R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future spacecraft, lunar, or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protrucing lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suite. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

  18. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  19. Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotti, F.; Colonna, M.; Ferri, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing configurations: one called “grip” to maximize finger flexibility and one called “warm” to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.

  20. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

  1. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    The Mark III planetary technology demonstrator space suit can be tailored to an individual by swapping the modular components of the suit, such as the arms, legs, and gloves, as well as adding or removing sizing inserts in key areas. A method was sought to identify the transition from an ideal suit fit to a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using a metric of mobility-based human performance data. To this end, the degradation of the range of motion of the elbow and wrist of the suit as a function of suit sizing modifications was investigated to attempt to improve suit fit. The sizing range tested spanned optimal and poor fit and was adjusted incrementally in order to compare each joint angle across five different sizing configurations. Suited range of motion data were collected using a motion capture system for nine isolated and functional tasks utilizing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm by itself. Findings indicated that no single joint drives the performance of the arm as a function of suit size; instead it is based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb. To determine a size adjustment range where an individual can operate the suit at an acceptable level, a performance detriment limit was set. This user-selected limit reveals the task-dependent tolerance of the suit fit around optimal size. For example, the isolated joint motion indicated that the suit can deviate from optimal by as little as -0.6 in to -2.6 in before experiencing a 10% performance drop in the wrist or elbow joint. The study identified a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and developed a new way to gauge tolerances around optimal size.

  2. The Apollo Number: Space Suits, Self-Support, and the Walk-Run Transition

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Christopher E.; McGee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. Methodology/Principal Findings The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (∼0.5) with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below ∼0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g) or completely (lunar-g) support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M) as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run) and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0) and run (1), yielding Fr* (0.36±0.11, mean±95% CI) and Ap* (0.68±0.20). Conclusions/Significance The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars. PMID:19672305

  3. A theoretical method for selecting space craft and space suit atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Vann, R D; Torre-Bueno, J R

    1984-12-01

    A theoretical method for selecting space craft and space suit atmospheres assumes that gas bubbles cause decompression sickness and that the risk increases when a critical bubble volume is exceeded. The method is consistent with empirical decompression exposures for humans under conditions of nitrogen equilibrium between the lungs and tissues. Space station atmospheres are selected so that flight crews may decompress immediately from sea level to station pressure without preoxygenation. Bubbles form as a result of this decompression but are less than the critical volume. The bubbles are absorbed during an equilibration period after which immediate transition to suit pressure is possible. Exercise after decompression and incomplete nitrogen equilibrium are shown to increase bubble size, and limit the usefulness of one previously tested stage decompression procedure for the Shuttle. The method might be helpful for evaluating decompression procedures before testing.

  4. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, I; Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout in a space suit to reduce the risks associated with manned operations in space suits. Symptoms of elevated CO2 levels range from reduced cognitive performance and headache to unconsciousness and death at high levels of CO2. Because of this, NASA imposes limits on inspired CO2 levels for space suits when they are used in space and for ground testing. Testing and/or analysis must be performed to verify that a space suit meets CO2 washout requirements. Testing for developmental space suits has traditionally used an oronasal mask that collects CO2 samples at the left and rights sides of the mouth. Testing with this mask resulted in artificially elevated CO2 concentration measurements, which is most likely due to the dead space volume at the front of the mask. The mask also extends outward and into the supply gas stream, which may disrupt the washout effect of the suit supply gas. To mitigate these problems, a nasal cannula was investigated as a method for measuring inspired CO2 based on the assumptions that it is low profile and would not interfere with the designed suit gas flow path, and it has reduced dead space. This test series compared the performance of a nasal cannula to the oronasal mask in the Mark III space suit. Inspired CO2 levels were measured with subjects at rest and at metabolic workloads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Workloads were achieved by use of an arm ergometer or treadmill. Test points were conducted at air flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute, with a suit pressure of 4.3 psid. Results from this test series will evaluate the accuracy and repeatability across subjects of the nasal cannula collection method, which will provide rationale for using a nasal cannula as the new method for measuring inspired CO2 in a space suit. Proper characterization of sampling methods and of suit CO2 washout capability will better inform requirements definition and verification

  5. Flexible Packaging Concept for a Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Gretchen; Dillon, Paul; Oliver, Joe; Zapata, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Neither the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the space suit currently used for space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) missions, nor the Apollo EMU, the space suit successfully used on previous lunar missions, will satisfy the requirements for the next generation Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit. The CxP system or Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) must be able to tolerate more severe environmental and use conditions than any previous system. These conditions include missions to the severely cold lunar poles and up to 100 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) excursions without ground maintenance. Much effort is focused on decreasing the mass and volume of the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) over previous suit designs in order to accommodate the required increase in functionality. This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging effort of a flexible backpack for the CSSE PLSS. The flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. Testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that was conducted during this effort indicates that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.

  6. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  7. Space Suit Performance: Methods for Changing the Quality of Quantitative Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suits will enable astronauts to perform to their maximum capacity, prototype suits must be built and tested with human subjects. However, engineers and flight surgeons often have difficulty understanding and applying traditional representations of human data without training. To overcome these challenges, NASA is developing modern simulation and analysis techniques that focus on 3D visualization. Early understanding of actual performance early on in the design cycle is extremely advantageous to increase performance capabilities, reduce the risk of injury, and reduce costs. The primary objective of this project was to test modern simulation and analysis techniques for evaluating the performance of a human operating in extra-vehicular space suits.

  8. Glove 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addressed the question "What is a spacesuit glove?" - a highly specialized mobility system. It is an excellent basic tutorial on the design considerations of a spacesuit glove and the many facets of developing a glove that provides good mobility and thermal protection.

  9. Suitport Feasibility - Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a spacesuit while the spacesuit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a spacesuit prototype using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. This test will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents design of a human rated second generation suitport, modifications to

  10. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    PubMed

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Evaluation of Causal Factors Associated with Astronaut Shoulder Injury in Space Suits.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Allison P; Newman, Dava J; Welsch, Roy E

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder injuries due to working inside the space suit are some of the most serious and debilitating injuries astronauts encounter. Space suit injuries occur primarily in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) underwater training facility due to accumulated musculoskeletal stress. We quantitatively explored the underlying causal mechanisms of injury. Logistic regression was used to identify relevant space suit components, training environment variables, and anthropometric dimensions related to an increased propensity for space-suited injury. Two groups of subjects were analyzed: those whose reported shoulder incident is attributable to the NBL or working in the space suit, and those whose shoulder incidence began in active duty, meaning working in the suit could be a contributing factor. For both groups, percent of training performed in the space suit planar hard upper torso (HUT) was the most important predictor variable for injury. Frequency of training and recovery between training were also significant metrics. The most relevant anthropometric dimensions were bideltoid breadth, expanded chest depth, and shoulder circumference. Finally, record of previous injury was found to be a relevant predictor for subsequent injury. The first statistical model correctly identifies 39% of injured subjects, while the second model correctly identifies 68% of injured subjects. A review of the literature suggests this is the first work to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesized causal mechanisms of all space-suited shoulder injuries. Although limited in predictive capability, each of the identified variables can be monitored and modified operationally to reduce future impacts on an astronaut's health.

  12. Glove perforation rate in vascular surgery--a comparison between single and double gloving.

    PubMed

    Aarnio, P; Laine, T

    2001-05-01

    In surgery intact gloves act as a sterile barrier between surgeon and patient. The impermeable gloves protect the surgeon from bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. On the other hand, the surgical wound is protected from micro-organisms from the skin of the surgeon. One objective of this study was to compare puncture rates between the double gloving color indication system and single-use gloves and the other to determine the extent to which glove perforations remain undetected during the course of vascular surgical operations. The study material comprised all gloves used in vascular surgical operations at Satakunta Central Hospital for a period of two months. The analysis was made by the glove type in a prospective and randomised manner. Gloves were tested immediately after the surgical procedure using the approved standardized water-leak method. With this method the glove is filled with water using a special filling tube, and the water-filled glove is then checked for two minutes to detect any holes. The gloves used in this study were either double gloves with indicator, or the standard glove used at our hospital. In 73 operations altogether 200 gloves were tested, half of them were double gloves and half were single gloves. The perforation occurred in the double gloves 3 times and with single gloves 12 times. The overall perforation rate was 15 out of 200 gloves (7.5%). The detection of perforation during surgery was 60%. Most frequently the perforation was located in the second finger of the left hand, 9 out of 15 perforations. In view of the critical importance of safety at work both transmitting the pathogens from the skin of the surgeon to the wound and transmitting the bloodborne pathogens from the patient to the surgeon, it is very important to use double gloving at least in operations where there is a high risk of glove perforation.

  13. Glove material, reservoir formation, and dose affect glove permeation and subsequent skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2012-02-15

    Protective gloves are used to reduce dermal exposure when managing chemical exposures at the work place. Different glove materials may offer different degrees of protection. The present study combined the traditional ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) model with the Franz diffusion cell to evaluate overall penetration through glove and skin as well as the deposition in the different reservoirs. Benzoic acid was applied on latex or nitrile gloves placed on top of human skin. The amounts of chemical were quantified in the glove material, between glove and skin, within the skin, and in the receptor chamber. Both glove materials reduce total penetration of benzoic acid, but nitrile gloves offer a significantly better protection than latex gloves. This difference was less pronounced at the higher of the two concentrations of benzoic acid applied. Thus, glove types that offer relevant protection at low concentrations does not necessarily give appropriate protection at high concentrations. Significant amounts of benzoic acid could be extracted from the glove materials after exposure. If a chemical is accumulated in the glove material, reuse of single-use gloves should be cautioned. The reuse of gloves is generally not to be recommended without effective decontamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  15. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  16. Frequency of glove perforation and the protective effect of double gloves in gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Murta, Eddie F C; Silva, Cléber S; Júnior, Odilon R A

    2003-06-01

    The purposes of this prospective study were to verify the frequency of glove perforation during gynecological operations and to evaluate the efficacy of double gloving in preventing damage to the inner glove. From May 2000 to May 2001, three house staff and 12 residents were asked to place their used gloves in bags labeled with the following information: procedure performed, presence of a recognized glove perforation, and role in operating team (surgeon, first or second assistant, and instrumentalist). All glove sets were tested using the method of water pression. Damaged gloves were excluded from that analysis. In all, 35 and 51 operations were utilized with single and double gloves, respectively. There were 240 single gloves and 792 double gloves tested. Perforation occurred in 10.4% of the single gloves and 9.8% of the outer double gloves. There were no cases of perforation in the inner double gloves. In cases of operating time that lasted more than 2 h, 56% of the surgeries that used single gloves had perforation vs 58.5% of the double gloves. The first assistant had the major risk for glove perforation with the use of single or double gloves. The indicator finger of the non-dominant hand was the major risk for perforation. In conclusion, we recommend double gloving in all gynecological surgery to reduce the risk of contracting blood-borne diseases.

  17. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Karen; Kim, Han; Bernal, Yaritza; Vu, Linh; Boppana, Adhi; Benson, Elizabeth; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Goal of space human factors analyses: Place the highly variable human body within these restrictive physical environments to ensure that the entire anticipated population can live, work, and interact. Space suits are a very restrictive space and if not properly sized can result in pain or injury. The highly dynamic motions performed while wearing a space suit often make it difficult to model. Limited human body models do not have much allowance for customization of anthropometry and representation of the population that may wear a space suit.

  18. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  19. Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

  20. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  1. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  2. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for space habitation and exploration.

    PubMed

    Duda, Kevin R; Vasquez, Rebecca A; Middleton, Akil J; Hansberry, Mitchell L; Newman, Dava J; Jacobs, Shane E; West, John J

    2015-01-01

    The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs) and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a "viscous resistance" during movements against a specified direction of "down"-initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from "down" initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  3. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  4. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charvat, Chacqueline M.; Norcross, Jason; Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only. The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA glove middle finger length.

  5. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Reid, Christopher R.; Norcross, Jason; Charvat, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only (Opperman et al 2010). The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA

  6. Z-2 Space Suit: A Case Study in Human Spaceflight Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's Z-series of planetary space suit prototypes is an iterative development platform with a Mars-forward design philosophy, targeting a Mars surface mission in the mid-2030s. The first space suit assembly, called the Z-1, was delivered in 2012. While meeting the project's stated requirements and objectives, the general public's reception primarily focused on the color scheme, which vaguely invoked similarity to a certain animated cartoon character. The public at large has and continues to be exposed to varying space suit design aesthetics from popular culture and low TRL technology maturation efforts such as mechanical counter-pressure. The lesson learned was that while the design aesthetic is not important from an engineering perspective, the perception of the public is important for NASA and human spaceflight in general. For the Z-2 space suit, an integrated public outreach strategy was employed to engage, excite and educate the public on the current technology of space suits and NASA's plans moving forward. The keystone of this strategy was a public vote on three different suit cover layer aesthetics, the winner of which would be used as inspiration in fabrication. Other components included social media, university collaboration, and select media appearances, the cumulative result of which, while intangible in its benefit, was ultimately a positive effect in terms of the image of NASA as well as the dissemination of information vital to dispelling public misconceptions.

  7. Z-2 Space Suit: A Case Study in Human Spaceflight Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's Z-series of planetary space suit prototypes is an iterative development platform with a Mars-forward design philosophy, targeting a Mars surface mission in the mid-2030s. The first space suit assembly, called the Z-1, was delivered in 2012. While meeting the project's stated requirements and objectives, the general public's reception primarily focused on the color scheme, which vaguely invoked similarity to a certain animated cartoon character. The public at large has and continues to be exposed to varying space suit design aesthetics from popular culture and low TRL technology maturation efforts such as mechanical counterpressure. The lesson learned was that while the design aesthetic is not important from an engineering perspective, the perception of the public is important for NASA and human spaceflight in general. For the Z-2 space suit, an integrated public outreach strategy was employed to engage, excite and educate the public on the current technology of space suits and NASA's plans moving forward. The keystone of this strategy was a public vote on three different suit cover layer aesthetics, the winner of which would be used as inspiration in fabrication. Other components included social media, university collaboration, and select media appearances, the cumulative result of which, while intangible in its benefit, was ultimately a positive effect in terms of the image of NASA as well as the dissemination of information vital to dispelling public misconceptions.

  8. Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

    1999-09-01

    Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

  9. Advanced Space Suit Insulation Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.

    2000-01-01

    For planetary applications, the space suit insulation has unique requirements because it must perform in a dynamic mode to protect humans in the harsh dust, pressure and temperature environments. Since the presence of a gaseous planetary atmosphere adds significant thermal conductance to the suit insulation, the current multi-layer flexible insulation designed for vacuum applications is not suitable in reduced pressure planetary environments such as that of Mars. Therefore a feasibility study has been conducted at NASA to identify the most promising insulation concepts that can be developed to provide an acceptable suit insulation. Insulation concepts surveyed include foams, microspheres, microfibers, and vacuum jackets. The feasibility study includes a literature survey of potential concepts, an evaluation of test results for initial insulation concepts, and a development philosophy to be pursued as a result of the initial testing and conceptual surveys. The recommended focus is on microfibers due to the versatility of fiber structure configurations, the wide choice of fiber materials available, the maturity of the fiber processing industry, and past experience with fibers in insulation applications

  10. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for space habitation and exploration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Kevin R.; Vasquez, Rebecca A.; Middleton, Akil J.; Hansberry, Mitchell L.; Newman, Dava J.; Jacobs, Shane E.; West, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The “Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration” is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs) and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a “viscous resistance” during movements against a specified direction of “down”—initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from “down” initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation. PMID:25914631

  11. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  12. NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

  13. A methodology for choosing candidate materials for the fabrication of planetary space suit structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Gilda

    1990-01-01

    A study of space suit structures and materials is under way at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. The study was initiated by the need for a generation of lightweight space suits to be used in future planetary Exploration Missions. This paper provides a brief description of the Lunar and Mars environments and reviews what has been done in the past in the design and development of fabric, metal, and composite suit components in order to establish criteria for comparison of promising candidate materials and space suit structures. Environmental factors and mission scenarios will present challenging material and structural requirements; thus, a program is planned to outline the methodology used to identify materials and processes for producing candidate space suit structures which meet those requirements.

  14. A glove-likeability study of specially-treated gloves in the detonator manufacturing and packaging industry

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Lawton, Cindy M.; Lounsbury, James B.; ...

    2016-03-22

    We use hand gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves) in the detonator manufacturing and packaging operations. As part of a process improvement program, new glove formulations have been considered that lower the overall risk of detonator operations by reducing ergonomic injury factors. Gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now commercially available and have been recommended for use in detonator operations. A Glove Likeability Study demonstrated that detonator manufacturing and packaging workers prefer gloves with a specially treated surface over currently approved gloves made from latex and nitrile formulations. Glove material compatibility tests indicate thatmore » the recommended gloves are as compatible if not more compatible as the currently approved gloves for working with secondary explosives. Thus, these gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now available for tasks where sensitivity and fingertip control are crucial. Replacement of the current gloves with gloves with a specially treated surface improves the safety configuration of detonator manufacturing and packaging operations.« less

  15. A glove-likeability study of specially-treated gloves in the detonator manufacturing and packaging industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Lawton, Cindy M.; Lounsbury, James B.

    We use hand gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves) in the detonator manufacturing and packaging operations. As part of a process improvement program, new glove formulations have been considered that lower the overall risk of detonator operations by reducing ergonomic injury factors. Gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now commercially available and have been recommended for use in detonator operations. A Glove Likeability Study demonstrated that detonator manufacturing and packaging workers prefer gloves with a specially treated surface over currently approved gloves made from latex and nitrile formulations. Glove material compatibility tests indicate thatmore » the recommended gloves are as compatible if not more compatible as the currently approved gloves for working with secondary explosives. Thus, these gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now available for tasks where sensitivity and fingertip control are crucial. Replacement of the current gloves with gloves with a specially treated surface improves the safety configuration of detonator manufacturing and packaging operations.« less

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GLOVE FOR GLOVE BOXES WITH HIGH-LEVEL PERFORMANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Blancher, J.; Poirier, J.M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the results of a joint technological program of COGEMA and MAPA to develop a new generation of glove for glove boxes. The mechanical strength of this glove is twice as high as the best characteristics of gloves available on the market. This new generation of product has both a higher level of performance and better ergonomics.

  17. Incidence of glove failure during orthopedic operations and the protective effect of double gloves.

    PubMed

    Thanni, Lateef O A; Yinusa, W

    2003-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of double gloves in protecting against the exposure of surgical team members' hands to blood. Five-hundred-ninety-six gloves were studied during 71 orthopedic operations using the water-loading test (filling a glove with water and occluding its cuff tightly to identify leaking points). In all, 73 glove perforations occurred, but only nine resulted in exposure to blood (blood touching the skin). The incidence of glove perforation was 12% (73/596), and overall exposure (blood touching the skin) per operation was 13% (9/71). The latter would have been 87% (62/71) but for the use of double gloves. Sixteen percent of the perforations in double gloves were in the inner gloves, while 84% were in the outer gloves. Exposure of surgeons was reduced from 54% to 10%, first assistants from 27% to 3%, and second assistants from 7% to 0 (p < 0.02, df = 2) by double-gloving. Significantly more perforations occurred during operations on bone, compared with soft tissue operations, p < 0.0001, RR = 4 (95% CL 1.87-8.55). The most common sites of glove perforation were the index finger (47%), thumb, and the palm region: 14% each. More glove perforations occurred in nondominant hands. Double-gloving offers additional protection to surgeons and assistants by preventing hand exposure to blood intraoperatively.

  18. Anti-vibration gloves?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.

  19. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay T.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2-D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3-D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

  20. Mechanical counter-pressure vs. gas-pressurized spacesuit gloves: grip and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Patrick; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-04-01

    An elastic mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove for spacesuits is under development. In this study we compared handgrip and pinch grip strength levels for the MCP glove and the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gas-pressurized glove. We employed handgrip and pinch grip dynamometers to assess strength levels and von Frey monofilaments to evaluate hand sensitivity. Tests were conducted with the gloved hand inserted in an evacuation chamber at 200 mmHg below atmospheric pressure to simulate conditions in space. Average bare hand strength was 463 N and decreased to 240 N for EMU and 250 N for MCP. Pinch grip and key grip testing showed no difference among conditions. However, there was a significant decrease in palmar grip strength from 111 N barehanded to 67 N in both gloves. Barehanded endurance time was 160 s and dropped to 63 and 69 s for EMU and MCP, respectively. Sensitivity was significantly better for MCP compared with the EMU. The MCP glove improved hand sensitivity when compared with the EMU glove and performed as well as the EMU glove in terms of overall handgrip strength, endurance at 25% of maximum handgrip strength, pinch grip, palmar grip, and key grip tests. Improvements in fabric composition and glove design may further improve ergonomic and other functional parameters of the MCP glove.

  1. Compatible atmospheres for a space suit, Space Station, and Shuttle based on physiological principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Fundamental physiological principles have been invoked to design compatible environments for a space suit, Space Station and the spacecraft used to transport the astronauts from earth. These principles include the long-term memory of tissues for a bubble-provoking decompression, the intermittent nature of blood flow in the tight connective tissue(s) responsible for the bends whose incidence in aviators has been shown to be related to bubble volume by the Weibull distribution. In the overall design an astronaut breathing a mixture of 30 percent O2 in N2 for 4-5 h in a spacecraft at 11.9 psia can transfer to a Space Station filled with the same mix at 8.7 psia and, after a further 4-5 h, go EVA at any time without any oxygen prebreathing at any stage. The probable incidence of decompression sickness has been estimated as less than 0.5 percent using the present suit operating at 4.3 psia but the risk could be reduced to zero if the suit pressure were increased to 6.5 psia.

  2. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  3. Impact verification of space suit design for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The ballistic limits of single sheet and double sheet structures made of 6061 T6 Aluminum of 1.8 mm and larger nominal thickness were investigated for projectiles of 1.5 mm diameter fired in the Vertical Gun Range Test Facility and NASA Ames Research Center. The hole diameters and sheet deformation behavior were studied for various ratios of sheet spacing to projectile diameter. The results indicate that for projectiles of less than 1.5 mm diameter the ballistic limit exceeds the nominal 10 km/sec orbital debris encounter velocity, if a single-sheet suit of 1.8 mm thickness is behind a single bumper sheet of 1 mm thickness spaced 12.5 mm apart.

  4. Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

  5. Disinfection of gloves: feasible, but pay attention to the disinfectant/glove combination.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Häfner, H; Seef, R; Seef, S; Hilgers, R D; Lemmen, S

    2016-11-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is complicated by indications for hand disinfection in rapid succession during the care of one patient. In such situations, disinfection of gloves could facilitate better workflow and optimize compliance rates. We analysed the efficacy of disinfecting gloves by comparing an individual effect of five different hand disinfectant solutions in combination with three different glove types. The investigation was performed in accordance with DIN EN 1500:2013. For all combinations, ten analyses were performed, including (1) right/left-hand examination disinfection efficacy after the first and fifth contamination with E. coli K12 NCTC 10538, (2) recovery rates after contamination, (3) reduction efficacy, (4) fingertip immersion culture, and (5) check for tightness. Disinfection of the ungloved hands was taken as an additional benchmark. The disinfection efficacy for all disinfectant/glove combinations was better with rather than without gloves. For eight combinations, the disinfection efficacy was always >5.0 log 10 . There were significant differences within the gloves (P=0.0021) and within the disinfectant product (P=0.0023), respectively. In detail, Nitril Blue Eco-Plus performed significantly better than Vasco Braun (P=0.0017) and Latex Med Comfort (P=0.0493). Descoderm showed a significantly worse performance than Promanum pure (P=0.043). In the check for tightness, only the Vasco Braun gloves showed no leaks in all samples. There were relevant qualitative differences pertaining to the comfort of disinfecting gloves. The disinfection efficacy for the different disinfectant/glove combinations was greater than for the ungloved hands. However, various disinfectant/glove combinations produce relevant differences as regards disinfection efficacy. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural modeling of the EVA glove indicates that flexibility in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint can be improved by selectively lowering the elasticity of the glove fabric. Two strategies are used to accomplish this. One method uses coil springs on the back of the glove to carry the tension in the glove skin due to pressurization. These springs carry the loads normally borne by the glove fabric, but are more easily deformed. An active system was also designed for the same purpose and uses gas filled bladders attached to the back of the EVA glove that change the dimensions of the back of the glove and allow the glove to bend at the MCP joint, thus providing greater flexibility at this joint. A threshold control scheme was devised to control the action of the joint actuators. Input to the controller was provided by thin resistive pressure sensors placed between the hand and the pressurized glove. The pressure sensors consist of a layer of polyester film that has a thin layer of ink screened on the surface. The resistivity of the ink is pressure dependent, so an extremely thin pressure sensor can be fabricated by covering the ink patch with another layer of polyester film and measuring the changing resistance of the ink with a bridge circuit. In order to sense the force between the hand and the glove at the MCP joint, a sensor was placed on the palmar face of the middle finger. The resultant signal was used by the controller to decide whether to fill or exhaust the bladder actuators on the back of the glove. The information from the sensor can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given control scheme or glove design since the magnitude of the measured pressures gives some idea of the torque required to bend a glove finger at the MCP joint. Tests of this actuator, sensor, and control system were conducted in an 57.2 kPa glove box by performing a series of 90 degree finger bends with a glove without an MCP joint assembly, a glove with the coil spring

  7. Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Parkinson, H

    2002-01-01

    The invasive nature of surgery, with its increased exposure to blood, means that during surgery there is a high risk of transfer of pathogens. Pathogens can be transferred through contact between surgical patients and the surgical team, resulting in post-operative or blood borne infections in patients or blood borne infections in the surgical team. Both patients and the surgical team need to be protected from this risk. This risk can be reduced by implementing protective barriers such as wearing surgical gloves. Wearing two pairs of surgical gloves, as opposed to one pair, is considered to provide an additional barrier and further reduce the risk of contamination. The primary objective of this review was to determine if double gloving (wearing two pairs of gloves), rather than single gloving, reduces the number of post-operative or blood borne infections in surgical patients or blood borne infections in the surgical team. The secondary objective of this review was to determine if double gloving, rather than single gloving, reduces the number of perforations to the innermost pair of surgical gloves. The innermost gloves (next to skin) compared with the outermost gloves are considered to be the last barrier between the patient and the surgical team. The reviewers searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Glove manufacturing companies and professional organisations were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials involving: single gloving, double gloving, glove liners or coloured puncture indicator systems. Both reviewers independently assessed the relevance and quality of each trial. Trials to be included were cross checked and authenticated by both reviewers. Data was extracted by one reviewer and cross checked for accuracy by the second reviewer. Two trials were found which addressed the primary outcome. A total of 18 randomised controlled trials which measured glove

  8. Influence of orthopedic reinforced gloves versus double standard gloves on contamination events during small animal orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Galina; Singh, Ameet; Gibson, Tom; Moens, Noel; Oblak, Michelle; Ogilvie, Adam; Reynolds, Debbie

    2017-10-01

    To determine the influence of orthopedic reinforced gloves on contamination events during small animal orthopedic surgery. Prospective randomized controlled trial SAMPLE POPULATION: Two hundred and thirty-seven pairs of orthopedic gloves (474 gloves) and 203 pairs of double standard gloves (812 gloves) worn during 193 orthopedic procedures. Primary and assistant surgeons were randomized to wear either orthopedic reinforced gloves or double gloves. Gloves were leak tested to identify perforations at the end of procedures. Perforations detected intraoperatively or postoperatively were recorded. A contamination event was defined as at least one perforation on either hand for orthopedic reinforced gloves, or a perforation of both the inner and outer glove on the same hand for double gloves. Baseline characteristics between the 2 intervention groups were similar. There was no difference in contamination events between the double-gloved and orthopedic gloved groups (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.49-1.87, P = .89). The same percentage of contamination events (8% glove pairs used) occurred in the double gloved group (17 contamination events) and in the orthopedic gloved group (19 contamination events). The odds of a contamination event increased by 1.02 (95% CI 1.01-1.03, P < .001) with each additional minute of surgery. Orthopedic reinforced gloves and double standard gloving were equally effective at preventing contamination events in small animal orthopedic procedures. Surgeons reluctant to double glove due to perceptions of decreased dexterity and discomfort may safely opt for wearing orthopedic gloves, which may improve their compliance. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Testing of materials for passive thermal control of space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Bernadette

    1988-01-01

    An effort is underway to determine the coating material of choice for the AX-5 prototype hard space suit. Samples of 6061 aluminum have been coated with one of 10 selected metal coatings, and subjected to corrosion, abrasion, and thermal testing. Changes in reflectance after exposure are documented. Plated gold exhibited minimal degradation of optical properties. A computer model is used in evaluating coating thermal performance in the EVA environment. The model is verified with an experiment designed to measure the heat transfer characteristics of coated space suit parts in a thermal vacuum chamber. Details of this experiment are presented.

  10. Thermal Performance Of Space Suit Elements With Aerogel Insulation For Moon And Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Trevino, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements. Thermal conductivity evaluations are proposed for different types of aerogels space suit elements to identify the lay-up concept that may have the best overall thermal performance for both Moon and Mars environments. Potential solutions in mitigating the silica dusting issue related to the application of these aerogels materials for the space suit elements are also discussed.

  11. Development of a space activity suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

  12. Application of Spacesuit Glove Requirements Tools to Athletic and Personal Protective Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Melsoh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of ongoing improvement, astronauts must still struggle with inhibited dexterity and accelerated fatigue due to the requirement of wearing a pressurized Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Recent research in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center has focused on developing requirements for improvements in the design of the next generation of EVA glove. In the course of this research, it was decided to expand the scope of the testing to include a variety of commercially available athletic and consumer gloves to help provide a more recognizable comparison for investigators and designers to evaluate the current state of EVA glove mobility and strength. This comparison is being provided with the hope that innovative methods may help commercial development of gloves for various athletic and personal protective endeavors.

  13. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  14. Pettit holds MSG Glove in the Columbus Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-17

    ISS030-E-049556 (17 Jan. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, holds a Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) glove in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations at Cape Canaveral, February 20, 1962, the day he flew his Mercury-Atlas 6 spacecraft, Friendship 7, into orbital flight around the Earth.

  16. Contamination of Critical Surfaces from NVR Glove Residues Via Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Gloves are often used to prevent the contamination of critical surfaces during handling. The type of glove chosen for use should be the glove that produces the least amount of non-volatile residue (NVR). This paper covers the analysis of polyethylene, nitrile, latex, vinyl, and polyurethane gloves using the contact transfer and gravimetric determination methods covered in the NASA GSFC work instruction Gravimetric Determination and Contact Transfer of Non-volatile Residue (NVR) in Cleanroom Glove Samples, 541-WI-5330.1.21 and in the ASTM Standard E-1731M-95, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Non-Volatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves. The tests performed focus on contamination of critical surfaces at the molecular level. The study found that for the most part, all of the gloves performed equally well in the contact transfer testing. However, the polyethylene gloves performed the best in the gravimetric determination testing, and therefore should be used whenever solvent contact is a possibility. The nitrile gloves may be used as a substitute for latex gloves when latex sensitivity is an issue. The use of vinyl gloves should be avoided, especially if solvent contact is a possibility. A glove database will be established by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 541 to compile the results from future testing of new gloves and different glove lots.

  17. Results and applications of a space suit range-of-motion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, AL

    1989-01-01

    The range of motion of space suits has traditionally been described using limited 2-D mapping of limb, torso, or arm movements performed in front of an orthogonal grid. A new technique for recovering extra-vehicular (EVA) space suit range-of-motion data during underwater testing was described in a paper presented by the author at the 1988 conference. The new technique uses digitized data which is automatically acquired from video images of the subject. Three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using 2-D computer graphics. Results of using this technique for the current shuttle EVA suit during underwater simulated weightlessness testing are discussed. Application of the data for use in animating anthropometric computer models is highlighted.

  18. Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Parkinson, H

    2006-07-19

    The invasive nature of surgery, with its increased exposure to blood, means that during surgery there is a high risk of transfer of pathogens. Pathogens can be transferred through contact between surgical patients and the surgical team, resulting in post-operative or blood borne infections in patients or blood borne infections in the surgical team. Both patients and the surgical team need to be protected from this risk. This risk can be reduced by implementing protective barriers such as wearing surgical gloves. Wearing two pairs of surgical gloves, triple gloves, glove liners or cloth outer gloves, as opposed to one pair, is considered to provide an additional barrier and further reduce the risk of contamination. The primary objective of this review was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of surgical site or blood borne infections in patients or the surgical team. The secondary objective was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of perforations to the innermost pair of surgical gloves. The innermost gloves (next to skin) compared with the outermost gloves are considered to be the last barrier between the patient and the surgical team. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (January 2006), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2005). We also contacted glove manufacturing companies and professional organisations. Randomised controlled trials involving: single gloving, double gloving, triple gloving, glove liners, knitted outer gloves, steel weave outer gloves and perforation indicator systems. Both authors independently assessed the relevance and quality of each trial. Data was extracted by one author and cross checked for accuracy by the second author. Two trials were found which addressed the primary outcome, namely, surgical site infections in patients. Both trials reported no infections. Thirty one randomised controlled trials

  19. Development of a Compact Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanBoeyen, Roger W.; Reeh, Jonathan A.; Trevino, Luis

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activity (EVA) for the International Space Station (ISS) assembly and maintenance, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for increased human productivity and capability becomes ever more critical. This is most readily achieved by reduction in space suit weight and volume, and increased hardware reliability, durability, and operating lifetime. Considerable progress has been made with each successive generation of space suit design; from the Apollo A7L suit, to the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobile Unit (EMU) suit, and the next generation Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). However, one area of space suit design which has continued to lag is the fluid pump used to drive the water cooling loop of the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The two main types of fluid pumps typically used in space applications are rotodynamic pumps (pumping is achieved through a rotary vaned impeller) and displacement pumps (which includes rotary and diaphragm pumps). The rotating and moving parts found in the pumps and electric motor add significantly to the susceptibility to wear and friction, thermal mismatch, and complexity of the pumps. Electric motor-driven pumps capable of achieving high operational reliability are necessarily large, heavy, and energy inefficient. This report describes a development effort conducted for NASA by Lynntech, Inc., who recently demonstrated the feasibility of an electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, an electrochemically-driven pump is expected to be significantly smaller, lighter and achieve a longer life time than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that these membranes possess the

  20. Space Suit Environment Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Cox, Marlon R.

    2010-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology. That testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment with both simulated and real human metabolic loads, and in both open and closed-loop configurations. The Orion ARS is designed to also support space-suited operations in a depressurized cabin, so the next step in developmental testing at JSC was to test the ARS technology in a typical closed space suit-loop environment with low-pressure oxygen inside the process loop and vacuum outside the loop. This was the first instance of low-pressure, high-oxygen, closed-loop testing of the Orion ARS technology, and it was conducted with simulated human metabolic loads in March 2009. The test investigated pressure drops and flow balancing through two different styles of prototype suit umbilical connectors. General swing-bed performance was tested with both umbilical configurations, as well as with a short jumper line installed in place of the umbilicals. Other interesting results include observations on the thermal effects of swing-bed operation in a vacuum environment and a recommendation of cycle time to maintain acceptable suit atmospheric CO2 and moisture levels.

  1. [EC5-Space Suit Assembly Team- Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    There were three main projects in this internship. The first pertained to the Bearing Dust Cycle Test, in particular automating the test to allow for easier administration. The second concerned modifying the communication system setup in the Z2 suit, where speakers and mics were adjusted to allow for more space in the helmet. And finally, the last project concerned the tensile strength testing of fabrics deemed as candidates for space suit materials and desired to be sent off for radiation testing. The major duties here are split up between the major projects detailed above. For the Bearing Dust Cycle Test, the first objective was to find a way to automate administration of the test, as the previous version was long and tedious to perform. In order to do this, it was necessary to introduce additional electronics and perform programming to control the automation. Once this was done, it would be necessary to update documents concerning the test setup, procedure, and potential hazards. Finally, I was tasked with running tests using the new system to confirm system performance. For the Z2 communication system modifications, it was necessary to investigate alternative speakers and microphones which may have better performance than those currently used in the suit. Further, new speaker and microphone positions needed to be identified to keep them out of the way of the suit user. Once this was done, appropriate hardware (such as speaker or microphone cases and holders) could be prototyped and fabricated. For the suit material strength testing, the first task was to gather and document various test fabrics to identify the best suit material candidates. Then, it was needed to prepare samples for testing to establish baseline measurements and specify a testing procedure. Once the data was fully collected, additional test samples would be prepared and sent off-site to undergo irradiation before being tested again to observe changes in strength performance. For the Bearing

  2. STS-97 Mission Specialist Garneau with full launch and entry suit during pre-pack and fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During pre-pack and fit check in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-97 Commander Brent Jett gets help with his gloves from suit technician Bill Todd. Mission STS-97 is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at about 10:06 p.m. EST.

  3. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Kanne, Bryan; Korona, Adam; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  4. The recovery and utilization of space suit range-of-motion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, AL; Walton, James S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for recovering data for the range of motion of a subject wearing a space suit is described along with the validation of this technique on an EVA space suit. Digitized data are automatically acquired from video images of the subject; three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using three-dimensional computer graphics. Target locations are recovered using a unique video processor and close-range photogrammetry. It is concluded that such data can be used in such applications as the animation of anthropometric computer models.

  5. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur has his launch and entry suit adjusted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. has the gloves on his launch and entry suit adjusted during fit check. McArthur and the rest of the crew are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT provides emergency egress training, simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payload. This mission will be McArthur's third Shuttle flight. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:38 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  6. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research

  7. Results of the Particulate Contamination Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust space suit life support system that will operate successfully in these dusty environments is vital. There is some knowledge of the contaminants and level of infiltration expected from the Lunar and Mars dust, however risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs to prevent contamination within the space suit life support system are still undefined. A trade study was initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). This trade study investigates historical methods of particulate contamination control in space suits and vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. In addition, the trade study examined potential filtration designs. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study.

  8. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  9. Optimizing skin protection with semipermeable gloves.

    PubMed

    Wulfhorst, Britta; Schwanitz, Hans Joachim; Bock, Meike

    2004-12-01

    Occlusion due to gloves is one important cause of glove irritation. Macerated softened skin gives poor protection against microbes and chemical injuries. The introduction of a breathable protective glove material would represent a significant step toward improved prevention of occupational skin disease. Performance levels of semipermeable and occlusive gloves were examined under conditions typical of the hairdressing profession. In two studies, tests comparing breathable semipermeable gloves to single-use gloves made of occlusive materials were conducted. In an initial study, a user survey was carried out in conjunction with bioengineering examinations. Values at baseline and values after gloves were worn were recorded by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin humidity (SH), and skin surface hydrogen ion concentration (pH) in 20 healthy volunteers. In a second study, the gloves were tested for penetrability and permeability with three chemical compounds typically used in the hairdressing profession. Bioengineering examination objectively confirmed users' reports of reduced hand perspiration when semipermeable gloves were worn. The TEWL, SH, and skin surface pH values remained largely stable after 20 minutes of wearing semipermeable gloves, in contrast to the reactions observed with gloves of occlusive materials. Permeability tests indicated that the semipermeable material is effective, with some restrictions. Air leakage testing revealed that all 50 gloves tested were not airtight. Following the optimization of manufacturing methods, additional tests of the penetrability of semipermeable gloves will be necessary.

  10. Mars EVA Suit Airlock (MESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Stephen; Böttcher, Jörg; Steinsiek, Frank

    The Astrium Space Infrastructure Division has begun an in-house research activity of an Earth-based simulation facility supporting future manned missions to Mars. This research unit will help to prepare and support planned missions in the following ways: 1) to enable the investigation and analysis of contamination issues in advance of a human visit to Mars; 2) as a design tool to investigate and simulate crew operations; 3) to simulate crew operation during an actual mission; 4) to enable on-surface scientific operations without leaving the shirt-sleeve habitation environment ("glove box principle"). The MESA module is a surface EVA facility attached to the main habitation or laboratory module, or mobile pressurized rover. It will be sealed, but not pressurized, and provide protection against the harsh Martian environment. This module will include a second crew airlock for safety reasons. The compartment can also be used to provide an external working bench and experiment area for the crew. A simpler MESA concept provides only an open shelter against wind and dust. This concept does not incorporate working and experimental areas. The principle idea behind the MESA concept is to tackle the issue of contamination by minimizing the decontamination processes needed to clean surface equipment and crew suit surfaces after an EVA excursion prior to the astronaut re-entering the habitable area. The technical solution envisages the use of a dedicated crew suit airlock. This airlock uses an EVA suit which is externally attached by its back-pack to the EVA compartment area facing the Martian environment. The crew donns the suit from inside the habitable volume through the airlock on the back of the suit. The surface EVA can be accomplished after closing the back-pack and detaching the suit. A special technical design concept foresees an extendable suit back-pack, so that the astronaut can operate outside and in the vincinity of the module. The key driver in the investigation

  11. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  12. Suited versus unsuited analog astronaut performance using the Aouda.X space suit simulator: the DELTA experiment of MARS2013.

    PubMed

    Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X.

  13. [Gloves: some unknowns].

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; D'Achille, C; Conti, S

    1991-01-01

    The diffusion of transmissible diseases such as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, well known as AIDS, has induced in the population a great sensibility to the problem of disease transmission. Dentists and patients, because of peculiar features of oral environment and dental procedures, are very exposed to these risks. For this reason every technique which reduces the risk of cross-infections patient to patient and patient to dentist to patient are absolutely necessary. From this point of view the use of gloves is very important to protect dental operator and patients. The aim of this study is: a) to stress the importance of mechanical barriers, like gloves, in dentistry in order to sensitize dental practitioners to the use of gloves; b) to underline that the quality of dental gloves in Italy is lower than in other countries which have a quality standard.

  14. Requirements and Sizing Investigation for Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Waguespack, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS) pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

  15. Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

  16. Surgical glove perforation in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Driever, R; Beie, M; Schmitz, E; Holland, M; Knapp, M; Reifschneider, H J; Hofmann, F; Vetter, H O

    2001-12-01

    Recently, concern for the protection of health care employees and health care recipients has led to increasing awareness of transmitted infections. Sterile surgical gloves were tested to determine the incidence of perforations after being worn during procedures commonly performed by cardiac surgeons. In a prospective study conducted from January 15, 2000 through February 15, 2000, 953 gloves worn during cardiac surgery were evaluated for punctures. Pairs of sterile latex surgical gloves were collected over a period of one month. Routine tasks included mainly bypass and valve surgery. Impermeability was tested by means of a water retention test according to European standard EN 455 Part 1 performed on 954 (Manufix, Hartmann, Germany) latex gloves. A control group of 50 unused gloves was also evaluated for the presence of spontaneous leakage. Gloves were separated according to whether the wearer was an operator (254 gloves), first assistant (220 gloves), second assistant (272 gloves), or theatre nurse (207 gloves). Gloves with a known perforation occurring during the procedure were not included in the study. There were no punctures in the 50 unused gloves. Punctures were detected in 66 of 254 (26.0 %) gloves used by operators, 49 of 220 (22.3 %) used by first assistants, 25 of 272 (9.2 %) used by second assistants, and 78 of 207 (37.7 %) used by theatre nurses. Some gloves had more than one puncture, accounting for the 244 holes detected (operators 75/244 = 30.7 %; first assistants 54/244 = 22.1 %; second assistants 28/244 = 11.5 %; theatre nurses 87/244 = 35.7 %). Sites of scalpel and suture needle injuries were most commonly the thumb (27.3 %) and pointer finger (42.1 %) of the non-dominant hand, followed by, in descending order: middle finger (10.2 %), other fingers (15.7 %), palm (3.8 %) and back of the hand (0.9 %). The number of punctures that occur during cardiac operations is obviously higher than has so far been assumed. Therefore, cardiac surgeons should

  17. The Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology in Manned Ambient Pressure Space Suit Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) for moderate duration missions of the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. The Orion ARS is designed to support not only open-cabin operations, tests of which have been reported in previous years at this conference, but also closed space suit-loop operations. A previous low-pressure suit loop test was performed with a human metabolic simulator, and humans wearing emergency masks were tested in a closed-loop configuration before that. In late 2011, simple tests were performed in a suit-loop configuration with human test subjects in prototype space suits with prototype umbilicals at ambient and two slightly above-ambient pressures. Trace contaminant filters and a prototype blower were also incorporated into the test rig. This paper discusses the performance of the ARS technology in that 2011 test configuration.

  18. Analysis of Potential Glove-Induced Hand Injury Metrics During Typical Neutral Buoyancy Training Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity. When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of NASA's Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 76 percent of astronaut hand and arm injuries from training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, finger crotch, metacarpophalangeal joint, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure forces acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as skin temperature, humidity, and fingernail strain of a NASA crewmember during typical NBL (Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory) training activity. During the 5-hour exercise, the crewmember seemed to exhibit very large forces on some fingers, resulting in higher strain than seen in previous glove-box testing. In addition, vital information was collected on the glove cavity environment with respect to temperature and humidity. All of this information gathered during testing will be carried forward into future testing, potentially in glove-box- or 1G- (1 gravitational force) or NBL-suited environments, to better characterize and understand the possible causes of hand injury amongst NASA crew.

  19. Thermal Analysis of a Metallic Wing Glove for a Mach-8 Boundary-Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Leslie; Richards, W. Lance

    1998-01-01

    A metallic 'glove' structure has been built and attached to the wing of the Pegasus(trademark) space booster. An experiment on the upper surface of the glove has been designed to help validate boundary-layer stability codes in a free-flight environment. Three-dimensional thermal analyses have been performed to ensure that the glove structure design would be within allowable temperature limits in the experiment test section of the upper skin of the glove. Temperature results obtained from the design-case analysis show a peak temperature at the leading edge of 490 F. For the upper surface of the glove, approximately 3 in. back from the leading edge, temperature calculations indicate transition occurs at approximately 45 sec into the flight profile. A worst-case heating analysis has also been performed to ensure that the glove structure would not have any detrimental effects on the primary objective of the Pegasus a launch. A peak temperature of 805 F has been calculated on the leading edge of the glove structure. The temperatures predicted from the design case are well within the temperature limits of the glove structure, and the worst-case heating analysis temperature results are acceptable for the mission objectives.

  20. A FLEXIBLE POLYTHENE GLOVE BOX

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.

    1957-11-01

    The need for a glove box capable of maintaining an inert atmosphere arose during the sampling and analysis of the alkali metals. The conventional rigid glove box was found to be unsuitable in practice and also inefficient in theory. The requirement was met by improvising a flexible glove box from thin polythene sheet. The alternative solution a this problem would have required an expensive vacuum glove box with its attendant pumping unit. (auth)

  1. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Space Suit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Paul, Thomas; Norcross, Jason; Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Swickrath, Mike

    2015-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a portable life support subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide (CO2) delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the space suit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a space suit. A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) was developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  2. Glove perforation in hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Demircay, Emre; Unay, Koray; Bilgili, Mustafa G; Alataca, Gulum

    2010-11-01

    The transmission of blood-borne pathogens during surgery is a major concern. Surgical gloves are the primary barrier between the surgeon and the patient. Surgical procedures that need manual handling of bony surfaces or sharp instruments have the highest risk of glove perforations. The frequencies and the sites of surgical glove perforations in arthroplasty procedures were assessed. We assessed the surgical glove perforations in total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. Double standard latex gloves were used. A total of 983 outer and 511 inner gloves were tested. The gloves of all the surgical team members were tested for perforations during the first and second hours of surgery. There were 18.4% outer and 8.4% inner glove perforations. The most frequent site of perforation was the second digit of the nondominant hand (25.5%). We found that hip and knee arthroplasty had significantly more glove perforation risk for the surgeon in the first half of the operation rather than the second half, and 57.8% of the perforations were at the index finger and the thumb. Arthroplasty procedures still have high glove perforation rates despite the use of double gloving with frequent changes. Extra augmentation of the gloves in selected areas of the hand, in addition to double gloving, may be safer and more cost-effective than double gloving alone.

  3. Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge.

    PubMed

    Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  4. Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

  5. Mobility and Agility During Locomotion in the Mark III Space Suit.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Conor R; Rhodes, Richard A; Stirling, Leia A

    2017-06-01

    The Mark III (MIII) space suit assembly (SSAs) implements a multibearing, hard-material hip brief assembly (HBA). We hypothesize that: 1) the MIII HBA restricts operator mobility and agility which manifests in effects to gait parameters; 2) the waist bearing provides rotational motion, partially alleviating the restrictions; and 3) there are resistive, speed-dependent torques associated with the spinning bearings which further diminish mobility and agility. A subject (Suited and Unsuited) performed two planetary tasks-walking forward (WF) and backward (WB). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc comparisons were performed to determine interaction effects. Motion capture data was processed to obtain gait parameters: static base (m), dynamic base (m), step length (m), stride length (m), cadence (steps/min), center of mass speed (m · s-1), foot clearance (toe and heel) (m), and bearing angular velocities (° · s-1). The static base when Suited (0.355 m) was larger than Unsuited (0.263 m). The Suited dynamic base (pooled, 0.200 m) was larger than both Unsuited WF (0.081 m) and WB (0.107 m). When Suited, the operator had lower clearance heights. The waist bearings provided about 7.2° of rotation when WB and WF. The maximum torque, while WF, in the right upper and mid bearings was 15.6 ± 1.35 Nm and 16.3 ± 1.28 Nm. This study integrated suit component properties and the emergent biomechanics of the operator to investigate how biomechanics are affected. The human hip has three collocated degrees of freedom (DOFs), whereas the HBA has a single DOF per bearing. The results can inform requirements for future SSA and other wearable system designs and evaluations.Cullinane CR, Rhodes RA, Stirling LA. Mobility and agility during locomotion in the Mark III space suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):589-596.

  6. Gloves Reprocessing: Does It Really Save Money?

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Kumari, Santosh; Sodhi, Jitender; Talati, Shweta; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Gloves are reprocessed and reused in health-care facilities in resource-limited settings to reduce the cost of availability of gloves. The study was done with the aim to compute the cost of reprocessing of gloves so that an economically rationale decision can be taken. A retrospective record-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a central sterile supply department where different steps during reprocessing of gloves were identified and the cost involved in reprocessing per pair of gloves was calculated. The cost of material and manpower was calculated to arrive at the cost of reprocessing per pair of gloves. The cost of a reprocessed pair of surgical gloves was calculated to be Indian Rupee (INR) 14.33 which was greater than the cost of a new pair of disposable surgical gloves (INR 9.90) as the cost of sterilization of one pair of gloves itself came out to  be INR 10.97. The current study showed that the purchase of sterile disposable single-use gloves is cheaper than the process of recycling. Reprocessing of gloves is not economical on tangible terms even in resource-limited settings, and from the perspective of better infection control as well as health-care worker safety, it further justifies the use of disposable gloves.

  7. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  8. Evaluation of an antimicrobial surgical glove to inactivate live human immunodeficiency virus following simulated glove puncture.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Charles E; Zhou, S Steve; Hoerner, Pierre; Krikorian, Raffi; Krepel, Candace J; Lewis, Brian D; Brown, Kellie R; Rossi, Peter J; Graham, Mary Beth; Seabrook, Gary R

    2013-02-01

    Percutaneous injuries associated with cutting instruments, needles, and other sharps (eg, metallic meshes, bone fragments, etc) occur commonly during surgical procedures, exposing members of surgical teams to the risk for contamination by blood-borne pathogens. This study evaluated the efficacy of an innovative integrated antimicrobial glove to reduce transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a simulated surgical-glove puncture injury. A pneumatically activated puncturing apparatus was used in a surgical-glove perforation model to evaluate the passage of live HIV-1 virus transferred via a contaminated blood-laden needle, using a reference (standard double-layer glove) and an antimicrobial benzalkonium chloride (BKC) surgical glove. The study used 2 experimental designs. In method A, 10 replicates were used in 2 cycles to compare the mean viral load following passage through standard and antimicrobial gloves. In method B, 10 replicates were pooled into 3 aliquots and were used to assess viral passage though standard and antimicrobial test gloves. In both methods, viral viability was assessed by observing the cytopathic effects in human lymphocytic C8166 T-cell tissue culture. Concurrent viral and cell culture viability controls were run in parallel with the experiment's studies. All controls involving tissue culture and viral viability were performed according to study design. Mean HIV viral loads (log(10)TCID(50)) were significantly reduced (P < .01) following passage through the BKC surgical glove compared to passage through the nonantimicrobial glove. The reduction (log reduction and percent viral reduction) of the HIV virus ranged from 1.96 to 2.4 and from 98.9% to 99.6%, respectively, following simulated surgical-glove perforation. Sharps injuries in the operating room pose a significant occupational risk for surgical practitioners. The findings of this study suggest that an innovative antimicrobial glove was effective at significantly (P

  9. Antimicrobial allergy from polyvinyl chloride gloves.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2006-10-01

    Contact allergy to plastic gloves is rare. Benzisothiazolinone is a biocide that is mainly used in industrial settings. We first suspected delayed-type contact allergy to benzisothiazolinone from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves in 2004. We looked through our medical records from 1991 to 2005 to find similar cases. We found a total of 8 patients who are allergic to benzisothiazolinone and who had had exacerbations of their hand dermatitis while using PVC gloves. Patch testing revealed that 3 of them had weak allergic or doubtful reactions to the glove materials. Six of them had used Evercare Soft, Medi-Point, or Derma Grip PVC gloves, which in chemical analysis were shown to contain 9 to 32 ppm of benzisothiazolinone. Seven of the patients worked in dentistry or health care and 1 in farming. All of them had had hand dermatitis for many years. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of contact allergy to antimicrobial agents in plastic gloves. Benzisothiazolinone is widely used as a biocide in the manufacture of disposable PVC gloves. Small amounts of benzisothiazolinone in the gloves may sensitize those who already have hand dermatitis. We recommend that all patients with hand dermatitis while using PVC gloves should be patch tested with benzisothiazolinone.

  10. Hollow Fiber Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator Development for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The Hollow Fiber (HoFi) SWME is being considered for service in the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) to provide cooling to the thermal loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. Previous work described the test methodology and planning to compare the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME: 1) porous hydrophobic polypropylene, 2) porous hydrophobic polysulfone, and 3) ion exchange through nonporous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests were performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to organics and non-volative inorganics expected to be found in the target feedwater source, i.e., potable water provided by the vehicle. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water could plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. From this prior work, a commercial porous hydrophobic hollow fiber was selected to satisfy both the sensitivity question and the need to provide 800 W of heat rejection. This paper describes the trade studies, the design methodology, and the hollow fiber test data used to design a full

  11. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  12. The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Berthier, S.; Ollivier, Y.

    In order to fulfil the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today - and will be for several years - a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: • easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, • suit ergonomy optimisation, • display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical from, and • voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: • a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru incressed suit pressure, • zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, • visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and • an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System.

  13. The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; Berthier, S; Ollivier, Y

    1991-01-01

    In order to fulfill the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today--and will be for several years--a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, suit ergonomy optimisation, display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical form, and voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru increased suit pressure, zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System.

  14. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Being Prepared for Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A technician adjusts the Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove before a loads-test at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. For the test, technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. PHYSX was launched aboard a Pegasus rocket on October 22, 1998. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and

  15. A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

  16. Knitted outer gloves in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Wraighte, P; Howard, P

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the rate of perforation to inner gloves when comparing latex with knitted gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty. Members of the surgical team were randomised to wear either two pairs of latex gloves (standard double gloving) or a knitted glove on top of a latex glove. In addition, participants completed a visual analogue assessment of their overall satisfaction with the gloves. A total of 406 inner gloves were tested for perforations over a four-month period: 23% of inner gloves were perforated when latex outer gloves were used and 6% of inner gloves were perforated when knitted outer gloves were used. In total, there were 64 perforations to the inner gloves; only one of these perforations was detected by the glove wearer. Wearing knitted outer gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty statistically significantly reduces the risk of perforation to inner latex gloves (p<0.0001).

  17. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian M.; Norcross, Jason; Bekdash, Omar; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A space suit must provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout inside the helmet to prevent symptoms of hypercapnia. In the past, an oronasal mask has been used to measure the inspired air of suited subjects to determine a space suit's CO2 washout capability. While sufficient for super-ambient pressure testing of space suits, the oronasal mask fails to meet several human factors and operational criterion needed for future sub-ambient pressure testing (e.g. compatibility with a Valsalva device). This paper describes the evaluation of a nasal cannula as a device for measuring inspired air within a space suit. Eight test subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to achieve target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 British thermal units per hour (BTU/hr), at flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM). Each test configuration was conducted twice, with subjects instructed to breathe either through their nose only, or however they felt comfortable. Test data shows that the nasal cannula provides more statistically consistent data across test subjects than the oronasal mask used in previous tests. The data also shows that inhaling/exhaling through only the nose provides a lower sample variance than a normal breathing style. Nose-only breathing reports better CO2 washout due to several possible reasons, including a decreased respiratory rate, an increased tidal volume, and because nose-only breathing directs all of the exhaled CO2 down and away from the oronasal region. The test subjects in this study provided feedback that the nasal cannula is comfortable and can be used with the Valsalva device.

  18. Solid-solid phase change thermal storage application to space-suit battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Chang H.; Morehouse, Jeffrey H.

    1989-01-01

    High cell temperatures are seen as the primary safety problem in the Li-BCX space battery. The exothermic heat from the chemical reactions could raise the temperature of the lithium electrode above the melting temperature. Also, high temperature causes the cell efficiency to decrease. Solid-solid phase-change materials were used as a thermal storage medium to lower this battery cell temperature by utilizing their phase-change (latent heat storage) characteristics. Solid-solid phase-change materials focused on in this study are neopentyl glycol and pentaglycerine. Because of their favorable phase-change characteristics, these materials appear appropriate for space-suit battery pack use. The results of testing various materials are reported as thermophysical property values, and the space-suit battery operating temperature is discussed in terms of these property results.

  19. Hazards in the Solar System: Out-of-School Time Student Activities Focused on Engineering Protective Space Gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Meyer, N.; Anderson, R. B.; Sokol, K.; Nolan, B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Clark, J.

    2017-12-01

    "In Good Hands: Engineering Space Gloves" is a new Engineering Adventures® curriculum unit created for students in grades 3-5 in out-of-school time programs. It was designed and created by the Engineering is Elementary® team at the Museum of Science in Boston, MA, in collaboration with subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center and teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University's Center for Science Teaching and Learning. As part of the NASA-funded PLANETS (Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science) project, the goals for this unit are to introduce students to some of the potential hazards that would be faced by astronauts exploring planetary bodies in the solar system, and to engage students in thinking about how to engineer solutions to these challenges. Potential human health hazards in planetary exploration include: little to no breathable oxygen, exposure to extreme temperatures and pressures, radiation, dusty or toxic environments, and/or high velocity debris. First, students experiment with gloves made of different materials to accomplish tasks like picking up paper clips, entering numbers on a calculator, and using simple tools, while also testing for insulating properties, protection from crushing forces, and resistance to dust contamination. Students explore the trade-offs between form and multiple desired functions, and gain an introduction to materials engineering. Students are then presented with three different missions. Mission 1 is to collect and return a sample from Saturn's moon, Titan; Mission 2 is mining asteroids for useful minerals; and Mission 3 is to build a radio tower on the far side of Earth's moon. Each of these missions exhibits different potential hazards. Based on their previous experiments with different types of glove materials, students develop and test glove designs that will protect astronauts from mission-specific hazards, while still

  20. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  1. The Efficacy of Anti-vibration Gloves

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren; McDowell, Tom; Welcome, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anyone seeking to control the risks from vibration transmitted to the hands and arms may contemplate the use of anti-vibration gloves. To make an informed decision about any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to have performance data that allow the degree of protection to be estimated. The information provided with an anti-vibration glove may not be easy to understand without some background knowledge of how gloves are tested and does not provide any clear route for estimating likely protection. Some of the factors that influence the potential efficacy of an anti-vibration glove include how risks from hand–arm vibration exposure are assessed, how the standard test for a glove is carried out, the frequency range and direction of the vibration for which protection is sought, how much hand contact force or pressure is applied and the physical limitations due to glove material and construction. This paper reviews some of the background issues that are useful for potential purchasers of anti-vibration gloves. Ultimately, anti-vibration gloves cannot be relied on to provide sufficient and consistent protection to the wearer and before their use is contemplated all other available means of vibration control ought first to be implemented. PMID:27582615

  2. How risky are pinholes in gloves? A rational appeal for the integrity of gloves for isolators.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Angela; Stärk, Alexandra; Sigwarth, Volker; Moirandat, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Isolators provide a high degree of protection for the product and/or the environment and operators in pharmaceutical production, as well as for analytical and sterility testing. Gloves allow for performing testing and for easy access to the process. Due to their nature-thin plastic, highly flexible-and their risk of puncture or rupture, they are regarded as one of the main potential sources of contamination. Glove integrity testing is therefore a main issue and has been addressed by many regulations such as those imposed by the USP, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention. This paper presents a short overview of different glove integrity test procedures and their ability to detect leaking gloves. Additionally, extensive microbiological tests have been performed to give more evidence and cross-correlation to physical testing. Most of the physical tests have limitations either in detecting pinholes and/or they are difficult to implement for routine testing. Microbiological tests are only applicable for evaluation and validation purposes, but not for routine testing, because they are time-consuming and do not allow immediate action. Routine visual verification of gloves by trained personnel turns out to be a very reliable technique. Additional microbiological tests supported by microbiological environmental monitoring helped to develop a new concept presented here on how to handle gloves with pinholes. It is proposed not to automatically consider a pinhole in a glove as a breach in isolator integrity, but to consider any action in view of controlling and monitoring the effective bioload on the outside of the gloves. With the combination of semi-automatic physical testing with independent protocol, visual inspection, and control of bioload through microbiological environmental monitoring potential contamination, risks can be minimized and maximum safety maintained. Isolators are enclosure designs to protect critical handling and

  3. The mechanical and microbiological integrity of surgical gloves.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ala; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-03-01

    Several manufacturers supply surgical gloves that have been individually tested (IT) for leaks. Other manufacturers supply gloves in which sample gloves from each batch are tested for leaks (batch tested: BT). The latter brands may be rejected by surgeons because of presumed increased risk of wound infection and staff exposure to patient pathogens. The influence of differences between glove brands on performance in surgery has not been extensively studied. The aims of the present study were to test the mechanical and microbiological integrity of IT compared to BT gloves. A total of 110 unused gloves from each of an IT and a BT brand were tested for leaks, first, by observation of water-jets from water-filled gloves and second, by measuring electrical resistance between inside and outside the glove surfaces, to give a baseline measure. A total of 304 IT and 280 BT gloves were then similarly leak-tested after 98 clean surgical procedures. The hands and gloves of scrub team members were cultured postsurgery. A total of 1/110 BT and 0/110 IT unused gloves contained leaks (NS, Fisher's exact test). Operative perforation rates were lower for BT compared with IT (8/280 cf. 22/304; P < 0.05 Fisher's exact test). There was no bias in types of operations or scrub team members to account for the difference. Growth of normal skin flora was found on virtually every wearer's hands post-operatively. Similar bacteria were frequently cultured from the outside of gloves at the conclusion of surgery (111/152 pairs IT cf. 122/140 pairs BT; P < 0.01, Fisher's exact test). This study provides evidence that the clinical performance of BT gloves is no different to IT gloves. There was no significant difference in mechanical leak rates for unused gloves. Paradoxically, although IT gloves were more likely to show macro-perforations after surgery, the incidence of contamination on the surface of BT gloves was greater, possibly reflecting a qualitative difference in glove material. This study

  4. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  5. Permeation of fingerprints through laboratory gloves.

    PubMed

    Willinski, G

    1980-07-01

    Repeated controlled tests have shown that impressions from laboratory gloves will print onto optical components in 20 to 40 min and, in some cases, sooner. Careful testing demonstrated that palmar sweat passed through the glove material; the problem was not that gloves conform to the friction ridges of the fingers and then transfer some contaminant. The problem can be alleviated to a great extent by wearing thin cotton gloves like those commonly used in the film industry.

  6. Glove Perforations During Interventional Radiological Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Leena, R. V., E-mail: leenarv_76@yahoo.co.uk; Shyamkumar, N. K.

    2010-04-15

    Intact surgical gloves are essential to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of glove perforations during interventional radiological procedures. In this study, a total of 758 gloves used in 94 interventional radiological procedures were examined for perforations. Eleven perforations were encountered, only one of which was of occult type. No significant difference in the frequency of glove perforation was found between the categories with varying time duration.

  7. Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe during suite/hygiene briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe (right) is briefed on her suit and on personal hygiene equipment to be used on the STS 51-L mission. The briefing was conducted by Laura Louviere (center).

  8. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  9. Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

  10. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember s health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, realtime EVA.

  11. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember's health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, real-time EVA.

  12. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Technology Development Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah; Barta, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan; Gaddis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop advanced gloves for extra vehicular activity (EVA) for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. The glove prototypes that result from the successful completion of this technology development activity will be delivered to NASA's Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and ultimately to be included in an integrated test with the next generation spacesuit currently under development.

  13. Dressing for Altitude: U.S. Aviation Pressure Suits--Wiley Post to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Since its earliest days, flight has been about pushing the limits of technology and, in many cases, pushing the limits of human endurance. The human body can be the limiting factor in the design of aircraft and spacecraft. Humans cannot survive unaided at high altitudes. There have been a number of books written on the subject of spacesuits, but the literature on the high-altitude pressure suits is lacking. This volume provides a high-level summary of the technological development and operational use of partial- and full-pressure suits, from the earliest models to the current high altitude, full-pressure suits used for modern aviation, as well as those that were used for launch and entry on the Space Shuttle. The goal of this work is to provide a resource on the technology for suits designed to keep humans alive at the edge of space. Hopefully, future generations will learn from the hard-fought lessons of the past. NASA is committed to the future of aerospace, and a key component of that future is the workforce. Without these men and women, technological advancements would not be possible. Dressing for Altitude is designed to provide the history of the technology and to explore the lessons learned through years of research in creating, testing, and utilizing today s high-altitude suits. It is our hope that this information will prove helpful in the development of future suits. Even with the closeout of the Space Shuttle and the planned ending of the U-2 program, pressure suits will be needed for protection as long as humans seek to explore high frontiers. The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is committed to the training of the current and future aerospace workforce. This book and the other books published by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are in support of this commitment. Hopefully, you will find this book a valuable resource for many years to come.

  14. Glove perforations during open surgery for gynaecological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, A P; Shepherd, J H; Barton, D P J; Bridges, J E; Ind, T E J

    2008-07-01

    To audit glove perforations at laparotomies for gynaecological cancers. Gynaecological oncology unit, cancer centre, London. Prospective audit. Twenty-nine laparotomies for gynaecological cancers over 3 months. Gloves used during laparotomies for gynaecological cancer were tested for perforations by the air inflation and water immersion technique. Parameters recorded were: type of procedure, localisation of perforation, type of gloves, seniority of surgeon, operation time and awareness of perforations. Glove perforation rate. Perforations were found in gloves from 27/29 (93%) laparotomies. The perforation rate was 61/462 (13%) per glove. The perforation rate was three times higher when the duration of surgery was more than 5 hours. The perforation rate was 63% for primary surgeons, 54.5% for first assistant, 4.7% for second assistant and 40.5% for scrub nurses. Clinical fellows were at highest risk of injury (94%). Two-thirds of perforations were on the index finger or thumb. The glove on the nondominant hand had perforations in 54% of cases. In 50% of cases, the participants were not aware of the perforations. There were less inner glove perforations in double gloves compared with single gloves (5/139 versus 26/154; P = 0.0004, OR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.9-16.7). The indicator glove system failed to identify holes in 44% of cases. Glove perforations were found in most (93%) laparotomies for gynaecological malignancies. They are most common among clinical fellows, are often unnoticed and often not detected by the indicator glove system.

  15. Cross Contamination: Are Hospital Gloves Reservoirs for Nosocomial Infections?

    PubMed

    Moran, Vicki; Heuertz, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Use of disposable nonsterile gloves in the hospital setting is second only to proper hand washing in reducing contamination during patient contact. Because proper handwashing is not consistently practiced, added emphasis on glove use is warranted. There is a growing body of evidence that glove boxes and dispensers available to healthcare workers are contaminated by daily exposure to environmental organisms. This finding, in conjunction with new and emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria, poses a threat to patients and healthcare workers alike. A newly designed glove dispenser may reduce contamination of disposable gloves. The authors investigated contamination of nonsterile examination gloves in an Emergency Department setting according to the type of dispenser used to access gloves. A statistically significant difference existed between the number of bacterial colonies and the type of dispenser: the downward-facing glove dispenser had a lower number of bacteria on the gloves. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of gloves contaminated between the two types of glove dispensers. The study demonstrated that contamination of disposable gloves existed. Additional research using a larger sample size would validate a difference in the contamination of disposable gloves using outward or downward glove dispensers.

  16. Methods for reducing energy dissipation in cosmetic gloves.

    PubMed

    Herder, J L; Cool, J C; Plettenburg, D H

    1998-06-01

    For cosmetic reasons, hand prostheses are provided with cosmetic gloves. Their pleasing appearance, however, is accompanied by poor mechanical behavior, resulting in a negative influence on prosthesis operation. Glove stiffness is high and nonlinear, and internal friction in the glove material causes energy dissipation (hysteresis). In this article, two methods for reducing hysteresis in cosmetic gloves are proposed, that may be applied independently or in combination. Glove modification. Altering the mechanical properties of the glove itself is the first method that is presented. It was found possible to reduce both stiffness and hysteresis about 50% by forming grooves into the inside of the glove. Together with the evaluation of this method, several properties of the cosmetic glove were determined. Motion optimization. Additionally, a second method for reducing hysteresis was developed. The amount of hysteresis is influenced by the way the glove is forced to deform. The prosthesis mechanism, determining this deformation, was designed for minimum hysteresis and maximum cosmesis. For the prosthesis-glove combination used in this study, thumb motion optimization reduced hysteresis by about 65%.

  17. JOVE Pilot Research Study in Astronomy and Microgravity Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Hmelo, Anthony; Peterson, Steven

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop hardware and software facilities for evaluating the biomechanical interactions between human hands and space suit gloves. The first task was to measure finger joint angles inside space suit gloves. A preliminary survey identified three potential systems which could be used in the proposed study. In response to the current market situation, a glove for measuring the positions of the hand inside a space suit has been developed. A prototype of the glove has been constructed to demonstrate its sensing technologies. There are two types of sensors in the glove. The positions of the fingers are measured using bend sensors based on the CyberGlove design. This sensor consists of two strain gages mounted to a 0.003 inch thick mylar sheet. The sensor is encapsulated using 0.001 inch kapton film to give it sufficient rigidity. Along gage is used to average the strain generated in the sensor due to bending This average strain produces an output signal proportional to the angle of the bend. The force sensor consists of conductive ink sandwiched between two plastic sheets. An electrode is printed on one of the plastic sheets using silver ink. The resistance of the ink is sensitive to pressure.

  18. A New Method for Breath Capture Inside a Space Suit Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filburn, Tom; Dolder, Craig; Tufano, Brett; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates methods to capture an astronaut's exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) before it becomes diluted with the high volumetric oxygen flow present within a space suit. Typical expired breath contains CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) in the range of 20-35 mm Hg. This research investigates methods to capture the concentrated CO2 gas stream prior to its dilution with the low pCO2 ventilation flow. Specifically this research is looking at potential designs for a collection cup for use inside the space suit helmet. The collection cup concept is not the same as a breathing mask typical of that worn by firefighters and pilots. It is well known that most members of the astronaut corps view a mask as a serious deficiency in any space suit helmet design. Instead, the collection cup is a non-contact device that will be designed using a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the ventilation flow environment within the helmet. The CFD code, Fluent, provides modeling of the various gas species (CO2, water vapor, and oxygen (O2)) as they pass through a helmet. This same model will be used to numerically evaluate several different collection cup designs for this same CO2 segregation effort. A new test rig will be built to test the results of the CFD analyses and validate the collection cup designs. This paper outlines the initial results and future plans of this work.

  19. The rate of glove perforations in orthopaedic procedures: single versus double gloving. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chan, K Y; Singh, V A; Oun, B H; To, B H Se

    2006-12-01

    Glove perforation during surgery has always been a matter of concern as it increases the infection rate and the risk of transmission of blood borne diseases. To determine the common causes, the site and the awareness of glove perforations in orthopaedic surgery, a prospective study was conducted to assess the rate of glove perforation during 130 consecutive orthopaedic operations. All gloves worn by the surgical team were assessed after the surgery using the water-loading test. A total of 1452 gloves were tested, and the rate of perforation was 3.58%. Most of these perforations (61.5%) were unnoticed. The main surgeons had the most perforations (76.9%), followed by first assistants (13.5%) and second assistants (9.6%). Most perforations occurred at the non-dominant hand. The commonest site of perforation was the index finger followed by the thumb. Shearing force with instruments accounted for 45% of the noticed perforations. Majority of these occurred during nailing procedures (33%) and internal fixation without the use of wires (19%). Our rate of glove perforation is similar to other series. Most of them went unnoticed and were mainly due to shearing injuries rather than perforation by sharps. Therefore, there is an increased risk of contamination and break in asepsis during surgery.

  20. Glove use among hairdressers: difficulties in the correct use of gloves among hairdressers and the effect of education.

    PubMed

    Oreskov, Katia W; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-06-01

    Hand eczema is frequent among Danish hairdressers, and they are advised to use gloves as protection. However, studies indicate that a significant proportion use gloves inappropriately. To determine whether hairdressers and apprentices use protective gloves in the correct way, and to determine whether a demonstration of correct use could cause an improvement. Forty-three hairdressers and apprentices were asked to perform a hair wash while wearing gloves. The shampoo used was contaminated with an ultraviolet (UV) trace material. Two rounds of hair washing were carried out by each person, interrupted by a demonstration of how to use gloves correctly. Photographs were taken to compare UV contamination before and after the demonstration. All of the participants (100%) had their hands contaminated during the first round; the area ranged between 0.02 and 101.37 cm(2) (median 3.62 cm(2)). In the second round, 55.8% were contaminated (range 0.00-3.08 cm(2) ; median 0.01 cm(2)). The reduction in contaminated skin areas was statistically significant (p < 0.001), proving an effect of the glove demonstration. There were no significant differences between hairdressers and apprentices. Hairdressers and apprentices lack knowledge on how to handle gloves correctly. A short demonstration of correct glove use made a significant difference in the skin protection provided by gloves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [The risk of surgical glove perforations].

    PubMed

    Hagen, Gerd Ødegård; Arntzen, Halvard

    2007-03-29

    The increasing prevalence of blood-borne viral diseases has drawn attention to the barrier between the surgical personnel's hands and the patients body fluids during surgery. At present, the typical practice is to use double gloving in orthopaedic surgery, and single gloving in other types of surgery. The main purpose of our study was to estimate and compare the perforation risk in different categories of surgery. In a series of 655 surgical operations covering 5 main categories of surgery, all detected glove perforations were recorded and analysed. Perforations were found in 203 out of 655 operations (31%). The observed perforation frequency was 44.5% in gastrointestinal surgery, 34.7% in orthopaedic surgery, 31.1% in gynaecology, 18.6% in vascular surgery and 9.2% in general surgery. In some subcategories, the frequencies were even higher. In several categories of surgery, we found high perforation frequencies. Perforations in single gloves are often not detected during operations. This may increase the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections, particularly because the time of exposure may be long. Double indicator gloves make the intra-operative detection of perforations easier. Also double gloving is known to significantly reduce the perforation risk. The use of double indicator gloves is recommended in all categories of surgery.

  2. A Software Suite for Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stuart; Parkes, Steve

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass-memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on-board sub-systems. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi-directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches. STAR-Dundee’s STAR-System software stack has been designed to meet the needs of engineers designing and developing SpaceWire networks and devices. This paper describes the aims of the software and how those needs were met.

  3. Latex allergy: the perspective from the surgical suite.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Beth A

    2002-08-01

    Latex allergy in the perioperative setting presents unique challenges to the health care system. Specific needs of the latex-sensitive patient are paramount, but consideration must also include the impact on health care workers vis-a-vis latex sensitization, environmental allergen control, and barrier protection against blood-borne pathogens. It has been well documented that the greatest source of latex aeroallergen in the surgical setting is latex gloves (both sterile and nonsterile). Levels of latex aeroallergen correlate strongly with use of high-allergen and powdered gloves, total number of gloves used, and the hours of activity in a given environment. A significant reduction in aeroallergen (>10-fold) can be achieved by switching to low-allergen gloves. Ready availability of and encouragement to use nonlatex alternatives when appropriate can further reduce exposure to latex allergens. Since 1998, the Food and Drug Administration has required all medical devices (or their packaging) that contain natural rubber latex to be so labeled. In addition, industry has responded with a host of latex-free products for use in patient care. This has helped eliminate a great deal of confusion about which products are safe for use with latex-sensitive individuals. However, despite significant efforts to educate the public and the health care industry regarding latex allergies, considerable misinformation persists. Provision of a completely latex-free environment in most surgical suites may be unrealistic, but every effort should be made to minimize the unnecessary exposure of patients and health care workers to latex allergens in this high-risk arena.

  4. Choosing the right surgical glove: an overview and update.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Judith

    Sterile surgical gloves are routinely worn during all invasive procedures to prevent the two-way transmission of pathogens between the surgical team and the patient. This reduces the risk of surgical-site infections and blood-borne diseases. Since their introduction to the operating room over 100 years ago, surgical gloves, and the materials used to make them, have continued to evolve in line with ever-changing healthcare demands. Following recent developments in surgical glove technologies, including de-proteinized natural rubber latex and newer gloving methods such as triple gloving, it is timely that an overview and update of surgical gloves is given. By providing information on latex-associated allergies, glove materials, gloving methods and glove protection, this article will enable practitioners to choose the most appropriate surgical glove.

  5. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to

  6. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  7. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  8. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX?1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 minute tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, CA) with the pressure maintained at 20?2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars?1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX?1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  9. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX-1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 min tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, California) with the pressure maintained at 20 2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars-1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX-1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  10. Mass loss of shuttle space suit orthofabric under simulated ionospheric atomic oxygen bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Many polymeric materials used for thermal protection and insulation on spacecraft degrade significantly under prolonged bombardment by ionospheric atomic oxygen. The covering fabric of the multilayered shuttle space suit is composed of a loose weave of GORE-TEX fibers, Nomex and Kevlar-29, which are all polymeric materials. The complete evaluation of suit fabric degradation from ionospheric atomic oxygen is of importance in reevaluating suit lifetime and inspection procedures. The mass loss and visible physical changes of each test sample was determined. Kapton control samples and data from previous asher and flight tests were used to scale the results to reflect ionospheric conditions at about 220 km altitude. It is predicted that the orthofabric loses mass in the ionosphere at a rate of about 66% of the original orthofabric mass/yr. The outer layer of the two-layer orthofabric test samples shows few easily visible signs of degradation, even when observed at 440X. It is concluded that the orthofabric could suffer significant loss of performance after much less than a year of total exposure time, while the degradation might be undetectable in post flight visual examinations of space suits.

  11. Glove and gown effects on intraoperative bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Ward, William G; Cooper, Joshua M; Lippert, Dylan; Kablawi, Rawan O; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Sherertz, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the risk of bacterial contamination associated with changing outer gloves and using disposable spunlace paper versus reusable cloth gowns. Despite decades of research, there remains a lack of consensus regarding certain aspects of optimal aseptic technique including outer glove exchange while double-gloving and surgical gown type selection. In an initial glove study, 102 surgical team members were randomized to exchange or retain outer gloves 1 hour into clean orthopedic procedures; cultures were obtained 15 minutes later from the palm of the surgeon's dominant gloved hand and from the surgical gown sleeve. Surgical gown type selection was recorded. A laboratory strike-through study investigating bacterial transmission through cloth and paper gowns was performed with coagulase-negative staphylococci. In a follow-up glove study, 251 surgical team members, all wearing paper gowns, were randomized as in the first glove study. Glove study 1 revealed 4-fold higher levels of baseline bacterial contamination (31% vs 7%) on the sleeve of surgical team members wearing cloth gowns than those using paper gowns [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 4.64 (1.72-12.53); P = 0.0016]. The bacterial strike-through study revealed that 26 of 27 cloth gowns allowed bacterial transmission through the material compared with 0 of 27 paper gowns (P < 0.001). In glove study 2, surgeons retaining outer gloves 1 hour into the case had a subsequent positive glove contamination rate of 23% compared with 13% among surgeons exchanging their original outer glove [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.97 (1.02-3.80); P = 0.0419]. Paper gowns demonstrated less bacterial transmission in the laboratory and lower rates of contamination in the operating room. Disposable paper gowns are recommended for all surgical cases, especially those involving implants, because of the heightened risk of infection. Outer glove exchange just before handling implant materials

  12. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  13. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  14. MusicGlove: motivating and quantifying hand movement rehabilitation by using functional grips to play music.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Nizan; Chan, Vicky; Zondervan, Danny; Bachman, Mark; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    People with stroke typically must perform much of their hand exercise at home without professional assistance as soon as two weeks after the stroke. Without feedback and encouragement, individuals often lose motivation to practice using the affected hand, and this disuse contributes to further declines in hand function. We developed the MusicGlove as a way to facilitate and motivate at home practice of hand movement. This low-cost device uses music as an interactive and motivating medium to guide hand exercise and to quantitatively assess hand movement recovery. It requires the user to practice functional movements, including pincer grip, key-pinch grip, and finger-thumb opposition, by using those movements to play different musical notes, played along to songs displayed by an interactive computer game. We report here the design of the glove and the results of a single-session experiment with 10 participants with chronic stroke. We found that the glove is well suited for use by people with an impairment level quantified by a Box and Blocks score of at least around 7; that the glove can be used to obtain a measure of hand dexterity (% of notes hit) that correlates strongly with the Box and Blocks score; and that the incorporation of music into training significantly improved both objective measures of hand motor performance and self-ratings of motivation for training in the single session.

  15. Effects of pressure, cold and gloves on hand skin temperature and manual performance of divers.

    PubMed

    Zander, Joanna; Morrison, James

    2008-09-01

    Cold water immersion and protective gloves are associated with decreased manual performance. Although neoprene gloves slow hand cooling, there is little information on whether they provide sufficient protection when diving in cold water. Nine divers wearing three-fingered neoprene gloves and dry suits were immersed in water at 25 and 4 degrees C, at depths of 0.4 msw (101 kPa altitude adjusted) and 40 msw (497 kPa) in a hyperbaric chamber. Skin temperatures were measured at the fingers, hand, forearm, chest and head. Grip strength, tactile sensitivity and manual dexterity were measured at three time intervals. There was an exponential decay in finger and back of hand skin temperatures with exposure time in 4 degrees C water. Finger and back of hand skin temperatures were lower at 40 msw than at 0.4 msw (P < 0.05). There was no effect of pressure or temperature on grip strength. Tactile sensitivity decreased linearly with finger skin temperature at both pressures. Manual dexterity was not affected by finger skin temperature at 0.4 msw, but decreased with fall in finger skin temperature at 40 msw. Results show that neoprene gloves do not provide adequate thermal protection in 4 degrees C water and that impairment of manual performance is dependent on the type of task, depth and exposure time.

  16. KSC-2009-6474

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – This newly designed glove, one of the entries in the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, undergoes a joint force test the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, at the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, inventors tested the gloves to measure dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. KSC-2009-6464

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – This newly designed glove is one of the entries in the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, at the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, inventors tested the gloves to measure dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  18. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall... gloves (wireman's gloves) worn while handling trailing cables energized by 660 to 1,000 volts shall be...

  19. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C [Richland, WA; Rabe, Richard A [North Fork, ID

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  20. Elbow and knee joint for hard space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    An elbow or knee joint for a hard space suit or similar usage is formed of three serially connected rigid sections which have truncated spherical configurations. The ends of each section form solid geometric angles, and the sections are interconnected by hermetically sealed ball bearings. The outer two sections are fixed together for rotation in a direction opposite to rotation of the center section. A preferred means to make the outer sections track each other in rotation comprises a rotatable continuous bead chain which engages sockets circumferentially spaced on the facing sides of the outer races of the bearings. The joint has a single pivot point and the bearing axes are always contained in a single plane for any articulation of the joint. Thus flexure of the joint simulates the coplanar flexure of the knee or elbow and is not susceptible to lockup.

  1. A critique of assumptions about selecting chemical-resistant gloves: a case for workplace evaluation of glove efficacy.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Thomas D; Boeniger, Mark F

    2002-05-01

    Wearing chemical-resistant gloves and clothing is the primary method used to prevent skin exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace. The process for selecting gloves is usually based on manufacturers' laboratory-generated chemical permeation data. However, such data may not reflect conditions in the workplace where many variables are encountered (e.g., elevated temperature, flexing, pressure, and product variation between suppliers). Thus, the reliance on this selection process is questionable. Variables that may influence the performance of chemical-resistant gloves are identified and discussed. Passive dermal monitoring is recommended to evaluate glove performance under actual-use conditions and can bridge the gap between laboratory data and real-world performance.

  2. Micropunctures of rubber gloves used in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N

    1976-10-01

    In 720 operations in ambulatory oral surgery, the 2,880 surgical rubber gloves used were tested at the end of operation for perforations not earlier detected (microperforations). Gloves of ordinary thickness (type A) and of a thicker quality (type B) were examined. Perforations were found in 1495% and 22.0% of type A gloves and in 3.2% and 2.0% of type B gloves when oral surgeons and dental students, respectively, were operators. Gloves worn by operation assistants showed a lower incidence of perforation. Before operation, 50 gloves of type A were punctured at the tip of right index finger by a sterile dental probe. Results of bacteriologic examinations of the right index and middle fingers strongly indicated that a high number of bacteria passed through pinholes in the gloves. The intact surgical glove represents an impermeable barrier, protecting not only the operation wound against skin bacteria from the hands of the oral surgeon, but also the oral surgeon against pathogenic microorganisms, in particular hepatitis virus type B, escaping from the oral cavity of the patient.

  3. Occult glove perforation during ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Apt, L; Miller, K M

    1992-01-01

    We examined the latex surgical gloves used by 56 primary surgeons in 454 ophthalmic surgical procedures performed over a 7-month period. Of five techniques used to detect pinholes, air inflation with water submersion and compression was found to be the most sensitive, yielding a 6.80% prevalence in control glove pairs and a 21.8% prevalence in postoperative study glove pairs, for a 15.0% incidence of surgically induced perforations (P = 0.000459). The lowest postoperative perforation rate was 11.4% for cataract and intraocular lens surgery, and the highest was 41.7% for oculoplastic procedures. Factors that correlated significantly with the presence of glove perforations as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis were oculoplastic and pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus surgical procedures, surgeon's status as a fellow in training, operating time, and glove size. The thumb and index finger of the nondominant hand contained the largest numbers of pinholes. These data suggest strategies for reducing the risk of cross-infection during ophthalmic surgery. PMID:1494836

  4. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  5. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  6. Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

    2012-01-01

    This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

  7. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  8. Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

  9. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry; Taylor ,Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System. With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water "super-Q" - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  10. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  11. EVA Suits Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits packed inside containers arrive at the Space Station Processing Facility from Johnson Space Center in Texas. The suits will be used by STS-117 crew members to perform several spacewalks during the mission. The mission payload aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is the S3/S4 integrated truss structure, along with a third set of solar arrays and batteries. The crew of six astronauts will install the truss to continue assembly of the International Space Station.

  12. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  13. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (<45 μm and 45-1000 μm grain sizes), thin sections, and bulk rock samples, and all analytical data collected in the initial characterisation study to the broader planetary science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the

  14. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  15. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity on the International Space Station for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet, the supply of extremely high quality water required for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit cooling on the International Space Station (ISS) will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. One proposed solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semipermeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins, a special class of transmembrane proteins that facilitate passive, selective transport of water in vivo. The specificity of aquaporins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and it is this novel property that invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically those onboard the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are also currently being developed for use in terrestrial filtration systems.

  16. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  17. Constructing Gloved wings for aerodynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn-Meyer, Marta R.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, two aircraft from the Dryden Flight Research Facility were used in the general study of natural laminar flow (NLF). The first, an F-14A aircraft on short-term loan from the Navy, was used to investigate transonic natural laminar flow. The second, an F-15A aircraft on long-term loan from the Air Force, was used to examine supersonic NLF. These tests were follow-on experiments to the NASA F-111 NLF experiment conducted in 1979. Both wings of the F-14A were gloved, in a two-phased experiment, with full-span(upper surface only) airfoil shapes constructed primarily of fiberglass, foam, and resin. A small section of the F-15A right wing was gloved in a similar manner. Each glove incorporated provisions for instrumentation to measure surface pressure distributions. The F-14A gloves also had provisions for instrumentation to measure boundary layer profiles, acoustic environments, and surface pitot pressures. Discussions of the techniques used to construct the gloves and to incorporate the required instrumentation are presented.

  18. Suited crewmember productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barer, A. S.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Analysis of the extravehicular activity (EVA) sortie experience gained in the former Soviet Union and physiologic hygienic aspect of space suit design and development shows that crewmember productivity is related to the following main factors: —space suit microclimate (gas composition, pressure and temperature); —limitation of motion activity and perception, imposed by the space suit; —good crewmember training in the ground training program; —level of crewmember general physical performance capabilities in connection with mission duration and intervals between sorties; —individual EVA experience (with accumulation) at which workmanship improves, while metabolism, physical and emotional stress decreases; —concrete EVA duration and work rate; —EVA bioengineering, including selection of tools, work station, EVA technology and mechanization.

  19. Suited crewmember productivity.

    PubMed

    Barer, A S; Filipenkov, S N

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the extravehicular activity (EVA) sortie experience gained in the former Soviet Union and physiologic hygienic aspect of space suit design and development shows that crewmember productivity is related to the following main factors: -space suit microclimate (gas composition, pressure and temperature); -limitation of motion activity and perception, imposed by the space suit; -good crewmember training in the ground training program; -level of crewmember general physical performance capabilities in connection with mission duration and intervals between sorties; -individual EVA experience (with accumulation) at which workmanship improves, while metabolism, physical and emotional stress decreases; -concrete EVA duration and work rate; -EVA bioengineering, including selection of tools, work station, EVA technology and mechanization.

  20. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder injury is one of the most severe risks that have the potential to impair crewmembers' performance and health in long duration space flight. Overall, 64% of crewmembers experience shoulder pain after extra-vehicular training in a space suit, and 14% of symptomatic crewmembers require surgical repair (Williams & Johnson, 2003). Suboptimal suit fit, in particular at the shoulder region, has been identified as one of the predominant risk factors. However, traditional suit fit assessments and laser scans represent only a single person's data, and thus may not be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. The aim of this work is to develop a software tool based on a statistical analysis of a large dataset of crewmember body shapes. This tool can accurately predict the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population, from which the geometry can be exported and evaluated against suit models in commercial CAD software. A preliminary software tool was developed by statistically analyzing 150 body shapes matched with body dimension ranges specified in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements of NASA ("baseline model"). Further, the baseline model was incorporated with shoulder joint articulation ("articulation model"), using additional subjects scanned in a variety of shoulder poses across a pre-specified range of motion. Scan data was cleaned and aligned using body landmarks. The skin deformation patterns were dimensionally reduced and the co-variation with shoulder angles was analyzed. A software tool is currently in development and will be presented in the final proceeding. This tool would allow suit engineers to parametrically generate body shapes in strategically targeted anthropometry dimensions and shoulder poses. This would also enable virtual fit assessments, with which the contact volume and clearance between the suit and body surface can be predictively quantified at reduced time and

  1. The Astronaut Glove Challenge: Big Innovation from a (Very) Small Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many measurements were taken by test engineers from Hamilton Sundstrand, the prime contractor for the current EVA suit. Because the raw measurements needed to be converted to torques and combined into a final score, it was impossible to keep track of who was ahead in this phase. The final comfort and dexterity test was performed in a depressurized glove box to simulate real on-orbit conditions. Each competitor was required to exercise the glove through a defined set of finger, thumb, and wrist motions without any sign of abrasion or bruising of the competitor's hand. I learned a lot about arm fatigue! This was a pass-fail event, and both of the remaining competitors came through intact. After taking what seemed like an eternity to tally the final scores, the judges announced that I had won the competition. My glove was the only one to have achieved lower finger-bending torques than the Phase VI glove. Looking back, I see three sources of the success of this project that I believe also operate in other programs where small teams have broken new ground in aerospace technologies. These are awareness, failure, and trust. By remaining aware of the big picture, continuously asking myself, "Am I converging on a solution?" and "Am I converging fast enough?" I was able to see that my original design was not going to succeed, leading to the decision to start over. I was also aware that, had I lingered over this choice or taken time to analyze it, I would not have been ready on the first day of competition. Failure forced me to look outside conventional thinking and opened the door to innovation. Choosing to make incremental failures enabled me to rapidly climb the learning curve. Trusting my "gut" feelings-which are really an internalized accumulation of experiences-and my newly acquired skills allowed me to devise new technologies rapidly and complete both gloves just in time. Awareness, failure, and trust are intertwined: failure provides experiences that inform awareness

  2. Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe during suite/hygiene briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe is briefed on her suit and on personal hygiene equipment to be used on the STS 51-L mission. She is standing in front of a table with several of the items to be used on the flight, including one can labeled DIAL and one can labeled BAN.

  3. Develop and Manufacture an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.

    Ergonomic injury and radiation exposure are two safety concerns for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This facility employs the largest number of gloveboxes (GB) at LANL with approximately 6000 gloves installed. The current GB glove design dates back to the 1960’s and is not based on true hand anatomy, revealing several issues: short fingers, inappropriate length from the wrist to finger webbing, nonexistent joint angles and incorrect thumb placement. These design flaws are directly related to elbow (lateral epicondylitis) and thumb (DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis) injuries. The current design also contributes to increased wear on the glove, causingmore » unplanned glove openings (failures) which places workers at risk of exposure. An improved glovebox glove design has three significant benefits: 1) it will reduce the risk of injury, 2) it will improve comfort and productivity, and 3) it will reduce the risk of a glovebox failures. The combination of these three benefits has estimated savings of several million dollars. The new glove design incorporated the varied physical attributes of workers ranging from the 5 th percentile female to the 95th percentile male. Anthropometric hand dimensions along with current GB worker dimensions were used to develop the most comprehensive design specifications for the new glove. Collaboration with orthopedic hand surgeons also provided major contributtions to the design. The new glovebox glove was developed and manufactured incorporating over forty dimensions producing the most comprehensive ergonomically sound design. The new design received a LANL patent (patent attorney docket No: LANS 36USD1 “Protective Glove”, one of 20 highest patents awarded by the Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation. The glove dimensions were inputed into a solid works model which was used to produce molds. The molds were then shipped to a glove manufacturer for production of the new glovebox gloves. The new

  4. KSC-2009-6487

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Patrick Simpkins, director of Engineering at Kennedy, tries out a pair of space gloves for their dexterity and flexibility in a glove box at the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program. Looking over his shoulder is Kennedy Director Bob Cabana. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, the gloves were submitted to burst tests, joint force tests and tests to measure their dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  5. Permeability of latex gloves after contact with dental materials.

    PubMed

    Richards, J M; Sydiskis, R J; Davidson, W M; Josell, S D; Lavine, D S

    1993-09-01

    The use of latex examination gloves in the dental office has become the standard of care. However, the effectiveness of gloves as a barrier after coming into contact with specific dental materials is still uncertain. To examine the effects of dental materials is still uncertain. To examine the effects of dental materials on latex, 100 latex examination glove finger tips were divided into 10 groups. Each group was manipulated in a different dental material for 15 minutes. Permeability was detected by the passage of herpes virus across the latex membrane, rinsed from the inner glove surface and titrated onto Vero cells. Significant virus leakage was discovered in gloves treated with acrylic monomer, chloroform, and orange solvent. Little virus leakage was noted in bleach, soap, and 30% phosphoric acid etchant treated gloves, and no virus leakage was found with composite resin, ethanol, formocresol, and water treated gloves. These data were supported with scanning electron micrographs taken of the treated glove samples and comparing with the controls. When certain dental materials are manipulated while wearing gloves, irreversible damage to the material occurs and may increase the practitioner's exposure to pathogens.

  6. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A surgeon's glove is a device made of natural or synthetic rubber intended to be worn by... used in the glove is excluded. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). [53 FR 23872, June 24...

  7. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  8. Permeation of Comite through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

    2006-09-01

    The goal of the study was to assess how protective disposable (Safeskin) and chemical protective (Sol-Vex) nitrile gloves were against Comite emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing propargite (PROP) as active pesticidal ingredient, because there were no explicit recommendations for the gloves that should be worn for hand protection. The glove material was exposed in ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cells at 30.0+/-0.5 degrees C, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used for PROP analysis. Aqueous solutions of Comite at 40.4 mg/mL permeated both Safeskin and Sol-Vex nitrile by 8h. Safeskin showed a mean PROP mass permeated of 176+/-27 microg after 8h compared with a mean mass permeated for Sol-Vex of 3.17+/-4.08 microg. Thus, Sol-Vex was about 56 times more protective than Safeskin for an 8-h exposure. However, the kinetics of the permeation revealed that Safeskin can be worn for at least 200 min before disposal. When undiluted Comite challenged both types of nitrile, much faster permeation was observed. Safeskin gloves showed two steady state periods. The first had lag times (t(l)) values of about 1h, although normalized breakthrough times (t(b)) were < 10 min. The second steady state rate (P(s)) was on average four times the rate of the first period, and the second steady state period t(l) was about three times as long as that of the first steady state period, and about the same t(l) as for the aqueous solution. Sol-Vex gloves exposed continuously to undiluted Comite permeated above the normalized breakthrough threshold beyond 2.7h. A risk assessment revealed that the PROP skin permeation rate of 7.1 ng cm(-2)h(-1) was much slower than the first steady state Safeskin glove P(s) of 62,000 ng cm(-2)h(-1). Infrared analysis showed that the glove surfaces were not degraded by the Comite challenge. The chemically protective Sol-Vex gloves protected adequately against undiluted formulation for about 2.7h, whereas they provided protection for nearly 8h when

  9. A human factors approach towards the design of a new glovebox glove for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Jude M.

    Present day glovebox gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are underdeveloped and ergonomically inaccurate. This problem results in numerous sprain and strain injuries every year for employees who perform glovebox work. In addition to injuries, using the current glovebox glove design also contributes to breaches and contamination. The current glove used today at LANL has several problems: (1) The length of the fingers is incorrect, (2) the web spacing between the fingers is nonexistent, (3) the angles between each digit on the finger are incorrect, (4) the thumb is placed inaccurately, and (5) the length of the hand ismore » incorrect. These problems present a need to correct the current glove design to decrease the risk of injuries, breaches, and contamination. Anthropometrics were researched to help find the best range of hand measurements to fix the current glove design. Anthropometrics is the measure of the human physical variation. Anthropometrics for this study were gathered from the American National Survey (ANSUR) data that was conducted by the U.S Army in 1988. The current glovebox glove uses anthropometrics from the 95th to 105th percentile range which is too large so the new gloves are going to implement data from a smaller range of percentile groups. The 105th percentile range represents measurements that exceed the human population but are needed to fit certain circumstance such as wearing several under gloves within the glovebox gloves. Anthropometrics used in this study include: 105th percentile measurements for joint circumference which was unchanged because the room for under gloves plus ease of hand insertion and extraction is needed, 80th percentile measurements for crotch length to allow workers to reach the web spacing in the glove, 20th percentile measurements for finger length to allow workers to reach the end of the glove, standard 10.5cm hand breadth to allow more room to accommodate under gloves, 45 degrees abduction angle for

  10. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMTmore » Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)« less

  11. Extravehicular Space Suit Bearing Technology Development Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yan; Liu, Xiangyang; Guanghui, Xie

    2017-03-01

    Pressure bearing has been acting an important role in the EVA (extravehicular activity) suit as a main mobility component. EVA suit bearing has its unique traits on the material, dustproof design, seal, interface, lubrication, load and performance. This paper states the peculiarity and development of the pressure bearing on the construction design element, load and failure mode, and performance and test from the point view of structure design. The status and effect of EVA suit pressure bearing is introduced in the paper. This analysis method can provide reference value for our country’s EVA suit pressure bearing design and development.

  12. Smart glove: hand master using magnetorheological fluid actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. J.; Park, M. K.; Yamane, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a hand master using five miniature magneto-rheological (MR) actuators, which is called 'the smart glove', is introduced. This hand master is intended to display haptic feedback to the fingertip of the human user interacting with any virtual objects in virtual environment. For the smart glove, two effective approaches are proposed: (i) by using the MR actuator which can be considered as a passive actuator, the smart glove is made simple in structure, high in power, low in inertia, safe in interface and stable in haptic feedback, and (ii) with a novel flexible link mechanism designed for the position-force transmission between the fingertips and the actuators, the number of the actuator and the weight of the smart glove can be reduced. These features lead to the improvement in the manipulability and portability of the smart glove. The feasibility of the constructed smart glove is verified through basic performance evaluation.

  13. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  14. Tensile Properties and Integrity of Clean Room and Low-Modulus Disposable Nitrile Gloves: A Comparison of Two Dissimilar Glove Types

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng kee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The selection of disposable nitrile exam gloves is complicated by (i) the availability of several types or formulations, (ii) product variability, and (iii) an inability of common quality control tests to detect small holes in the fingers. Differences in polymer formulation (e.g. filler and plasticizer/oil content) and tensile properties are expected to account for much of the observed variability in performance. Objectives: This study evaluated the tensile properties and integrity (leak failure rates) of two glove choices assumed to contain different amounts of plasticizers/oils. The primary aims were to determine if the tensile properties and integrity differed and if associations existed among these factors. Additional physical and chemical properties were evaluated. Methods: Six clean room and five low-modulus products were evaluated using the American Society for Testing and Materials Method D412 and a modified water-leak test to detect holes capable of passing a virus or chemical agent. Results: Significant differences in the leak failure rates and tensile properties existed between the two glove types (P ≤ 0.05). The clean room gloves were about three times more likely to have leak failures (chi-square; P = 0.001). No correlation was observed between leak failures and tensile properties. Solvent extract, an indication of added plasticizer/oil, was not associated with leak failures. However, gloves with a maximum modulus <4 MPa or area density (AD) <11 g cm−2 were about four times less likely to leak. Conclusions: On average, the low-modulus gloves were a better choice for protection against aqueous chemical or biological penetration. The observed variability between glove products indicated that glove selection cannot rely solely on glove type or manufacturer labeling. Measures of modulus and AD may aid in the selection process, in contrast with common measures of tensile strength and elongation at break. PMID:22201179

  15. Tensile properties and integrity of clean room and low-modulus disposable nitrile gloves: a comparison of two dissimilar glove types.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-05-01

    The selection of disposable nitrile exam gloves is complicated by (i) the availability of several types or formulations, (ii) product variability, and (iii) an inability of common quality control tests to detect small holes in the fingers. Differences in polymer formulation (e.g. filler and plasticizer/oil content) and tensile properties are expected to account for much of the observed variability in performance. This study evaluated the tensile properties and integrity (leak failure rates) of two glove choices assumed to contain different amounts of plasticizers/oils. The primary aims were to determine if the tensile properties and integrity differed and if associations existed among these factors. Additional physical and chemical properties were evaluated. Six clean room and five low-modulus products were evaluated using the American Society for Testing and Materials Method D412 and a modified water-leak test to detect holes capable of passing a virus or chemical agent. Significant differences in the leak failure rates and tensile properties existed between the two glove types (P ≤ 0.05). The clean room gloves were about three times more likely to have leak failures (chi-square; P = 0.001). No correlation was observed between leak failures and tensile properties. Solvent extract, an indication of added plasticizer/oil, was not associated with leak failures. However, gloves with a maximum modulus <4 MPa or area density (AD) <11 g cm(-2) were about four times less likely to leak. On average, the low-modulus gloves were a better choice for protection against aqueous chemical or biological penetration. The observed variability between glove products indicated that glove selection cannot rely solely on glove type or manufacturer labeling. Measures of modulus and AD may aid in the selection process, in contrast with common measures of tensile strength and elongation at break.

  16. Performance evaluation of candidate space suit elements for the next generation orbital EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Philip R.; Trausch, Stephanie V.

    1992-01-01

    The AX-5 all metallic, multibearing technologies developed at the Ames Research Center and the Mk III fabric and metallic technologies developed at the Johnson Space Center were evaluated using the current Space Shuttle space suit technologies as a baseline. Manned evaluations were performed in the Weightless Environment Training Facility and KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft. Joint torque, range, cycle life, and environmental protection characteristics were analyzed during unmanned tests. Both numerical results and test subject comments on performance are presented.

  17. Glove utilization in the prevention of cross transmission: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Picheansanthian, Wilawan; Chotibang, Jutamas

    2015-05-15

    Gloves are worn to protect hands from contamination from microorganisms and to reduce the risks of transmission of microorganisms from healthcare workers to patients and vice versa. However, gloves should be changed between patient contacts and hand washing is necessary before putting on gloves and immediately after removing gloves. The objective of this review was to evaluate and synthesize the best available research evidence that investigates clinical use of gloves in the prevention of cross transmission. Health care workers.Types of intervention(s): Glove use intervention. Types of outcomes: Contamination of healthcare workers' hands, transmission of infections, adherence to glove usage, inappropriate uses of gloves, and adherence to hand hygiene. Types of studies: Quasi-experimental studies and descriptive studies. The search sought to find published and unpublished studies. The time period of the search covered articles published from 2000 to 2012 in English and Thai. The databases searched included: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Science Direct, Current Content Connect, Blackwell synergy, Thai Nursing Research Database, Thai thesis database, Digital Library of Thailand Research Fund, Research of National Research Council of Thailand, and Database of Office of Higher Education. Studies selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument software. Data extraction was performed using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument software. A meta-synthesis was not possible due to the methodological heterogeneity of the included papers. The evidence was thus presented as a narrative summary. Twenty-three studies were included in this review. The results indicated that contamination of a healthcare worker's gloves with

  18. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    PubMed

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves.

  19. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  20. Checkout and Standard Use Procedures for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2012-01-01

    The operational pressure range is the range to which the suit can be nominally operated for manned testing. The top end of the nominal operational pressure range is equivalent to 1/2 the proof pressure. Structural pressure is 1.5 times the specified test pressure for any given test. Proof pressure is the maximum unmanned pressure to which the suit was tested by the vendor prior to delivery. The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 90% of the proof pressure. The pressure systems RVs are set to keep components below their MAWPs. If the suit is pressurized over its MAWP, the suit will be taken out of service and an in-depth inspection/review of the suit will be performed before the suit is put back in service. The procedures outlined in this document should be followed as written. However, the suit test engineer (STE) may make redline changes real-time, provided those changes are recorded in the anomaly section of the test data sheet. If technicians supporting suit build-up, check-out, and/or test execution believe that a procedure can be improved, they should notify their lead. If procedures are incorrect to the point of potentially causing hardware damage or affecting safety, bring the problem to the technician lead and/or STE s attention and stop work until a solution (temporary or permanent) is authorized. Certain steps in the procedure are marked with a DV , for Designated Verifier. The Designated Verifier for this procedure is an Advanced Space Suit Technology Development Laboratory technician, not directly involved in performing the procedural steps, who will verify that the step was performed as stated. The steps to be verified by the DV were selected based on one or more of the following criteria: the step was deemed significant in ensuring the safe performance of the test, the data recorded in the step is of specific interest in monitoring the suit system operation, or the step has a strong influence on the successful completion of test objectives

  1. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were

  2. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  3. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were

  4. Dexterity testing of chemical-defense gloves. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, K.M.; Ervin; Zehner, G.F.

    1986-05-01

    Chemical-defense gloves (12.5-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, 14-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, and 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overgloves) were subjected to four dexterity tests (O'Connor Finger Dexterity Test, Pennsylvania Bi-Manual Worksample-Assembly, Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Turning, and the Crawford Small Test). Results indicated that subjects performances were most impaired by the 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overglove. Though differences between the other three gloved conditions were not always statistically significant, subjects performed silghtly better while wearing the Epichlorohydron/Butyl gloves, no matter which thickness, than they did while wearing the 15-mil butyl gloves. High negative correlation between anthropometry and gloved tests scores of subjects suggested that poor glovemore » fit may also have affected subjects performances.« less

  5. Evaluation of the flexibility of protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, Lotfi; Dolez, Patricia I; Vu-Khanh, Toan; Lara, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Two mechanical methods have been developed for the characterization of the flexibility of protective gloves, a key factor affecting their degree of usefulness for workers. The principle of the first method is similar to the ASTM D 4032 standard relative to fabric stiffness and simulates the deformations encountered by gloves that are not tight fitted to the hand. The second method characterizes the flexibility of gloves that are worn tight fitted. Its validity was theoretically verified for elastomer materials. Both methods should prove themselves as valuable tools for protective glove manufacturers, allowing for the characterization of their existing products in terms of flexibility and the development of new ones better fitting workers' needs.

  6. Integrity of Disposable Nitrile Exam Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-01-01

    Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical-grade, low-filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1-L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p ≤ 0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical-grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1-L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

  7. Inspection In Overhead Spaces Containing Asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jacque; Hartwick, George; Hutcherson, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for inspection in spaces above dropped ceilings that contain asbestos saves time and effort without sacrificing safety. With new method, only items of safety equipment needed are glove bag, storage bag, and roll of adhesive tape. Inspector tapes glove bag tightly to support grid around ceiling tile to be removed. With hands in gloves inspector lifts tile gently and places it aside. Extending head and shoulders into bag, inspector examines space above ceiling with help of flashlight.

  8. KSC-2009-6491

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Anna Heiney, a Public Affairs support writer with Abacus Technology at Kennedy, tries out a pair of space gloves for their dexterity and flexibility in a glove box at the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program. Looking over his shoulder is Kennedy Director Bob Cabana. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, the gloves were submitted to burst tests, joint force tests and tests to measure their dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  9. Cycle life machine for AX-5 space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenberger, Deborah S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to accurately test the AX-5 space suit, a complex series of motions needed to be performed which provided a unique opportunity for mechanism design. The cycle life machine design showed how 3-D computer images can enhance mechanical design as well as help in visualizing mechanisms before manufacturing them. In the early stages of the design, potential problems in the motion of the joint and in the four bar linkage system were resolved using CAD. Since these problems would have been very difficult and tedious to solve on a drawing board, they would probably not have been addressed prior to fabrication, thus limiting the final design or requiring design modification after fabrication.

  10. [Old and new types of sanitary gloves: what has improved?].

    PubMed

    Belleri, L; Crippa, Michela

    2008-01-01

    During the eighties a large increase in latex gloves production was observed because of the high demand of gloves in health care settings. In this period a low compliance to minimal quality standard was detected and the poor glove quality was associated with an increase of both irritant and allergic glove-related diseases. Since the second half of nineties health care workers and manufacturers paid more attention to these problems and a trend to a gradual, even if slow, quality improvement was observed. Most frequently powder-free gloves and synthetic gloves were offered on the market. The aim of this study was to highlight what has improved about materials and types of sanitary gloves during the last ten years. The information are based on a review of the scientific literature and practical experiences. Today a large selection of gloves made of different materials are available and they should be addressed to specific tasks. The review of the scientific literature and the analysis of many technical sheets provided by the manufacturers pointed out a trend to a better latex gloves quality (less chemical additives and generally a lower total protein content); sometimes data about a lower extractable latex allergens content are also available. Unfortunately detailed information on glove composition are not usually provided by the manufacturers; purchasers should require the manufacturing company to give comprehensive information and verify their reliability. Moreover the regulation in force should be adapted to higher quality standards. Powder-free and synthetic gloves consumption has improved but the use of synthetic rubber gloves should be further enhanced since some materials (e.g. neoprene and nitrile rubber) have a good biocompatibility and seem to have physical properties and protective efficacy similar to latex. Moreover allergic reactions to synthetic gloves (some chemical additives) are only occasional.

  11. Durable Tactile Glove for Human or Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butzer, Melissa; Diftler, Myron A.; Huber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A glove containing force sensors has been built as a prototype of tactile sensor arrays to be worn on human hands and anthropomorphic robot hands. The force sensors of this glove are mounted inside, in protective pockets; as a result of this and other design features, the present glove is more durable than earlier models.

  12. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Needs Evaluation and Sizing Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for CSSE pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

  13. Influence of surgical gloves on haptic perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Hatzfeld, Christian; Dorsch, Sarah; Neupert, Carsten; Kupnik, Mario

    2018-02-01

    Impairment of haptic perception by surgical gloves could reduce requirements on haptic systems for surgery. While grip forces and manipulation capabilities were not impaired in previous studies, no data is available for perception thresholds. Absolute and differential thresholds (20 dB above threshold) of 24 subjects were measured for frequencies of 25 and 250 Hz with a Ψ-method. Effects of wearing a surgical glove, moisture on the contact surface and subject's experience with gloves were incorporated in a full-factorial experimental design. Absolute thresholds of 12.8 dB and -29.6 dB (means for 25 and 250 Hz, respectively) and differential thresholds of -12.6 dB and -9.5 dB agree with previous studies. A relevant effect of the frequency on absolute thresholds was found. Comparisons of glove- and no-glove-conditions did not reveal a significant mean difference. Wearing a single surgical glove does not affect absolute and differential haptic perception thresholds. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transmission of vibration through gloves: effects of contact area.

    PubMed

    Md Rezali, Khairil Anas; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    For three samples of material (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mm diameter) from each of three gloves, the dynamic stiffnesses and the vibration transmissibilities of the materials (to both the palm of the hand and the thenar eminence) were measured at frequencies from 10 to 300 Hz. Additional measurements showed the apparent masses of the hand at the palm and the thenar eminence were independent of contact area at frequencies less than about 40 Hz, but increased with increasing area at higher frequencies. The stiffness and damping of the glove materials increased with increasing area. These changes caused material transmissibilities to the hand to increase with increasing area. It is concluded that the size of the area of contact has a large influence on the transmission of vibration through a glove to the hand. The area of contact should be well-defined and controlled when evaluating the transmission of vibration through gloves. Practitioner Summary: The transmission of vibration through gloves depends on both the dynamic stiffness of glove material and the dynamic response of the hand. Both of these depend on the size of the contact area between a glove material and the hand, which should be taken into account when assessing glove transmissibility.

  15. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a...

  18. Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Heather K.

    2004-01-01

    The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to

  19. [Modified gloving technique for vacuum therapy in the hand].

    PubMed

    Polykandriotis, E; Kneser, U; Kopp, J; Horch, R E

    2006-04-01

    During the last 10 years sub-atmospheric pressure dressings (Topical Negative Pressure Therapy = TNP) has become a well accepted standard therapeutic modality in the management of acute and chronic wounds. However, in the hand and the fingers TNP treatment is not as an established method as elsewhere in the body. This is mostly due to difficulties in the technique of sealing wounds near the interdigital folds, especially when the interdigital folds are affected themselves. Over a period of 36 months we treated 9 extensive open wounds of the hand with the TNP dressing procedure. To optimize the effective sealing procedure several methods of closure were applied: sterile vinyl gloves, split V.A.C. gel-straps and the "Sandwich"-principle. In all cases we were able to achieve a tight vacuum sealing with the use of our vinyl or latex free surgical glove as an aid to cover the interdigital spaces. There was a rapid and complete remission of the symptoms in terms of edema, redness, tenderness and range of motion. The indication spectrum encompassed infection control, temporary coverage of exposed bone or tendons, intermittent irrigation with local antiseptics as well as wound preconditioning before skin grafting or flap coverage. For the definite closure or coverage a second operation was necessary in all cases. The TNP-dressing can be securely achieved even in wounds encompassing the interdigital folds or adjacent to the in digital spaces with a modified surgical gloving technique to aid the standard sealing foil. It is a suitable principle for the management of severe hand infections with a reduction of clinical symptoms, reduction of the frequency of dressing changes compared to open approaches and a significant amelioration in the quality of life both for patients and health care personnel.

  20. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  1. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model-based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. Glove-related rhinopathy among hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Kujala, V M; Reijula, K E

    1996-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (NRL) in health care personnel exposed to powdered latex gloves appears as conjunctivitis, rhinitis, nasal congestion, cough, dyspnea, or bronchial asthma in approximately 30% of all cases with latex allergy while most of the patients have contact urticaria. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of latex-induced allergic rhinitis in health care workers using NRL gloves on a daily basis. Clinical examination accompanied by skin prick test (SPT) with latex glove extracts and common aeroallergens, measurements of specific IgE to NRL, and lung function tests were performed in 25 symptomatic workers and 11 latex-exposed asymptomatic controls. Sensitization to NRL was detected using SPT in one (4%) of 25 symptomatic workers but not in any of the asymptomatic controls. Positive SPT to aeroallergens was demonstrated in 8/25 symptomatic workers and 6/11 controls. Measurements of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in I sec, and bronchial methacholine challenge did not show any significant differences between the study groups. In conclusion, NRL-aeroallergen-induced occupational rhinitis may occur among physicians and nurses who have a frequent use of latex gloves on a daily basis at hospital work. However, a relatively low prevalence of NRL-induced occupational rhinitis is associated with profuse consumption of no-powder sterile gloves.

  3. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Glove perforation time and frequency in total hip arthroplasty procedures.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ibrahim; Uğraş, Akin; Sungur, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Murat; Korkmaz, Musa; Cetinus, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate glove perforation rate and time and evaluate the factors affecting glove perforation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Nine hundred seventy-nine gloves used in 57 THA procedures were assessed according to the perforation. Forty-four (77.2%) procedures were primary THA and 13 (22.8%) were revision THA. Gloves were changed when perforated, become dirty with blood or blood products, and before bone cementing. All gloves were filled with water at the end of the operation and controlled for perforation. Two hundred and one surgical gloves used during scrubbing and removed after draping the patient were examined as the control group. The location (which finger), number and time of the perforation, surgery type and duration, and distribution of the perforation location according to the surgical team were assessed. Patients' mean age was 62.9 ± 14.6 (range: 33 to 97) years and the mean surgery duration was 162.9 ± 32.0 minutes. Thirty-two glove perforations were noted in 19 of the operations. Of these perforations, 28 belonged to the surgeons and first assistants. There was no significant difference between the dominant or non-dominant hand according to the location of perforations. Perforations in the first and second fingers of the gloves accounted for 81.3% of all perforations. There was no significant difference in terms of number of gloves used, perforation numbers and operation duration between the primary and revision THA procedures. Two perforated gloves (0.99%) were found in the control group and the difference between the number of perforations in the control and study groups was significant (p=0.048). We recommend the use of two pairs of gloves to avoid the risk of contamination and protect the surgical team from infectious disease in major surgeries like THA. Surgical gloves should be changed when they are excessively contaminated with surgical fluids and the surgeon and first assistant should also change their

  6. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  7. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marman Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Allton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchision, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  8. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marmon Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Alton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  9. Prospective randomized assessment of single versus double-gloving for general surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Na'aya, H U; Madziga, A G; Eni, U E

    2009-01-01

    There is increased tendency towards double-gloving by general surgeons in our practice, due probably to awareness of the risk of contamination with blood or other body fluids during surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the relative frequency of glove puncture in single-glove versus double glove sets in general surgical procedures, and to determine if duration of surgery affects perforation rate. Surgeons at random do single or double gloves at their discretion, for general surgical procedures. All the gloves used by the surgeons were assessed immediately after surgery for perforation. A total of 1120 gloves were tested, of which 880 were double-glove sets and 240 single-glove sets. There was no significant difference in the overall perforation rate between single and double glove sets (18.3% versus 20%). However, only 2.3% had perforations in both the outer and inner gloves in the double glove group. Therefore, there was significantly greater risk for blood-skin exposure in the single glove sets (p < 0.01). The perforation rate was also significantly greater during procedures lasting an hour or more compared to those lasting less than an hour (p < 0.01). Double-gloving reduces the risk of blood-skin contamination in all general surgical procedures, and especially so in procedures lasting an hour or more.

  10. Glove Testing for Performance Against Flying Glass Shards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    superior dexterity to those with leather palms could still provide protection from flying shards of glass. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PPE...test glove was subject to significant scorching. It was decided that a woven Kevlar® fiber glove with a leather layer, covering both the palm and... leather -palmed gloves were considered too bulky for use by personnel with small hands, greatly decreasing dexterity. The wearer could not

  11. Radiation Tests of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit for the International Space Station Using Energetic Protons. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize the radiation transmitted through the EMU space suit and a human phantom have been performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at LLUMC. The beams simulate radiation encountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies on the order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy and above can penetrate many centimeters of water or other light materials, so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive doses to their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced by shielding - either from the space suit or the self-shielding of the body - but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particle flux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of the various critical organs. Data were taken to characterize the beams and to calibrate the detectors using the beam in a treatment room at LLUPTF, in preparation for an experiment with the same beams incident on detectors placed in a human phantom within the EMU suit. Nuclear interactions of high-energy protons in various materials produce a small flux of highly ionizing, low-energy secondary radiation. Secondaries are of interest for their biological effects, since they cause doses and especially dose-equivalents to increase relative to the values expected simply from ionization energy loss along the Bragg curve. Because many secondaries have very short ranges, they are best measured in passive track detectors such as CR-39. The silicon detector data presented here are intended to supplement the CR-39 data in regions where silicon has greater sensitivity, in particular the portion of the LET spectrum below 5 keV/micron. The results obtained in this study suggest that optimizing the radiation shielding properties of space suits is a formidable task. The naive assumption that adding mass can reduce risk is not supported by the data, which show that reducing the dose delivered at or

  12. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  13. KSC-2009-6466

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Alan Hayes, at microphone, chairman of Volanz Aerospace Inc., addresses the participants in the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, at the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Volanz Aerospace Inc., of Owings, Md., administers the competition at no cost to NASA. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, inventors tested the gloves to measure dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  14. KSC-2009-6465

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Paul Secor, left, of Secor Strategies LLC, addresses the participants in the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, at the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Secor Strategies LLC, of Titusville, Fla., is a sponsor of the event and provided local logistical services. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, inventors tested the gloves to measure dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilitiesmore » of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured in agreement with

  16. Reliability and performance of innovative surgical double-glove hole puncture indication systems.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Wind, Tyler C; Heather, Cynthia L; Thacker, John G

    2003-01-01

    During operative procedures, operating room personnel wear sterile surgical gloves designed to protect them and their patients against transmissible infections. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set compliance policy guides for manufacturers of gloves. The FDA allows surgeons' gloves whose leakage defect rates do not exceed 1.5 acceptable quality level (AQL) to be used in operating rooms. The implications of this policy are potentially enormous to operating room personnel and patients. This unacceptable risk to the personnel and patient could be significantly reduced by the use of sterile double surgical gloves. Because double-gloves are also susceptible to needle puncture, a double-glove hole indication system is urgently needed to immediately detect surgical needle glove punctures. This warning would allow surgeons to remove the double-gloves, wash their hands, and then don a sterile set of double-gloves with an indication system. During the last decade, Regent Medical has devised non-latex and latex double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The purpose of this comprehensive study is to detect the accuracy of the non-latex and latex double-glove hole puncture indication systems using five commonly used sterile surgical needles: the taper point surgical needle, tapercut surgical needle, reverse cutting edge surgical needle, taper cardiopoint surgical needle, and spatula surgical needle. After subjecting both the non-latex and latex double-glove hole puncture indication systems to surgical needle puncture in each glove fingertip, these double-glove systems were immersed in a sterile basin of saline, after which the double-gloved hands manipulated surgical instruments. Within two minutes, both the non-latex and latex hole puncture indication systems accurately detected needle punctures in all of the surgical gloves, regardless of the dimensions of the surgical needles. In addition, the size of the color change visualized through the translucent outer

  17. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  18. Space Suit Environment Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey; Cox, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In two previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads. Another paper at this year s conference discusses similar testing with real human metabolic loads, including some closed-loop testing with emergency breathing masks. The Orion ARS is designed to also support extravehicular activity operations from a depressurized cabin. The next step in developmental testing at JSC was, therefore, to test this ARS technology in a typical closed space suit loop environment with low-pressure pure oxygen inside the process loop and vacuum outside the loop. This was the first instance of low-pressure oxygen loop testing of a new Orion ARS technology, and was conducted with simulated human metabolic loads in December 2008. The test investigated pressure drops through two different styles of prototype suit umbilical connectors and general swing-bed performance with both umbilical configurations as well as with a short jumper line installed in place of the umbilicals. Other interesting results include observations on the thermal effects of swing-bed operation in a vacuum environment and a recommendation of cycle time to maintain acceptable atmospheric CO2 and moisture levels.

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  20. Fundamentals of the knowledge about chemical additives present in rubber gloves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hegles Rosa de; Alchorne, Alice de Oliveira de Avelar

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent causes of allergic contact dermatitis of occupational origin are rubber additives, which are present in Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The most allergenic additives of natural and synthetic gloves are thiurams, carbamates and mercapto group. To investigate the state of knowledge about the chemical additives used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber gloves. This was a qualitative research study in which professionals working in the manufacture, research, prescription and commercialization of gloves answered an open questionnaire. 30 individuals were interviewed: 4 researchers in occupational medicine, 5 occupational physicians, 2 occupational safety technicians, a rubber workers' union physician, an occupational safety engineer, a pro duction engineer of rubber gloves, 4 importers of gloves, a manufacturer of gloves, 3 businessmen who sell PPE, 3 salesclerks working in stores that sell PPE, 2 businessmen who own stores that sell products for allergic individuals, and 3 dermatologists. Knowledge of the chemical composition of rubber gloves is scant. The labeling of gloves, with the description of their chemical composition, would facilitate choosing the best type of glove for each person. This low-cost action to businesses would be a gain from the standpoint of public health, with huge repercussions for users of rubber gloves.

  1. Tactile Gloves for Autonomous Grasping With the NASA/DARPA Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. B.; Ambrose, R. O.; Diftler, M. A.; Platt, R., Jr.; Butzer, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Tactile data from rugged gloves are providing the foundation for developing autonomous grasping skills for the NASA/DARPA Robonaut, a dexterous humanoid robot. These custom gloves compliment the human like dexterity available in the Robonaut hands. Multiple versions of the gloves are discussed, showing a progression in using advanced materials and construction techniques to enhance sensitivity and overall sensor coverage. The force data provided by the gloves can be used to improve dexterous, tool and power grasping primitives. Experiments with the latest gloves focus on the use of tools, specifically a power drill used to approximate an astronaut's torque tool.

  2. Glove perforation rate in open lung surgery.

    PubMed

    Hollaus, P H; Lax, F; Janakiev, D; Wurnig, P N; Pridun, N S

    1999-04-01

    In open lung surgery the surgical access is encircled by the ribs, which should result in a high glove perforation rate compared with other surgical specialities. Prospectively the surgeon, first and second assistant and the scrub nurse wore double standard latex gloves during 100 thoracotomies. Parameters recorded were: procedure performed, number of perforations, localization of perforation, the seniority of the surgeon, manoeuvre performed at the moment of perforation, immediate cause of perforation, operation time, performance of rib resection during thoracotomy and time of occurrence of the first three perforations. One thousand, six hundred and seventy-three gloves (902 outer, 771 inner) were tested. In 78 operations perforations occurred. There were 150 outer glove perforations (8.9%, 0-8, mean 1.23), 19 inner glove perforations (1.13%, 0-2, mean 0.19). Cutaneous blood exposure was prevented in 78% of all operations and in 87% of all perforations. The perforation rate for the surgeon, the scrub nurse, the first and the second assistant were 61.2, 40.4, 9.7 and 3.1% of all operations, respectively. Rib resection and a duration of more than 2 h resulted in a significant rise of glove perforation rate (P<0.05). The personal experience of the surgeon and the type of operation did not correlate with glove perforation. The immediate cause leading to perforation was named in only 17 cases (13.7%) and comprised contact with bone (seven), a needle stitch (seven) and a production flaw (three). Leaks were localized mostly on the first finger (18%),second finger, (39%) palm and dorsum of the hand (16%). The average occurrence of all first perforations was 38.7 min (range 3-190) after the beginning of surgery, the second after 63.2 min (range 10-195). Fifty-four first perforations (50.5%) were found during the first 30 min of the operation. The reported perforation rate of 78% lies in the highest range of reported perforation rates in different surgical specialities

  3. EVA Roadmap: New Space Suit for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Robert

    1998-01-01

    New spacesuit design considerations for the extra vehicular activity (EVA) of a manned Martian exploration mission are discussed. Considerations of the design includes:(1) regenerable CO2 removal, (2) a portable life support system (PLSS) which would include cryogenic oxygen produced from in-situ manufacture, (3) a power supply for the EVA, (4) the thermal control systems, (5) systems engineering, (5) space suit systems (materials, and mobility), (6) human considerations, such as improved biomedical sensors and astronaut comfort, (7) displays and controls, and robotic interfaces, such as rovers, and telerobotic commands.

  4. The Interaction of the Space Shuttle Launch and Entry Suits and Sustained Weightless on Astronaut Egress Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P. A.; Sothmann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of extended periods of weightlessness during space missions on astronauts f ability to perform a simulated contingency egress while wearing either of the Launch and Entry suits immediately after space flight. In our previous lab-based study of simulated contingency egress, we found only 4 of 12 non-astronauts wearing the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) successfully completed the simulated egress. However, 4 of 4 of the previous failures (when tested wearing the LES), were then successful in completing the test wearing the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). Therefore, this study tested 21 Astronaut Volunteers wearing either the LES or ACES while performing a simulated egress on a treadmill (TM) onboard the Crew Transportation Vehicle immediately after space flight at either the Kennedy Space Center or Edwards AFB. Astronauts walked for 400 meters at 1.6m/sec with g-suit inflation level set to preflight testing levels, visor down, breathing from the suit emergency O2 supply. Metabolic, heartrate, and perceived exertion data were collected during these post-flight tests. Exactly the same preflight simulated egress tests on a TM were performed in the lab at NASA/JSC by each crewmember at L-60. Preflight testing found 2 of the 21 crewmembers were unable to complete the simulated contingency egress. Postflight, 9 crew (8 ACES, 1 LES) completed the simulated contingency egress of 400 meters at 1.6m/sec. and 12 failed to meet that standard (7 ACES, 5 LES). Preflight physiological response tests failed to identify crew capable of performing the egress vs. those who failed. However, 18 of the 21 crew did make at least 2.67 minutes into the postflight egress testing. At that point in time, heartrate was higher (P <=.20) for the failures compared to the finishers. These findings indicate that NASA fs switch to the ACES for space flight crews should be expedited.

  5. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... (collectively known as medical gloves) to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne... gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious deseases. The CDC...

  6. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... (collectively known as medical gloves) to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne... gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious deseases. The CDC...

  7. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... (collectively known as medical gloves) to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne... gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious deseases. The CDC...

  8. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... (collectively known as medical gloves) to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne... gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious deseases. The CDC...

  9. Glove-based approach to online signature verification.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Nidal S; Sayeed, Shohel; Ellis, Grant A

    2008-06-01

    Utilizing the multiple degrees of freedom offered by the data glove for each finger and the hand, a novel on-line signature verification system using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) numerical tool for signature classification and verification is presented. The proposed technique is based on the Singular Value Decomposition in finding r singular vectors sensing the maximal energy of glove data matrix A, called principal subspace, so the effective dimensionality of A can be reduced. Having modeled the data glove signature through its r-principal subspace, signature authentication is performed by finding the angles between the different subspaces. A demonstration of the data glove is presented as an effective high-bandwidth data entry device for signature verification. This SVD-based signature verification technique is tested and its performance is shown to be able to recognize forgery signatures with a false acceptance rate of less than 1.2%.

  10. Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Wellendorf, Hanne; Ruyter, Eystein

    2003-10-01

    Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a 'safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top.

  11. Dexterity test data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (T A-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions onmore » which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.« less

  12. A glimpse from the inside of a space suit: What is it really like to train for an EVA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the space suit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper will take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the space suit, termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a space suit.

  13. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  14. Examining the Usefulness of ISO 10819 Anti-Vibration Glove Certification.

    PubMed

    Budd, Diandra; House, Ron

    2017-03-01

    Anti-vibration gloves are commonly worn to reduce hand-arm vibration exposure from work with hand-held vibrating tools when higher priority and more effective controls are unavailable. For gloves to be marketed as 'anti-vibration' they must meet the vibration transmissibility criteria described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 10819 (2013). Several issues exist with respect to the methodology used for glove testing as well as the requirements for glove design and composition in ISO 10819 (2013). The true usefulness of anti-vibration gloves at preventing hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is controversial, given that their performance is dependent on tool vibration characteristics and the anthropometrics of workers in real working conditions. The major risk associated with the use of anti-vibration gloves is that it will give employees and employers a false sense of protection against the negative effects of hand-transmitted vibration. This commentary examines the limitations of the current international standards for anti-vibration glove testing and certification, thereby calling into question the degree of protection that anti-vibration gloves provide against HAVS, and cautioning users to consider both their benefits and potential drawbacks on a case-by-case basis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Transmission of vibration through glove materials: effects of contact force.

    PubMed

    Md Rezali, Khairil Anas; Griffin, Michael J

    2018-04-26

    This study investigated effects of applied force on the apparent mass of the hand, the dynamic stiffness of glove materials and the transmission of vibration through gloves to the hand. For 10 subjects, 3 glove materials and 3 contact forces, apparent masses and glove transmissibilities were measured at the palm and at a finger at frequencies in the range 5-300 Hz. The dynamic stiffnesses of the materials were also measured. With increasing force, the dynamic stiffnesses of the materials increased, the apparent mass at the palm increased at frequencies greater than the resonance and the apparent mass at the finger increased at low frequencies. The effects of force on transmissibilities therefore differed between materials and depended on vibration frequency, but changes in apparent mass and dynamic stiffness had predictable effects on material transmissibility. Depending on the glove material, the transmission of vibration through a glove can be increased or decreased when increasing the applied force. Practitioner summary: Increasing the contact force (i.e. push force or grip force) can increase or decrease the transmission of vibration through a glove. The vibration transmissibilities of gloves should be assessed with a range of contact forces to understand their likely influence on the exposure of the hand and fingers to vibration.

  16. Influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester readings in children.

    PubMed

    Holan, G

    1993-12-01

    Electric pulp testers operated by completing an electric circuit. Latex examination gloves have been claimed to interrupt this circuit and lead to false-negative results. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester (EPT) readings. The pulps of 80 maxillary permanent incisors of 22 children 10-13 1/2 years old were tested using the Pelton & Crane 'Vitapulp' instrument. Each tooth was tested twice: with gloves and with bare hands. Teeth failing to respond to the EPT without gloves were excluded from the study. All EPT readings ranged between 1 and 9.5. Five teeth gave the same responses with gloved and ungloved hands. Only five teeth did not respond when gloves were worn, and all of these gave readings near the top of the EPT scale when tested without gloves. The other 70 teeth presented significantly higher readings with gloves than without gloves. It is concluded that removal of examination gloves during the operation of the EPT is necessary only if no response is obtained.

  17. EVA Glove Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  18. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for

  19. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... examination and by a water leak test method, using 1,000 milliliters (ml) of water. (i) Units examined. Each... inches up the fill tube.) (iii) Leak test examination. Immediately after adding the water, examine the glove for water leaks. Do not squeeze the glove; use only minimum manipulation to spread the fingers to...

  20. PCR-Based Method for Detecting Viral Penetration of Medical Exam Gloves

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, John M.; O'Connell, Kevin P.; Korniewicz, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    The test approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for assessment of the barrier quality of medical exam gloves includes visual inspection and a water leak test. Neither method tests directly the ability of gloves to prevent penetration by microorganisms. Methods that use microorganisms (viruses and bacteria) to test gloves have been developed but require classical culturing of the organism to detect it. We have developed a PCR assay for bacteriophage φX174 that allows the rapid detection of penetration of gloves by this virus. The method is suitable for use with both latex and synthetic gloves. The presence of glove powder on either latex or synthetic gloves had no effect on the ability of the PCR assay to detect bacteriophage DNA. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive; requires only small sample volumes; and can be automated. PMID:12149320

  1. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water 'super-Q' - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  2. Astronaut Joseph Tanner checks gloves during during launch/entry training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-06-23

    S94-40082 (23 June 1994) --- Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, mission specialist, checks his glove during a rehearsal for launch and entry phases of the scheduled November flight of STS-66. This rehearsal, held in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures. In November, Tanner will join four other NASA astronauts and a European mission specialist for a week and a half aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in Earth-orbit in support of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3).

  3. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    An experimental project was initiated to characterize mass loss when heating different polymer glovebox glove material samples to three elevated temperatures, 90, 120, and 150 C. Samples from ten different polymeric gloves that are being considered for use in the tritium gloveboxes were tested. The intent of the study was to determine the amount of material lost. These data will be used in a subsequent study to characterize the composition of the material lost. One goal of the study was to determine which glove composition would least affect the glovebox atmosphere stripper system. Samples lost most of the mass inmore » the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The most mass loss was experienced by Jung butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} at 146 C with 12.9% mass loss followed by Piercan Hypalon{reg_sign} at 144 C with 11.4 % mass loss and Jung butyl-Viton{reg_sign} at 140 C with 5.2% mass loss. The least mass loss was experienced by the Jung Viton{reg_sign} and the Piercan polyurethane. Unlike the permeation testing (1) the vendor and fabrication route influences the amount of gaseous species that is evolved. Additional testing to characterize these products is recommended. Savannah River Site (SRS) has many gloveboxes deployed in the Tritium Facility. These gloveboxes are used to protect the workers and to ensure a suitable environment in which to handle tritium gas products. The gas atmosphere in the gloveboxes is purified using a stripper system. The process gas strippers collect molecules that may have hydrogen or its isotopes attached, e.g., waters of hydration, acids, etc. Recently, sulfur containing compounds were detected in the stripper system and the presence of these compounds accelerates the stripper system's aging process. This accelerated aging requires the strippers to be replaced more often which can impact the facility's schedule and

  4. Mechanical counter pressure on the arm counteracts adverse effects of hypobaric exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Limberg, Ryan; Webb, Paul; Reddig, Mike; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current space suits have limited movement due to gas pressurization during exposure to the vacuum of space. Alternatively, if pressure is applied by an elastic garment vs. pneumatic garment to produce mechanical counter pressure (MCP), several advantages are possible. In this study, we investigate local microcirculatory and other effects produced with and without a prototype MCP glove and sleeve during exposure to varying levels of vacuum. METHODS: The entire arms of eight male volunteers were studied at normal ambient pressure and during 5 min exposures to -50, -100, and -150 mm Hg with and without the MCP glove and sleeve. Pressure distribution, skin microvascular flow, and temperature were measured. RESULTS: The MCP glove and sleeve generated over 200 mm Hg on the middle finger, dorsum of the hand, and the wrist. However, pressure was significantly lower on the forearm and the upper arm. Without the glove and sleeve, only two of eight subjects tolerated -100 mm Hg. Also, no subject tolerated -150 mm Hg. However, subjects tolerated all vacuum pressures wearing the glove and sleeve. Skin microvascular flow and temperature remained within control values with the glove and sleeve at a chamber pressure of -150 mm Hg. DISCUSSION: The MCP glove and sleeve counteracts adverse effects of vacuum exposures due to lower pressure differentials. Pressure levels over the hand and wrist are similar to those of the current U.S. space suit glove and sleeve, but additional development is required to increase MCP over the forearm and upper arm.

  5. Mapping From an Instrumented Glove to a Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to solve the problem of mapping from (1) a glove instrumented with joint-angle sensors to (2) an anthropomorphic robot hand. Such a mapping is needed to generate control signals to make the robot hand mimic the configuration of the hand of a human attempting to control the robot. The mapping problem is complicated by uncertainties in sensor locations caused by variations in sizes and shapes of hands and variations in the fit of the glove. The present mapping algorithm is robust in the face of these uncertainties, largely because it includes a calibration sub-algorithm that inherently adapts the mapping to the specific hand and glove, without need for measuring the hand and without regard for goodness of fit. The algorithm utilizes a forward-kinematics model of the glove derived from documentation provided by the manufacturer of the glove. In this case, forward-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the glove fingertip positions as functions of the sensor readings. More specifically, given the sensor readings, the forward-kinematics model calculates the glove fingertip positions in a Cartesian reference frame nominally attached to the palm. The algorithm also utilizes an inverse-kinematics model of the robot hand. In this case, inverse-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the robot finger-joint angles as functions of the robot fingertip positions. Again, more specifically, the inverse-kinematics model calculates the finger-joint commands needed to place the fingertips at specified positions in a Cartesian reference frame that is attached to the palm of the robot hand and that nominally corresponds to the Cartesian reference frame attached to the palm of the glove. Initially, because of the aforementioned uncertainties, the glove fingertip positions calculated by the forwardkinematics model in the glove Cartesian reference frame cannot be expected to match the robot fingertip positions in the robot

  6. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream...

  12. Development of Wireless RFID Glove for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwon; Kim, Minchul; Park, Jinwoo; Oh, Jeonghoon; Eom, Kihwan

    Radio Frequency Identification is increasingly popular technology with many applications. The majority of applications of RFID are supply-chain management. In this paper, we proposed the development of wireless RFID Glove for various applications in real life. Proposed wireless RFID glove is composed of RFID reader of 13.56 MHz and RF wireless module. Proposed Gloves were applied to two applications. First is the interactive leaning and second is Meal aid system for blind people. The experimental results confirmed good performances.

  13. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  14. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  15. Assessment of Suited Reach Envelope in an Underwater Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Han; Benson, Elizabeth; Bernal, Yaritza; Jarvis, Sarah; Meginnis, Ian; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the performance of a crewmember in an extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit presents unique challenges. The kinematic patterns of suited motions are difficult to reproduce in gravity. Additionally, 3-D suited kinematics have been practically and technically difficult to quantify in an underwater environment, in which crewmembers are commonly trained and assessed for performance. The goal of this study is to develop a hardware and software system to predictively evaluate the kinematic mobility of suited crewmembers, by measuring the 3-D reach envelope of the suit in an underwater environment. This work is ultimately aimed at developing quantitative metrics to compare the mobility of the existing Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) to newly developed space suit, such as the Z-2. The EMU has been extensively used at NASA since 1981 for EVA outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The Z-2 suit is NASA's newest prototype space suit. The suit is comprised of new upper torso and lower torso architectures, which were designed to improve test subject mobility.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  17. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  18. Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Sachon, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The risk of EVAs is critical to the decision of whether or not to automate a large part of the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the choice of the technologies of the space suit and the life support system will determine (1) the immediate safety of these operations, and (2) the long-run costs and risks of human presence in space, not only in lower orbit (as is the case of the ISS) but also perhaps, outside these orbits, or on the surface of other planets. The problem is therefore both an immediate one and a long-term one. The fundamental question is how and when to shift from the existing EMU system (suit, helmet, gloves and life support system) to another type (e.g. a hard suit), given the potential trade-offs among life-cycle costs, risks to the astronauts, performance of tasks, and uncertainties about new systems' safety inherent to such a shift in technology. A more immediate issue is how to manage the risks of EVAs during the construction and operation of the ISS in order to make the astronauts (in the words of the NASA Administrator) "as safe outside as inside". For the moment (June 1997), the plan is to construct the Space Station using the low-pressure space suits that have been developed for the space shuttle. In the following, we will refer to this suit assembly as EMU (External Maneuvering Unit). It is the product of a long evolution, starting from the U.S. Air Force pilot suits through the various versions and changes that occurred for the purpose of NASA space exploration, in particular during the Gemini and the Apollo programs. The Shuttle EMU is composed of both soft fabrics and hard plates. As an alternative to the shuttle suit, at least two hard suits were developed by NASA: the AX5 and the MRKIII. The problem of producing hard suits for space exploration is very similar to that of producing deep-sea diving suits. There was thus an opportunity to develop a suit that could be manufactured for both purposes with the

  19. Understanding Factors that Influence Protective Glove Use among Automotive Spray Painters

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4–5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4–5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6–8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4–5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the users’ difficulty to distinguish between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints; most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  20. Fingers' vibration transmission and grip strength preservation performance of vibration reducing gloves.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, K; Rakheja, S; Dewangan, K N; Marcotte, P

    2018-01-01

    The vibration isolation performances of vibration reducing (VR) gloves are invariably assessed in terms of power tools' handle vibration transmission to the palm of the hand using the method described in ISO 10819 (2013), while the nature of vibration transmitted to the fingers is ignored. Moreover, the VR gloves with relatively low stiffness viscoelastic materials affect the grip strength in an adverse manner. This study is aimed at performance assessments of 12 different VR gloves on the basis of handle vibration transmission to the palm and the fingers of the gloved hand, together with reduction in the grip strength. The gloves included 3 different air bladder, 3 gel, 3 hybrid, and 2 gel-foam gloves in addition to a leather glove. Two Velcro finger adapters, each instrumented with a three-axis accelerometer, were used to measure vibration responses of the index and middle fingers near the mid-phalanges. Vibration transmitted to the palm was measured using the standardized palm adapter. The vibration transmissibility responses of the VR gloves were measured in the laboratory using the instrumented cylindrical handle, also described in the standard, mounted on a vibration exciter. A total of 12 healthy male subjects participated in the study. The instrumented handle was also used to measure grip strength of the subjects with and without the VR gloves. The results of the study showed that the VR gloves, with only a few exceptions, attenuate handle vibration transmitted to the fingers only in the 10-200 Hz and amplify middle finger vibration at frequencies exceeding 200 Hz. Many of the gloves, however, provided considerable reduction in vibration transmitted to the palm, especially at higher frequencies. These suggest that the characteristics of vibration transmitted to fingers differ considerably from those at the palm. Four of the test gloves satisfied the screening criteria of the ISO 10819 (2013) based on the palm vibration alone, even though these caused

  1. Reduction of antigenic protein levels in latex gloves after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zehr, B D; Gromelski, S; Beezhold, D

    1994-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is currently the method most commonly used to sterilize surgical gloves. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on antigenic proteins in latex gloves was examined. Protein extraction and quantitation were carried out using latex gloves before and after sterilization. Antigenic protein levels were determined by an ELISA assay specific for latex proteins (LEAP). LEAP analysis revealed a significant decrease after gamma-irradiation sterilization. This observation may partially explain the lower levels of extractable antigenic proteins found in sterile surgical gloves compared with nonsterile examination gloves. However, gamma irradiation was less effective than autoclave sterilization in reducing protein levels.

  2. Instrumented Glove Measures Positions Of Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Glove instrumented with flat membrane potentiometers to obtain crude measurements of relative positions of fingers. Resistance of each potentiometer varies with position of associated finger; translator circuit connected to each potentiometer converts analog reading to 1 of 10 digital levels. Digitized outputs from all fingers fed to indicating, recording, and/or data-processing equipment. Gloves and circuits intended for use in biomedical research, training in critical manual tasks, and other specialized applications.

  3. The Aouda.X space suit simulator and its applications to astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot E; Hauth, Stefan; Luger, Ulrich; Bickert, Klaus; Sattler, Birgit; Hauth, Eva; Föger, Daniel; Schildhammer, Daniel; Agerer, Christian; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Kaineder, Felix; Knoflach, Martin

    2012-02-01

    We have developed the space suit simulator Aouda.X, which is capable of reproducing the physical and sensory limitations a flight-worthy suit would have on Mars. Based upon a Hard-Upper-Torso design, it has an advanced human-machine interface and a sensory network connected to an On-Board Data Handling system to increase the situational awareness in the field. Although the suit simulator is not pressurized, the physical forces that lead to a reduced working envelope and physical performance are reproduced with a calibrated exoskeleton. This allows us to simulate various pressure regimes from 0.3-1 bar. Aouda.X has been tested in several laboratory and field settings, including sterile sampling at 2800 m altitude inside a glacial ice cave and a cryochamber at -110°C, and subsurface tests in connection with geophysical instrumentation relevant to astrobiology, including ground-penetrating radar, geoacoustics, and drilling. The communication subsystem allows for a direct interaction with remote science teams via telemetry from a mission control center. Aouda.X as such is a versatile experimental platform for studying Mars exploration activities in a high-fidelity Mars analog environment with a focus on astrobiology and operations research that has been optimized to reduce the amount of biological cross contamination. We report on the performance envelope of the Aouda.X system and its operational limitations.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of gloves in reducing the hazards of hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M J

    1998-05-01

    A method of evaluating the effectiveness of gloves in reducing the hazards of hand-transmitted vibration is proposed. The glove isolation effectiveness was calculated from: (a) the measured transmissibility of a glove, (b) the vibration spectrum on the handle of a specific tool (or class of tools), and (c) the frequency weighting indicating the degree to which different frequencies of vibration cause injury. With previously reported tool vibration spectra and glove transmissibilities (from 10-1000 Hz), the method was used to test 10 gloves with 20 different powered tools. The frequency weighting for hand-transmitted vibration advocated in British standard 6842 (1987) and international standard 5349 (1986) greatly influences the apparent isolation effectiveness of gloves. With the frequency weighting, the gloves had little effect on the transmission of vibration to the hand from most of the tools. Only for two or three tools (those dominated by high frequency vibration) did any glove provide useful attenuation. Without the frequency weighting, some gloves showed useful attenuation of the vibration on most powered tools. In view of the uncertain effect of the vibration frequency in the causation of disorders from hand-transmitted vibration, it is provisionally suggested that the wearing of a glove by the user of a particular vibratory tool could be encouraged if the glove reduces the transmission of vibration when it is evaluated without the frequency weighting and does not increase the vibration when it is evaluated with the frequency weighting. A current international standard for the measurement and evaluation of the vibration transmitted by gloves can classify a glove as an antivibration glove when it provides no useful attenuation of vibration, whereas a glove providing useful attenuation of vibration on a specific tool can fail the test.

  5. Transmission of vibration through gloves: effects of material thickness.

    PubMed

    Md Rezali, Khairil Anas; Griffin, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    It might be assumed that increasing the thickness of a glove would reduce the vibration transmitted to the hand. Three material samples from an anti-vibration glove were stacked to produce three thicknesses: 6.4, 12.8 and 19.2 mm. The dynamic stiffnesses of all three thicknesses, the apparent mass at the palm and the finger and the transmission of vibration to the palm and finger were measured. At frequencies from 20 to 350 Hz, the material reduced vibration at the palm but increased vibration at the finger. Increased thickness reduced vibration at the palm but increased vibration at the finger. The measured transmissibilities could be predicted from the material dynamic stiffness and the apparent mass of the palm and finger. Reducing the dynamic stiffness of glove material may increase or decrease the transmission of vibration, depending on the material, the frequency of vibration and the location of measurement (palm or finger). Practitioner Summary: Transmission of vibration through gloves depends on the dynamic response of the hand and the dynamic stiffness of glove material, which depends on material thickness. Measuring the transmission of vibration through gloves to the palm of the hand gives a misleading indication of the transmission of vibration to the fingers.

  6. Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M

    2008-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions onmore » which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.« less

  7. Comparison of 4 different types of surgical gloves used for preventing blood contact.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Andreas; Kralj, Nenad; Köver, Jan; Gasthaus, Klaus; Lerch, Hartmut; Hofmann, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Needlestick injuries are always associated with a risk of infection, because these types of punctures may expose healthcare workers to a patient's blood and/or body fluids. To compare the efficacy of 4 different types of surgical gloves for preventing exposure to blood as a result of needlestick injury. For simulation of needlestick injury, a circular sample of pork skin was tightened onto a bracket, and a single finger from a medical glove was stretched over the sample. First, a powder-free surgical glove with a gel coating was used to test blood contact. Second, a glove with a patented puncture indication system was used to test blood contact with a double-gloved hand. Third, 2 powder-free latex medical gloves of the same size and hand were combined for double gloving, again to test blood contact. Finally, we tested a glove with an integrated disinfectant on the inside. The punctures were carried out using diverse sharp surgical devices that were contaminated with (99)Tc-marked blood. The amount of blood contact was determined from the transmitted radioactivity. For the powder-free surgical glove with a gel coating, a mean volume of 0.048 microL of blood (standard error of the mean [SEM], 0.077 microL) was transferred in punctures with an automated lancet at a depth of 2.4 mm through 1 layer of latex. For the glove with an integrated disinfectant on the inside, the mean volume of blood transferred was 0.030 microL (SEM, 0.0056 microL) with a single glove and was 0.024 microL (SEM, 0.003 microL) with 2 gloves. For the glove with the patented puncture indication system, a mean volume of 0.024 microL (SEM, 0.003 microL) of blood was transferred. Double gloving or the use of a glove with disinfectant can result in a decrease in the volume of blood transferred. Therefore, the use of either of these gloving systems could help to minimize the risk of bloodborne infections for medical staff.

  8. On development of an inexpensive, lightweight thermal micrometeroid garment for space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A lightweight and inexpensive coverlayer developed for space suits is described. Material selection, procurement, and testing, pattern design, and prototype fabrication are discussed. By using the minimum required cross section necessary for earth orbital mission, by utilizing the lightest weight materials possible, and by decreasing the use of weight costly taping a lightweight and economical thermal micrometeroid garment was developed. Simplification of manufacturing techniques and use of off-the-shelf materials helped to reduce costs.

  9. Control of a Glove-Based Grasp Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor); Laske, Evan (Inventor); Ensley, Kody (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove and sleeve. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. The glove contains a tendon connected at a first end to the digit. The sleeve has an actuator assembly connected to a second end of the tendon and a controller in communication with the sensor. The controller includes a configuration module having selectable operating modes and a processor that calculates a tensile force to apply to the tendon for each of the selectable operating modes to assist the grasping force in a manner that differs for each of the operating modes. A method includes measuring the grasping force, selecting the mode, calculating the tensile force, and applying the tensile force to the tendon using the actuator assembly.

  10. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 represents the second integrated prototype developed and tested to mature a design that uses advanced technologies to reduce consumables, improve robustness, and provide additional capabilities over the current state of the art. PLSS 2.0 was developed in 2012, with extensive functional evaluations and system performance testing through mid-2014. In late 2014, PLSS 2.0 was integrated with the Mark III space suit in an ambient laboratory environment to facilitate manned testing, designated PLSS 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) testing, in which the PLSS prototype performed the primary life support functions, including suit pressure regulation, ventilation, carbon dioxide control, and cooling of the test subject and PLSS avionics. The intent of this testing was to obtain subjective test subject feedback regarding qualitative aspects of PLSS 2.0 performance such as thermal comfort, sounds, smells, and suit pressure fluctuations due to the cycling carbon dioxide removal system, as well as to collect PLSS performance data over a range of human metabolic rates from 500-3000 Btu/hr. Between October 27 and December 18, 2014, nineteen two-hour simulated EVA test points were conducted in which suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to achieve a target metabolic rate. Six test subjects simulated nominal and emergency EVA conditions with varied test parameters including metabolic rate profile, carbon dioxide removal control mode, cooling water temperature, and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (state of the art or prototype). The nineteen test points achieved more than 60 hours of test time, with 36 hours accounting for simulated EVA time. The PLSS 2.0 test article performed nominally throughout the test series, confirming design intentions for the advanced PLSS. Test subjects' subjective feedback provided valuable insight into thermal comfort and perceptions of suit pressure fluctuations that will influence future

  11. The effects of arthritis gloves on people with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Inflammatory Arthritis with hand pain: a study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the A-GLOVES trial).

    PubMed

    Prior, Yeliz; Sutton, Chris; Cotterill, Sarah; Adams, Jo; Camacho, Elizabeth; Arafin, Nazina; Firth, Jill; O'Neill, Terence; Hough, Yvonne; Jones, Wendy; Hammond, Alison

    2017-05-30

    Arthritis gloves are regularly provided as part of the management of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and undifferentiated (early) inflammatory arthritis (IA). Usually made of nylon and elastane (i.e. Lycra®), these arthritis gloves apply pressure with the aims of relieving hand pain, stiffness and improving hand function. However, a systematic review identified little evidence supporting their use. We therefore designed a trial to compare the effectiveness of the commonest type of arthritis glove provided in the United Kingdom (Isotoner gloves) (intervention) with placebo (control) gloves (i.e. larger arthritis gloves providing similar warmth to the intervention gloves but minimal pressure only) in people with these conditions. Participants aged 18 years and over with RA or IA and persistent hand pain will be recruited from National Health Service Trusts in the United Kingdom. Following consent, participants will complete a questionnaire booklet, then be randomly allocated to receive intervention or placebo arthritis gloves. Within three weeks, they will be fitted with the allocated gloves by clinical specialist rheumatology occupational therapists. Twelve weeks (i.e. the primary endpoint) after completing the baseline questionnaire, participants will complete a second questionnaire, including the same measures plus additional questions to explore adherence, benefits and problems with glove-wear. A sub-sample of participants from each group will be interviewed at the end of their participation to explore their views of the gloves received. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention, compared to placebo gloves, will be evaluated over 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is hand pain during activity. Qualitative interviews will be thematically analysed. This study will evaluate the commonest type of arthritis glove (Isotoner) provided in the NHS (i.e. the intervention) compared to a placebo glove. The results will help

  12. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  13. KSC-2009-6488

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, participants in the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, pose for a group portrait. In the center of the front row are the winners, Ted Southern of Brooklyn, N.Y., at left, and Peter Homer of Southwest Harbor, Maine. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, the gloves were submitted to burst tests, joint force tests and tests to measure their dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  14. The performance of field scientists undertaking observations of early life fossils while in simulated space suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, D.; Rask, J. C.; George, S. C.; de Leon, P.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Blank, J.; Slocombe, J.; Silburn, K.; Steele, H.; Gargarno, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulated Apollo Extravehicular Activity's (EVA) at the 3.45 Ga Australian 'Pilbara Dawn of life' (Western Australia) trail with field and non-field scientists using the University of North Dakota's NDX-1 pressurizable space suit to overview the effectiveness of scientist astronauts employing their field observation skills while looking for stromatolite fossil evidence. Off-world scientist astronauts will be faced with space suit limitations in vision, human sense perception, mobility, dexterity, the space suit fit, time limitations, and the psychological fear of death from accidents, causing physical fatigue reducing field science performance. Finding evidence of visible biosignatures for past life such as stromatolite fossils, on Mars, is a very significant discovery. Our preliminary overview trials showed that when in simulated EVAs, 25% stromatolite fossil evidence is missed with more incorrect identifications compared to ground truth surveys but providing quality characterization descriptions becomes less affected by simulated EVA limitations as the science importance of the features increases. Field scientists focused more on capturing high value characterization detail from the rock features whereas non-field scientists focused more on finding many features. We identified technologies and training to improve off-world field science performance. The data collected is also useful for NASA's "EVA performance and crew health" research program requirements but further work will be required to confirm the conclusions.

  15. Glove perforations and blood contact associated with manipulation of the fetal scalp electrode.

    PubMed

    Rhoton-Vlasak, A; Duff, P

    1993-02-01

    To assess prospectively the frequency of glove injury associated with insertion of the fetal scalp electrode and subsequent examination of the cervix with the electrode in place. Over a 7-month period, sterile gloves were collected after use for insertion of the fetal scalp electrode or cervical examination with the electrode in place. Attendants indicated their level of training, time, date and purpose of glove use, and cervical examination. They also noted whether they were aware of a glove perforation or observed blood, amniotic fluid, or genital tract secretions on their hand. Glove patency was assessed by filling the glove with water to 1.5-2.0 times its normal volume and observing for leaks. One hundred unused gloves were tested for patency and served as controls. Five hundred one gloves were evaluated, of which 13 (2.6%, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1-4%) had perforations. Seven of 277 gloves (2.5%) used only for examinations had perforations, compared with six of 244 (2.5%) used only for insertion of the electrode. Two percent (95% CI 0-5%) of the unused control gloves had perforations. These observed differences were not statistically significant. Nineteen attendants (3.8%, 95% CI 2.1-5.5%) noted blood or genital tract secretions on their hand after insertion of the electrode (N = 4) or subsequent cervical examination (N = 15). Only one point of contract resulted from a glove perforation; the other 18 were on the wrist and apparently resulted from leakage of fluid around the open cuff of the glove. The risk of glove perforation during insertion of the fetal scalp electrode or subsequent cervical examination is low if proper technique is observed. Blood or fluid contact is more likely to result from leakage of fluid around the open cuff of the glove during a vaginal examination.

  16. Construct-a-Glove. Science by Design Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulis, Lee

    This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series created by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It offers high school students a challenging, hands-on opportunity to compare the function and design of many types of handwear from a hockey mitt to a surgical glove, and design and test a glove to their own…

  17. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  18. Glove and mitten protection in extreme cold weather: an Antarctic study.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2016-01-01

    Background Myths, misconceptions and a general lack of information surround the use of gloves and mittens in extreme cold environments. Objective This study assessed how well an assortment of gloves and mittens performed in a very cold environment. Methods A convenience sample of gloves and mittens were tested in Antarctica during the winter of 2016 using a calibrated thermometer (range: -148°F to +158°F/-100°C to +70°C) three times over a 0.5-mile distance (~20 minutes). A small sensor on a 10-foot-long cable was taped to the radial surface of the distal small finger on the non-dominant hand. The tested clothing was donned over the probe, the maximum temperature inside the glove/mitten was established near a building exit (ambient temperature approximately 54°F/12°C), and the building was exited, initiating the test. The hand was kept immobile during the test. Some non-heated gloves were tested with chemical heat warmers placed over the volar or dorsal wrist. Results The highest starting (96°F/36°C) and ending (82°F/28°C) temperatures were with electrically heated gloves. The lowest starting temperature was with electrically heated gloves with the power off (63°F/17°C). Non-heated gloves with an inserted chemical hand warmer had the lowest minimum temperature (33°F/1°C). Maximum temperatures for gloves/mittens did not correlate well with their minimum temperature. Conclusions Coverings that maintained finger temperatures within a comfortable and safe range (at or above 59°F/15°C) included the heated gloves and mittens (including some with the power off) and mittens with liners. Mittens without liners (shell) generally performed better than unheated gloves. Better results generally paralleled the item's cost. Inserting chemical heat warmers at the wrist increased heat loss, possibly through the exposed area around the warmer.

  19. Glove and mitten protection in extreme cold weather: an Antarctic study.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2016-01-01

    Myths, misconceptions and a general lack of information surround the use of gloves and mittens in extreme cold environments. This study assessed how well an assortment of gloves and mittens performed in a very cold environment. A convenience sample of gloves and mittens were tested in Antarctica during the winter of 2016 using a calibrated thermometer (range: -148°F to +158°F/-100°C to +70°C) three times over a 0.5-mile distance (~20 minutes). A small sensor on a 10-foot-long cable was taped to the radial surface of the distal small finger on the non-dominant hand. The tested clothing was donned over the probe, the maximum temperature inside the glove/mitten was established near a building exit (ambient temperature approximately 54°F/12°C), and the building was exited, initiating the test. The hand was kept immobile during the test. Some non-heated gloves were tested with chemical heat warmers placed over the volar or dorsal wrist. The highest starting (96°F/36°C) and ending (82°F/28°C) temperatures were with electrically heated gloves. The lowest starting temperature was with electrically heated gloves with the power off (63°F/17°C). Non-heated gloves with an inserted chemical hand warmer had the lowest minimum temperature (33°F/1°C). Maximum temperatures for gloves/mittens did not correlate well with their minimum temperature. Coverings that maintained finger temperatures within a comfortable and safe range (at or above 59°F/15°C) included the heated gloves and mittens (including some with the power off) and mittens with liners. Mittens without liners (shell) generally performed better than unheated gloves. Better results generally paralleled the item's cost. Inserting chemical heat warmers at the wrist increased heat loss, possibly through the exposed area around the warmer.

  20. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves

    PubMed Central

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817

  1. Modeling and dynamic simulation of astronaut's upper limb motions considering counter torques generated by the space suit.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwen; Ye, Qing; Ding, Li; Liao, Qianfang

    2017-07-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions. Therefore, focusing on upper limb models of the body and space suit is valuable to this effort. In previous modeling studies, some multi-rigid-body systems were developed to simplify the human musculoskeletal system, and the space suit was mostly considered as a part of the astronaut body. With the aim to improve the reality of the models, we developed an astronauts' upper limb model, including a torque model and a muscle-force model, with the counter torques from the space suit being considered as a boundary condition. Inverse kinematics and the Maggi-Kane's method was applied to calculate the joint angles, joint torques and muscle force given that the terminal trajectory of upper limb motion was known. Also, we validated the muscle-force model using electromyogram (EMG) data collected in a validation experiment. Muscle force calculated from our model presented a similar trend with the EMG data, supporting the effectiveness and feasibility of the muscle-force model we established, and also, partially validating the joint model in kinematics aspect.

  2. Contact Dermatitis from Penetration of Rubber Gloves by Acrylic Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Pegum, J. S.; Medhurst, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    An orthopaedic surgeon developed dermatitis from acrylic materials. The acrylic monomer was found to penetrate surgical rubber gloves readily. Cases of “rubber glove dermatitis” with negative patch tests may have a similar explanation. Laboratory tests suggest that monomer does not damage rubber sufficiently to allow bacteria to penetrate gloves, but it remains possible that this would happen under theatre conditions. PMID:5581492

  3. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not

  4. Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch Education and Public Outreach Support of NASA's Strategic Goals in Fiscal Year 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientist, and general public. This is so important to NASA future that it is one of the agencies strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in helping to achieve this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.

  5. Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch Education and Public Outreach Support of NASA's Strategic Goals in Fiscal Year 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.

    2013-01-01

    As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientists, and the general public. This is so important to NASA s future that it is one of the agency s strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in achieving this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.

  6. Method for forming a glove attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Guy, Walter W. (Inventor); Kosmo, Joseph (Inventor); Drennan, Arthur P. (Inventor); Tschirch, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An attachment principally for the palm of an astronaut glove to enhance the gripping area of the palm without detracting from the flexibility and utility of the glove is presented. The attachment is a composite construction formed from a layer of silicone rubber having an outer surface with a friction configuration and another layer of silicone rubber in which a Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded prior to curing. The method of construction involves the use of a mold with a friction configuration surface. A first layer of silicone rubber or sealant is disposed in the mold and allowed to set for an hour. A second layer of silicone rubber or sealant is layered over the first layer and leveled. A Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded into the second layer and the composite is permitted to cure. When cured, a configured area of the composite construction is glued or stitched to the palm area of the glove.

  7. Glove-TalkII--a neural-network interface which maps gestures to parallel formant speech synthesizer controls.

    PubMed

    Fels, S S; Hinton, G E

    1998-01-01

    Glove-TalkII is a system which translates hand gestures to speech through an adaptive interface. Hand gestures are mapped continuously to ten control parameters of a parallel formant speech synthesizer. The mapping allows the hand to act as an artificial vocal tract that produces speech in real time. This gives an unlimited vocabulary in addition to direct control of fundamental frequency and volume. Currently, the best version of Glove-TalkII uses several input devices (including a Cyberglove, a ContactGlove, a three-space tracker, and a foot pedal), a parallel formant speech synthesizer, and three neural networks. The gesture-to-speech task is divided into vowel and consonant production by using a gating network to weight the outputs of a vowel and a consonant neural network. The gating network and the consonant network are trained with examples from the user. The vowel network implements a fixed user-defined relationship between hand position and vowel sound and does not require any training examples from the user. Volume, fundamental frequency, and stop consonants are produced with a fixed mapping from the input devices. One subject has trained to speak intelligibly with Glove-TalkII. He speaks slowly but with far more natural sounding pitch variations than a text-to-speech synthesizer.

  8. Shoulder and hip joint for hard space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Shoulder and hip joints for hard space suits are disclosed which are comprised of three serially connected truncated spherical sections, the ends of which converge. Ball bearings between the sections permit relative rotation. The proximal end of the first section is connected to the torso covering by a ball bearing and the distal end of the outermost section is connected to the elbow or thigh covering by a ball bearing. The sections are equi-angular and this alleviates lockup, the condition where the distal end of the joint leaves the plane in which the user is attempting to flex. The axes of rotation of the bearings and the bearing mid planes are arranged to intersect in a particular manner that provides the joint with a minimum envelope. In one embodiment, the races of the bearing between the innermost section and the second section is partially within the inner race of the bearing between the torso and the innermost spherical section further to reduce bulk.

  9. Commercial golf glove effects on golf performance and forearm muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Darroch, Paul; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance was significantly higher when using the Driver with the glove in comparison to the Driver without the glove (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when using the 7-iron and no significant differences were displayed in muscle activity in either of the conditions. Findings from this study suggest that driving performance is improved when wearing a glove.

  10. Effects of EVA gloves on grip strength and fatigue under low temperature and low pressure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yinsheng; Ding, Li; Liu, Heqing; Li, Yan; Li, Deyu; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    To study the effects of wearing extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on grip strength and fatigue in low temperature, low pressure and mixing of two factors (low temperature and low pressure). The maximum grip strength and fatigue tests were performed with 10 healthy male subjects wearing gloves in a variety of simulated environments. The data was analysed using the normalization method. The results showed that wearing gloves significantly affected the maximum grip strength and fatigue. Pressure (29.6, 39.2 kPa) had more influence on the maximum grip compared with control group while low temperatures (-50, -90, -110 °C) had no influence on grip but affected fatigue dramatically. The results also showed that the maximum grip strength and fatigue were influenced significantly in a compound environment. Space environment remarkably reduced strength and endurance of the astronauts. However, the effects brought by the compound environment cannot be understood as the superimposition of low temperature and pressure effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of powdered gloves in dental practice: a cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Field, E A

    1997-01-01

    To critically review the potential hazards associated with the use of powdered, natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in dental practice and to report some practical difficulties which may be encountered when handling dental materials with powdered NRL gloves. Articles published in the international literature over the last 10 years. A number of recent studies in the medical and surgical literature have confirmed that NRL proteins leach out of latex gloves and bind to surgical glove powders. The most serious, potential hazard associated with the continued use of powdered NRL gloves in dental practice is that of latex sensitization by exposure to aerosolized NRL proteins. Hand dermatitis is now recognized as an occupational hazard in dentistry and has been associated with the continuous wearing of protective gloves. Studies, in the dermatological literature, have suggested that glove powders may exacerbate an irritant dermatitis and enhance the potential for adverse reactions to other components of NRL gloves. The surgical literature has already highlighted the risks of post-operative granuloma formation, due to glove powder contamination of the surgical wound. The possible effects of powder contamination of dental implant sites, on the outcome and success of implants has yet to be established. Recent in vitro studies have investigated the effect of latex glove contamination on the shear-bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers: one study demonstrated that starch powder significantly affected the bond strength, whereas the other showed that latex glove contamination of the porcelain surface did not have any significant effect. Long-term, in vivo studies are now required. Dental practitioners should consider the potential health risks which are associated with the use of powdered NRL in dental practice. Powder contamination may affect the long-term results and success of clinical procedures in dentistry.

  12. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  13. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves.

  14. Changes in Chemical Permeation of Disposable Latex, Nitrile and Vinyl Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. In conclusion, glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  15. Investigation of X-ray permeability of surgical gloves coated with different contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Kayan, Mustafa; Yaşar, Selçuk; Saygın, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Ömer; Aktaş, Aykut Recep; Kayan, Fatmanur; Türker, Yasin; Çetinkaya, Gürsel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and radiation protection capability of latex gloves coated with various contrast agents as an alternative to lead gloves. Methods: The following six groups were created to evaluate the permeability of X-ray in this experimental study: lead gloves, two different non-ionic contrast media (iopromide 370/100 mg I/mL and iomeprol 400/100 mg I/mL), 10% povidone–iodine (PV–I), 240/240 g/mL barium sulphate and a mixture of equal amounts of all contrast agents. A radiation dose detector was placed in coated latex gloves for each one. The absorption values of radiation from latex gloves coated with various contrast agents were measured and compared with the absorption of radiation from lead gloves. This study was designed as an ‘experimental study’. Results: The mean absorption value of X-ray from lead gloves was 3.0±0.08 µG/s. The mean absorption values of X-ray from latex gloves coated with various contrast agents were 3.7±0.09 µG/s (iopromide 370/100 mg I/mL), 3.6±0.09 µG/s (iomeprol 400/100 mg I/mL), 3.7±0.04 µG/s (PV–I), 3.1±0.07 µG/s (barium sulphate) and 3.8±0.05 µG/s (mixture of all contrast agents). Latex gloves coated with barium sulphate provided the best radiation absorption compared with latex gloves coated with other radiodense contrast agents. Conclusion: Latex gloves coated with barium sulphate may provide protection equivalent to lead gloves. PMID:26680548

  16. Whole glove permeation of cyclohexanol through disposable nitrile gloves on a dextrous robot hand and comparison with the modified closed-loop ASTM F739 method 1. No fist clenching.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Airek R; Que Hee, Shane S

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time t b , standardized breakthrough time t s , steady state permeation rate P s , and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported, and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water. Aliquots of 1.0 mL were sampled at regular time intervals for the first 60 min followed by removal of 0.5 mL aliquots every hour to 8 hr. Quantification was by the internal standard method after gas chromatography-selective ion electron impact mass spectrometry using a non-polar capillary column. The individual glove values of t b and t s differed for the ASTM closed loop method except for Safeskin Blue, but did not for the whole glove method. Most of the kinetic parameters agreed within an order of magnitude for the two techniques. The order of most protective to least protective glove was Blue and Safeskin, then Purple followed by Sterling for the whole gloves. The analogous order for the modified F739 ASTM closed loop method was: Safeskin, Blue, Purple, and Sterling, almost the same as for the whole glove. The Sterling glove was "not recommended" from the modified ASTM data, and was "poor" from the whole glove data.

  17. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  18. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  19. Pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, interconnected parallel manipulators with applications to space suit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Shane Earl

    This dissertation presents the concept of a Morphing Upper Torso, an innovative pressure suit design that incorporates robotic elements to enable a resizable, highly mobile and easy to don/doff spacesuit. The torso is modeled as a system of interconnected, pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, wire-actuated parallel manipulators, that enable the dimensions of the suit to be reconfigured to match the wearer. The kinematics, dynamics and control of wire-actuated manipulators are derived and simulated, along with the Jacobian transforms, which relate the total twist vector of the system to the vector of actuator velocities. Tools are developed that allow calculation of the workspace for both single and interconnected reduced-DOF robots of this type, using knowledge of the link lengths. The forward kinematics and statics equations are combined and solved to produce the pose of the platforms along with the link tensions. These tools allow analysis of the full Morphing Upper Torso design, in which the back hatch of a rear-entry torso is interconnected with the waist ring, helmet ring and two scye bearings. Half-scale and full-scale experimental models are used along with analytical models to examine the feasibility of this novel space suit concept. The analytical and experimental results demonstrate that the torso could be expanded to facilitate donning and doffng, and then contracted to match different wearer's body dimensions. Using the system of interconnected parallel manipulators, suit components can be accurately repositioned to different desired configurations. The demonstrated feasibility of the Morphing Upper Torso concept makes it an exciting candidate for inclusion in a future planetary suit architecture.

  20. Reduction of use of latex gloves in food handlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Nixon, R; Frowen, K

    2001-02-01

    Frequent latex glove use is a risk factor for the development of latex allergy. With the increase in latex glove use, latex allergy has become more prevalent. There are a number of occupational groups in which the use of latex gloves is both inappropriate and even hazardous, including food handlers, where the hazard relates particularly to their latex-sensitive customers. The aim of this study was to assess both the use of latex gloves by food handlers and the impact of an intervention study on reducing latex glove use. This was done at the Queen Victoria Market in Melbourne, Australia. We found that 10 out of 30 stalls (33%) used latex gloves, and that following a short education program, this was reduced to 1 stall (3%, p=0.006). The potential to reduce latex glove use by using this intervention study was 93% (95% confidence interval of 54%-100%). We recommend that food handlers be educated during their training, not only about hygiene issues, but also about the appropriate type of glove to wear, in order to prevent both the development of a new occupational group at risk of becoming allergic to latex, but more importantly to protect their latex-sensitive customers.

  1. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis.

  2. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  3. Comparison of positive pressure gloves on hand function in adults with burns.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly A; Weinstock-Zlotnick, Gwen; Hunter, Hope; Yurt, Roger W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a standard, custom-made pressure glove vs The NewYork-Presbyterian Dexterity Glove (NYPDG) with silon application on the palmer surface on functional hand use of burn survivors. A standard, custom-made pressure glove and NYPDG were given to 18 participants in a randomized order. Subjects wore each glove for 7 to 10 days during all activities of daily living (ADL). Variables such as hand function, difficulty of fine and gross motor ADL, and participant glove preference were assessed with each glove condition. Data collection of the second glove took place 7 to 10 days later incorporating a quasiexperimental, repeated measure design. A crossover design was used to analyze the data. The NYPDG demonstrated significantly better results in all of the four outcome categories measured: time to complete the Jebsen, the Jebsen Likert scale, fine motor ADL, and gross motor ADL. This study demonstrated that functional tasks took less time to complete and were more easily performed when using the NYPDG.

  4. Design and Characterization of a Soft Robotic Therapeutic Glove for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Matthew Chin Heng; Lim, Jeong Hoon; Yeow, Raye Chen Hua

    2017-07-27

    The modeling and experimentation of a pneumatic actuation system for the development of a soft robotic therapeutic glove is proposed in this article for the prevention of finger deformities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The Rehabilitative Arthritis Glove (RA-Glove) is a soft robotic glove fitted with two internal inflatable actuators for lateral compression and massage of the fingers and their joints. Two mechanical models to predict the indentation and bending characteristics of the inflatable actuators based on their geometrical parameters will be presented and validated with experimental results. Experimental validation shows that the model was within a standard deviation of the experimental mean for input pressure range of 0 to 2 bars. Evaluation of the RA-Glove was also performed on six healthy human subjects. The stress distribution along the fingers of the subjects using the RA-Glove was also shown to be even and specific to the finger sizes. This article demonstrates the modeling of soft pneumatic actuators and highlights the potential of the RA-Glove as a therapeutic device for the prevention of arthritic deformities of the fingers.

  5. A novel method of assessing the effectiveness of protective gloves--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Cherrie, J W

    2001-03-01

    We have devised a novel method for evaluating the effectiveness of protective gloves and have undertaken a small study to assess this approach. Three types of glove were tested in a standardised simulation test with a permethrin-based pesticide. Prewashed cotton gloves were used to collect the samples. One was worn over the protective glove on one hand to measure the potential deposition of pesticide on the hands had the gloves not been worn. A second was placed under the protective glove on the opposite hand to measure the actual deposition of permethrin on the hands when the gloves were worn. This regime was reversed half way through each test in an attempt to prevent bias. Measurable inner glove contamination occurred on 25 out of 30 occasions. Geometric mean protection factors were calculated from the ratio of outer and inner sampling glove contamination, with average protection factors of 470, 200 and 96 being obtained for the two nitrile and PVC gloves, respectively. The PVC gloves were the least effective in preventing inner glove contamination, probably because the glove was thick and fairly inflexible, causing more pesticide to enter the glove around the cuff. Although the tasks were standardised, variability occurred due to worker behaviour and equipment failure. The spray pump failed on five occasions, resulting in higher levels of inner glove contamination and a geometric mean protection factor of 32. On the occasions when the pump worked correctly, the level of protection provided by the gloves rose dramatically with mean protection factors of 220 and 450 being obtained for workers categorised as "messy" and "tidy", respectively.

  6. KSC-2009-6494

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-19

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - At the Astronaut Hall of Fame near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the winners of the 2009 Astronaut Glove Challenge, part of NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program, pose for a group photograph with their friends, family and the event organizers. From left are Caroline Homer and her father, Peter Homer, winner of the $250,000 first prize; Alan Hayes, chairman of Volanz Aerospace Inc.; Andy Petro, manager of NASA Centennial Challenges; Ted Southern, winner of the $100,000 second prize; his friend and glove tester Amy Miller; and Paul Secor, Secor Strategies LLC. The nationwide competition focused on developing improved pressure suit gloves for astronauts to use while working in space. During the challenge, the gloves were submitted to burst tests, joint force tests and tests to measure their dexterity and strength during operation in a glove box which simulates the vacuum of space. Centennial Challenges is NASA’s program of technology prizes for the citizen-inventor. The winning prize for the Glove Challenge is $250,000 provided by the Centennial Challenges Program. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  7. CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the presentation "CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Spacesuits," Jason Norcross discussed the results of recent carbon dioxide CO2 washout testing of NASA spacesuits including the Rear Entry I-suit (REI), Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES), and possibly the ACES and Z-1 EVA prototype. When a spacesuit is used during ground testing, adequate CO2 washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on the partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2) available to enter the lungs during respiration. The primary factors during ground-based testing that influence the ppCO2 level in the oronasal area include the metabolic rate of the subject and air flow through the suit. These tests were done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. During this presentation, Norcross provided descriptions of the spacesuits, test hardware, methodology, and results, as well as implications for future ground testing and verification of flight requirements.

  8. The effects of different materials of protective gloves on thermoregulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    1999-01-01

    The effects of two kinds of protecting gloves for pesticide spraying made of different materials on thermoregulatory responses during exercise were studied at ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 60% in six healthy females, aged 19. One kind of gloves was made of polyurethane (A) and the other of Goretex (B) with cotton lining in each glove. Both kinds of gloves had almost the same volume. Main results of the experiment were summarised as follows: (1) during the exercise an increase of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in B than in A; (2) skin temperature of hand was significantly lower in B than in A; (3) absolute humidity and temperature inside the gloves were significantly lower during the period from the gripping bar exercise to the end of the experiment; (4) the number of contractions by the handgrip exercise performed immediately after the second turning of the screw was significantly smaller in A than in B. The findings presented suggest that the gloves made of Goretex material could reduce thermal strain during intermittent work in warm environmental conditions.

  9. Reach Envelope and Field of Vision Quantification in Mark III Space Suit Using Delaunay Triangulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Thaxton, Sherry S.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2006-01-01

    The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project is focused on the development of a rover vehicle that can be utilized by two crewmembers during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) on the moon and Mars. The current SCOUT vehicle can transport two suited astronauts riding in open cockpit seats. Among the aspects currently being developed is the cockpit design and layout. This process includes the identification of possible locations for a socket to which a crewmember could connect a portable life support system (PLSS) for recharging power, air, and cooling while seated in the vehicle. The spaces in which controls and connectors may be situated within the vehicle are constrained by the reach and vision capabilities of the suited crewmembers. Accordingly, quantification of the volumes within which suited crewmembers can both see and reach relative to the vehicle represents important information during the design process.

  10. Incidence and patterns of surgical glove perforations: experience from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Abebe; Makonnen, Nardos; Tesfaye, Lidya; Taye, Mulat

    2017-03-20

    Surgical glove perforation is a common event. The operating staff is not aware of the perforation until the procedure is complete, sometimes in as high as 70% of the incidences. Data from Ethiopia indicates that the surgical workforce suffers from a very surgery related accidents, however there is paucity of data regarding surgical glove perforation. The main objective is to describe the incidence and patterns of surgical glove perforation during surgical procedures and to compare the rates between emergency and elective surgeries at one of the main hospitals in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. This is a prospective study, performed at the Minilik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa. All surgical gloves worn during all major surgical procedures (Emergency and Elective) from June 1-July 20, 2016 were collected and used for the study. Standardised visual and hydro insufflation techniques were used to test the gloves for perforations. Parameters recorded included type of procedure performed, number of perforations, localisation of perforation and the roles of the surgical team. A total of 2634 gloves were tested, 1588 from elective and 1026 from emergency procedures. The total rate of perforation in emergency procedures was 41.4%, while perforation in elective surgeries was 30.0%. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in between emergency and elective surgeries. There were a very high rate of perforations of gloves among first surgeons 40.6% and scrub nurses 38.8% during elective procedures and among first surgeons (60.14%), and second assistants (53.0%) during emergency surgeries. Only 0.4% of inner gloves were perforated. The left hand, the left index finger and thumb were the most commonly perforated parts of the glove. Glove perforation rate was low among consultant surgeons than residents. Our reported perforation rate is higher than most publications, and this shows that the surgical workforce in Ethiopia is under a clear and present threat

  11. Glove Contamination during Endodontic Treatment Is One of the Sources of Nosocomial Endodontic Propionibacterium acnes Infections.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadia Ambreen; Vincer, Louise; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The opportunistic Propionibacterium acnes recovered frequently from failed endodontic treatments might be the result of nosocomial endodontic infections. The study was aimed to determine if gloves worn by dentists could be one of the sources of these nosocomial infections and to investigate the P. acnes phylotypes involved. The cultivable microbiota of gloves (n = 8) at 4 time points (T1, immediately after wearing gloves; T2, after access cavity preparation; T3, after taking a working length/master cone radiograph; and T4, before sealing the cavity) were identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. recA gene sequencing of P. acnes isolates was done. The phylogenetic relationship was determined using MEGA 6 (http://www.megasoftware.net/fixedbugs.html; Megasoftware, Tempe, AZ). Data distributions were compared using the Fisher exact test; means were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test in SPSSPC (version 21; IBM, Armonk, NY). The quantitative viable counts at T4 (aerobically [2.93 ± 0.57], anaerobically [3.35 ± 0.43]) were greater (P < .001) than at T1 [(aerobically [0.48 ± 0.73], anaerobically [0.66 ± 0.86]) and T2 (aerobically [1.80 ± 0.54], anaerobically [2.41 ± 0.71]). Eighty cultivable bacterial taxa (5 phyla) were identified. The most prevalent ones were P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (100%). recA gene sequencing (n = 88) revealed 2 phylogenetic lineages with type I split into type IA and type IB. Type II was prevalent on gloves. Contamination of the gloves was detected at the final stages of the treatment. P. acnes and S. epidermidis are the prevalent taxa on gloves and are opportunistic endodontic pathogens. Changing gloves frequently, after gaining access into the pulp space and also after taking the working length/master gutta-percha point radiographs, is likely to reduce the risk of root canal reinfection. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tactile sensitivity of gloved hands in the cold operation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Q; Kuklane, K; Holmér, I

    1997-11-01

    In this study, tactile sensitivity of gloved hand in the cold operation has been investigated. The relations among physical properties of protective gloves and hand tactile sensitivity and cold protection were also analysed both objectively and subjectively. Subjects with various gloves participated in the experimental study during cold exposure at different ambient temperatures of -12 degrees C and -25 degrees C. Tactual performance was measured using an identification task with various sizes of objects over the percentage of misjudgment. Forearm, hand and finger skin temperatures were also recorded throughout. The experimental data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) model and the Tukey's multiple range test. The results obtained indicated that the tactual performance was affected both by gloves and by hands/fingers cooling. Effect of object size on the tactile discrimination was significant and the misjudgment increased when similar sizes of objects were identified, especially at -25 degrees C.

  13. ASTRONAUT GLENN, JOHN - MERCURY SPACE SUIT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    S62-00965 (20 Feb. 1962) --- Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., finishes suiting up, and prepares for the launch of his Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) spacecraft. The MA-6 ?Friendship 7? mission marks America's first manned Earth-orbiting spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Expedition 18 Suit-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    A Russian Sokol suit technician prepares to help American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott don his flight suit prior to the Soyuz TMA-13 launch with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Prospective study of glove perforation in obstetrical and gynecological operations: are we safe enough?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Monika; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Wadhwa, Leena; Arora, Raksha

    2004-08-01

    To assess the glove perforation rate, efficacy of double gloving, effect of duration of surgery, expertise of surgeon and operative urgency on the glove perforation rate in obstetrical and gynecologic operations. From February to September 2002, double glove protocol was made necessary for all major obstetrical and gynecologic procedures. The operating surgeon, first and second assistant were included in the study. Gloves damage was noted (overt by inspection, occult by hydroinsufflation technique). Of the 156 procedures included in study, 32 procedures were performed (all emergency operations) single-gloved because surgeons found double gloving clumsy (56%), made it difficult to tie knots due to lack of dexterity (24%), or were too tight (20%). One thousand one hundred and twenty single gloves were examined after each procedure by hydroinsufflation. The overall perforation rate was 13.6% (single versus double outer gloves, 13.8% versus l3.2%, P > 0.05). Matching perforations were found in six cases (4.6%). Thus, the protection offered by double gloves was 95.4% even if the outer gloves were perforated. Four inner gloves had preexisting perforations. Sixty unused gloves checked similarly revealed a perforation rate of 1.6%. Emergency cases had higher perforation rate compared to elective surgeries (16.6% versus 10.8%, P < 0.00 1). Surgeries lasting for more than 40 min had a higher perforation rate compared to those finished in less than or equal to 40 min (18.6% versus 7.6%, P < 0.001). The middle finger of the left hand was the most commonly involved. The surgeon, first assistant and second assistant were involved in 73.6, 23.3 and 3.2% cases, respectively. Double gloving offers considerable protection against exposure to contaminants in the blood and body fluids of the patient and should be made routine, especially in developing countries where HIV, hepatitis B and C are widely prevalent. Double gloving should be made mandatory in emergency procedures, which

  16. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  17. Practice and attitudes regarding double gloving among staff surgeons and surgical trainees.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark E; Deardon, Rob; Switzer, Noah J; de Gara, Chris; Ball, Chad G; Grondin, Sean C

    2018-06-01

    Despite supporting evidence, many staff surgeons and surgical trainees do not routinely double glove. We performed a study to assess rates of and attitudes toward double gloving and the use of eye protection in the operating room. We conducted an electronic survey among all staff surgeons and surgical trainees at 2 tertiary care centres in Alberta between September and November 2015.We analyzed the data using log-binomial regression for binary outcomes to account for multiple independent variables and interactions. For 2-group comparisons, we used a 2-group test of proportions. The response rate was 34.3% (361/1051); 205/698 staff surgeons (29.4%) and 156/353 surgical trainees (44.2%) responded. Trainees were more likely than staff surgeons to ever double glove in the operating room ( p = 0.01) and to do so routinely ( p = 0.01). Staff surgeons were more likely than trainees to never double glove ( p = 0.01). A total of 300/353 respondents (85.0%) reported using eye protection routinely in the operating room. Needle-stick injury was common (184 staff surgeons [92.5%], 115 trainees [74.7%]). Reduced tactile feedback, decreased manual dexterity and discomfort/poor fit were perceived barriers to double gloving. Rates of double gloving leave room for improvement. Surgical trainees were more likely than staff surgeons to double glove. Barriers remain to routine double gloving among staff surgeons and trainees. Increased education on the benefits of double gloving and early introduction of this practice may increase uptake.

  18. Human factors in space station architecture 2. EVA access facility: A comparative analysis of 4 concepts for on-orbit space suit servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Bussolari, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Four concepts for on-orbit spacesuit donning, doffing, servicing, check-out, egress and ingress are presented. These are: the Space Transportation System (STS) Type (shuttle system enlarged), the Transit Airlock (Shuttle Airlock with suit servicing removed from the pump-down chamber), the Suitport (a rear-entry suit mates to a port in the airlock wall), and the Crewlock (a small, individual, conformal airlock). Each of these four concepts is compared through a series of seven steps representing a typical Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) mission: (1) Predonning suit preparation; (2) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) preparation; (3) Suit Donning and Final Check; (4) Egress/Ingress; (5) Mid-EVA rest period; (6) Post-EVA Securing; (7) Non-Routine Maintenance. The different characteristics of each concept are articulated through this step-by-step approach. Recommendations concerning an approach for further evaluations of airlock geometry, anthropometrics, ergonomics, and functional efficiency are made. The key recommendation is that before any particular airlock can be designed, the full range of spacesuit servicing functions must be considered, including timelines that are most supportive of EVA human productivity.

  19. A Glove for Tapping and Discrete 1D/2D Input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sam A.; Smith, Andy; Bahram, Sina; SaintAmant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a glove with which users enter input by tapping fingertips with the thumb or by rubbing the thumb over the palmar surfaces of the middle and index fingers. The glove has been informally tested as the controller for two semi-autonomous robots in a a 3D simulation environment. A preliminary evaluation of the glove s performance is presented.

  20. Glove thermal insulation: local heat transfer measures and relevance.

    PubMed

    Sari, Hayet; Gartner, Maurice; Hoeft, Alain; Candas, Victor

    2004-09-01

    When exposed to cold, the hands need to be protected against heat loss not only in order to reduce thermal discomfort, but also to keep their efficiency. Although gloves are usually the most common protection, their thermal insulation is generally unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the heat losses from a gloved hand with a special interest in local variations. Using a calorimetric hand placed in a cold box, several types of gloves were tested. The results indicated that depending on the glove and on the area covered the heat loss reduction may vary from almost 60% to 90%. When the least efficient pair of gloves was excluded, heat exchange coefficients varied from 1.8 to 4.8 W/m2 per degrees C for the palm and from 4.2 to 6.2 W/m2 per degrees C for the back of the hand. The three medium fingers seemed to be equally treated, with a heat exchange coefficient variation of 6.3-9.0 W/m2 per degrees C. The thumb and the little finger, which require better insulation, exhibited higher local heat transfer coefficients of 8.3-12.7 W/m2 per degrees C. Some practical aspects are evoked.

  1. Decrease the Number of Glovebox Glove Breaches and Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtle, Jackie C.

    2013-12-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is committed to the protection of the workers, public, and environment while performing work and uses gloveboxes as engineered controls to protect workers from exposure to hazardous materials while performing plutonium operations. Glovebox gloves are a weak link in the engineered controls and are a major cause of radiation contamination events which can result in potential worker exposure and localized contamination making operational areas off-limits and putting programmatic work on hold. Each day of lost opportunity at Technical Area (TA) 55, Plutonium Facility (PF) 4 is estimated at $1.36 million. Between July 2011 and Junemore » 2013, TA-55-PF-4 had 65 glovebox glove breaches and failures with an average of 2.7 per month. The glovebox work follows the five step safety process promoted at LANL with a decision diamond interjected for whether or not a glove breach or failure event occurred in the course of performing glovebox work. In the event that no glove breach or failure is detected, there is an additional decision for whether or not contamination is detected. In the event that contamination is detected, the possibility for a glove breach or failure event is revisited.« less

  2. Vibration-reducing gloves: transmissibility at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; Xu, Xueyan S; Warren, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves are commonly used as a means to help control exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations generated by powered hand tools. The objective of this study was to characterise the vibration transmissibility spectra and frequency-weighted vibration transmissibility of VR gloves at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions. Seven adult males participated in the evaluation of seven glove models using a three-dimensional hand-arm vibration test system. Three levels of hand coupling force were applied in the experiment. This study found that, in general, VR gloves are most effective at reducing vibrations transmitted to the palm along the forearm direction. Gloves that are found to be superior at reducing vibrations in the forearm direction may not be more effective in the other directions when compared with other VR gloves. This casts doubts on the validity of the standardised glove screening test. Practitioner Summary: This study used human subjects to measure three-dimensional vibration transmissibility of vibration-reducing gloves at the palm and identified their vibration attenuation characteristics. This study found the gloves to be most effective at reducing vibrations along the forearm direction. These gloves did not effectively attenuate vibration along the handle axial direction.

  3. Vibration-reducing gloves: transmissibility at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves are commonly used as a means to help control exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations generated by powered hand tools. The objective of this study was to characterise the vibration transmissibility spectra and frequency-weighted vibration transmissibility of VR gloves at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions. Seven adult males participated in the evaluation of seven glove models using a three-dimensional hand–arm vibration test system. Three levels of hand coupling force were applied in the experiment. This study found that, in general, VR gloves are most effective at reducing vibrations transmitted to the palm along the forearm direction. Gloves that are found to be superior at reducing vibrations in the forearm direction may not be more effective in the other directions when compared with other VR gloves. This casts doubts on the validity of the standardised glove screening test. Practitioner Summary This study used human subjects to measure three-dimensional vibration transmissibility of vibration-reducing gloves at the palm and identified their vibration attenuation characteristics. This study found the gloves to be most effective at reducing vibrations along the forearm direction. These gloves did not effectively attenuate vibration along the handle axial direction. PMID:24160755

  4. The Influence of Glove Type on Simulated Wheelchair Racing Propulsion: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, I; Dysterheft, J; Bleakney, A W; Cooper, R A

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of glove type on kinetic and spatiotemporal parameters at the handrim in elite wheelchair racers. Elite wheelchair racers (n=9) propelled on a dynamometer in their own racing chairs with a force and moment sensing wheel attached. Racers propelled at 3 steady state speeds (5.36, 6.26 & 7.60 m/s) and performed one maximal effort sprint with 2 different glove types (soft & solid). Peak resultant force, peak torque, impulse, contact angle, braking torque, push time, velocity, and stroke frequency were recorded for steady state and sprint conditions. Multiple nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pair's tests were used to detect differences between glove types, while effect sizes were calculated based on Cohen's d. During steady state trials, racers propelled faster, using more strokes and larger contact angle, while applying less impulse with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. During the sprint condition, racers achieved greater top end velocities, applying larger peak force, with less braking torque with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. Use of solid gloves may provide some performance benefits to wheelchair racers during steady state and top end velocity conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

    2008-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  6. Glove Changing When Handling Money: Observational and Microbiological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Wahrman, Miryam Z; Shah, Jay; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of glove changing by mobile food vendors after monetary transactions, and the presence of bacterial contamination on a sample of dollar bills obtained from 25 food vendors near five hospitals in Manhattan, New York City. During 495 monetary transactions observed there were only seven glove changes performed by the workers. Eleven of 34 food workers wore no gloves at all while handling money and food. Nineteen of 25 one-dollar bills collected (76 %) had 400 to 42,000 total bacterial colony-forming units. Colonies were of varied morphology and size. Of these 19 samples, 13 were selected (based on level of growth), and tested for the presence of coliform bacteria, which was found in 10 of the 13 samples. Effective strategies to monitor and increase glove wearing and changing habits of mobile food vendors are needed to reduce risk of foodborne illness.

  7. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-09-01

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  8. An evaluation of hospital hand hygiene practice and glove use in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chau, Janita P-C; Thompson, David R; Twinn, Sheila; Lee, Diana T F; Pang, Sharon W M

    2011-05-01

    To identify omissions in hand hygiene practice and glove use among hospital workers in Hong Kong. Hospital-acquired infection is the commonest complication affecting hospitalised patients. Even though research evidence suggests that hand hygiene and proper glove use are the most important ways to prevent the spread of disease and infection, compliance with both are reported to be unacceptably low. An observational study of hospital workers in one acute and two convalescence and rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong was conducted. The participating clinical areas included the medical and surgical wards, accident and emergency department and intensive care unit. Hand hygiene practice and glove use amongst 206 hospital health and support workers, stratified according to years of working experience, were observed. The number of observed episodes for hand hygiene was 1037 and for glove use 304. Compliance with hand hygiene was 74.7% and with glove use 72.4%. In approximately two-third of episodes, participants washed their hands after each patient contact; though, 78.5% failed to rub their hands together vigorously for at least 15 seconds. The major break in compliance with glove use was failure to change gloves between procedures on the same patient. In 28.6% of observed glove use episodes, participants did not wear gloves during procedures that exposed them to blood, body fluids, excretion, non-intact skin or mucous membranes. Significant differences in performance scores on antiseptic hand rub were found between the two types of hospital and on glove use between the three groups of work experience: ≤ 5, 6-10, >10 years. Education and reinforcement of proper hand hygiene practice and glove use among hospital health and support workers is needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Glove permeation by semiconductor processing mixtures containing glycol-ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zellers, E T; Ke, H Q; Smigiel, D; Sulewski, R; Patrash, S J; Han, M W; Zhang, G Z

    1992-02-01

    Results of permeation tests of several glove materials challenged with semiconductor processing formulations containing glycolether derivatives are described. Commercial glove samples of nitrile rubber (Edmont), natural rubber (Edmont and Baxter), butyl rubber (North), PVC Baxter), a natural rubber/neoprene/nitrile blend (Pioneer), and a natural rubber/neoprene blend (Playtex) were tested according to the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method (open-loop configuration). The liquid formulations examined included a positive photoresist thinner containing 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA), n-butyl acetate, and xylene; a positive photoresist containing 2-EEA, n-butyl acetate, xylene, polymer resins, and photoactive compounds; a negative photoresist containing 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME), xylene, and cyclized poly(isoprene); and pure 2-methoxyethyl acetate (2-MEA), which is the solvent used in a commercial electron-beam resist. With the exception of the negative photoresist, butyl rubber provided the highest level of protection against the solvent mixtures tested, with no breakthrough observed after 4 hr of continuous exposure at 25 degrees C. Nitrile rubber provided the highest level of protection against the negative photoresist and reasonably good protection against initial exposure to the other solvent mixtures. Gloves consisting of natural rubber or natural rubber blends provided less protection against the mixtures than either nitrile or butyl rubber. For most of the glove samples, permeation of the glycol-ether derivatives contained in the mixtures was faster than that predicted from the permeation of the pure solvents. Increasing the exposure temperature from 25 to 37 degrees C did not significantly affect the performance of the butyl rubber glove. For the other gloves, however, exposures at 37 degrees C resulted in decreases in breakthrough times of 25-75% and increases in steady-state permeation rates of 80-457% relative to values obtained at 25 degrees C. Repeated

  10. My Space- a collaboration between Arts & Science to create a suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Niamh, , Dr.; McSweeney, Clair; Smith, Niall, , Dr.; O'Neill, Stephanie; Foley, Cathy; Crawley, Joanna; Phelan, Ronan; Colley, Dan; Henderson, Clare; Conroy, Lorraine

    2015-04-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives, entitled 'MySpace' was created, to promote the importance of Earth science and Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space and Earth Science industries. Site visits to research centres in Ireland & abroad, interviews with scientists, engineers, and former astronauts were conducted over a 6 month period. A suite of performance pieces emerged from this development phase, based on Dr. Shaw's personal documented journey and the dissemination of her research. These included: 1. 'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult. Initially presented as a 'Work In Progress' event at The Festival of Curiosity, the full theatre show 'To Space' premiered at Science Gallery, Dublin as part of Tiger Dublin Fringe Arts Festival. Response to the piece was very strong, indicated by audience response, box office sales and theatre reviews in national press and online. A national and international tour is in place for 2015. To Space was performed a total of 10 times and was seen by 680 audiences. 2. An adapted piece for 13-17 year old students -'ToSpace for Secondary Schools'- to increase awareness of Ireland's involvement in Space Exploration & to encourage school leavers to dream big. This show toured nationally as part of World Space week and Science week events in conjunction with ESERO Ireland, CIT Blackrock Castle Observatory, Cork, Armagh Planetarium & Dunsink Observatory. It was performed 12 times and was seen by 570 students. 3. 'My Place in Space', created for families from the very old (60 +) to the very young (3yrs +), this highly interactive workshop highlighted the appeal of science through the wonders of our planet and its place in Space. Presented at Festival of Curiosity, the Mallow Science Fair and at Science week 2014, this

  11. Anthropomorphic teleoperation: Controlling remote manipulators with the DataGlove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. P., II

    1992-01-01

    A two phase effort was conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the DataGlove, a lightweight glove input device that can output signals in real-time based on hand shape, orientation, and movement. The first phase was a period for system integration, checkout, and familiarization in a virtual environment. The second phase was a formal experiment using the DataGlove as input device to control the protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA) - a large telerobotic arm with an 8-ft reach. The first phase was used to explore and understand how the DataGlove functions in a virtual environment, build a virtual PFMA, and consider and select a reasonable teleoperation control methodology. Twelve volunteers (six males and six females) participated in a 2 x 3 (x 2) full-factorial formal experiment using the DataGlove to control the PFMA in a simple retraction, slewing, and insertion task. Two within-subjects variables, time delay (0, 1, and 2 seconds) and PFMA wrist flexibility (rigid/flexible), were manipulated. Gender served as a blocking variable. A main effect of time delay was found for slewing and total task times. Correlations among questionnaire responses, and between questionnaire responses and session mean scores and gender were computed. The experimental data were also compared with data collected in another study that used a six degree-of-freedom handcontroller to control the PFMA in the same task. It was concluded that the DataGlove is a legitimate teleoperations input device that provides a natural, intuitive user interface. From an operational point of view, it compares favorably with other 'standard' telerobotic input devices and should be considered in future trades in teleoperation systems' designs.

  12. Design and Testing of a Variable Pressure Regulator for the Constellation Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Larry; Campbell, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The next generation space suit requires additional capabilities for controlling and adjusting internal pressure than previous design suits. Next generation suit pressures will range from slight pressure, for astronaut prebreath comfort, to hyperbaric pressure levels for emergency medical treatment. Carleton was awarded a contract in 2008 to design and build a proof of concept bench top demonstrator regulator having five setpoints which are selectable using input electronic signaling. Although the basic regulator architecture is very similar to the existing SOP regulator used in the current EMU, the major difference is the electrical selectivity of multiple setpoints rather than the mechanical On/Off feature found on the SOP regulator. The concept regulator employs a linear actuator stepper motor combination to provide variable compression to a custom design main regulator spring. This concept allows for a continuously adjustable outlet pressures from 8.2 psid (maximum) down to "firm" zero thus effectively allowing it to serve as a shutoff valve. This paper details the regulator design and presents test results on regulation band width, command set point accuracy; slue rate and regulation stability, particularly when the set point is being slued. Projections for a flight configuration version are also offered for performance, architectural layout and weight.

  13. Evaluation of surgical glove integrity during surgery in a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Gama, Camila Sarmento

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil to evaluate surgical glove integrity after use during surgery. This 6-month study was conducted by a gastroenterological, cardiovascular, and pediatric surgical team consisting of surgeons (main surgeon and first and second assistants), medical students, and scrub nurses. The gloves used during surgery were examined postsurgery for microperforations using the watertight test as described in European Norm EN 455-1. A total of 116 medical professionals conducted the 100 surgeries monitored. Of the 1090 gloves analyzed, 131 (12%) had a perforation detected postsurgery, 39 of which (37.5%) were recognized by users at the time of occurrence. The highest incidence of perforations occurred among surgeons (P = .033) in the index finger, followed by the thumb of the nondominant hand; in outer gloves (76.9%) when double-gloving was used (P = .014); in open surgery (P = .019); and in surgeries lasting ≥ 150 minutes (P < .05). These findings reaffirm the importance of double-gloving, using a perforation indicator system, and changing gloves in surgeries of ≥ 150 minutes duration, especially in procedures involving open incisions. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The manufacture of gloves from natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Yip, Esah; Cacioli, Paul

    2002-08-01

    Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content.

  15. Different latex aeroallergen size distributions between powdered surgical and examination gloves: significance for environmental avoidance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert H; Taenkhum, Kanika; Buckley, Timothy J; Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    Proactive medical institutions implement latex allergen avoidance to protect workers and patients with latex allergy and to prevent latex sensitization in these groups by creating latex-safe environments that include replacement of natural rubber latex examination and surgical gloves, especially those that are powdered, with synthetic alternatives. We have hypothesized that an apparent decreasing trend in new latex allergy cases in hospitals using only synthetic examination gloves but the occasional powdered latex surgical glove might result from constitutive differences in allergen content (particle size distribution and quantity) between powdered surgical gloves and examination gloves. Because aerodynamic particle size determines where inhaled airborne allergen deposits in the airway, the aim of this study was to investigate the differential particle size distribution of latex allergen released from powdered latex examination and surgical gloves. Powdered and nonpowdered latex examination and surgical gloves were processed to create an aerosol in a glove box equipped with air sampling equipment capable of total particle number and mass measurements. Air particulate generated in the glove box was collected on impactors with less than 2.5-microm, 2.5- to 10-microm, and greater than 10-microm particle size limits (4 L/min for 4 hours). All filters were extracted, and latex allergen was quantified by using a latex-CAP inhibition assay with a human IgE anti-latex serum pool. Latex aeroallergen on powdered sterile surgical gloves resided primarily on particles greater than 10 microm in size (P <.006). In contrast, powdered examination gloves released the highest total latex aeroallergen content, with 68% of the particles sized in the respirable 2.5- to 10-microm range and carrying 56% of the airborne latex allergen. Significantly lower quantities and larger sizes of latex allergen-containing particles released from surgical gloves provides one potential explanation as

  16. Haptic Glove Technology: Skill Development through Video Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…

  17. The Use of Latex Gloves in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

    2006-01-01

    In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves--natural rubber latex--also changed, in order to expedite production.…

  18. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  19. Hand Rehabilitation Learning System With an Exoskeleton Robotic Glove.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhou; Ben-Tzvi, Pinhas; Danoff, Jerome

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a hand rehabilitation learning system, the SAFE Glove, a device that can be utilized to enhance the rehabilitation of subjects with disabilities. This system is able to learn fingertip motion and force for grasping different objects and then record and analyze the common movements of hand function including grip and release patterns. The glove is then able to reproduce these movement patterns in playback fashion to assist a weakened hand to accomplish these movements, or to modulate the assistive level based on the user's or therapist's intent for the purpose of hand rehabilitation therapy. Preliminary data have been collected from healthy hands. To demonstrate the glove's ability to manipulate the hand, the glove has been fitted on a wooden hand and the grasping of various objects was performed. To further prove that hands can be safely driven by this haptic mechanism, force sensor readings placed between each finger and the mechanism are plotted. These experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed system in rehabilitation therapy.

  20. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating palm-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Peterson, Donald R.; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Asaki, Takafumi; Kudernatsch, Simon; Brammer, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been increasingly used to help reduce vibration exposure, but it remains unclear how effective these gloves are. The purpose of this study was to estimate tool-specific performances of VR gloves for reducing the vibrations transmitted to the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions (3-D) in an attempt to assess glove effectiveness and aid in the appropriate selection of these gloves. Four typical VR gloves were considered in this study, two of which can be classified as anti-vibration (AV) gloves according to the current AV glove test standard. The average transmissibility spectrum of each glove in each direction was synthesized based on spectra measured in this study and other spectra collected from reported studies. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were considered in the estimations, which were also measured in this study or collected from reported studies. The glove performance assessments were based on the percent reduction of frequency-weighted acceleration as is required in the current standard for assessing the risk of vibration exposures. The estimated tool-specific vibration reductions of the gloves indicate that the VR gloves could slightly reduce (<5%) or marginally amplify (<10%) the vibrations generated from low-frequency (<25 Hz) tools or those vibrating primarily along the axis of the tool handle. With other tools, the VR gloves could reduce palm-transmitted vibrations in the range of 5%–58%, primarily depending on the specific tool and its vibration spectra in the three directions. The two AV gloves were not more effective than the other gloves with some of the tools considered in this study. The implications of the results are discussed. Relevance to industry Hand-transmitted vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves are considered as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. This study provides useful information

  1. 76 FR 28308 - Compliance Policy Guide: Surgeons' Gloves and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects-Criteria for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... quality levels (AQLs) for leaks and visual defects observed during FDA testing of medical gloves. The CPG... practices regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The CPG represents FDA's current thinking on the criteria for direct...

  2. [Identification of migrants from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves].

    PubMed

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Wakui, Chiseko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are restricted for food contact use. In their place, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used in contact with foodstuffs. Some unknown substances were found to migrate into n-heptane from NBR gloves. By GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR, their chemical structures were confirmed to be 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (used as a plasticizer), 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol), a mixture of styrenated phenols consisting of 2-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 4-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,6-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,4-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol and 2,4,6-tri(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol (used as antioxidants), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which seems to a degradation product of antioxidant. Migration levels of these compounds were 1.68 micrograms/cm2 of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2.80 micrograms/cm2 of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, 46.08 micrograms/cm2 of styrenated phenols and 4.22 micrograms/cm2 of 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol) into n-heptane, respectively. The content of total styrenated phenols was 6,900 micrograms/g in NBR gloves.

  3. Sensing and Force-Feedback Exoskeleton (SAFE) Robotic Glove.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tzvi, Pinhas; Ma, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and experimental validation of a novel robotic haptic exoskeleton device to measure the user's hand motion and assist hand motion while remaining portable and lightweight. The device consists of a five-finger mechanism actuated with miniature DC motors through antagonistically routed cables at each finger, which act as both active and passive force actuators. The SAFE Glove is a wireless and self-contained mechatronic system that mounts over the dorsum of a bare hand and provides haptic force feedback to each finger. The glove is adaptable to a wide variety of finger sizes without constraining the range of motion. This makes it possible to accurately and comfortably track the complex motion of the finger and thumb joints associated with common movements of hand functions, including grip and release patterns. The glove can be wirelessly linked to a computer for displaying and recording the hand status through 3D Graphical User Interface (GUI) in real-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the SAFE Glove is capable of reliably modeling hand kinematics, measuring finger motion and assisting hand grasping motion. Simulation and experimental results show the potential of the proposed system in rehabilitation therapy and virtual reality applications.

  4. Glove Changing Habits in Mobile Food Vendors in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how often mobile food cart vendors in New York City (NYC) changed gloves after exchanging money, which is required by the current NYC health code as one of various measures to prevent foodborne illness. A total of 100 carts (10 carts in 10 zones) throughout Manhattan were observed. In the majority (56.9%, n = 1,026) of the 1,804 money exchanges, food cart vendors did not change their gloves. Not changing gloves after exchanging money was widespread regardless of food type served (46.6% for breakfast to 63.7% for lunch), and across all 10 zones. Not changing gloves after touching money may result in indirect transmission of agents of disease and pose health risks for consumers.

  5. Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

  6. Reducing workers' compensation costs for latex allergy and litigation against glove manufacturing companies.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Mason, Shelley S; Swainston, Erin; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Gubler, K; Long, William B

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented in the medical literature that powdered medical gloves can have serious consequences to patients and health-care workers. Adverse reactions to natural latex gloves, such as contact dermatitis and urticaria, occupational asthma, and anaphylaxis, have been documented as a significant cause of Workers' Compensation claims among health-care workers. While the cost of examination and surgical gloves is significant, this factor must be considered with the total cost of Workers' Compensation claims and possible litigation bestowed upon hospitals and glove manufacturing companies. In the United States, Canada, Belgium, and Germany, medical leaders have documented the dangers of powdered latex gloves and have implemented transition programs that are reducing Workers' Compensation claims filed by health-care workers. While attorneys view litigation against powdered glove manufacturers as the "next big tort", the authors of this article were not able to document all compensation costs to disabled workers because many settlements do not allow the claimant to disclose this information.

  7. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  8. Heat strain and heat stress for workers wearing protective suits at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, J.M.; Rosenthal, F.S.

    1987-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress when full body protective suits are worn, heart rates, oral temperatures and environmental parameters were measured for five unacclimatized male workers (25-33 years of age) who performed sampling activities during hazardous waste clean-up operations. The protective ensembles included laminated PVC-Tyvec chemical resistant hood suits with rubber boots, gloves, full facepiece dual cartridge respirators and hard hats. For comparison, measurements also were performed when the men worked at a similar level of activity while they wore ordinary work clothes. A comparison of the heart rates for the men working with and withoutmore » suits indicated that wearing the suits imposed a heat stress equivalent to adding 6/sup 0/ to 11/sup 0/C (11/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/F) to the ambient WBGT index. A similar result was obtained by calculating the WBGT in the microclimate inside the suits and comparing it to the ambient WBGT. These results indicate the following: 1) there exists a significant risk of heat injury during hazardous waste work when full body protective clothing is worn, and 2) threshold limit values for heat stress established by the ACGIH must be lowered substantially before extending them to cover workers under these conditions.« less

  9. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  10. A comparison of the effect of different surgical gloves on objective measurement of fingertip cutaneous sensibility

    PubMed Central

    Bucknor, A; Karthikesalingam, A; Markar, SR; Holt, PJ; Jones, I; Allen-Mersh, TG

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prudent selection of surgical gloves can deliver significant efficiency savings. However, objective data are lacking to compare differences i