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Sample records for spathius agrili yang

  1. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  2. Multiparasitism by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): Implication for biological control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific competition among different species of insect parasitoids may affect the establishment or efficacies of these species in biological control of targeted pests. The endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and the ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang, two gregarious larval parasito...

  3. Sensilla on the antennae, legs and ovipositor of Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the host-finding mechanisms of Spathius agrili Yang, a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a highly concealed insect pest of Fraxinus spp. The morphology and ultrastructure of sensilla on the antennae and legs of both sexes and on the ovipositors and ovipositor sheaths of females were observed using SEM. Results showed that abundant sensilla trichodea (ST) are distributed on the antennae of both females and males, with the sharp trichoid with a socket at the base being the most numerous sensillum. There are 6-7 sensilla placodea on each segment of the flagellum, arranged lengthways in parallel rows. There are very few sensilla styloconica on the female antennae. The tibiae have mostly sensilla chaetica, whereas three types of ST and the relatively plentiful sensilla chaetica are present on the tarsi. Besides ST, a mass of sensilla squamiformia and small short spines are distributed on the pulvilli. Basically there are no sensilla on the female ovipositor, only steering mechanisms for drilling bark and a variety of v-shaped grooves. However, a large numbers of short sensilla chaetica and microtrichia are found on the internal surface of ovipositor sheath. The outer surface of the ovipositor sheath also has ST. In addition, a clear spring-like extension structure can be observed on the fore parts of ovipositor sheath. These findings suggest that the main function of sensilla on the antennae is olfaction, while the sensilla on legs and ovipositor sheaths are mechanoreceptors and tactile sensors.

  4. Biology and Behavior of Spathius agrili, a Parasitoid of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Gould, Juli R.; Reardon, Richard C.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and is a recently described species. Both pest and parasitoid are native to China. In Tianjin City, China, S. agrili typically exhibited 3–4 generations per year, overwintering as a prepupa in a cocoon inside the host gallery. The multiple generations of S. agrili overlapped with its host, as did the emergence dates of the overwintering generation. From a single host, 1–18 S. agrili successfully developed to the adult stage (average 8.4), but in all cases the host was killed. The sex ratio (female: male) of the parasitoid adults emerging from field-collected cocoons was 2:1, whereas the sex ratio of parasitoids reared from field collected eggs and larvae was greater than 3:1. On average, adult females lived 29.1 d, and males lived 23.6 d when fed with 20% honey solution, significantly longer than without a nutritional supplement. Sexual reproduction is the normal mode of reproduction, but in the laboratory females did reproduce parthenogenetically, producing only males. The average fecundity was 23.3 eggs per female in the laboratory. S. agrili developed through five larval instars, and the larvae fed gregariously on the host hemolymph. The generation time from egg to adult wasp was 27–28 d at 22–26°C. Natural parasitism rates were as high as 60%, and in October they reached over 90% in some stands. This study showed that S. agrili is a promising agent for biocontrol of A. planipennis. PMID:20569125

  5. Biology and behavior of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Gould, Juli R; Reardon, Richard C; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and is a recently described species. Both pest and parasitoid are native to China. In Tianjin City, China, S. agrili typically exhibited 3-4 generations per year, overwintering as a prepupa in a cocoon inside the host gallery. The multiple generations of S. agrili overlapped with its host, as did the emergence dates of the overwintering generation. From a single host, 1-18 S. agrili successfully developed to the adult stage (average 8.4), but in all cases the host was killed. The sex ratio (female: male) of the parasitoid adults emerging from field-collected cocoons was 2:1, whereas the sex ratio of parasitoids reared from field collected eggs and larvae was greater than 3:1. On average, adult females lived 29.1 d, and males lived 23.6 d when fed with 20% honey solution, significantly longer than without a nutritional supplement. Sexual reproduction is the normal mode of reproduction, but in the laboratory females did reproduce parthenogenetically, producing only males. The average fecundity was 23.3 eggs per female in the laboratory. S. agrili developed through five larval instars, and the larvae fed gregariously on the host hemolymph. The generation time from egg to adult wasp was 27-28 d at 22-26 degrees C. Natural parasitism rates were as high as 60%, and in October they reached over 90% in some stands. This study showed that S. agrili is a promising agent for biocontrol of A. planipennis.

  6. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  7. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the γ-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae).

  8. Field-cage evaluation of parasitism, development, and overwintering of two recently introduced biological control agents of the emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-cages were used to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-sea...

  9. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel logs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  10. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...

  11. Evaluating a new method for monitoring the field establishment and parasitism of Oobius agrili, an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...

  12. Discovery of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a larval ectoparasitoid of citrus longhorned beetle in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, which belongs to the Spathius exarator species group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) was found as an ectoparasitoid of the first- and second-instar larvae of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster), from Gwangneung, Pocheon, Kore...

  13. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  14. The genus Spathius Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) in Mexico: occurrence of a highly diverse Old World taxon in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the parasitoid wasp genus Spathius Nees (Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Mexico, S. mexicanus sp. n. and S. chamelae sp. n., are described and illustrated. These represent the second and third described species of this highly diverse Old World genus in the Neotropics, and the first described species recorded for the Mexican territory. PMID:25147464

  15. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  16. Responses of an idiobiont ectoparasitoid, Spathius galinae, to host larvae parasitized by the koinobiont endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi: implications for biological control of emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding interspecific competition among insect parasitoids is important in designing classical biological control programs that involve multiple species introductions. Spathius galinae, a new idiobiont ectoparasitoid from the Russian Far East, is currently being considered for introduction to ...

  17. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  18. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  19. Field-cage methodology for evaluating climatic suitability for introduced wood-borer parasitoids: preliminary results from the emerald ash borer system.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Van Driesche, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.

  20. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  1. [Spatial pattern relationships between emerald ash borer larvae and their natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Zhongqi

    2005-08-01

    The investigation on the spatial patterns of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, parasitoid Spathius agrili, and EAB-preying woodpecker pecks in ash forests showed that in horizontal direction, EAB larvae, parasitoid S. agrili and woodpecker pecks were in negative binomial distribution, while in vertical direction, EAB larvae were distributed on ash trunks from above ground to 3.37 m in height, with a peak around the 1.50 m. Their natural enemies also favored this range.

  2. Yang-Yang Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: A Brilliant Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xi-Wen; Chen, Yang-Yang

    C. N. Yang and C. P. Yang in 1969 (J. Math. Phys. 10, 1115 (1969)) for the first time proposed a rigorous approach to the thermodynamics of the one-dimensional system of bosons with a delta-function interaction. This paper was a breakthrough in exact statistical mechanics, after C. N. Yang (Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1312 (1967)) published his seminal work on the discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation in 1967. Yang and Yang's brilliant method yields significant applications in a wide range of fields of physics. In this communication, we briefly introduce the method of the Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics and demonstrate a fundamental application of the Yang-Yang method for the study of thermodynamics of the Lieb-Liniger model with strong and weak interactions in a whole temperature regime. We also consider the equivalence between the Yang-Yang's thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation and the thermodynamics of the ideal gas with the Haldane's generalized exclusion statistics.

  3. Nonminimal Wu-Yang wormhole

    SciTech Connect

    Balakin, A. B.; Zayats, A. E.; Sushkov, S. V.

    2007-04-15

    We discuss exact solutions of a three-parameter nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills model, which describe the wormholes of a new type. These wormholes are considered to be supported by the SU(2)-symmetric Yang-Mills field, nonminimally coupled to gravity, the Wu-Yang ansatz for the gauge field being used. We distinguish between regular solutions, describing traversable nonminimal Wu-Yang wormholes, and black wormholes possessing one or two event horizons. The relation between the asymptotic mass of the regular traversable Wu-Yang wormhole and its throat radius is analyzed.

  4. Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics: A brilliant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xi-Wen; Chen, Yang-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Yang and Yang in 1969 [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1115 (1969)] for the first time proposed a rigorous approach to the thermodynamics of the one-dimensional system of bosons with a delta-function interaction. This paper was a breakthrough in exact statistical mechanics, after Yang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1312 (1967)] published his seminal work on the discovery of the Yang-Baxter equation in 1967. Yang and Yang’s brilliant method yields significant applications in a wide range of fields of physics. In this paper, we briefly introduce the method of the Yang-Yang equilibrium statistical mechanics and demonstrate a fundamental application of the Yang-Yang method for the study of thermodynamics of the Lieb-Liniger model with strong and weak interactions in a whole temperature regime. We also consider the equivalence between the Yang-Yang’s thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation and the thermodynamics of the ideal gas with the Haldane’s generalized exclusion statistics.

  5. Gauging Quantum Groups: Yang-Baxter Joining Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Shi

    This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.

  6. Gauging quantum groups: Yang-Baxter joining Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-02-01

    This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.

  7. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  8. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  9. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  10. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.

  11. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  12. Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory: The Story of N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Lars

    The following sections are included: * History * Dual Models * Supersymmetric Field Theories and Supergravity * Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theories * The Light-Cone Gauge Formulation of N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory * The Perturbative Finiteness N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory * References

  13. Hopf bifurcation in Yang--Mills mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kursawe, U.; Malec, E.

    1985-10-01

    The periodic non-Abelian space-independent solutions to Yang--Mills SU(2) equations are studied. Hopf bifurcation is shown to appear. New analytic solutions generating a simple Abelian source are found and their stability is discussed. The source can be produced by a fermion field; a self-consistent solution of Yang--Mills--Dirac equations is presented.

  14. Braces and the Yang-Baxter Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedó, Ferran; Jespers, Eric; Okniński, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Several aspects of relations between braces and non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation are discussed and many consequences are derived. In particular, for each positive integer n a finite square-free multipermutation solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with multipermutation level n and an abelian involutive Yang-Baxter group is constructed. This answers a problem of Gateva-Ivanova and Cameron. It is proved that finite non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation whose associated involutive Yang-Baxter group is abelian are multipermutation solutions. Earlier the authors proved this with the additional square-free hypothesis on the solutions. It is also proved that finite square-free non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions associated to a left brace are multipermutation solutions.

  15. Mass gap in Yang's theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2015-06-01

    The quantization of a curvature-squared model of gravity, in the affine form proposed by Yang, is reconsidered in the path integral formulation. Due to its inherent Weyl invariance, sharing this with internal Yang-Mills fields, it or some of its topological generalizations are still a possible route to quantum gravity. Instanton type solutions with double duality properties exhibit a "vacuum degeneracy", i.e. a bifurcation into distinct classical Einsteinian backgrounds. For linearized fields, this conclusively induces a mass gap in the graviton spectrum, a feature which is an open problem in the quantization of internal Yang-Mills fields.

  16. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.

    1979-01-01

    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  17. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2014-03-01

    The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

  18. Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-10-01

    We study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime. The Yang-Baxter sigma model description was originally developed for principal chiral models based on a modified classical Yang-Baxter equation. It has been extended to coset curved spaces and models based on the usual classical Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, for flat space, there is the obvious problem that the standard bilinear form degenerates if we employ the familiar coset Poincaré group/Lorentz group. Instead we consider a slice of AdS5 by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2, 4) . With this procedure we obtain metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known configurations such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, the T-dual of Grant space, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field which we conjecture to correspond to a new integrable system.

  19. Yang-Mills for historians and philosophers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The phrase “Yang-Mills” can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the “Pauli snag,” or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.

  20. Generalized Yang-Mills theory and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We propose a generalization of Yang-Mills theory for which the symmetry algebra does not have to be factorized as mutually commuting algebras of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra and the algebra of functions on base space. The algebra of diffeomorphism can be constructed as an example, and a class of gravity theories can be interpreted as generalized Yang-Mills theories. These theories, in general, include a graviton, a dilaton and a rank-two antisymmetric field, although Einstein gravity is also included as a special case. We present calculations suggesting that the connection in scattering amplitudes between Yang-Mills theory and gravity via Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality can be made more manifest in this formulation.

  1. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  2. Supermembrane limit of Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2016-02-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theory with N = 1 super-translation group in eleven auxiliary dimensions as the structure group. The gauge theory is defined on a direct product manifold Σ3 × S1, where Σ3 is a three-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and S1 is a circle. We show that in the infrared limit, when the metric on S1 is scaled down, the Yang-Mills action supplemented by a Wess-Zumino-type term reduces to the action of an M2-brane.

  3. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Ping Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Ping Yang of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for significant contributions to atmospheric scattering, radiative transfer, and remote sensing.

  4. Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry

    2013-11-01

    Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.

  5. Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-ichi, Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    We discuss Yang-Baxter sigma deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime proposed recently. To avoid the degeneracy of the standard bilinear form associated with the familiar coset ISO(1,3)/SO(1,3), we consider a slice of AdS5 in Poincaré coordinates by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2,4). With this procedure we present the metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known backgrounds such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field.

  6. Gravitino interactions from Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Engelund, Oluf Tang

    2010-05-15

    We fabricate gravitino vertex interactions, using as only input on-shell Yang-Mills amplitudes and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye gauge theory/gravity relations, aiming to achieve a better understanding of Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorizations for gravitinos at an off-shell Lagrangian level. A useful by-product of this analysis is simpler tree-level Feynman rules for gravitino scattering than in traditional gauges. All results are explicitly verified until five-point scattering.

  7. C. N. Yang on Teaching and Research in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Waxman, David

    2016-04-01

    This document is based on five conversations between Prof. C. N. Yang and others in Beijing in 1986. In the conversations, Yang gave his views on the state and development of physics at that time, and the relationship between physics and philosophy. The conversations also contain Yang’s reminiscences on the creation of Yang-Mills theory and his advice to young people, especially those in China.

  8. Fundamental and effective Yang-Mills vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2012-09-26

    Calorons and plane waves within and in between them collectively give rise to a thermal ground state. The latter provides a homgeneous energy density and a negative pressure, and it induces quasiparticle masses to part of the propagating spectrum of deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics (dynamical gauge-symmetry breaking). In the present talk we discuss the role of a single caloron in inducing effective local vertices, characterized by powers of h, mediating the interaction of plane waves which propagate over large distances. The constraints on momentum transfers through effective 4-vertices are revisited.

  9. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  10. C. N. Yang on Einstein and Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    In Professor C. N. Yang’s view, Einstein’s strength was in his ability to distinguish what was truly important and to investigate it. Also, Einstein was unique in that he was able to zoom in as well as zoom out, just like a film which has both close-up and long shots. Many people are only able to have one view, either close-up or from afar, and cannot switch between the two. Professor C. N. Yang feels that, in the history of physics, only Newton can be compared with Einstein. Although Maxwell and Boltzmann were prominent physicists, their influence was not as great as Einstein’s.

  11. Landau gauge Yang-Mills correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Fister, Leonard; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-09-01

    We investigate Landau gauge S U (3 ) Yang-Mills theory in a systematic vertex expansion scheme for the effective action with the functional renormalization group. Particular focus is put on the dynamical creation of the gluon mass gap at nonperturbative momenta and the consistent treatment of quadratic divergences. The nonperturbative ghost and transverse gluon propagators as well as the momentum-dependent ghost-gluon, three-gluon and four-gluon vertices are calculated self-consistently with the classical action as the only input. The apparent convergence of the expansion scheme is discussed and within the errors, our numerical results are in quantitative agreement with available lattice results.

  12. Applications of Yang-Mills thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Markus

    2012-09-26

    We discuss the postulate that the U(1) gauge group describing photon propagation results from a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge theory. In the context of Yang-Mills thermodynamics such a symmetry breaking occurs via the non-trivial ground state. As a result of the interaction with the quasi particles of the theory the photon acquires an effective, temperature and momentum dependent, mass. We explain how this leads to modified black body spectra at temperatures of about 5 K. Furthermore, we discuss the properties and effects of an emergent longitudinal polarization.

  13. YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-05-18

    The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.

  14. Quantum Yang-Mills Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasechnik, Roman

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua compensation arising from leading-order graviton-mediated corrections to the QCD ground state.

  15. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  16. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Salini, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini. PMID:27470843

  17. Phloem-specific expression of Yang cycle genes and identification of novel Yang cycle enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-05-01

    The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis.

  18. Non-abelian solutions of d= 4 + 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills and Yang-Mills-dilaton theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, E.; Shnir, Ya.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2010-03-01

    We construct static, asymptotically flat solutions of SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in 4 + 1 dimensions, subject to bi-azimuthal symmetry. The results are compared with similar solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-dilaton model. Both particle-like and black hole solutions are considered. The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  19. Phloem-specific expression of Yang cycle genes and identification of novel Yang cycle enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-05-01

    The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:21540433

  20. Soluble Model Fluids with Complete Scaling and Yang-Yang Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Fisher, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Yang-Yang (YY) and singular diameter critical anomalies arise in exactly soluble compressible cell gas (CCG) models that obey complete scaling with pressure mixing. Thus, on the critical isochore ρ =ρc , C˜ μ≔-T d2μ /d T2 diverges as |t |-α when t ∝T -Tc→0- while ρd-ρc˜|t |2β where ρd(T )=1/2 [ρliq+ρgas] . When the discrete local CCG cell volumes fluctuate freely, the YY ratio Rμ=C˜μ/CV may take any value -∞ 0 . More general decorated CCGs, including "hydrogen bonding" water models, illuminate energy-volume coupling as relevant to Rμ.

  1. Soluble Model Fluids with Complete Scaling and Yang-Yang Features.

    PubMed

    Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Fisher, Michael E

    2016-01-29

    Yang-Yang (YY) and singular diameter critical anomalies arise in exactly soluble compressible cell gas (CCG) models that obey complete scaling with pressure mixing. Thus, on the critical isochore ρ=ρ(c), C(μ)≔-Td(2)μ/dT(2) diverges as |t|^(-α) when t∝T-T(c)→0^(-) while ρ(d)-ρ(c)∼|t|^(2β) where ρ(d)(T)=1/2[ρ(liq)+ρ(gas)]. When the discrete local CCG cell volumes fluctuate freely, the YY ratio R(μ)=C(μ)/C(V) may take any value -∞0. More general decorated CCGs, including "hydrogen bonding" water models, illuminate energy-volume coupling as relevant to R(μ). PMID:26871316

  2. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A A; Venette, R C

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to improve our ability to resolve insect exotherms. We tested the designs with adults from three parasitoid species: Tetrastichus planipennisi, Spathius agrili, and S. floridanus. These species are <3 mm long and <0.1 mg. Mean exotherms were greater for fine-gauge thermocouples than thick-gauge thermocouples for the smallest species tested, T. planipennisi. This difference was not apparent for larger species S. agrili and S. floridanus. Thermocouple design did not affect the mean supercooling point for any of the species. The cradle thermocouple design developed with the fine gauge wire was reusable and allowed for easy insect recovery after cold exposure.

  3. Band structure in Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Tomaras, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    We show how Yang-Mills theory on S3 × ℝ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different θ sectors coexist and are only mixed by (non-local) volume operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that B + L violation at LHC is unsuppressed.

  4. Cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge configurations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondaini, R. P.

    1985-02-01

    Two solutions are obtained for coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs fields with cylindrical symmetry and rigid rotation. The Higgs fields are responsible for the creation of singularities and infinite energy densities at the cylinder's axis.

  5. Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In these lectures we review how symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of ‘Yang-Mills squared’. We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality. Lecture delivered by M. J. Duff.

  6. Cosmological coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Jin, Yoshida; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2005-11-15

    We study the coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, as do the three expansion scale factors which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis but the bound is comparatively weak with {omega}{sub YM}<0.105{omega}{sub rad}.

  7. Path integral regularization of pure Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquot, J. L.

    2009-07-15

    In enlarging the field content of pure Yang-Mills theory to a cutoff dependent matrix valued complex scalar field, we construct a vectorial operator, which is by definition invariant with respect to the gauge transformation of the Yang-Mills field and with respect to a Stueckelberg type gauge transformation of the scalar field. This invariant operator converges to the original Yang-Mills field as the cutoff goes to infinity. With the help of cutoff functions, we construct with this invariant a regularized action for the pure Yang-Mills theory. In order to be able to define both the gauge and scalar fields kinetic terms, other invariant terms are added to the action. Since the scalar fields flat measure is invariant under the Stueckelberg type gauge transformation, we obtain a regularized gauge-invariant path integral for pure Yang-Mills theory that is mathematically well defined. Moreover, the regularized Ward-Takahashi identities describing the dynamics of the gauge fields are exactly the same as the formal Ward-Takahashi identities of the unregularized theory.

  8. Exact, Schwarzschild-like solution for Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, D.

    1995-04-01

    Exploiting the connection between general relativity and Yang-Mills theory an exact, Schwarzchild-like solution is given for an SU(N) gauge field coupled to a scalar field in the Bogomolny, Prasad, Sommerfield limit. The SU(2) solution is found using the second order Euler-Lagrange formalism, while the SU(N) generalization is given using the first order Bogomolny formalism. In analogy with the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, these Yang-Mills solutions possess an event horizon with respect to the SU(N) charge. It is conjectured that this may be the confinement mechanism for QCD, since just as a Schwarzschild black hole will permanently confine anything which carries the charge of general relativity (mass-energy), so this Yang-Mills solution will confine any particle which carries the SU(N) charge.

  9. Yang-Baxter invariance of the Nappi-Witten model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-04-01

    We study Yang-Baxter deformations of the Nappi-Witten model with a prescription invented by Delduc, Magro and Vicedo. The deformations are specified by skew-symmetric classical r-matrices satisfying (modified) classical Yang-Baxter equations. We show that the sigma-model metric is invariant under arbitrary deformations (while the coefficient of B-field is changed) by utilizing the most general classical r-matrix. Furthermore, the coefficient of B-field is determined to be the original value from the requirement that the one-loop β-function should vanish. After all, the Nappi-Witten model is the unique conformal theory within the class of the Yang-Baxter deformations preserving the conformal invariance.

  10. Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  11. Yang-Mills Theory and Fermionic Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In my talk I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this talk are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  12. New Elliptic Solutions of the Yang-Baxter Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S. E.; Spiridonov, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider finite-dimensional reductions of an integral operator with the elliptic hypergeometric kernel describing the most general known solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with a rank 1 symmetry algebra. The reduced R-operators reproduce at their bottom the standard Baxter's R-matrix for the 8-vertex model and Sklyanin's L-operator. The general formula has a remarkably compact form and yields new elliptic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation based on the finite-dimensional representations of the elliptic modular double. The same result is also derived using the fusion formalism.

  13. The past, present, and future of the Yang reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuo

    2016-10-01

    Photoexcited ketones have diradical characteristics and are functionally similar to high-spin metal-oxo species that are frequently used to catalyze C-H oxidation. First discovered by Yang in 1958, photoexcited ketones can abstract a hydrogen atom from hydrocarbons inter- or intramolecularly. Coupling with atom-transfer, group-transfer, or radical addition, the Yang reaction can be used to achieve various types of C-H functionalization. We provide in this article an overview of triplet ketone-mediated or catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:27517138

  14. First analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee-Yang zeros

    SciTech Connect

    Bastid, N.; Barret, V.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Lopez, X.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Delalija, M.; Gaspariae, I.; Korolija, M.

    2005-07-01

    We report on the first analysis of directed and elliptic flow with the new method of Lee-Yang zeros. Experimental data are presented for Ru+Ru reactions at 1.69A GeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The results obtained with several methods, based on the event-plane reconstruction, on Lee-Yang zeros, and on multiparticle cumulants (up to fifth order) applied for the first time at SIS energies, are compared. They show conclusive evidence that azimuthal correlations between nucleons and composite particles at this energy are largely dominated by anisotropic flow.

  15. Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotanski, J.

    2008-12-01

    The main features of the cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are reviewed. Moreover, the strong coupling expansion of the cusp derived in B. Basso, G.P. Korchemsky, J. Kotanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091601 (2008) is presented.

  16. Yin Yang 1: a multifaceted protein beyond a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Cao, Paul; Wan, Mei Mei; Sui, Guangchao

    2010-01-01

    As a transcription factor, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates the transcription of a dazzling list of genes and the number of its targets still mounts. Recent studies revealed that YY1 possesses functions independent of its DNA binding activity and its regulatory role in tumorigenesis has started to emerge.

  17. Quantum Chromodynamics -- The Perfect Yang-Mills Gauge Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, David

    David Gross: My talk today is about the most beautiful of all Yang-Mills Theories (non-Abelian gauge theories), the theory of the strong nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD. We are celebrating 60 years of the publication of a remarkable paper which introduced the concept of non-Abelian local gauge symmetries, now called the Yang-Mills theory, to physics. In the introduction to this paper it is noted that the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is not consistent with the concept of localized fields. This sentence has drawn attention over the years because the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is consistent, it is just not satisfactory. The authors, Yang and Mills, introduced a more satisfactory notion of local symmetry which did not require one to rotate (in isotopic spin space) the whole universe at once to achieve the symmetry transformation. Global symmetries are thus are similar to `action at a distance', whereas Yang-Mills theory is manifestly local...

  18. ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We construct the 1D ℤ3 parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the ℤ3 parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the ℤ3 parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D ℤ2 Kitaev model. Both the ℤ2 and ℤ3 model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian H123 based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the H123 holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P [formula in text] and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the ℤ3 parafermionic model and H123 can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26902999

  19. Wormhole solution in coupled Yang-Mills--axion system

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A. Department of Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 ); Maharana, J. )

    1990-01-15

    We show that wormhole solutions arise naturally in the effective action, resulting from a heterotic string theory, in which Einstein gravity is coupled to the antisymmetric tensor and an SU(2) Yang-Mills field. The Peccei-Quinn scale in this case gets related to the string tension which is natural in any string compactification.

  20. Perturbation Theory of Massive Yang-Mills Fields

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Veltman, M.

    1968-08-01

    Perturbation theory of massive Yang-Mills fields is investigated with the help of the Bell-Treiman transformation. Diagrams containing one closed loop are shown to be convergent if there are more than four external vector boson lines. The investigation presented does not exclude the possibility that the theory is renormalizable.

  1. Quantum Yang-Mills theory on arbitrary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; Thompson, George

    1991-05-01

    Quantum Yang Mills theory is studied on two dimensional surfaces. Path integral methods are used to derive general and explicit expressions for the partition function, and expectation values of homologically trivial and nontrivial Wilson loops on closed surfaces of any genus, and for the kernels on manifolds with handles and boundaries.

  2. Hamiltonian flow in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Leder, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-01-15

    We derive a new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge. The flow equations for the static gluon and ghost propagators are solved under the assumption of ghost dominance within different diagrammatic approximations. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach and the reliability of the approximations is discussed.

  3. ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2016-02-01

    We construct the 1D parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D Kitaev model. Both the and model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the parafermionic model and can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation.

  4. Yang-Monti’s Catheterizable Stoma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra Bapusaheb; Patil, Shivagouda Malgouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya; Reddy, Mallikarjun

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1981, Mitrofanoff described a procedure to create a continent urinary stoma for clean intermittent catheterization. Since then several procedures have been described including Yang-Monti ileovesicostomy for effective catheterization. Objectives We report on our experience from the use of Monti’s procedure in children at our center. Patients and Methods Children < 18 years of age undergoing urinary diversion/reconstruction with Yang-Monti’s procedure for congenital conditions or neuropathic bladder formed the study group. All these children, post-operatively were taught clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and put on a regime using a 14/16 Fr catheter every 3 hours. The children were followed regularly at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24months post-operatively, with special attention paid to any problems with catheterization and incontinence. Results During the period from Jan 2000 to Dec 2011, at our center, 19 children less than eighteen years of age underwent urinary diversion with Yang-Monti’s catheterizable stoma. The indications for urinary diversion was neuropathic bladder in eight, exstrophy bladder in seven , valve bladder syndrome in three and persistent urethral stricture in one. None of the children found CIC difficult during the post-operative period and there was no hindrance to the passage of the catheter. Conclusions Although the appendix remains the tissue of choice for creation of catherterizable stoma, the Yang-Monti ileovesicostomy is effective, convenient conduit for children. Long-term complications are minimal and children find this comfortable to do CIC. PMID:24282789

  5. Eigenvalue spectrum of lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D.; Catterall, S.; Mehta, D. B.

    We present preliminary results for the eigenvalue spectrum of four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. In particular, by studying the the spectral density a measurement of the anomalous dimension is made and found to be consistent with zero.

  6. ℤ3 parafermionic chain emerging from Yang-Baxter equation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We construct the 1D parafermionic model based on the solution of Yang-Baxter equation and express the model by three types of fermions. It is shown that the parafermionic chain possesses both triple degenerate ground states and non-trivial topological winding number. Hence, the parafermionic model is a direct generalization of 1D Kitaev model. Both the and model can be obtained from Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, to show the algebra of parafermionic tripling intuitively, we define a new 3-body Hamiltonian based on Yang-Baxter equation. Different from the Majorana doubling, the holds triple degeneracy at each of energy levels. The triple degeneracy is protected by two symmetry operators of the system, ω-parity P and emergent parafermionic operator Γ, which are the generalizations of parity PM and emergent Majorana operator in Lee-Wilczek model, respectively. Both the parafermionic model and can be viewed as SU(3) models in color space. In comparison with the Majorana models for SU(2), it turns out that the SU(3) models are truly the generalization of Majorana models resultant from Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26902999

  7. Non-Abelian strings in supersymmetric Yang-Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.

    2012-09-26

    I give a broad review of novel phenomena discovered in certain Yang-Mills theories: non-Abelian strings and confined monopoles. Then I explain how these phenomena allow one to study strong dynamics of gauge theories in four dimensions from two-dimensional models emerging on the string world sheet.

  8. Some remarks on representations of Yang-Mills algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present some new properties of representations of Yang-Mills algebras. We first show that any free Lie algebra with m generators is a quotient of the Yang-Mills algebra 𝔶𝔪(n) on n generators, for n ≥ 2m. We derive from this that any semisimple Lie algebra and even any affine Kac-Moody algebra is a quotient of 𝔶𝔪(n) for n ≥ 4. Combining this with previous results on representations of Yang-Mills algebras given in [Herscovich and Solotar, Ann. Math. 173(2), 1043-1080 (2011)], one may obtain solutions to the Yang-Mills equations by differential operators acting on sections of twisted vector bundles on the affine space of dimension n ≥ 4 associated to representations of any semisimple Lie algebra. We also show that this quotient property does not hold for n = 3, since any morphism of Lie algebras from 𝔶𝔪(3) to 𝔰𝔩(2, k) has in fact solvable image.

  9. Yang-Baxter equations with two Planck constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A.; Olshanetsky, M.; Zotov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider Yang-Baxter equations arising from its associative analog and study the corresponding exchange relations. They generate finite-dimensional quantum algebras which have the form of coupled {{GL}}(N) Sklyanin elliptic algebras. Then we proceed to a natural generalization of the Baxter-Belavin quantum R-matrix to the case {{Mat}}{(N,{{C}})}\\otimes 2\\otimes {{Mat}}{(M,{{C}})}\\otimes 2. It can be viewed as symmetric form of {{GL}}({NM}) R-matrix in the sense that the Planck constant and the spectral parameter enter (almost) symmetrically. Such type (symmetric) R-matrices are also shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter like quadratic and cubic equations.

  10. Currents and anomalies in topological Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, H. D.; Marculescu, S.; Szymanowski, L.

    1992-09-01

    The quantum properties of topological Yang-Mills theory are investigated in the light of the N = 2 supersymmetry observed in flat space. We construct a unique system of covariantly (partially) conserved currents which develop anomalies while preserving BRS invariance of the theory. In particular, the one-loop renormalized energy-momentum tensor is free of purely gravitational contributions and can be written as a BRS variation. We study the consequences of changing the renormalization prescriptions inherited from the N = 2 supersymmetry to those consistent with BRS. Most of our conclusions are verified by explicit calculations. As a byproduct we derive the formula of Atiyah, Hitchin and Singer for the dimension of the moduli space of self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Finally strong arguments are given that the full system of Donaldson polynomials and the quantum BRS current are not renormalized beyond one-loop.

  11. Yang-Mills generalization of the geometrical collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick

    2015-04-01

    The geometrical or Bohr-Mottelson model is generalized and recast as a Yang-Mills theory. The gauge symmetry determines conservation of Kelvin circulation. The circulation commutes with the Hamiltonian when it is the sum of the kinetic energy and a potential that depends only on deformation. The conventional Bohr-Mottelson model is the special case of circulation zero, and wave functions are complex-valued. In the generalization, any quantized value of the circulation is allowed, and the wave functions are vector-valued. The Yang-Mills formulation introduces a new coupling between the geometrical and intrinsic degrees of freedom. The coupling appears in the covariant derivative term of the collective kinetic energy. This kind of coupling is sometimes called ``magnetic'' because of the analogy with electrodynamics.

  12. HYM-flation: Yang-Mills cosmology with Horndeski coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, E.; Gal'tsov, D.

    2016-02-01

    We propose new mechanism for inflation using classical SU (2) Yang-Mills (YM) homogeneous and isotropic field non-minimally coupled to gravity via Horndeski prescription. This is the unique generally and gauge covariant ghost-free YM theory with the curvature-dependent action leading to second-order gravity and Yang-Mills field equations. We show that its solution space contains de Sitter boundary to which the trajectories are attracted for some finite time, ensuring the robust inflation with a graceful exit. The theory can be generalized to include the Higgs field leading to two-steps inflationary scenario, in which the Planck-scale YM-generated inflation naturally prepares the desired initial conditions for the GUT-scale Higgs inflation.

  13. On matrix model formulations of noncommutative Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Hirata, Tomoyoshi; Hanada, Masanori

    2008-11-15

    We study the stability of noncommutative spaces in matrix models and discuss the continuum limit which leads to the noncommutative Yang-Mills theories. It turns out that most noncommutative spaces in bosonic models are unstable. This indicates perturbative instability of fuzzy R{sup D} pointed out by Van Raamsdonk and Armoni et al. persists to nonperturbative level in these cases. In this sense, these bosonic noncommutative Yang-Mills theories are not well-defined, or at least their matrix model formulations studied in this paper do not work. We also show that noncommutative backgrounds are stable in a supersymmetric matrix model deformed by a cubic Myers term, though the deformation itself breaks supersymmetry.

  14. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ≈ 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the

  15. Phloem-Specific Expression of Yang Cycle Genes and Identification of Novel Yang Cycle Enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:21540433

  16. SL(2, r) Yang-Mills Theory on a Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Hallin, Joakim

    The kinematic of SL(2, ℝ) Yang-Mills theory on a circle is considered, for reasons that are spelt out. The gauge transformations exhibit hyperbolic fixed points, and this results in a physical configuration space with a non-Hausdorff “network” topology. The ambiguity encountered in canonical quantization is then much more pronounced than in the compact case and cannot be resolved through the kind of appeal made to group theory in that case.

  17. C. N. Yang Discusses Physics in People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Before the cultural revolution started in 1966, high-energy theorists in the People's Republic of China were very active, according to Chen Ning Yang, who recently returned from a month-long visit there. He learned that in 1965 or 1966 Chinese theorists had developed a theory of "stration" (for strata) that very much parallels the quark theory, which was proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and by George Zweig in 1964...

  18. Regge trajectories in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that N = 2 supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theories have towers of BPS particles obeying a Regge relation, J ˜ m 2, between their angular momenta, J, and their masses, m. For SU( N) Yang-Mills theories, we estimate the slope of these Regge trajectories using a non-relativistic quiver quantum mechanics model. Along the way, we also prove various structure theorems for the quiver moduli spaces that appear in the calculation.

  19. Regge trajectories in {N} = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that {N} = 2 supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theories have towers of BPS particles obeying a Regge relation, J ˜ m 2, between their angular momenta, J, and their masses, m. For SU( N) Yang-Mills theories, we estimate the slope of these Regge trajectories using a non-relativistic quiver quantum mechanics model. Along the way, we also prove various structure theorems for the quiver moduli spaces that appear in the calculation.

  20. Dirac equations for generalised Yang-Mills systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, O.; Nahm, W.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1985-11-01

    We present Dirac equations in 4 p dimensions for the generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theories introduced earlier. These Dirac equations are related to the self-duality equations of the GYM and are checked to be elliptic in a “BPST” background. In this background these Dirac equations are integrated exactly. The possibility of imposing supersymmetry in the GYM-Dirac system is investigated, with negative results.

  1. Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.

  2. Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

  3. CP Symmetry, Lee-Yang zeros and Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, M.; Asorey, M.

    2011-05-23

    We analyze the analytic properties of {theta}-vacuum in QCD and its connection with spontaneous symmetry breaking of CP symmetry. A loss of analyticity in the {theta}-vacuum energy density can only be due to the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros at some real values of {theta}. In the case of first order transitions these singularities are always associated to and cusp singularities and never to or cusps, which in the case {theta} = 0 are incompatible with the Vafa-Witten diamagnetic inequality This fact provides a key missing link in the Vafa-Witten proof of parity symmetry conservation in vector-like gauge theories like QCD. The argument is very similar to that used in the derivation of Bank-Casher formula for chiral symmetry breaking. However, the and behavior does not exclude the existence of a first phase transition at {theta} = {pi}, where a and cusp singularity is not forbidden by any inequality; in this case the topological charge condensate is proportional to the density of Lee-Yang zeros at {theta} = {pi}. Moreover, Lee-Yang zeros could give rise to a second order phase transition at {theta} = 0, which might be very relevant for the interpretation of the anomalous behavior of the topological susceptibility in the CP{sup 1} sigma model.

  4. Yang-Mills condensate as dark energy: A nonperturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino; Zhang, Yang; Antolini, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Models based on the Yang-Mills condensate (YMC) have been advocated for in the literature and claimed as successful candidates for explaining dark energy. Several variations on this simple idea have been considered, the most promising of which are reviewed here. Nevertheless, the previously attained results relied heavily on the perturbative approach to the analysis of the effective Yang-Mills action, which is only adequate in the asymptotically free limit, and were extended into a regime, the infrared limit, in which confinement is expected. We show that if a minimum of the effective Lagrangian in θ =-Fμν aFa μ ν/2 exists, a YMC forms that drives the Universe toward an accelerated de Sitter phase. The details of the models depend weakly on the specific form of the effective Yang-Mills Lagrangian. Using nonperturbative techniques mutated from the functional renormalization-group procedure, we finally show that the minimum in θ of the effective Lagrangian exists. Thus, a YMC can actually take place. The nonperturbative model has properties similar to the ones in the perturbative model. In the early stage of the Universe, the YMC equation of state has an evolution that resembles the radiation component, i.e., wy→1 /3 . However, in the late stage, wy naturally runs to the critical state with wy=-1 , and the Universe transitions from a matter-dominated into a dark energy dominated stage only at latest time, at a redshift whose value depends on the initial conditions that are chosen while solving the dynamical system.

  5. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  6. MONOPOLES AND DYONS IN THE PURE EINSTEIN YANG MILLS THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    HOSOTANI,Y.; BJORAKER,J.

    1999-08-16

    In the pure Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions there exist monopole and dyon solutions. The spectrum of the solutions is discrete in asymptotically flat or de Sitter space, whereas it is continuous in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The solutions are regular everywhere and specified with their mass, and non-Abelian electric and magnetic charges. In asymptotically anti-de Sitter space a class of monopole solutions have no node in non-Abelian magnetic fields, and are stable against spherically symmetric perturbations.

  7. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  8. Transport coefficients in Yang-Mills theory and QCD.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Nicolai; Haas, Michael; Pawlowski, Jan M; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-09-11

    We calculate the shear-viscosity-over-entropy-density ratio η/s in Yang-Mills theory from the Kubo formula using an exact diagrammatic representation in terms of full propagators and vertices using gluon spectral functions as external input. We provide an analytic fit formula for the temperature dependence of η/s over the whole temperature range from a glueball resonance gas at low temperatures, to a high-temperature regime consistent with perturbative results. Subsequently, we provide a first estimate for η/s in QCD. PMID:26406822

  9. Transport Coefficients in Yang-Mills Theory and QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Nicolai; Haas, Michael; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-09-01

    We calculate the shear-viscosity-over-entropy-density ratio η /s in Yang-Mills theory from the Kubo formula using an exact diagrammatic representation in terms of full propagators and vertices using gluon spectral functions as external input. We provide an analytic fit formula for the temperature dependence of η /s over the whole temperature range from a glueball resonance gas at low temperatures, to a high-temperature regime consistent with perturbative results. Subsequently, we provide a first estimate for η /s in QCD.

  10. Infrared propagators of Yang-Mills theory from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2010-11-15

    We show that the correlation functions of ghosts and gluons for the pure Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge can be accurately reproduced for all momenta by a one-loop calculation. The key point is to use a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. The agreement with lattice simulation is excellent in d=4. The one-loop calculation also reproduces all the characteristic features of the lattice simulations in d=3 and naturally explains the peculiarities of the propagators in d=2.

  11. An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Stephen G.; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-03-20

    In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell “powerhouse” prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysismore » model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create “minimal cells” or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering« less

  12. An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Stephen G.; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-03-20

    In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell “powerhouse” prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysis model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create “minimal cells” or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering

  13. Generalized gauge transformations: Pure Yang-Mills case

    SciTech Connect

    Gastmans, R.; Wu, T.T. |

    1998-01-01

    Gauge transformations with Dirac point splitting are systematically discussed for the case of a pure Yang-Mills theory. These generalized gauge transformations are based on two ingredients: a fixed four-vector, which defines the point splitting, and a weight function, which gives an average over the amount of point splitting and which provides a cutoff in momentum space in the direction of the point splitting four-vector. From the requirement that the group property must be satisfied, it is found, starting from a simple ansatz, that an infinitesimal generalized gauge transformation takes the form of an infinite series in the coupling constant. Using induction on the order of the coupling constant, it is shown that all higher-order terms indeed exist and that they can be expressed in terms of the lower-order formulas. That there are such generalized gauge transformations suggests the possibility of a Yang-Mills field theory with mitigated divergences. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. An ancient Chinese wisdom for metabolic engineering: Yin-Yang.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen G; He, Lian; Wang, Qingzhao; Tang, Yinjie J

    2015-01-01

    In ancient Chinese philosophy, Yin-Yang describes two contrary forces that are interconnected and interdependent. This concept also holds true in microbial cell factories, where Yin represents energy metabolism in the form of ATP, and Yang represents carbon metabolism. Current biotechnology can effectively edit the microbial genome or introduce novel enzymes to redirect carbon fluxes. On the other hand, microbial metabolism loses significant free energy as heat when converting sugar into ATP; while maintenance energy expenditures further aggravate ATP shortage. The limitation of cell "powerhouse" prevents hosts from achieving high carbon yields and rates. Via an Escherichia coli flux balance analysis model, we further demonstrate the penalty of ATP cost on biofuel synthesis. To ensure cell powerhouse being sufficient in microbial cell factories, we propose five principles: 1. Take advantage of native pathways for product synthesis. 2. Pursue biosynthesis relying only on pathways or genetic parts without significant ATP burden. 3. Combine microbial production with chemical conversions (semi-biosynthesis) to reduce biosynthesis steps. 4. Create "minimal cells" or use non-model microbial hosts with higher energy fitness. 5. Develop a photosynthesis chassis that can utilize light energy and cheap carbon feedstocks. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis can be used to quantify both carbon and energy metabolisms. The fluxomics results are essential to evaluate the industrial potential of laboratory strains, avoiding false starts and dead ends during metabolic engineering. PMID:25889067

  15. Skyrmions in Yang-Mills theories with massless adjoint quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Auzzi, R.; Bolognesi, S.; Shifman, M.

    2008-06-15

    Dynamics of SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theories with N{sub f} adjoint Weyl fermions is quite different from that of SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with fundamental quarks. The symmetry breaking pattern is SU(N{sub f}){yields}SO(N{sub f}). The corresponding sigma model supports Skyrmions whose microscopic identification is not immediately clear. We address this issue as well as the issue of the Skyrmion stability. The case of N{sub f}=2 had been considered previously. Here we discuss N{sub f}{>=}3. We discuss the coupling between the massless Goldstone bosons and massive composite fermions [with mass O(N{sub c}{sup 0})] from the standpoint of the low-energy chiral sigma model. We derive the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten term and then determine Skyrmion statistics. We also determine their fermion number (mod 2) and observe an abnormal relation between the statistics and the fermion number. This explains the Skyrmion stability. In addition, we consider another microscopic theory--SO(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills with N{sub f} Weyl fermions in the vectorial representation--which has the same chiral symmetry breaking pattern and the same chiral Lagrangian. We discuss distinctive features of these two scenarios.

  16. A new sharpshooter genus for Sphinctogonia lingula Yang & Li (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini) from China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ze-Hong; Yang, Mao-Fa; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Sphinctogoniella, is described to accommodate Sphinctogonia lingula Yang & Li, 2002, its type species from China. Sphinctogoniella lingula (Yang & Li, 2002), comb. n. is re-described and illustrated. Differences between the new genus and Sphinctogonia Breddin, 1901 are tabulated.

  17. Resurgence, operator product expansion, and remarks on renormalons in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.

    2015-03-15

    We discuss similarities and differences between the resurgence program in quantum mechanics and the operator product expansion in strongly coupled Yang-Mills theories. In N = 1 super-Yang-Mills theories, renormalons are peculiar and are not quite similar to renormalons in QCD.

  18. Infrared Yang-Mills theory: A renormalization group perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Axel; Dall’Olio, Pietro; Astorga, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    We describe a technically very simple analytical approach to the deep infrared regime of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge via Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equations in an epsilon expansion. This approach recovers all the solutions for the infrared gluon and ghost propagators previously found by solving the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the theory and singles out the solution with decoupling behavior, confirmed by lattice calculations, as the only one corresponding to an infrared attractive fixed point (for space-time dimensions above two). For the case of four dimensions, we describe the crossover of the system from the ultraviolet to the infrared fixed point and determine the complete momentum dependence of the propagators. The results for different renormalization schemes are compared to the lattice data.

  19. New insights on non-perturbative Yang-Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, Arlene C.

    2010-11-12

    In this talk we review some recent results on the infrared properties of the gluon and ghost propagators in pure Yang-Mills theories. These results are obtained from the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation formulated in a special truncation scheme, which preserves gauge invariance. The presence of massless poles in the three gluon vertex triggers the generation of a dynamical gluon mass (Schwinger mechanism in d = 4), which gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. As a byproduct of this analysis we calculate the Kugo-Ojima function, required for the definition of the non-perturbative QCD effective charge within the pinch technique framework. We show that the numerical solutions of these non-perturbative equations are in very good agreement with the results of SU(3) lattice simulations.

  20. Yang-Mills gauge theory and Higgs particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.

  1. Yang-Mills Gauge Theory and Higgs Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU (2) × SU (3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.

  2. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  3. Stationary Yang-Mills fields with current sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mathelitsch, L.; Mitter, H.; Widder, F.

    1982-02-15

    Classical, time-independent solutions of the Yang-Mills equations are studied for spherically symmetric situations. In the presence of charge and current distributions the same types of solutions are found as for purely electric sources: Besides the Abelian (Coulomb-Biot-Savart) solution there are two non-Abelian types, one of which requires minimal source strengths and comes in two branches. The solution pattern is investigated by rough numerical calculations for a simple source model corresponding to spherical shell distributions. In the absence of charge distributions an additional type is found, which has zero electric field and a magnetic field corresponding to a monopole of fixed strength. This type of solution exists for a large class of reasonable source currents. Some analytical examples are given in addition to numerical results for the shell model. Stability problems are not touched.

  4. Instanton Effective Action in Deformed Super Yang-Mills Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hiroaki; Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin

    2008-11-23

    We study the ADHM construction of instantons in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory deformed in constant Ramond-Ramond (R-R) 3-form field strength background in type IIB superstrings. We compare the deformed instanton effective action with the effective action of fractional D3/D(-1) branes at the orbifold singularity of C{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} in the same R-R background. We find discrepancy between them at the second order in deformation parameters, which comes from the coupling of the translational zero modes of the D(-1)-branes to the R-R background. We improve the deformed action by adding a term with spacetime dependent gauge coupling such that the action reproduces the effective action of the fractional branes.

  5. Noncommutative (supersymmetric) electrodynamics in the Yang-Feldman formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Jochen

    2010-11-15

    We study quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space (NCQED) in the Yang-Feldman formalism. Local observables are defined by using covariant coordinates. We compute the two-point function of the interacting field strength to second order and find the infrared divergent terms already known from computations using the so-called modified Feynman rules. It is shown that these lead to nonlocal renormalization ambiguities. Also new nonlocal divergences stemming from the covariant coordinates are found. Furthermore, we study the supersymmetric extension of the model. For this, the supersymmetric generalization of the covariant coordinates is introduced. We find that the nonlocal divergences cancel. At the one-loop level, the only effect of noncommutativity is then a momentum-dependent field strength normalization. We interpret it as an acausal effect and show that its range is independent of the noncommutativity scale.

  6. Galactic Rotation Curves from Yang-Mills Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Yang-Mills Gravity (YMG) is a gauge field theory based on the T4 group in flat spacetime. In its macroscopic limit, it modifies the trajectories of classical objects such that it serves as an alternative to General Relativity (GR). Since YMG is relatively new and unknown, a brief review of the general theory is given and a more comprehensive list of references is provided. In the present work, we find that the Schwarzchild-like solution to YMG supports a term like αr with constant α. This translates into an r-term in the effective gravitational potential of classical objects. We use this modified potential to predict the shape of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies, and then use data from SDSS to constrain α, which seems to be a free parameter in YMG. This work was supported the NSF's GK12 Vibes and Waves Fellowship.

  7. Lax pairs on Yang-Baxter deformed backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Takashi; Kyono, Hideki; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-11-01

    We explicitly derive Lax pairs for string theories on Yang-Baxter deformed backgrounds, 1) gravity duals for noncommutative gauge theories, 2) γ-deformations of S5, 3) Schrödinger spacetimes and 4) abelian twists of the global AdS5. Then we can find out a concise derivation of Lax pairs based on simple replacement rules. Furthermore, each of the above deformations can be reinterpreted as twisted boundary conditions with the undeformed background by using the rules. As another derivation, the Lax pair for gravity duals for noncommutative gauge theories is reproduced from the one for a q-deformed AdS5×S5 by taking a scaling limit.

  8. Thermal Yang-Mills theory in the Einstein universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidi, Ivan G.; Collopy, Samuel

    2012-09-01

    We study the stability of a non-Abelian chromomagnetic vacuum in Yang-Mills theory in Euclidean Einstein universe S1 × S3. We assume that the gauge group is a simple compact group G containing the group SU(2) as a subgroup and consider static covariantly constant gauge fields on S3 taking values in the adjoint representation of the group G and forming a representation of the group SU(2). We compute the heat kernel for the Laplacian acting on fields on S3 in an arbitrary representation of SU(2) and use this result to compute the heat kernels for the gluon and the ghost operators and the one-loop effective action. We show that the only configuration of the covariantly constant Yang-Mills background that is stable is the one that contains only spinor (fundamental) representations of the group SU(2); all other configurations contain negative modes and are unstable. For the stable configuration we compute the asymptotics of the effective action, the energy density, the entropy and the heat capacity in the limits of low/high temperature and small/large volume and show that the energy density has a non-trivial minimum at a finite value of the radius of the sphere S3. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  9. The Plane-Wave/Super Yang-Mills Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, D

    2003-10-14

    We present a self-contained review of the Plane-wave/super-Yang-Mills duality, which states that strings on a plane-wave background are dual to a particular large R-charge sector of N=4, D=4 superconformal U(N) gauge theory. This duality is a specification of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence in the ''Penrose limit''. The Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} S{sup 5} leads to the maximally supersymmetric ten dimensional plane-wave (henceforth the plane-wave) and corresponds to restricting to the large R-charge sector, the BMN sector, of the dual superconformal field theory. After assembling the necessary background knowledge, we state the duality and review some of its supporting evidence. We review the suggestion by 't Hooft that Yang-Mills theories with gauge groups of large rank might be dual to string theories and the realization of this conjecture in the form of the AdS/CFT duality. We discuss plane-waves as exact solutions of supergravity and their appearance as Penrose limits of other backgrounds, then present an overview of string theory on the plane-wave background, discussing the symmetries and spectrum. We then make precise the statement of the proposed duality, classify the BMN operators, and mention some extensions of the proposal. We move on to study the gauge theory side of the duality, studying both quantum and non-planar corrections to correlation functions of BMN operators, and their operator product expansion. The important issue of operator mixing and the resultant need for re-diagonalization is stressed. Finally, we study strings on the plane-wave via light-cone string field theory, and demonstrate agreement on the one-loop correction to the string mass spectrum and the corresponding quantity in the gauge theory. A new presentation of the relevant superalgebra is given.

  10. Self-dual Yang-Mills fields in an Einstein universe

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, A. )

    1992-12-01

    Instanton solutions of Yang-Mills fields in flat Euclidean space have importance in studying the guage field vacuum. The authors find exact solutions of the self-consistent Einstein-Yang-Mills system of equations. These solutions are self-dual Yang-Mills fields in I[sup 1] [times] S[sup 3] space-time. The self-dual solutions have trivial topology and do not belong to instatons. The results of this study may help in understanding the vacuum structure of the fields under consideration. 4 refs.

  11. Tests of conformal field theory at the Yang-Lee singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Wydro, Tomasz; McCabe, John F.

    2009-12-14

    This paper studies the Yang-Lee edge singularity of 2-dimensional (2D) Ising model based on a quantum spin chain and transfer matrix measurements on the cylinder. Based on finite-size scaling, the low-lying excitation spectrum is found at the Yang-Lee edge singularity. Based on transfer matrix techniques, the single structure constant is evaluated at the Yang-Lee edge singularity. The results of both types of measurements are found to be fully consistent with the predictions for the (A{sub 4}, A{sub 1}) minimal conformal field theory, which was previously identified with this critical point.

  12. No-go for partially massless spin-2 Yang-Mills

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garcia-Saenz, Sebastian; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Mitsou, Ermis; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2016-02-05

    There are various no-go results forbidding self-interactions for a single partially massless spin-2 field. Given the photon-like structure of the linear partially massless field, it is natural to ask whether a multiplet of such fields can interact under an internal Yang-Mills like extension of the partially massless symmetry. In this paper, we give two arguments that such a partially massless Yang-Mills theory does not exist. The first is that there is no Yang-Mills like non-abelian deformation of the partially massless symmetry, and the second is that cubic vertices with the appropriate structure constants do not exist.

  13. Towards the fundamental spectrum of the quantum Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liegener, Klaus; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    In this work we focus on the quantum Einstein-Yang-Mills sector quantized by the methods of loop quantum gravity. We point out the improved UV behavior of the coupled system as compared to pure quantum Yang-Mills theory on a fixed, classical background spacetime as was considered in a seminal work by Kogut and Susskind. Furthermore, we develop a calculational scheme by which the fundamental spectrum of the quantum Yang-Mills Hamiltonian can be computed in principle and by which one can make contact with the Wilsonian renormalization group, possibly purely within the Hamiltonian framework. Finally, we comment on the relationship of the fundamental spectrum to that of pure Yang-Mills theory on a (flat) classical spacetime.

  14. [Analysis of the meridian-collateral theoretical framework and the conceptual annotation of YANG Shangshan].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2016-02-01

    When classifying and compiling Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic), YANG Shangshan had constructed the systematic framework of the meridian-collateral theory. It has been found in the investigation of Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) that YANG Shangshan constructed the meridian-collateral systematic framework on the foundation of meridian theory. This framework includes two parts. One is the twelve meridians and the other one is the eight extra meridians, in which, the divergent meridians are derived from the regular meridians, and the collaterals, the cutaneous regions of meridians, genjie and biaoben are attributive to the regular meridians. The theory of the jingjin of meridians should be different from meridian-collateral system. YANG Shangshan constructed and annotated the meridian-collateral system, interpreting his unique thinking and analytic foundation. Being one of the forms of meridian-collateral theory at the early stage, YANG Shangshan's discovery deserves to be considered.

  15. Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Vind, F. Anvari; Foerster, A.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Souza, A. M.; Roditi, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26861686

  16. Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry.

    PubMed

    Vind, F Anvari; Foerster, A; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S; Soares-Pinto, D O; Souza, A M; Roditi, I

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation. PMID:26861686

  17. Experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter Equation via NMR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vind, F. Anvari; Foerster, A.; Oliveira, I. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Souza, A. M.; Roditi, I.

    2016-02-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation is an important tool in theoretical physics, with many applications in different domains that span from condensed matter to string theory. Recently, the interest on the equation has increased due to its connection to quantum information processing. It has been shown that the Yang-Baxter equation is closely related to quantum entanglement and quantum computation. Therefore, owing to the broad relevance of this equation, besides theoretical studies, it also became significant to pursue its experimental implementation. Here, we show an experimental realization of the Yang-Baxter equation and verify its validity through a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) interferometric setup. Our experiment was performed on a liquid state Iodotrifluoroethylene sample which contains molecules with three qubits. We use Controlled-transfer gates that allow us to build a pseudo-pure state from which we are able to apply a quantum information protocol that implements the Yang-Baxter equation.

  18. Conformally flat Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs solutions with spherical symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mondaini, R.P.; Santos, N.O.

    1983-10-15

    We solve the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations in a conformally flat metric with spherical symmetry. Two solutions are obtained corresponding to magnetic monopoles in the Higgs vacuum and outside of it.

  19. [Analysis of the meridian-collateral theoretical framework and the conceptual annotation of YANG Shangshan].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2016-02-01

    When classifying and compiling Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic), YANG Shangshan had constructed the systematic framework of the meridian-collateral theory. It has been found in the investigation of Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) that YANG Shangshan constructed the meridian-collateral systematic framework on the foundation of meridian theory. This framework includes two parts. One is the twelve meridians and the other one is the eight extra meridians, in which, the divergent meridians are derived from the regular meridians, and the collaterals, the cutaneous regions of meridians, genjie and biaoben are attributive to the regular meridians. The theory of the jingjin of meridians should be different from meridian-collateral system. YANG Shangshan constructed and annotated the meridian-collateral system, interpreting his unique thinking and analytic foundation. Being one of the forms of meridian-collateral theory at the early stage, YANG Shangshan's discovery deserves to be considered. PMID:27348918

  20. Radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and cosmic censorship

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-08-15

    Exact nonstatic spherically symmetric black-hole solutions of the higher dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills equations for a null dust with Yang-Mills gauge charge are obtained by employing Wu-Yang ansatz, namely, HD-EYM Vaidya solution. It is interesting to note that gravitational contribution of Yang-Mills (YM) gauge charge for this ansatz is indeed opposite (attractive rather than repulsive) that of Maxwell charge. It turns out that the gravitational collapse of null dust with YM gauge charge admits strong curvature shell focusing naked singularities violating cosmic censorship. However, there is significant shrinkage of the initial data space for a naked singularity of the HD-Vaidya collapse due to presence of YM gauge charge. The effect of YM gauge charge on structure and location of the apparent and event horizons is also discussed.

  1. A euclidean lattice formulation of D = 5 maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2016-06-01

    We construct lattice action for five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This supersymmetric lattice formulation can be used to explore the non-perturbative regime of the continuum target theory, which has a known gravitational dual.

  2. Static cosmological solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlohner, P.; Forgács, P.; Maison, D.

    2000-09-01

    Numerical evidence is presented for the existence of a new family of static, globally regular `cosmological' solutions of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. These solutions are characterized by two natural numbers (/m>=1, /n>=0), the number of nodes of the Yang-Mills and Higgs field respectively. The corresponding spacetimes are static with spatially compact sections with 3-sphere topology.

  3. Composite strings in (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic weakly coupled Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Orland, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The small-scale structure of a string connecting a pair of static sources is explored for the weakly coupled anisotropic SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1) dimensions. A crucial ingredient in the formulation of the string Hamiltonian is the phenomenon of color smearing of the string constituents. The quark-antiquark potential is determined. We close with some discussion of the standard, fully Lorentz-invariant Yang-Mills theory.

  4. Surface-invariants in 2D classical Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Rafael; Fuenmayor, E.; Leal, Lorenzo

    2006-03-15

    We study a method to obtain invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms associated to closed curves in the plane from classical Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions. Taking as starting point the Yang-Mills field coupled to nondynamical particles carrying chromo-electric charge, and by means of a perturbative scheme, we obtain the first two contributions to the on-shell action, which are area-invariants. A geometrical interpretation of these invariants is given.

  5. Masslessness of ghosts in equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, Maarten; Zimmerman, Leah

    2005-06-01

    We show that the one-loop ghost self-energy in an equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory vanishes at zero momentum. A ghost mass is forbidden by equivariant BRST symmetry, and our calculation confirms this explicitly. The four-ghost self interaction which appears in the equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory is needed in order to obtain this result.

  6. Antiself-dual Yang-Mills, modified Faddeevs-Jackiw formalism and hidden BRS invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the constraints for a system of antiself-dual Yang-Mills (ASDYM) equations by means of the modified Faddeev-Jackiw method in K and J gauges à la Yang. We also establish the Hamiltonian flow for ASDYM system through the hidden BRS invariance in both the gauges. Finally, we remark on the bi-Hamiltonian nature of ASDYM and the compatibility of the symplectic structures therein.

  7. Aβ damages learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease rats with kidney-yang deficiency.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dongmei; Qiao, Yongfa; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Huijuan; Cheng, Bin; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease was considered as the consequence produced by deficiency of Kidney essence. However, the mechanism underlying the symptoms also remains elusive. Here we report that spatial learning and memory, escape, and swimming capacities were damaged significantly in Kidney-yang deficiency rats. Indeed, both hippocampal Aβ(40) and 42 increases in Kidney-yang deficiency contribute to the learning and memory impairments. Specifically, damage of synaptic plasticity is involved in the learning and memory impairment of Kidney-yang deficiency rats. We determined that the learning and memory damage in Kidney-yang deficiency due to synaptic plasticity impairment and increases of Aβ(40) and 42 was not caused via NMDA receptor internalization induced by Aβ increase. β-Adrenergic receptor agonist can rescue the impaired long-term potential (LTP) in Kidney-yang rats. Taken together, our results suggest that spatial learning and memory inhibited in Kidney-yang deficiency might be induced by Aβ increase and the decrease of β(2) receptor function in glia. PMID:22645624

  8. Large volume behaviour of Yang-Mills propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S. Maas, Axel; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2007-12-15

    We investigate finite volume effects in the propagators of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory using Dyson-Schwinger equations on a 4-dimensional torus. In particular, we demonstrate explicitly how the solutions for the gluon and the ghost propagator tend towards their respective infinite volume forms in the corresponding limit. This solves an important open problem of previous studies where the infinite volume limit led to an apparent mismatch, especially of the infrared behaviour, between torus extrapolations and the existing infinite volume solutions obtained in 4-dimensional Euclidean space-time. However, the correct infinite volume limit is approached rather slowly. The typical scales necessary to see the onset of the leading infrared behaviour emerging already imply volumes of at least 10-15 fm in lengths. To reliably extract the infrared exponents of the infinite volume solutions requires even much larger ones. While the volumes in the Monte-Carlo simulations available at present are far too small to facilitate that, we obtain a good qualitative agreement of our torus solutions with recent lattice data in comparable volumes.

  9. Kinetic energy for the nuclear Yang-Mills collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The Bohr-Mottelson-Frankfurt model of nuclear rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. The model, also called the geometrical collective model or simply GCM, has two hidden mathematical structures, one Lie group theoretic and the other differential geometric. Although the group structure has been understood for some time, the geometric structure is a new unexplored feature that shares the same mathematical origin as Yang-Mills, viz., a vector bundle with a non-abelian structure group and a connection. Using the de Rham Laplacian ▵ = * d * d from differential geometry for the kinetic energy extends significantly the physical scope of the GCM model. This Laplacian contains a ``magnetic'' term due to the coupling between base manifold rotational and fiber vorticity degrees of freedom. When the connection specializes to irrotational flow, the Laplacian reduces to the Bohr-Mottelson kinetic energy operator. More generally, the connection yields a moment of inertia that is intermediate between the extremes of irrotational flow and rigid body motion.

  10. Recombination of H and He in Yang-Mills Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of the thermal history of the early universe according to Yang-Mills Gravity (YMG); a gauge theory of gravity set in flat space-time. Specifically, equations for the ionization fractions of hydrogen and singly ionized helium during the recombination epoch are deduced analytically and then solved numerically. By considering several approximations, we find that the presence of primordial helium and its interaction with Lyman series photons has a much stronger effect on the overall free electron density in YMG than it does in the standard, General Relativity (GR)-based, model. Compared to the standard model, recombination happens over a much larger range of temperatures, although there is still a very sharp temperature of last scattering around 2000 K. The ionization history of the universe is not directly observable, but knowledge of it is necessary for CMB power spectrum calculations. Such calculations will provide another rigorous test of YMG and will be explored in detail in an upcoming paper.

  11. Infrared singularities in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Alkofer, Reinhard; Huber, Markus Q.; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-05-15

    We present a more detailed picture of the infrared regime of Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory. This is done within a novel framework that allows one to take into account the influence of finite scales within an infrared power counting analysis. We find that there are two qualitatively different infrared fixed points of the full system of Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first extends the known scaling solution, where the ghost dynamics is dominant and gluon propagation is strongly suppressed. It features in addition to the strong divergences of gluonic vertex functions in the previously considered uniform scaling limit, when all external momenta tend to zero, also weaker kinematic divergences, when only some of the external momenta vanish. The second solution represents the recently proposed decoupling scenario where the gluons become massive and the ghosts remain bare. In this case we find that none of the vertex functions is enhanced, so that the infrared dynamics is entirely suppressed. Our analysis also provides a strict argument why the Landau-gauge gluon dressing function cannot be infrared divergent.

  12. Maximally supersymmetric planar Yang-Mills amplitudes at five loops

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.; Kosower, D. A.

    2007-12-15

    We present an Ansatz for the planar five-loop four-point amplitude in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of loop integrals. This Ansatz exploits the recently observed correspondence between integrals with simple conformal properties and those found in the four-point amplitudes of the theory through four loops. We explain how to identify all such integrals systematically. We make use of generalized unitarity in both four and D dimensions to determine the coefficients of each of these integrals in the amplitude. Maximal cuts, in which we cut all propagators of a given integral, are an especially effective means for determining these coefficients. The set of integrals and coefficients determined here will be useful for computing the five-loop cusp anomalous dimension of the theory which is of interest for nontrivial checks of the AdS/CFT duality conjecture. It will also be useful for checking a conjecture that the amplitudes have an iterative structure allowing for their all-loop resummation, whose link to a recent string-side computation by Alday and Maldacena opens a new venue for quantitative AdS/CFT comparisons.

  13. Yang-Mills theories with chiral matter at strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.; Uensal, Mithat

    2009-05-15

    Strong coupling dynamics of Yang-Mills theories with chiral fermion content remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. In this work, we propose a dynamical framework in which we can address nonperturbative properties of chiral, nonsupersymmetric gauge theories, in particular, chiral quiver theories on S{sub 1}xR{sub 3}. Double-trace deformations are used to stabilize the center-symmetric vacuum. This allows one to smoothly connect small-r(S{sub 1}) to large-r(S{sub 1}) physics (R{sub 4} is the limiting case) where the double-trace deformations are switched off. In particular, the occurrence of the mass gap in the gauge sector and linear confinement due to bions are analytically demonstrated. We find the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization which depends on the structure of the monopole-ring operators, a novel class of topological excitations. The deformed chiral theory, unlike the undeformed one, satisfies volume independence down to arbitrarily small volumes (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) in the large N limit. This equivalence may open new perspectives on strong coupling chiral gauge theories on R{sub 4}.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies of tunnel seepage water in the YangYang power plant construction site, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, I.; Yun, S.

    2001-12-01

    Underground tunnel is now constructing at the YangYang power plant construction site after 1996 for an electric power supply. Geologic structures in the area are dominanted by fault fracture zones with altitudes of N5E80SE-90 and N75E40-70SE, which act as major conduits of groundwater flow. Tunnel seepage waters (TSW; N = 21) and surface waters (N = 3) were collected from the area of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and were examined for hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics. TSW has the wide ranges of pH (8.0-9.7) and TDS content (70.3-870.9 mgl). The TDS values reflect varying degrees of waterrock interaction. TSW can be classified into two hydrochemical groups, based on the plots on a Piper¡_s diagram as well as ANOVA test of hydrochemical data. These are (the data in parenthesis indicate mean concentrations): Na-HCO3 type (Na = 188.5 mgl, K = 2.0 mgl, Cl = 15.6 mgl, F = 16.3 mgl; N = 3), Ca(¡_Na)-HCO3 type (Na = 16.1 mgl, K = 0.4 mgl, Cl = 3.5 mg/l, F = 3.8 mgl; N = 18). The Na-HCO3 type waters record mainly the albite dissolution and occurs restrictedly in deep tunnel sites (EL= >640 m a.s.l), whereas the Ca(¡_Na)-HCO3 type waters occurs in shallower tunnel sites (EL= <600 m a.s.l) and was formed through dissolution of mainly calcite and soluble silicates as well as cation exchange. The former type waters also have lower oxygen and hydrogen isotope values and higher tritium contents. With an increasing depth to the sampling site, the oxygen isotopic values of TSW progressively decrease with an isotopic gradient of -0.3 permill per 100 m (standard deviation = 0.001). By combining with available informations such as structural geology and tunnel design, we propose a hydrogeochemical evolution model for the observed bimodal patterns of hydrogeochemical and isotopic data.

  15. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421

  16. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421

  17. Rare missense variants within a single gene form yin yang haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David

    2016-01-01

    Yin yang haplotype pairs differ at every SNP. They would not be accounted for by population models that incorporate sequential mutation, with or without recombination. Previous reports have claimed that there is a tendency for common SNPs to form yin yang haplotypes more often than would be expected by sequential mutation or by a random sample of all possible haplotypic arrangements of alleles. In the course of analysing next-generation sequencing data, instances of yin yang haplotypes being formed by very rare variants within a single gene were observed. As an example, this report describes a completely yin yang haplotype formed by eight rare missense variants in the ABCA13 gene. Of 1000 genome subjects, 21 have a copy of the alternate allele at all eight of these positions and a single subject is homozygous for all of them. None of the other 1070 subjects possesses any of the altetrnates. Thus, the eight alternate alleles are always found together and never occur separately. The existence of such yin yang haplotypes has important implications for statistical methods for analysing rare variants. Also, they may be of use for gaining a better understanding of the history of human populations.

  18. Spatially compact solutions and stabilization in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theories.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien

    2005-08-01

    New solutions to the static, spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with the Higgs field in the triplet (doublet) representation are presented. They form continuous families parametrized by alpha = M(W)/M(Pl) [M(W) (M(Pl)) denoting the W boson (the Planck) mass]. The corresponding space-times are regular and have spatially compact sections. A particularly interesting class with the Yang-Mills amplitude being nodeless is exhibited and is shown to be linearly stable with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations. For some solutions with nodes of the Yang-Mills amplitude a new stabilization phenomenon is found, according to which their unstable modes disappear as alpha increases (for the triplet) or decreases (for the doublet).

  19. Some Comments on the String Singularity of the Yang-Mills-Higgs Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kok-Geng; Teh, Rosy

    2010-07-01

    We are going to make use of the regulated polar angle which had been introduced by Boulware et al.. to show that in the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory when the magnetic monopole is carried by the gauge field, the Higgs field does not carry the monopole and vice versa. In the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, our solution shows that when the parameter ɛ ≠ 0, the monopole is carried by the gauge field and there is a string singularity in the gauge field. When the parameter ɛ → 0, the monopole is transferred from the gauge field to the Higgs field and the string singularity disappeared. The solution is only singular at the origin, that is at r = 0 as it becomes the Wu-Yang monopole.

  20. Spatially Compact Solutions and Stabilization in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien

    2005-08-01

    New solutions to the static, spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with the Higgs field in the triplet (doublet) representation are presented. They form continuous families parametrized by α=MW/MPl [MW (MPl) denoting the W boson (the Planck) mass]. The corresponding spacetimes are regular and have spatially compact sections. A particularly interesting class with the Yang-Mills amplitude being nodeless is exhibited and is shown to be linearly stable with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations. For some solutions with nodes of the Yang-Mills amplitude a new stabilization phenomenon is found, according to which their unstable modes disappear as α increases (for the triplet) or decreases (for the doublet).

  1. Yang-Baxter integrable models in experiments: from condensed matter to ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Murray T.; Foerster, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation has long been recognised as the masterkey to integrability, providing the basis for exactly solved models which capture the fundamental physics of a number of realistic classical and quantum systems. In this article we provide an introductory survey of the impact of Yang-Baxter integrable models on experiments in condensed matter physics and ultracold atoms. A number of prominent examples are covered, including the hard-hexagon model, the Heisenberg spin chain, the transverse quantum Ising chain, a spin ladder model, the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the Gaudin-Yang Fermi gas and the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. The review concludes by pointing to some other recent developments with promise for further progress.

  2. Human gephyrin is encompassed within giant functional noncoding yin-yang sequences

    PubMed Central

    Climer, Sharlee; Templeton, Alan R.; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-01-01

    Gephyrin is a highly-conserved gene that is vital for the organization of proteins at inhibitory receptors, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, and other diverse functions. Its specific function is intricately regulated and its aberrant activities have been observed for a number of human diseases. Here we report a remarkable yin-yang haplotype pattern encompassing gephyrin. Yin-yang haplotypes arise when a stretch of DNA evolves to present two disparate forms that bear differing states for nucleotide variations along their lengths. The gephyrin yin-yang pair consists of 284 divergent nucleotide states and both variants vary drastically from their mutual ancestral haplotype, suggesting rapid evolution. Several independent lines of evidence indicate strong positive selection on the region and suggest these high-frequency haplotypes represent two distinct functional mechanisms. This discovery holds potential to deepen our understanding of variable human-specific regulation of gephyrin while providing clues for rapid evolutionary events and allelic migrations buried within human history. PMID:25813846

  3. Teleportation-based quantum computation, extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach and Yang-Baxter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Kun; Pang, Jinglong

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of topological features in teleportation-based quantum computation and aims at presenting a detailed review on teleportation-based quantum computation (Gottesman and Chuang in Nature 402: 390, 1999). In the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach, we clearly show that such topological features bring about the fault-tolerant construction of both universal quantum gates and four-partite entangled states more intuitive and simpler. Furthermore, we describe the Yang-Baxter gate by its extended Temperley-Lieb configuration and then study teleportation-based quantum circuit models using the Yang-Baxter gate. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach and the Yang-Baxter gate approach. With these research results, we propose a worthwhile subject, the extended Temperley-Lieb diagrammatical approach, for physicists in quantum information and quantum computation.

  4. Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G (2 ) Yang-Mills field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    We provide a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with the exceptional gauge group G (2 ), which extends the field decomposition proposed by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the S U (N ) Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of G (2 ). The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the G (2 ) Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semisimple Lie group other than S U (N ) and G (2 ).

  5. Nonperturbative approach to Yang-Mills theories in the continuum. II. Considerations away from strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Karanikas, A.I.; Ktorides, C.N.

    1987-02-15

    We confront the general problem posed by nonperturbative calculations in non-Abelian gauge theories, pertaining to the Wilson loop operator, away from strong coupling. We adopt a nonperturbatively regularized formulation of Yang-Mills theories in the continuum which has already been discussed in the preceding paper. We study, in particular, Yang-Mills duality, within our regularized context, with respect to the full SU(N) group and not simply its center Z/sub N/. We further show that, from the present viewpoint, duality emerges through a distinction between the regularization length on one hand and the scale by which the Yang-Mills system is observed on the other. Finally, we are able to derive a Makeenko-Migdal-type equation for finite N.

  6. Understanding the Yang-Mills ground state: The origin of colour confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano

    1988-01-01

    The essential magnetic instability of the perturbative ground state of a non-abelian Yang-Mills theory recently discovered, is shown to lead to a family of degenerate states, the Savvidy states, where the Yang-Mills fields undergo an infinite (when the ultraviolet cut-off Λ-->∞M) condensation process. These states build up the real Yang-Mills ground state, in which colour is confined and governed by the effective lagrangian of anisotropic chromodynamics (ACD), proposed by the present author a few years ago. This appears to solve the problem of confinement in QCD. On leave of absence from Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.

  7. LC-MS-Based Quality Assessment of a Traditional Chinese Medicine YANG XIN Formulation.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Ahmad J; Zaher, Ahmed; Simithy, Johayra; Keller, William J; Tripp, Matt; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-08-01

    YANG XIN is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used for nervous fatigue and consists of a proprietary blend of concentrated extracts from 18 plant ingredients. The 18 constituent plant ingredients, YANG XIN capsules, and formulations 2014-005_1 A and 1B were extracted by consecutive 24-hour macerations with dichloromethane followed by methanol. Metabolite separation was carried out through LC-MS in 40 minutes. Data acquisitions for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were collected under (±) ESI modes and (+) APCI mode using full spectrum scan analysis.A total of 18 analytical markers were identified by LC-MS for YANG XIN formulations based on accurate mass measurements, molecular formula, double bond equivalent, MFG score, and error (ppm) of the measurement. Aditionally, a comparison of the data with previously reported results for the compounds, followed by identity confirmation with standard compounds, was performed. Seventeen analytical markers representing 17 plant ingredients in the different YANG XIN formulations were quantified for the first time. The YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation were similar to each other and different from the 2014-005_1 A formulation based on the fact that both YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation contain the same analytical markers. This method provides good linearity (r(2) > 0.9945), intraday precision (R. S. D. < 3.9 %), interday precision (R. S. D. < 5.6 %), accuracy (99.2-101 %), recovery (145.7 %), limit of detection (0.0011-0.0732 µg/mL), and limit of quantitation (0.0038-0.2441 µg/mL).

  8. A Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    We study spherically symmetric solutions of an SO(5) Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions. The Chern-Simons densities are defined in terms of both Yang-Mills fields and a five-component isomultiplet Higgs. The SO(3) × SO(2) solutions are analyzed in a systematic way, by employing numerical methods. These finite energy configurations possess both electric and magnetic global charges, differing radically, however, from Julia-Zee dyons. When two or more of these Chern-Simons densities are present in the Lagrangian, solutions with vanishing electric charge but nonvanishing electrostatic potential may exist.

  9. Yang-Mills vacuum in Coulomb gauge in D=2+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Feuchter, C.; Reinhardt, H.

    2008-04-15

    The variational approach to the Hamilton formulation of Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge developed by the present authors previously is applied to Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions and is confronted with the existing lattice data. We show that the resulting Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE) yield consistent solutions in 2+1 dimensions only for infrared divergent ghost form factor and gluon energy. The obtained numerical solutions of the DSE reproduce the analytic infrared results and are in satisfactory agreement with the existing lattice date in the whole momentum range.

  10. Dynamics of Euclideanized Einstein-Yang-Mills systems with arbitrary gauge groups

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolami, O.; Picken, R.F. ); Maurao, J.M. ); Volobujev, I.P. )

    1991-09-30

    This paper describes the dynamics of euclideanized SO(4)-symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) systems with arbitrary compact gauge groups K. For the case of SO(n) and SU(n) gauge groups and simple embeddings of the isotropy group in K, the authors show that in the resulting dynamical system, the Friedmann equation decouples from the Yang-Mills equations. Furthermore, the latter can be reduced to a system of two second-order differential equations. This allows the authors to find a broad class of instanton (wormhole) solutions of the EYM equations. These solutions are not afflicted by the giant-wormhole catastrophe.

  11. Superspace gauge fixing in Yang-Mills matter-coupled conformal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugo, Taichiro; Yokokura, Ryo; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    In D=4, N=1 conformal superspace, the Yang-Mills matter-coupled supergravity system is constructed where the Yang-Mills gauge interaction is introduced by extending the superconformal group to include the Kähler isometry group of chiral matter fields. There are two gauge-fixing procedures to get to the component Poincaré supergravity: one via the superconformal component formalism and the other via the Poincaré superspace formalism. These two types of superconformal gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed in detail and their correspondence is clarified.

  12. Strongly coupled large N spectrum of two matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Martin N. H.; Rodrigues, Joao P.

    2008-09-15

    We consider the large N spectrum of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction. In a framework where one of the matrices is treated exactly and the other is treated as a creation operator impurity, the difference equation associated with the Yang-Mills interaction is derived and solved exactly for two impurities. In this case, the full string tension corrected spectrum depends on two momenta. For a specific value of one of these momenta, the spectrum has the same structure as that of giant magnon bound states. States with general number of impurities are also discussed.

  13. Non-linear multi-plane wave solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.

    1988-12-01

    New solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations are constructed in Minkowski space-time for the gauge group SL(2, ℂ). After proposing a Lorentz covariant formulation of Yang's equations, a set of Ansätze for exact non-linear multiplane wave solutions are proposed. The gauge fields are rational functions of e x·ki ( K {/i 2}=0, 1≦ i≦ N) for these Ansätze. At least, three families of multisoliton type solutions are derived explicitly. Their asymptotic behaviour shows that non-linear waves scatter non-trivially in Minkowski SDYM.

  14. Hamiltonian Approach to Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge--Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Hugo; Campagnari, Davide R.; Leder, Markus; Burgio, Giuseppe; Quandt, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-05-24

    I briefly review results obtained within the variational Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge and confront them with recent lattice data. The variational approach is extended to non-Gaussian wave functionals including three- and four-gluon kernels in the exponential of the vacuum wave functional and used to calculate the three-gluon vertex. A new functional renormalization group flow equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is solved for the gluon and ghost propagator under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.

  15. Accurate Energy Spectrum for the Quantum Yang-Mills Mechanics with Nonlinear Color Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Yang-Mills theory as the foundation for quantum chromodynamics is a non-Abelian gauge theory with self-interactions between vector particles. Here, we study the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian with nonlinear color oscillations in the absence of external sources corresponding to the group SU(2). In the quantum domain, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the optimized trigonometric basis expansion method and find accurate energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for one and two degrees of freedom. We also compare our results with the semiclassical solutions.

  16. - criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  17. β-FUNCTION in a Non-Covariant Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, H. B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    The beta-function for a non-covariant pure Yang-Mills theory is calculated in perturbation theory to lowest-order in the coupling constant and in the deviation from covariance. We use the methods developed by De Witt, Hawking and Dowker. The β-function shows that Lorentz invariance becomes more and more accurate as one goes towards smaller mass scales. The relative deviation of the coupling constant set from covariance diminishes towards lower mass sales as αS-7/11, where αs is the QCD "fine structure constant", for a pure (non-covariant) Yang-Mills theory.

  18. Off-shell invariant D = N = 2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge without constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Keisuke; Kato, Junji; Kawamoto, Noboru; Miyake, Akiko

    2013-11-01

    We formulate N=2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge by superconnection formalism in two dimensions. We obtain off-shell invariant supermultiplets and actions with and without constraints, which is in contrast with the off-shell invariant D=N=4 super Yang-Mills formulation with unavoidable constraints.

  19. Particle paths of Lagrangian velocity distribution simulating Yin-Yang balance in ancient Tai-Chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2007-05-01

    The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field simulate very well the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram. There are four forms called the “four states” in the Tai-Chi diagram. Of the four states, under Yang are the Major Yang and the Minor Yin, and under Yin are the Major Yin and the Minor Yang. The present study provides the proper positions of the four states in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s Eight Trigrams Chart located along the ancient Tai-Chi diagram is also developed in the present study. The interface curve of Yin-Yang in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram has never been described mathematically. It can now be formulated by the equations describing the particle paths in the Lagrangian flow field.

  20. Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, B.; Korchemsky, G. P.; Kotanski, J.

    2008-03-07

    We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.

  1. What "Crazy English" Can Tell Us? Inspiration and Motivation from Li Yang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunbao, Yang; Huaying, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Issues regarding English language learning such as pronunciation, motivation and learning strategies are raised. Li Yang, an example of successful learner is cited for learners who are less successful in China. Fundamental issues that need to be dealt with include pronunciation. Phonetics is an area where there has been little emphasis in foreign…

  2. Solution of Dirac Equation in External Yang-Mills Gauge Field

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelkin, A. V.

    2011-05-23

    The exact solution of the Dirac equation in the external non-abelian SU(N) gauge field, which is governed by the Yang-Mills equations and is in the form of a plane wave on the light cone, is obtained.

  3. Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle, Les

    2005-01-01

    This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

  4. Hamiltonian Dyson-Schwinger and FRG Flow Equations of Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Hugo; Leder, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-05-23

    A new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is presented and solved for the static gluon and ghost propagators under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.

  5. The Hamiltonian structure of Yang-Mills theories and instantons II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergvelt, M. J.; De Kerf, E. A.

    1986-11-01

    The formalism of constraints, reviewed in paper I, is applied to Yang-Mills theory to determine the physical phase space. This turns out to be the cotangent bundle of orbit space, the space of gauge inequivalent potentials. Self-dual configurations are not Hamiltonian with respect to the symplectic structure inherited from the general system.

  6. Canonical quantization of lattice Higgs-Yang-Mills fields: Krein essential selfadjointness of the Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.

    2016-06-01

    Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.

  7. Noncommutative Yang-Mills and noncommutative relativity: a bridge over troubled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, L.; Iochum, B.; Schücker, T.

    1999-05-01

    Connes' view at Yang-Mills theories is reviewed with special emphasis on the gauge invariant scalar product. This landscape is shown to contain Chamseddine and Connes' noncommutative extension of general relativity restricted to flat spacetime, if the top mass is between 172 and 204 GeV. Then the Higgs mass is between 188 and 201 GeV.

  8. Comparing Yin-Yang, the Chinese symbol of creation, with Ouroboros of Greek alchemy.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1989-01-01

    The universe was early divided into Earth below and Heaven above. These, two as one, gave the idea of opposites but forming a unity. Each opposite was assumed to be powerful and so was their final unity. For creation of the universe they projected reproduction to conceive creation. Now reproduction results in the union of two opposites as male and female. Correspondingly, the Chinese believed Light and Darkness, as the ideal opposites, when united, yielded creative energy. The two opposites were further conceived as matter and energy which became dual-natured but as one. The two opposites were yin-yang and their unity was called Chhi. Yin-Yang was treated separately in Chinese cosmology which consisted of five cosmic elements. Since Chinese alchemy did reach Alexandria probably the symbol Yin-Yang, as dual-natured, responsible for creation, was transformed into a symbol called Ouroboros. It is a snake and as such as symbol of soul. Its head and anterior portion is red, being the colour of blood as soul; its tail and posterior half is dark, representing body. Ouroboros here is depicted white and black, as soul and body, the two as "one which is all." It is cosmic soul, the source of all creation. Ouroboros is normally depicted with its anterior half as black but it should be the reverse as shown here. With the name Chemeia taken to Kim-Iya, the last word would take Ouroboros to Yin-Yang.

  9. Bonus Yangian Symmetry for the Planar S Matrix of N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Beisert, Niklas; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2011-06-10

    Recent developments in the determination of the planar S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills are closely related to its Yangian symmetry. Here we provide evidence for a yet unobserved additional symmetry: the Yangian level-one helicity operator.

  10. FCMAC-BYY: fuzzy CMAC using Bayesian Ying-Yang learning.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Nhut; Shi, Daming; Quek, C

    2006-10-01

    As an associative memory neural network model, the cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) has attractive properties of fast learning and simple computation, but its rigid structure makes it difficult to approximate certain functions. This research attempts to construct a novel neural fuzzy CMAC, in which Bayesian Ying-Yang (BYY) learning is introduced to determine the optimal fuzzy sets, and a truth-value restriction inference scheme is subsequently employed to derive the truth values of the rule weights of implication rules. The BYY is motivated from the famous Chinese ancient Ying-Yang philosophy: everything in the universe can be viewed as a product of a constant conflict between opposites-Ying and Yang, a perfect status is reached when Ying and Yang achieve harmony. The proposed fuzzy CMAC (FCMAC)-BYY enjoys the following advantages. First, it has a higher generalization ability because the fuzzy rule sets are systematically optimized by BYY; second, it reduces the memory requirement of the network by a significant degree as compared to the original CMAC; and third, it provides an intuitive fuzzy logic reasoning and has clear semantic meanings. The experimental results on some benchmark datasets show that the proposed FCMAC-BYY outperforms the existing representative techniques in the research literature.

  11. Conformal properties of the BPST instantons of the generalised Yang-Mills system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sé, Diarmuid; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1987-04-01

    A manifestly O(4 p+1) invariant formulation of generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theory on S 4p {r|r·r=1} ⊂ R 4p+1 is given, and the corresponding BPST instantons and anti-instantons are shown to be solutions of the equations of motion.

  12. Easier Said than Done: Rejoinder on Sijtsma and on Green and Yang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2016-01-01

    The main points of Sijtsma and Green and Yang in Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice (34, 4) are that reliability, internal consistency, and unidimensionality are distinct and that Cronbach's alpha may be problematic. Neither of these assertions are at odds with Davenport, Davison, Liou, and Love in the same issue. However, many authors…

  13. A Yang-Mills field on the extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizoń, Piotr; Kahl, Michał

    2016-09-01

    We consider a spherically symmetric (magnetic) SU(2) Yang-Mills field propagating on the exterior of the extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole. Taking advantage of the conformal symmetry, we reduce the problem to the study of the Yang-Mills equation in a geodesically complete spacetime with two asymptotically flat ends. We prove the existence of infinitely many static solutions (two of which are found in closed form) and determine the spectrum of their linear perturbations and quasinormal modes. Finally, using the hyperboloidal approach to the initial value problem, we describe the process of relaxation to the static endstates of evolution, both stable (for generic initial data) and unstable (for codimension-one initial data).

  14. Gravitating Vortices, Cosmic Strings, and the Kähler-Yang-Mills Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; Garcia-Fernandez, Mario; García-Prada, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct new solutions of the Kähler-Yang-Mills equations, by applying dimensional reduction methods to the product of the complex projective line with a compact Riemann surface. The resulting equations, which we call gravitating vortex equations, describe abelian vortices on the Riemann surface with back reaction of the metric. As a particular case of these gravitating vortices on the Riemann sphere we find solutions of the Einstein-Bogomol'nyi equations, which physically correspond to Nielsen-Olesen cosmic strings in the Bogomol'nyi phase. We use this to provide a Geometric Invariant Theory interpretation of an existence result by Y. Yang for the Einstein-Bogomol'nyi equations, applying a criterion due to G. Székelyhidi.

  15. Tree amplitudes of noncommutative U(N) Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jia-Hui; Huang, Rijun; Jia, Yin

    2011-10-01

    Following the spirit of the S-matrix program, we propose a modified Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relation for tree amplitudes of noncommutative U(N) Yang-Mills theory. Starting from three-point amplitudes, one can use this modified BCFW recursion relation to compute or analyze color-ordered tree amplitudes without relying on any detailed information of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory. After clarifying the color structure of noncommutative tree amplitudes, we write down the noncommutative analogies of Kleiss-Kuijf and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations for color-ordered tree amplitudes and prove them using the modified BCFW recursion relation. This checks the consistency of the relation.

  16. Quantum Metamorphosis of a Conformal Transformation in D3-Brane Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jevicki, A.; Kazama, Y.; Yoneya, T.

    1998-12-01

    We show how the linear special conformal transformation in four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is metamorphosed into the nonlinear and field-dependent transformation for the collective coordinates of Dirichlet 3-branes, which agrees with the transformation law for the space-time coordinates in the anti{endash}de Sitter (AdS) space-time. Our result provides a new and strong support for the conjectured relation between AdS{sub 5}{times} S{sup 5} supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM). Furthermore, our work sheds elucidating light on the nature of the AdS/SYM correspondence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. New perspectives on an old problem: The bending of light in Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Kazuo Ota; Hsu, Jong-Ping

    Yang-Mills gravity with electromagnetism predicts, in the geometric optics limit, a value for the deflection of light by the sun which agrees closely with the reanalysis of Eddington's 1919 optical measurements done in 1979. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, on the other hand, agrees very closely with measurements of the deflection of electromagnetic waves made in the range of radio frequencies. Since both General Relativity and Yang-Mills gravity with electromagnetism in the geometric optics limit make predictions for the optical region which fall within experimental uncertainty, it becomes important to consider the possibility of the existence of a frequency dependence in the measurement results for the deflection of light, in order to determine which theory more closely describes nature...

  18. On the Yang-Lee and Langer singularities in the O(n) loop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Kostov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We use the method of 'coupling to 2d QG' to study the analytic properties of the universal specific free energy of the O(n) loop model in a complex magnetic field. We compute the specific free energy on a dynamical lattice using the correspondence with a matrix model. The free energy has a pair of Yang-Lee edges on the high-temperature sheet and a Langer-type branch cut on the low-temperature sheet. Our result confirms a conjecture by A Zamolodchikov and Al Zamolodchikov about the decay rate of the metastable vacuum in the presence of Liouville gravity and gives strong evidence about the existence of a weakly metastable state and a Langer branch cut in the O(n) loop model on a flat lattice. Our results are compatible with the Fonseca-Zamolodchikov conjecture that the Yang-Lee edge appears as the nearest singularity under the Langer cut.

  19. [The Yin and Yang movement in the cosmology of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero

    2015-01-01

    After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine.

  20. Virial and high-density expansions for the Lee-Yang lattice gas.

    PubMed

    Ushcats, M V; Bulavin, L A; Sysoev, V M; Ushcats, S J

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of the recently established "hole-particle" symmetry of the lattice-gas Hamiltonian, the high-density equation of state has been derived in a form of pressure and density expansions in powers of activity. This equation is proposed as an alternative and complementary to the previously obtained pressure expansion in powers of density. For the well-known Lee-Yang lattice-gas model (a two-dimensional square lattice with a square-well interaction potential), the power coefficients (i.e., cluster and irreducible cluster integrals) up to the seventh order have been evaluated as accurate functions of temperature. The convergence of the expansions in powers of both density and activity to the exact Lee-Yang solution is investigated. PMID:27575112

  1. Reconstructing cosmic acceleration from modified and nonminimal gravity: The Yang-Mills case

    SciTech Connect

    Elizalde, E.; Lopez-Revelles, A. J.

    2010-09-15

    A variant of the accelerating cosmology reconstruction program is developed for f(R) gravity and for a modified Yang-Mills/Maxwell theory. Reconstruction schemes in terms of e-foldings and by using an auxiliary scalar field are developed and carefully compared, for the case of f(R) gravity. An example of a model with a transient phantom behavior without real matter is explicitly discussed in both schemes. Further, the two reconstruction schemes are applied to the more physically interesting case of a Yang-Mills/Maxwell theory, again with explicit examples. Detailed comparison of the two schemes of reconstruction is presented also for this theory. It seems to support, as well, physical nonequivalence of the two frames.

  2. Bäeklund Transformations, Conservation Laws and Linearization of the Self-Dual Yang-Mills and Chiral Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Bäecklund Transformations (BT) and the derivation of local conservation laws are first reviewed in the classic case of the Sine-Gordon equation. The BT, conservation laws (local and nonlocal), and the inverse-scattering formulation are discussed for the chiral and the self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Their possible applications to the loop formulation for the Yang-Mills fields are mentioned. 55 references, 1 figure.

  3. Integrability and maximally helicity violating diagrams in n=4 supersymmetric yang-mills theory.

    PubMed

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Penante, Brenda; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan

    2015-02-20

    We apply maximally helicity violating (MHV) diagrams to the derivation of the one-loop dilatation operator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the SO(6) sector. We find that in this approach the calculation reduces to the evaluation of a single MHV diagram in dimensional regularization. This provides the first application of MHV diagrams to an off-shell quantity. We also discuss other applications of the method and future directions. PMID:25763951

  4. Plebanski action extended to a unification of gravity and Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2009-12-01

    We study a unification of gravity with Yang-Mills fields based on a simple extension of the Plebanski action to a Lie group G which contains the local Lorentz group. The Coleman-Mandula theorem is avoided because the dynamics has no global spacetime symmetry. This may be applied to Lisi’s proposal of an E8 unified theory, giving a fully E8 invariant action. The extended form of the Plebanski action suggests a new class of spin foam models.

  5. Asymptotically flat, stable black hole solutions in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory.

    PubMed

    Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D H

    2011-02-18

    We construct finite mass, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in d=5 Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. Our results indicate the existence of a second order phase transition between Reissner-Nordström solutions and the non-Abelian black holes which generically are thermodynamically preferred. Some of the non-Abelian configurations are also stable under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations. PMID:21405506

  6. Subcritical solution of the Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in the Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Epple, D.; Reinhardt, H.; Schleifenbaum, W.; Szczepaniak, A. P.

    2008-04-15

    In the Hamiltonian approach to Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory, the functional Schroedinger equation is solved variationally resulting in a set of coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations. These equations are solved self-consistently in the subcritical regime defined by infrared-finite form factors. It is shown that the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the Coulomb form factor fails to have a solution in the critical regime where all form factors have infrared divergent power laws.

  7. Euclidean wormhole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in diverse dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Hirenzaki, S. ); Shiraishi, K. )

    1990-09-15

    We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with non-Abelian gauge fields of sufficiently large symmetry in various dimensions. In higher-dimensional spaces, we find the solutions which are similar to so-called scalar wormholes. In four-dimensional space-time, we find singular wormhole solutions with infinite Euclidean action. Wormhole solutions in the three-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term are also constructed.

  8. [Healthcare in marriage and pregnancy in Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Qu, Jian-feng; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun is a monograph of life-cultivation, written by Wang Gui of the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Gui held that life-cultivation should start from marriage and pregnancy, so paid great attention to them. His thoughts reflected on marriage at an appropriate age, pregnancy at a selected time, emphasizing the health of the foetus, the priority of enriching the mind, timely care of pregnant women, etc. All of these reflect the ancient concepts of eugenics.

  9. (2, 0)-SUPER-YANG-MILLS Coupled to Nonlinear σ-MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góes-Negrão, M. S.; Negrão, M. R.; Penna-Firme, A. B.

    Considering a class of (2, 0)-super-Yang-Mills multiplets that accommodate a pair of independent gauge potentials in connection with a single symmetry group, we present here their coupling to ordinary matter and to nonlinear σ-models in (2, 0)-superspace. The dynamics and the couplings of the gauge potentials are discussed and the interesting feature that comes out is a sort of "chirality" for one of the gauge potentials once light-cone coordinates are chosen.

  10. Exact Spectrum of Planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory: Konishi Dimension at Any Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    We compute the full dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory for a wide range of couplings, from weak to strong coupling regime, and predict the subleading terms in its strong coupling asymptotics. For this purpose we solve numerically the integral form of the AdS/CFT Y-system equations for the exact energies of excited states proposed by us and A. Kozak.

  11. Integrability and maximally helicity violating diagrams in n=4 supersymmetric yang-mills theory.

    PubMed

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Penante, Brenda; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan

    2015-02-20

    We apply maximally helicity violating (MHV) diagrams to the derivation of the one-loop dilatation operator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the SO(6) sector. We find that in this approach the calculation reduces to the evaluation of a single MHV diagram in dimensional regularization. This provides the first application of MHV diagrams to an off-shell quantity. We also discuss other applications of the method and future directions.

  12. On the stability of dyons and dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Brien C.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the stability of four-dimensional dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of {su}(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space. We prove that, in a neighbourhood of the embedded trivial (Schwarzschild-)anti-de Sitter solution, there exist non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the field equations which are stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of the metric and non-Abelian gauge field.

  13. Four-loop dressing phase of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Beisert, N.; McLoughlin, T.; Roiban, R.

    2007-08-15

    We compute the dilatation generator in the su(2) sector of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. We use the known world-sheet scattering matrix to constrain the structure of the generator. The remaining few coefficients can be computed directly from Feynman diagrams. This allows us to confirm previous conjectures for the leading contribution to the dressing phase which is proportional to {zeta}(3)

  14. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  15. A nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills by the plane wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Shimasaki, Shinji

    2008-11-23

    We propose a nonperturbative definition of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills(SYM). We realize N = 4 SYM on RxS{sup 3} as the theory around a vacuum of the plane wave matrix model. Our regularization preserves 16 supersymmetries and the gauge symmetry. We perform the one-loop calculation to give evidence that in the continuum limit the superconformal symmetry is restored.

  16. Radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and continent catheterizable stoma (Yang-Monti tecnique)

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Mario Alvarez; Martinez-Piñeiro, Luis; Gonzalez, Emilio Rios

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma originating in the urethra is considered extremely rare and has a very poor prognosis. Consequently, therapeutic reviews are retrospective describing assorted treatments. We report how to perform a radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and a continent catheterizable stoma (Yang-Monti technique) Radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and a continent catheterizable stoma may be appropriate in selected patients with tumours that do not invade the bladder neck. PMID:22557732

  17. Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a Yang-Mills field and positive energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2010-02-01

    We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a Yang-Mills field, with or without mass term, if the spatial geometry of the underlying spacetime is homothetic to {\\bb R}^{3} . The energy levels of the resulting quantum model, i.e. the eigenvalues of the corresponding self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a pure point spectrum, are strictly positive. This work has been supported by the DFG.

  18. Multiscale Monte Carlo equilibration: Pure Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, Michael G.; Brower, Richard C.; Orginos, Kostas; Detmold, William; Pochinsky, Andrew V.

    2015-12-29

    In this study, we present a multiscale thermalization algorithm for lattice gauge theory, which enables efficient parallel generation of uncorrelated gauge field configurations. The algorithm combines standard Monte Carlo techniques with ideas drawn from real space renormalization group and multigrid methods. We demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for pure Yang-Mills gauge theory for both heat bath and hybrid Monte Carlo evolution, and show that it ameliorates the problem of topological freezing up to controllable lattice spacing artifacts.

  19. Topological String Models for the Generalized Two-Dimensional Yang-Mills Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Y.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss some aspects of the large N expansions of the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM2), and especially, clarify the geometrical meanings of the higher Casimirs. Based on these results we attempt to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam topological string model describing the ordinary YM2 to those describing gYM2. The concept of ``deformed gravitational descendants'' will be introduced for this purpose.

  20. Reductions of self-dual Yang-Mills fields and classical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ablowitz, M. J.; Clarkson, P. A.

    1990-08-01

    One-dimensional reductions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations yield various classical systems depending on the choice of the Lie algebra associated with the self-dual fields. Included are the Euler-Arnold equations for rigid bodies in n dimensions, the Kovalevskaya top, and a generalization of the Nahm equation which is related to a classical third-order differential equation possessing a movable natural boundary in the complex plane.

  1. Spherically symmetric solutions of a (4 + n)-dimensional Einstein Yang Mills model with cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2005-01-01

    We construct solutions of an Einstein Yang Mills system including a cosmological constant in 4 + n spacetime dimensions, where the n-dimensional manifold associated with the extra dimensions is taken to be Ricci flat. Assuming the matter and metric fields to be independent of the n extra coordinates, a spherical symmetric ansatz for the fields leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. We find that for n > 1 only solutions with either one non-zero Higgs field or with all Higgs fields constant and zero gauge field function (corresponding to a Wu Yang-type ansatz) exist. We give the analytic solutions available in this model. These are 'embedded' Abelian solutions with a diverging size of the manifold associated with the extra n dimensions. Depending on the choice of parameters, these latter solutions either represent naked singularities or they possess a single horizon. We also present solutions of the effective four-dimensional Einstein Yang Mills Higgs-dilaton model, where the higher-dimensional cosmological constant induces a Liouville-type potential. The solutions are non-Abelian solutions with diverging Higgs fields, which exist only up to a maximal value of the cosmological constant.

  2. On Twisted N = 2 5D Super Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian; Zabzine, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    On a five-dimensional simply connected Sasaki-Einstein manifold, one can construct Yang-Mills theories coupled to matter with at least two supersymmetries. The partition function of these theories localises on the contact instantons, however, the contact instanton equations are not elliptic. It turns out that these equations can be embedded into the Haydys-Witten equations (which are elliptic) in the same way the 4D anti-self-dual instanton equations are embedded in the Vafa-Witten equations. We show that under some favourable circumstances, the latter equations will reduce to the former by proving some vanishing theorems. It was also known that the Haydys-Witten equations on product manifolds {M_5 = M_4 × R} arise in the context of twisting the 5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In this paper, we present the construction of twisted N = 2 Yang-Mills theory on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and more generally on K-contact manifolds. The localisation locus of this new theory thus provides a covariant version of the Haydys-Witten equation.

  3. Lee-Yang zero distribution of high temperature QCD and the Roberge-Weiss phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Kashiwa, Kouji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.

    2015-05-01

    Canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros of QCD at finite density and high temperature are studied. Recent lattice simulations confirm that the free energy of QCD is a quartic function of quark chemical potential at temperature slightly above pseudocritical temperature Tc, as in the case with a gas of free massless fermions. We present analytic derivation of the canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros for this type of free energy using the saddle point approximation. We also perform lattice QCD simulation in a canonical approach using the fugacity expansion of the fermion determinant and carefully examine its reliability. By comparing the analytic and numerical results, we conclude that the canonical partition functions follow the Gaussian distribution of the baryon number, and the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros of these canonical partition functions exhibit the first-order Roberge-Weiss phase transition. We discuss the validity and applicable range of the result and its implications both for theoretical and experimental studies.

  4. An instability of hyperbolic space under the Yang-Mills flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gegenberg, Jack; Day, Andrew C.; Liu, Haitao; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2014-04-15

    We consider the Yang-Mills flow on hyperbolic 3-space. The gauge connection is constructed from the frame-field and (not necessarily compatible) spin connection components. The fixed points of this flow include zero Yang-Mills curvature configurations, for which the spin connection has zero torsion and the associated Riemannian geometry is one of constant curvature. We analytically solve the linearized flow equations for a large class of perturbations to the fixed point corresponding to hyperbolic 3-space. These can be expressed as a linear superposition of distinct modes, some of which are exponentially growing along the flow. The growing modes imply the divergence of the (gauge invariant) perturbative torsion for a wide class of initial data, indicating an instability of the background geometry that we confirm with numeric simulations in the partially compactified case. There are stable modes with zero torsion, but all the unstable modes are torsion-full. This leads us to speculate that the instability is induced by the torsion degrees of freedom present in the Yang-Mills flow.

  5. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin–Yang Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin–Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author’s work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a “dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict” was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin–Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent–child, supervisor–subordinate, and friend–friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin–Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work

  6. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin-Yang Perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin-Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author's work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a "dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict" was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin-Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent-child, supervisor-subordinate, and friend-friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin-Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work represents the

  7. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin-Yang Perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin-Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author's work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a "dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict" was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin-Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent-child, supervisor-subordinate, and friend-friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin-Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work represents the

  8. Bogomol'nyi equations in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, B. S.; Wali, Kameshwar C.

    1992-12-01

    A static configuration of point charges held together by the gravitational attraction is known to be given by the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. We consider a generalization of this solution to non-Abelian monopoles of the Yang-Mills-Higgs system coupled to gravity. The coupling to gravity is unconventional and the solution appears to have naked singularities. It is governed by an analogue of the Bogomol'nyi equations that had played a central role in the analysis of non-Abelian monopoles.

  9. Composite Operators in the Twistor Formulation of N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.

    PubMed

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We incorporate gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this formulation, the interactions of the elementary fields are reorganized into infinitely many interaction vertices and we argue that the same applies to composite operators. To test our definition of the local composite operators in twistor space, we compute several corresponding form factors, thereby also initiating the study of form factors using the position twistor-space framework. Throughout this Letter, we use the composite operator built from two identical complex scalars as a pedagogical example; we treat the general case in a follow-up paper.

  10. The exact decomposition of gauge variables in lattice Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru

    2010-07-01

    In this Letter, we consider lattice versions of the decomposition of the Yang-Mills field a la Cho-Faddeev-Niemi, which was extended by Kondo, Shinohara and Murakami in the continuum formulation. For the SU (N) gauge group, we propose a set of defining equations for specifying the decomposition of the gauge link variable and solve them exactly without using the ansatz adopted in the previous studies for SU (2) and SU (3). As a result, we obtain the general form of the decomposition for SU (N) gauge link variables and confirm the previous results obtained for SU (2) and SU (3).

  11. Higher order BLG supersymmetry transformations from 10-dimensional super Yang Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, John; Low, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    We study a Simple Route for constructing the higher order Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory - both supersymmetry transformations and Lagrangian - starting from knowledge of only the 10-dimensional Super Yang Mills Fermion Supersymmetry transformation. We are able to uniquely determine the four-derivative order corrected supersymmetry transformations, to lowest non-trivial order in Fermions, for the most general three-algebra theory. For the special case of Euclidean three-algbera, we reproduce the result presented in arXiv:1207.1208, with significantly less labour. In addition, we apply our method to calculate the quadratic fermion terms in the higher order BLG fermion supersymmetry transformation.

  12. Local integrands for two-loop all-plus Yang-Mills amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Simon; Mogull, Gustav; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-08-01

    We express the planar five- and six-gluon two-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes with all positive helicities in compact analytic form using D-dimensional local integrands that are free of spurious singularities. The integrand is fixed from on-shell tree amplitudes in six dimensions using D-dimensional generalised unitarity cuts. The resulting expressions are shown to have manifest infrared behaviour at the integrand level. We also find simple representations of the rational terms obtained after integration in 4 - 2 ɛ dimensions.

  13. On the number of instabilities of cosmological solutions in an Einstein-Yang-Mills system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien

    2003-08-01

    A detailed numerical stability analysis of the static, spherically symmetric globally regular solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with a positive cosmological constant, Λ, is carried out. It is found that the number of unstable modes in the even parity sector is n for solutions with n=1,2 nodes as Λ varies. The solution with n=3 nodes exhibits a rather surprising behaviour in that the number of its unstable modes jumps from 3 to 1 as Λ crosses (from below) a critical value. In particular the topologically 3-sphere type solution with n=3 nodes has only a single unstable mode.

  14. Radiation of a circulating quark in strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Rajagopal, Krishna; Nickel, Dominik

    2010-12-22

    The energy density and angular distribution of power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is computed using gauge/gravity duality. The results are qualitatively similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: At large velocities the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle {alpha}{approx}1/{gamma} and radial thickness scaling like {approx}1/{gamma}{sup 3}.

  15. Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimčík, Ctirad

    2016-09-01

    We prove the conjecture of Sfetsos, Siampos and Thompson that suitable analytic continuations of the Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter sigma models coincide with the recently introduced generalized λ-models. We then generalize this result by showing that the analytic continuation of a generic σ-model of "universal WZW-type" introduced by Tseytlin in 1993 is nothing but the Poisson-Lie T-dual of a generic Poisson-Lie symmetric σ-model introduced by Klimčík and Ševera in 1995.

  16. Uniqueness of infrared asymptotics in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. II

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2009-07-15

    We present a shortened and simplified version of our proof [C. S. Fischer and J. M. Pawlowski, Phys. Rev. D 75, 025012 (2007).] of the uniqueness of the scaling solution for the infrared asymptotics of Green functions in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. The simplification relates to a new renormalization group-invariant arrangement of Green functions applicable to general theories. As before the proof relies on the necessary consistency between Dyson-Schwinger equations and functional renormalization group equations. We also demonstrate the existence of a specific scaling solution for both, Dyson-Schwinger equations and functional renormalization group equations, that displays uniform and soft kinematic singularities.

  17. Landau-Yang theorem and decays of a Z' boson into two Z bosons.

    PubMed

    Keung, Wai-Yee; Low, Ian; Shu, Jing

    2008-08-29

    We study the decay of a Z' boson into two Z bosons by extending the Landau-Yang theorem to a parent particle decaying into two Z bosons. For a spin-1 parent the theorem predicts that (1) there are only two possible couplings and (2) the normalized differential cross section depends on kinematics only through a phase shift in the azimuthal angle between the two decay planes of the Z boson. When the parent is a Z' the two possible couplings are anomaly induced and CP violating, respectively. At the CERN Large Hadron Collider their effects could be disentangled when both Z bosons decay leptonically. PMID:18851602

  18. Infrared behavior of the ghost-gluon vertex in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleifenbaum, W.; Maas, A.; Wambach, J.; Alkofer, R.

    2005-07-01

    A semiperturbative calculation of the ghost-gluon vertex in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory in four and three Euclidean space-time dimensions is presented. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators are employed, which have previously been calculated from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations and which are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with corresponding lattice results. Our results for the ghost-gluon vertex show only relatively small deviations from the tree-level one in agreement with recent lattice data. In particular, we do not see any sign for a singular behavior of the ghost-gluon vertex in the infrared.

  19. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators for d=3 Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2010-06-15

    We study a manifestly gauge-invariant set of Schwinger-Dyson equations to determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the gluon and ghost propagators in d=3 Yang-Mills theory. The use of the well-known Schwinger mechanism, in the Landau gauge leads to the dynamical generation of a mass for the gauge boson (gluon in d=3), which, in turn, gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. The propagators obtained from the numerical solution of these nonperturbative equations are in very good agreement with the results of SU(2) lattice simulations.

  20. Symmetric blocking and renormalization in lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedt, Joel; Catterall, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The form of the long distance effective action of the twisted lattice N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory depends on having a real space renormalization group transformation that preserves the original lattice properties, both the symmetries and the geometric interpretation of the fields. We have found such a transformation and have exhibited its behavior through a preliminary Monte Carlo renormalization group calculation. Other results regarding the number of counterterms are also obtained by considering rescalings of the lattice fields. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics Grants DE-FG02-08ER41575 and SC0009998.

  1. From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

    PubMed

    Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2009-05-15

    We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model.

  2. Mass variation formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, Markus; Straumann, Norbert

    1993-09-01

    We consider the ``first law'' of black hole physics for stationary Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton theories. It is shown that the mass variation formula involves only global quantities and surface terms. Our results hold for arbitrary gauge groups and any structure of the Higgs field multiplets. For purely magnetic field configurations, the extra horizon integrals vanish and the variation of the mass can be expressed in terms of the usual vacuum contributions and additional surface integrals at spacelike infinity.

  3. Yang-Baxter matrices associated with quantum information based on the topological basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li-Wei; Xue, Kang; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The solutions of Yang-Baxter equation (YBE) associated with quantum information have been reviewed with new progress. The additivity rule for two particles is shown to obey Lorentzian type other than the Gallilean. Acting the braiding operations on the topological basis, it turns out that the N-dimensional representations obeying YBE are nothing but the Wigner’s D-functions. The connection between the extremization of ℓ1-norm as well as of von Neumann entropy and the reduction of YBE to braid relation is also discussed.

  4. Composite Operators in the Twistor Formulation of N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.

    PubMed

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We incorporate gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this formulation, the interactions of the elementary fields are reorganized into infinitely many interaction vertices and we argue that the same applies to composite operators. To test our definition of the local composite operators in twistor space, we compute several corresponding form factors, thereby also initiating the study of form factors using the position twistor-space framework. Throughout this Letter, we use the composite operator built from two identical complex scalars as a pedagogical example; we treat the general case in a follow-up paper. PMID:27419558

  5. From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

    PubMed

    Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2009-05-15

    We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model. PMID:19518940

  6. Classical Yang-Mills Black Hole Hair in Anti-de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, E.

    The properties of hairy black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory are reviewed, focusing on spherically symmetric solutions. In particular, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space (adS) stable black hole hair is known to exist for frak su(2) EYM. We review recent work in which it is shown that stable hair also exists in frak su(N) EYM for arbitrary N, so that there is no upper limit on how much stable hair a black hole in adS can possess.

  7. Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on conformal supergravity backgrounds in ten dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2016-03-01

    We consider bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of ten-dimensional conformal supergravity. Up to local conformal isometry, we classify the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds, determine their conformal symmetry superalgebras and show how they arise as near-horizon geometries of certain half-BPS backgrounds or as a plane-wave limit thereof. We then show how to define Yang-Mills theory with rigid supersymmetry on any supersymmetric conformal supergravity background and, in particular, on the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We conclude by commenting on a striking resemblance between the supersymmetric backgrounds of ten-dimensional conformal supergravity and those of eleven-dimensional Poincaré supergravity.

  8. Quantum equivalence of noncommutative and Yang-Mills gauge theories in 2D and matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ydri, Badis

    2007-05-15

    We construct noncommutative U(1) gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere S{sub N}{sup 2} as a unitary 2Nx2N matrix model. In the quantum theory the model is equivalent to a non-Abelian U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional lattice with two plaquettes. This equivalence holds in the 'fuzzy sphere' phase where we observe a 3rd order phase transition between weak-coupling and strong-coupling phases of the gauge theory. In the matrix phase we have a U(N) gauge theory on a single point.

  9. Z{sub 2} monopoles in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kneipp, Marco A. C.; Liebgott, Paulo J.

    2010-02-15

    Z{sub n} monopoles are important for the understanding of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive duality when the scalar field is not in the adjoint representation. We analyze the Z{sub 2} monopole solutions in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories spontaneously broken to Spin(n)/Z{sub 2} by a scalar in the nxn representation. We construct explicitly Z{sub 2} monopole asymptotic fields solutions for each of the weights of the defining representation of the dual algebra so(n){sup or.}

  10. Study of the Gribov region in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Gomez, A. J.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2009-01-15

    The properties of the Gribov region in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge are investigated. This region turns out to be bounded in all off-diagonal directions, while it is unbounded along the diagonal one. The soft breaking of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance due to the restriction of the domain of integration in the path integral to the Gribov region is scrutinized. Owing to the unboundedness in the diagonal direction, the invariance with respect to Abelian transformations is preserved, a property which is at the origin of the local U(1) Ward identity of the maximal Abelian gauge.

  11. Composite Operators in the Twistor Formulation of N =4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We incorporate gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N =4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this formulation, the interactions of the elementary fields are reorganized into infinitely many interaction vertices and we argue that the same applies to composite operators. To test our definition of the local composite operators in twistor space, we compute several corresponding form factors, thereby also initiating the study of form factors using the position twistor-space framework. Throughout this Letter, we use the composite operator built from two identical complex scalars as a pedagogical example; we treat the general case in a follow-up paper.

  12. Gluon scattering in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory fromweak to strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2008-03-25

    I describe some recent developments in the understanding of gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the large-N{sub c} limit. These amplitudes can be computed to high orders in the weak coupling expansion, and also now at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence. They hold the promise of being solvable to all orders in the gauge coupling, with the help of techniques based on integrability. They are intimately related to expectation values for polygonal Wilson loops composed of light-like segments.

  13. Yang-Baxter sigma models and Lax pairs arising from κ-Poincaré r-matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, Andrzej; Kyono, Hideki; Lukierski, Jerzy; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-04-01

    We study Yang-Baxter sigma models with deformed 4D Minkowski spacetimes arising from classical r-matrices associated with κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra. These classical κ-Poincaré r-matrices describe three kinds of deformations: 1) the standard deformation, 2) the tachyonic deformation, and 3) the light-cone deformation. For each deformation, the metric and two-form B-field are computed from the associated r-matrix. The first two deformations, related to the modified classical Yang-Baxter equation, lead to T-duals of dS4 and AdS4, respectively. The third deformation, associated with the homogeneous classical Yang-Baxter equation, leads to a time-dependent pp-wave background. Finally, we construct a Lax pair for the generalized κ-Poincaré r-matrix that unifies the three kinds of deformations mentioned above as special cases.

  14. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan

    2007-01-01

    Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115

  15. Supercoset construction of Yang-Baxter-deformed AdS×S backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-08-01

    We study Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS×S superstring with the classical Yang-Baxter equation. We make a general argument on the supercoset construction and present a formula to describe the dilaton in terms of classical r-matrices. The supercoset construction is explicitly performed for some classical r-matrices, and the full backgrounds including the Ramond-Ramond (R-R) sector and dilaton are derived. Within the class of Abelian r-matrices, perfect agreement is shown for well-known examples including gravity duals of non-commutative gauge theories, γ-deformations of S and Schrödinger spacetimes. It is remarkable that the supercoset construction works well, even if the resulting backgrounds are not maximally supersymmetric. In particular, three-parameter γ-deformations of S and Schrödinger spacetimes do not preserve any supersymmetries. As for non-Abelian r-matrices, we will focus upon a specific example. The resulting background does not satisfy the equation of motion of the Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz two-form because the R-R three-form is not closed.

  16. Kiyang-yang, a West-African Postwar Idiom of Distress

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, a healing cult for young barren women in southern Guinea Bissau developed into a movement, Kiyang-yang, that shook society to its foundations and had national repercussions. “Idiom of distress” is used here as a heuristic tool to understand how Kiyang-yang was able to link war and post-war-related traumatic stress and suffering on both individual and group levels. An individual experience born from a traumatic origin may be generalized into an idiom that diverse sectors of society could embrace for a range of related reasons. We argue that, for an idiom to be understood and appropriated by others, there has to be resonance at the level of symbolic language and shared experiences as well as at the level of the culturally mediated contingent emotions it communicates. We also argue that through its symbolic references to structural causes of suffering, an idiom of distress entails a danger for those in power. It can continue to exist only if its etiology is not exposed or the social suffering it articulates is not eliminated. We finally argue that idioms of distress are not to be understood as discrete diagnostic categories or as monodimensional expressions of “trauma” that can be addressed. PMID:20422270

  17. Black Holes, q-Deformed 2d Yang-Mills, and Non-perturbative Topological Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Aganagic, Mina; Ooguri, Hirosi; Saulina, Natalia; Vafa, Cumrun

    2005-01-28

    We count the number of bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau three-folds involving a Riemann surface of genus g. We show that the corresponding gauge theory on the brane reduces to a q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. Following the recent connection between the black hole entropy and the topological string partition function, we find that for a large black hole charge N, up to corrections of O(e^-N), Z_BH is given as a sum of a square of chiral blocks, each of which corresponds to a specific D-brane amplitude. The leading chiral block, the vacuum block, corresponds to the closed topological string amplitudes. The sub-leading chiral blocks involve topological string amplitudes with D-brane insertions at 2g-2 points on the Riemann surface analogous to the Omega points in the large N 2d Yang-Mills theory. The finite N amplitude provides a non-perturbative definition of topological strings in these backgrounds. This also leads to a novel non-perturbative formulation of c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius.

  18. A deep non-hydrostatic compressible atmospheric model on a Yin-Yang grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T.; Zerroukat, M.

    2016-08-01

    The singularity in the traditional spherical polar coordinate system at the poles is a major factor in the lack of scalability of atmospheric models on massively parallel machines. Overset grids such as the Yin-Yang grid introduced by Kageyama and Sato [1] offer a potential solution to this problem. In this paper a three-dimensional, compressible, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed and tested on the Yin-Yang grid building on ideas previously developed by the authors on the solution of Elliptic boundary value problems and conservation on overset grids. Using several tests from the literature, it is shown that this model is highly stable (even with little off-centering), accurate, and highly efficient in terms of computational cost. The model also incorporates highly efficient and accurate approaches to achieve positivity, monotonicity and conservative transport, which are paramount requirements for any atmospheric model. The parallel scalability of this model, using in excess of 212 million unknowns and more than 6000 processors, is also discussed and shown to compare favourably with a highly optimised latitude-longitude model in terms of scalability and actual run times.

  19. Iteration of Planar Amplitudes inMaximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theoryat Three Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; /Moscow State U.

    2005-05-27

    We compute the leading-color (planar) three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4 - 2{epsilon} dimensions, as a Laurent expansion about {epsilon} = 0 including the finite terms. The amplitude was constructed previously via the unitarity method, in terms of two Feynman loop integrals, one of which has been evaluated already. Here we use the Mellin-Barnes integration technique to evaluate the Laurent expansion of the second integral. Strikingly, the amplitude is expressible, through the finite terms, in terms of the corresponding one- and two-loop amplitudes, which provides strong evidence for a previous conjecture that higher-loop planar N = 4 amplitudes have an iterative structure. The infrared singularities of the amplitude agree with the predictions of Sterman and Tejeda-Yeomans based on resummation. Based on the four-point result and the exponentiation of infrared singularities, we give an exponentiated ansatz for the maximally helicity-violating n-point amplitudes to all loop orders. The 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} pole in the four-point amplitude determines the soft, or cusp, anomalous dimension at three loops in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The result confirms a prediction by Kotikov, Lipatov, Onishchenko and Velizhanin, which utilizes the leading-twist anomalous dimensions in QCD computed by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt. Following similar logic, we are able to predict a term in the three-loop quark and gluon form factors in QCD.

  20. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-03-01

    We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.

  1. Kiyang-yang, a West-African postwar idiom of distress.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T; Reis, Ria

    2010-06-01

    In 1984, a healing cult for young barren women in southern Guinea Bissau developed into a movement, Kiyang-yang, that shook society to its foundations and had national repercussions. "Idiom of distress" is used here as a heuristic tool to understand how Kiyang-yang was able to link war and post-war-related traumatic stress and suffering on both individual and group levels. An individual experience born from a traumatic origin may be generalized into an idiom that diverse sectors of society could embrace for a range of related reasons. We argue that, for an idiom to be understood and appropriated by others, there has to be resonance at the level of symbolic language and shared experiences as well as at the level of the culturally mediated contingent emotions it communicates. We also argue that through its symbolic references to structural causes of suffering, an idiom of distress entails a danger for those in power. It can continue to exist only if its etiology is not exposed or the social suffering it articulates is not eliminated. We finally argue that idioms of distress are not to be understood as discrete diagnostic categories or as monodimensional expressions of "trauma" that can be addressed. PMID:20422270

  2. The yin and yang of calcium effects on synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-02-12

    A large number of studies suggest that calcium triggers and accelerates vesicle endocytosis at many synapses and non-neuronal secretory cells. However, many studies show that prolonging the duration of the stimulation train, which induces more calcium influx, slows down endocytosis; and several studies suggest that instead of triggering endocytosis, calcium actually inhibits endocytosis. Here we addressed this apparent conflict at a large nerve terminal, the calyx of Held in rat brainstem, in which recent studies suggest that transient calcium increase up to tens of micromolar concentration at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis. By dialyzing 0-1 μM calcium into the calyx via a whole-cell pipette, we found that slow endocytosis was inhibited by calcium dialysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, prolonged, small, and global calcium increase inhibits endocytosis, whereas transient and large calcium increase at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis and facilitates endocytosis. This yin and yang effect of calcium may reconcile apparent conflicts regarding whether calcium accelerates or inhibits endocytosis. Whether endocytosis is fast or slow depends on the net outcome between the yin and yang effect of calcium.

  3. Research of Helium Isotopes in Taiwan: The Legacy of Dr. Tsanyao Frank Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Lan, Tefang; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Fu, Ching-Chou; Chuang, Pei-Chuan; Hong, Wei-Li; Walia, Vivek; Chen, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ai-Ti; Chen, Hsiao-Chi; Chiu, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Nian-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Jin-Lun; Kao, Li-Hsin; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Sano, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    Helium isotope systematics is a powerful proxy to distinguish fluid origins and conveys fruitful geological information. In the past several decades, this robust isotope systematics had offered pivotal knowledge on many key issues in Earth and planetary sciences. It revealed essential geological information of Taiwan as well. Taiwan is located on the junction of two subduction systems-Ryukyu Arc and Luzon Arc. The geotectonic setting is complex and intriguing. Dr. Tsanyao Frank Yang was the pioneer of gas geochemistry studies in Taiwan. He established the first gas geochemistry laboratory in National Taiwan University in 1998 and started exploring all possible research topics on and around this tectonic-active island. In the past two decades, his research covered volcanic/hydrothermal gas studies, volcanic activity monitoring, gas hydrate exploration, soil gas as a tool to locate fault traces, soil gas flux measurement, earthquake precursory, mud volcanoes, low-temperature geochronology and many more. He died of pancreas cancer in March 2015. He was a warm and enthusiastic mentor, a prolific scientist and a great friend. He will always be remembered. Here we present Dr. Yang's achievement on helium isotopes studies in Taiwan throughout his research career. We integrate all the research results from his team and summarize the observations. We will show the distribution of helium isotope ratios in Taiwan and its implications on tectonic settings.

  4. More on Gribov copies and propagators in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Fixing a gauge in the nonperturbative domain of Yang-Mills theory is a nontrivial problem due to the presence of Gribov copies. In particular, there are different gauges in the nonperturbative regime which all correspond to the same definition of a gauge in the perturbative domain. Gauge-dependent correlation functions may differ in these gauges. Two such gauges are the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge, both corresponding to the perturbative Landau gauge. These, and their numerical implementation, are described and presented in detail. Other choices will also be discussed. This investigation is performed, using numerical lattice gauge theory calculations, by comparing the propagators of gluons and ghosts for the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the propagators are different in the far infrared and even at energy scales of the order of half a GeV. In particular, the finite-volume effects are also modified. This is observed in two and three dimensions. Some remarks on the four-dimensional case are provided as well.

  5. Amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from quantum geometry of momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.

    2009-12-15

    We discuss multiloop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of effective gravity in the momentum space with IR regulator branes as degrees of freedom. Kinematical invariants of external particles yield the moduli spaces of complex or Kahler structures which are the playgrounds for the Kodaira-Spencer or Kahler type gravity. We suggest fermionic representation of the loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory assuming the identification of the IR regulator branes with Kodaira-Spencer fermions in the B model and Lagrangian branes in the A model. The two-easy mass box diagram is related to the correlator of fermionic currents on the spectral curve in the B model or hyperbolic volume in the A model and it plays the role of a building block in the whole picture. The Bern-Dixon-Smirnov-like ansatz has the interpretation as the semiclassical limit of a fermionic correlator. It is argued that fermionic representation implies a kind of integrability on the moduli spaces. We conjecture the interpretation of the reggeon degrees of freedom in terms of the open strings stretched between the IR regulator branes.

  6. Amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from quantum geometry of momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, A.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss multiloop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of effective gravity in the momentum space with IR regulator branes as degrees of freedom. Kinematical invariants of external particles yield the moduli spaces of complex or Kahler structures which are the playgrounds for the Kodaira-Spencer or Kahler type gravity. We suggest fermionic representation of the loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory assuming the identification of the IR regulator branes with Kodaira-Spencer fermions in the B model and Lagrangian branes in the A model. The two-easy mass box diagram is related to the correlator of fermionic currents on the spectral curve in the B model or hyperbolic volume in the A model and it plays the role of a building block in the whole picture. The Bern-Dixon-Smirnov-like ansatz has the interpretation as the semiclassical limit of a fermionic correlator. It is argued that fermionic representation implies a kind of integrability on the moduli spaces. We conjecture the interpretation of the reggeon degrees of freedom in terms of the open strings stretched between the IR regulator branes.

  7. Numerical Modeling Experiments in the Kwang Yang Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aiming at better understanding of the ecosystem status in the Kwang Yang Bay and impacts from industry complex constructions since early 1990s to changes of circulation pattern will be assessed. The study is multi-year (at least 3 year), multi-disciplinary approach to seek solutions to manage the local ecosystem as well as sustainable fishery. The Kwang Yang Bay is a small coastal embayment, coupled with neighboring Kangjin Bay through narrow channel with 53.6 km to north-south and 70.6 km wide to east-west, located in southern part of Korean Peninsula ( 35.6°~35.3° N, 127.5°~128.3° E) where tidal range is high ranging from 3 to 5 meters. Model specification consists of 167 X 157 grid system with 9 vertical sigma levels and 20/200 time steps. Research themes focus on estuarine dynamics with emphases on the vertical stratification switch against tidal mixing and density driven current. Modeling efforts include setup of 3D circulation model based on ECOM-3D. Model initial and boundary conditions are being collected by seasonal and summertime-monthly field works.

  8. Yangian Symmetry of Scattering Amplitudes and the Dilatation Operator in N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.

    PubMed

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Heslop, Paul; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan

    2015-10-01

    It is known that the Yangian of PSU(2,2|4) is a symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, the complete one-loop dilatation operator in the same theory commutes with the level-one Yangian generators only up to certain boundary terms found by Dolan, Nappi, and Witten. Using a result by Zwiebel, we show how the Yangian symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory implies precisely the Yangian invariance, up to boundary terms, of the one-loop dilatation operator. PMID:26551805

  9. Yangian Symmetry of Scattering Amplitudes and the Dilatation Operator in N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.

    PubMed

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Heslop, Paul; Travaglini, Gabriele; Young, Donovan

    2015-10-01

    It is known that the Yangian of PSU(2,2|4) is a symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, the complete one-loop dilatation operator in the same theory commutes with the level-one Yangian generators only up to certain boundary terms found by Dolan, Nappi, and Witten. Using a result by Zwiebel, we show how the Yangian symmetry of the tree-level S matrix of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory implies precisely the Yangian invariance, up to boundary terms, of the one-loop dilatation operator.

  10. Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Paul

    1994-04-01

    We solve Schrödinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero.

  11. U(1) decoupling, Kleiss-Kuijf and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations in N=4 super Yang-Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Yin; Huang Rijun; Liu Changyong

    2010-09-15

    By using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, we proved the color reflection, U(1) decoupling, Kleiss-Kuijf and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations for color-ordered amplitudes of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. This proof verified the conjectured Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations of matter fields. The proof depended only on general properties of superamplitudes. We showed also that the color reflection relation and U(1)-decoupling relation are special cases of Kleiss-Kuijf relations.

  12. Research on the Yin-Yang structure of the main city of Nanjing by the method of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen; Zhu, Xigang; Zhao, Bo

    2007-06-01

    Chinese government has proposed a strategic development thought named as "Harmonious Society", which contains the requirements to apply Chinese traditional theory to nowadays construction. However, the available theoretical achievement almost all stems from the western, and entirely not suitable for the real situation in China. Meanwhile the research method is fairly traditional. The appearance of the concepts of yin-region, yang-region and yin-yang structure changes the situation of the dominance by a series of westerners' concepts of describing the urban and regional space and theories of spatial structures. Based on the primary achievement of the theory, this article tries to apply GIS methods into the new theory, which makes it more consummate and scientific. This paper will put emphases on discussing the quantitative definition with GIS, evaluate effect and harmonious mechanism about urban yin-yang spatial structure based on existing primary researches of the author's mentor. By means of reasonable division, the yin region and yang region can be defined, and which makes the new definition be quantified and the theory more scientific. First, considering the aspect of economy, social progress and environment, 11 indexes composed of 24 factors are elected as the appraisal foundation. Then, decide the importance of each factor by gifting them different scores(hundred mark system is adopted, that is to say 100 stands for the strongest affection, while 0 stands for having no affection, the score between them from low to high represents the importance variety). Furthermore, rely on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) synthesizing experts' marking methods, the final point is determined. In this way, the scale of the appraisal units scold be fixed. Then we could construct the effect of the factors. By doing this, the factors' entirety affection on every units can be reflected. Accumulating the factors' scores of each unit, the ultimate affection score could be determined

  13. Self-dual gravity and self-dual Yang-Mills theory in the context of the Macdowell-Mansouri formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J. A.; Socorro, J.

    1999-02-01

    In this work we propose an action which unifies self-dual gravity and self-dual Yang-Mills theory in the context of the Macdowell-Mansouri formalism. We claim that such an action may be used to find the S-dual action for both self-dual gravity and self-dual Yang-Mills theory.

  14. Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anti)calorons of scale parameter ρ ˜ |φ|-1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anti)caloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anti)caloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2) vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck) which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center-vortex loops in

  15. Some exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons term

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.; Sia, L. C.; Teh, R.

    1989-07-15

    Two /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ for the gauge field potential are given so that the(2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations with the Chern-Simons termcan be solved in terms of the modified Bessel functions and the ellipticfunction respectively.

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Yang-cheon-cheok (量天尺) in the Late Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the six remaining Yang-cheon-cheoks (量天尺), which were first described in the Veritable Record of King Sukjong (肅宗實錄). These woodblock sundials from Korea are structurally very similar to a Gyupyo (圭表, gnomon) or an altitude sundial and are light, compact, and portable. The front side of a Yang-cheon-cheok has two holes for styluses and several hour-lines. We compared the intervals of the hour-lines from the originating point of the stylus placement on all Yang-cheon-cheoks and found that two of the relics had the same hour-lines using the standard of the unit of 1 chon (寸). These two were actually the same sundial although the physical size was different. In spite of the lack of time accuracy, we hypothesize that various-sized Yang-cheon-cheoks were made and widely distributed throughout the public in the late Joseon Dynasty.

  17. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2001-10-01

    This paper develops a physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device. First, a physical model is established for a melting and freezing rotating device applied for transferring heat from a heat source to a heat sink. The device consists of two concentric cylinders with a phase change material being filled between them. During the melting process, heat is supplied from the heat source to the device, and the phase change material in the device melts. The melting process is equivalent to yang in the tai-chi diagram. During the freezing process, heat is discharged from the device to the heat sink, and the phase change material in the device freezes. The freezing process is equivalent to yin in the tai-chi diagram. The moving phase boundaries of the melting and freezing processes form two curves, representing the interface curves between the yin and yang in the tai-chi diagram. The variation of the thermal strength in the heat source and heat sink represents the variation of the yin -yang balance in the tai-chi diagram.

  18. Small coupling limit and multiple solutions to the Dirichlet problem for Yang-Mills connections in four dimensions. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Takeshi; Marini, Antonella

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we complete the proof of the existence of multiple solutions (and, in particular, non minimal ones), to the ɛ-Dirichlet problem obtained as a variational problem for the SU(2)ɛ-Yang-Mills functional. This is equivalent to proving the existence of multiple solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the SU(2)-Yang-Mills functional with small boundary data. In the first paper of this series this non-compact variational problem is transformed into the finite-dimensional problem of finding the critical points of the function J_{ɛ }({q}), which is essentially the Yang-Mills functional evaluated on the approximate solutions, constructed via a gluing technique. In the present paper, we establish a Morse theory for J_{ɛ }({q}), by means of Ljusternik-Schnirelmann theory, thus complete the proofs of Theorems 1-3 given by Isobe and Marini ["Small coupling limit and multiple solutions to the Dirichlet Problem for Yang-Mills connections in 4 dimensions - Part I," J. Math. Phys. 53, 063706 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4728211.

  19. Non-Perturbative Yang-Mills from Supersymmetry and Strings, Or, in the Jungles of Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2005-12-01

    I summarize some recent developments in the issue of planar equivalence between supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and its orbifold/orientifold daughters. This talk is based on works carried out in collaboration with Adi Armoni, Sasha Gorsky and Gabriele Veneziano.

  20. A note on Lee-Yang zeros in the negative half-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowitz, Joel L.; Scaramazza, Jasen A.

    2016-10-01

    We obtain lower bounds on the inverse compressibility of systems whose Lee-Yang zeros of the grand-canonical partition function lie in the left half of the complex fugacity plane. This includes in particular systems whose zeros lie on the negative real axis such as the monomer-dimer system on a lattice. We also study the virial expansion of the pressure in powers of the density for such systems. We find no direct connection between the positivity of the virial coefficients and the negativity of the L-Y zeros, and provide examples of either one or both properties holding. An explicit calculation of the partition function of the monomer-dimer system on two rows shows that there are at most a finite number of negative virial coefficients in this case. Dedicated to the memory of George Stell.

  1. Complex time solutions with nontrivial topology and multiparticle scattering in Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Thomas M.; R. Poppitz, Erich

    1993-08-01

    A classical solution in Yang-Mills thoery is given a new semiclassical interpretation in terms of particle scattering. It solves the complex time boundary value problem which arises in the semiclassical approximation to a multiparticle transition probability in the one-instanton sector at fixed energy. The imaginary part of the action of the solution on the complex time contour and its topological charge obey the same relation as the self-dual Euclidean configurations. Hence the solution is relevant for the problem of tunneling with fermion number violation in the electroweak theory. It describes transitions from an initial state with a smaller number of particles to a final state with a larger umber of particles. The implications of these results for multiparticle production in the electroweak theory are also discussed.

  2. Kinematic numerators and a double-copy formula for N=4 super-Yang-Mills residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James

    2014-07-01

    Recent work by Cachazo et al.arXiv:1309.0885 shows that connected prescription residues obey the global identities of N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitudes. In particular, they obey the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude identities. Here we offer a new way of interpreting this result via objects that we call residue numerators. These objects behave like the kinematic numerators introduced by BCJ except that they are associated with individual residues. In particular, these new objects satisfy a double-copy formula relating them to the residues appearing in recently discovered analogs of the connected prescription integrals for N=8 supergravity. Along the way, we show that the BCJ amplitude identities are equivalent to the consistency condition that allows kinematic numerators to be expressed as amplitudes using a generalized inverse.

  3. Infrared conductivity of cuprates using Yang-Rice-Zhang ansatz: Review of our recent investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    A review of our recent investigations related to the ac transport properties in the psedogapped state of cuprate high temperature superconductors is presented. For our theoretical calculations we use a phenomenological Green’s function proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ). This is based upon the renormalized mean-field theory of the Hubbard model and takes into account the strong electron-electron interaction present in Cuprates. The pseudogap is also taken into account through a proposed self energy. We have tested the form of the Green’s function by computing ac conductivity of cuprates and then compared with experimental results. We found agreement between theory and experiment in reproducing the doping evolution of ac conductivity but there is a problem with absolute magnitudes and their frequency dependence. This shows a partial success of the YRZ ansatz. The ways to rectify it are suggested and worked out.

  4. Correlation functions of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory from Dyson-Schwinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus Q.

    2016-04-01

    The two- and three-point functions and the four-gluon vertex of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory are calculated from their Dyson-Schwinger equations and the three-particle irreducible effective action. Within a self-contained truncation, various effects of truncating Dyson-Schwinger equations are studied. Estimates for the errors induced by truncations are derived from comparisons between results from different equations, comparisons with lattice results, and varying higher Green functions. The results indicate that the two-loop diagrams are important in the gluon propagator, where they are explicitly calculated, but not for the vertices. Furthermore, the influence of the four-gluon vertex on lower Green functions is found to be small.

  5. Non-Gaussian wave functionals in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2010-11-15

    A general method to treat non-Gaussian vacuum wave functionals in the Hamiltonian formulation of a quantum field theory is presented. By means of Dyson-Schwinger techniques, the static Green functions are expressed in terms of the kernels arising in the Taylor expansion of the exponent of the vacuum wave functional. These kernels are then determined by minimizing the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian. The method is applied to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, using a vacuum wave functional whose exponent contains up to quartic terms in the gauge field. An estimate of the cubic and quartic interaction kernels is given using as input the gluon and ghost propagators found with a Gaussian wave functional.

  6. Running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kellermann, Christian; Fischer, Christian S.

    2008-07-15

    We consider the running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge, SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory as given by a combination of dressing functions of the vertex and the gluon propagator. We determine these functions numerically from a coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations. We reproduce asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet momentum region and find a coupling of order one at mid-momenta. In the infrared we find a nontrivial (i.e. nonzero) fixed point which is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding fixed point in the coupling of the ghost-gluon vertex. This result explains why the Dyson-Schwinger and the functional renormalization group equations for the two point functions can agree in the infrared, although their structure is quite different. Our findings also support Zwanziger's notion of an infrared effective theory driven by the Faddeev-Popov determinant.

  7. Spherically symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on curved backgrounds in all even dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.; Yang Yisong

    2008-02-15

    We present several different classes of self-dual Yang-Mills instantons in all even d-dimensional backgrounds with Euclidean signature. In d=4p+2 the only solutions we found are on constant curvature dS (de Sitter) and AdS (anti-de Sitter) backgrounds and are evaluated in closed form. In d=4p an interesting class of instantons are given on black hole backgrounds. One class of solutions are (Euclidean) time-independent and spherically symmetric in d-1 dimensions, and the other class are spherically symmetric in all d dimensions. Some of the solutions in the former class are evaluated numerically, all the rest being given in closed form. Analytic proofs of existence covering all numerically evaluated solutions are given. All instantons studied have finite action and vanishing energy momentum tensor and do not disturb the geometry.

  8. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. D.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039 arXiv:1506.06995 [hep-th], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.

  9. A note on Lee-Yang zeros in the negative half-plane.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Joel L; Scaramazza, Jasen A

    2016-10-19

    We obtain lower bounds on the inverse compressibility of systems whose Lee-Yang zeros of the grand-canonical partition function lie in the left half of the complex fugacity plane. This includes in particular systems whose zeros lie on the negative real axis such as the monomer-dimer system on a lattice. We also study the virial expansion of the pressure in powers of the density for such systems. We find no direct connection between the positivity of the virial coefficients and the negativity of the L-Y zeros, and provide examples of either one or both properties holding. An explicit calculation of the partition function of the monomer-dimer system on two rows shows that there are at most a finite number of negative virial coefficients in this case. PMID:27546459

  10. The transient but not resident (TBNR) microbiome: a Yin Yang model for lung immune system.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pardis; Salimian, Jafar; Ahmadi, Ali; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2015-01-01

    The concept of microbial content of the lung is still controversial. What make this more complicated are controversial results obtaining from different methodologies about lung microbiome and the definition of "lung sterility". Lungs may have very low bacteria but are not completely germ-free. Bacteria are constantly entering from the upper respiratory tract, but are then quickly being cleared. We can find bacterial DNA in the lungs, but it is much harder to ask about living bacteria. Here, we propose that if there is any trafficking of the microorganisms in the lung, it should be a "Transient But Not Resident (TBNR)" model. So, we speculate a "Yin Yang model" for the lung immune system and TBNR. Despite beneficial roles of microbiome on the development of lung immune system, any disruption and alteration in the microbiota composition of upper and lower airways may trigger or lead to several diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mustard lung disease. PMID:26307905

  11. Infrared conductivity of cuprates using Yang-Rice-Zhang ansatz: Review of our recent investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-01

    A review of our recent investigations related to the ac transport properties in the psedogapped state of cuprate high temperature superconductors is presented. For our theoretical calculations we use a phenomenological Green's function proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ). This is based upon the renormalized mean-field theory of the Hubbard model and takes into account the strong electron-electron interaction present in Cuprates. The pseudogap is also taken into account through a proposed self energy. We have tested the form of the Green's function by computing ac conductivity of cuprates and then compared with experimental results. We found agreement between theory and experiment in reproducing the doping evolution of ac conductivity but there is a problem with absolute magnitudes and their frequency dependence. This shows a partial success of the YRZ ansatz. The ways to rectify it are suggested and worked out.

  12. N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes at high energies: the Regge cut contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, J.; Lipatov, L. N.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2010-02-01

    We further investigate, in the planar limit of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories, the high energy Regge behavior of six-point MHV scattering amplitudes. In particular, for the new Regge cut contribution found in our previous paper, we compute in the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) the energy spectrum of the BFKL equation in the color octet channel, and we calculate explicitly the two-loop corrections to the discontinuities of the amplitudes for the transitions 2→4 and 3→3. We find an explicit solution of the BFKL equation for the octet channel for arbitrary momentum transfers and investigate the intercepts of the Regge singularities in this channel. As an important result we find that the universal collinear and infrared singularities of the BDS formula are not affected by this Regge-cut contribution. Any improvement of the BDS formula should reproduce this cut to all orders in the coupling.

  13. Anisotropic N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Plasma and Its Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2011-09-02

    We present a type-IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static and completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an ultraviolet anti-de Sitter geometry to an infrared Lifshitz-like geometry. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent {theta} term or from a nonzero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e., mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.

  14. Weak coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory on recursive infinite genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Debashis; Imbimbo, Camillo; Kumar, Dushyant

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the partition function of two dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a family of surfaces of infinite genus. These surfaces have a recursive structure, which was used by one of us to compute the partition function that results in a generalized Migdal formula. In this paper we study the `small area' (weak coupling) expansion of the partition function, by exploiting the fact that the generalized Migdal formula is analytic in the (complexification of the) Euler characteristic. The structure of the perturbative part of the weak coupling expansion suggests that the moduli space of flat connections (of the SU(2) and SO(3) theories) on these infinite genus surfaces are well defined, perhaps in an appropriate regularization.

  15. Integrable open spin chain in super Yang-Mills and the plane-wave/SYM duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the integrable structures in an Script N = 2 superconformal Sp(N) Yang-Mills theory with matter, which is dual to an open+closed string system. We restrict ourselves to the BMN operators that correspond to free string states. In the closed string sector, an integrable structure is inherited from its parent theory, Script N = 4 SYM. For the open string sector, the planar one-loop mixing matrix for gauge invariant holomorphic scalar operators is identified with the hamiltonian of an integrable SU(3) open spin chain. Using the K-matrix formalism we identify the integrable open-chain boundary conditions that correspond to string boundary conditions. The solutions to the algebraic Bethe ansatz equations (ABAE) with a few impurities are shown to recover the anomalous dimensions that exactly match the spectrum of free open string in the plane-wave background. We also discuss the properties of the solutions of ABAE beyond the BMN regime.

  16. Dark energy as a fixed point of the Einstein Yang-Mills Higgs equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    We study the Einstein Yang-Mills Higgs equations in the SO(3) representation on a isotropic and homogeneous flat Universe, in the presence of radiation and matter fluids. We map the equations of motion into an autonomous dynamical system of first-order differential equations and we find the equilibrium points. We show that there is only one stable fixed point that corresponds to an accelerated expanding Universe in the future. In the past, instead, there is an unstable fixed point that implies a stiff-matter domination. In between, we find three other unstable fixed points, corresponding, in chronological order, to radiation domination, to matter domination, and, finally, to a transition from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion. We solve the system numerically and we confirm that there are smooth trajectories that correctly describe the evolution of the Universe, from a remote past dominated by radiation to a remote future dominated by dark energy, passing through a matter-dominated phase.

  17. Local and BRST-invariant Yang-Mills theory within the Gribov horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, M. A. L.; Dudal, D.; Fiorentini, D.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Justo, I. F.; Pereira, A. D.; Mintz, B. W.; Palhares, L. F.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-07-01

    We present a local setup for the recently introduced BRST-invariant formulation of Yang-Mills theories for linear covariant gauges that takes into account the existence of gauge copies à la Gribov and Zwanziger. Through the convenient use of auxiliary fields, including one of the Stueckelberg type, it is shown that both the action and the associated nilpotent BRST operator can be put in local form. Direct consequences of this fully local and BRST-symmetric framework are drawn from its Ward identities: (i) an exact prediction for the longitudinal part of the gluon propagator in linear covariant gauges that is compatible with recent lattice results and (ii) a proof of the gauge-parameter itxndependence of all correlation functions of local BRST-invariant operators.

  18. Functional renormalization group approach to the Yang-Lee edge singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, X.; Mesterházy, D.; Stephanov, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We determine the scaling properties of the Yang-Lee edge singularity as described by a one-component scalar field theory with imaginary cubic coupling, using the nonperturbative functional renormalization group in 3 ≤ d ≤ 6 Euclidean dimensions. We find very good agreement with high-temperature series data in d = 3 dimensions and compare our results to recent estimates of critical exponents obtained with the four-loop ɛ = 6 - d expansion and the conformal bootstrap. The relevance of operator insertions at the corresponding fixed point of the RG β functions is discussed and we estimate the error associated with O({partial}^4) truncations of the scale-dependent effective action.

  19. Gluon scattering in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Katsushi; Iwasaki, Koh; Nastase, Horatiu

    2008-11-23

    We extend the AdS/CFT prescription of Alday and Maldacena to finite temperature T, defining an amplitude for gluon scattering in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills at strong coupling from string theory. It is defined by a lightlike 'Wilson loop' living at the horizon of the T-dual to the black hole in AdS space. Unlike the zero temperature case, this is different from the Wilson loop contour defined at the boundary of the AdS black hole metric, thus at nonzero T there is no relation between gluon scattering amplitudes and the Wilson loop. We calculate a gauge theory observable that can be interpreted as the amplitude at strong coupling in both cut-off and generalized dimensional regularization.

  20. Hydrodynamics of the Polyakov line in SU(Nc) Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Warchoł, Piotr; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line at large but finite Nc for Yang-Mills theory in even and odd space-time dimensions. The hydro-static solutions for the eigenvalue densities are shown to interpolate between a uniform distribution in the confined phase and a localized distribution in the de-confined phase. The resulting critical temperatures are in overall agreement with those measured on the lattice over a broad range of Nc, and are consistent with the string model results at Nc = ∞. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line out of equilibrium is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton. An estimate of the probability of formation of a Z (Nc) bubble using a piece-wise sound wave is suggested.

  1. Statefinder Parameters for the Quantum Effective Yang-Mills Condensate Dark Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Minglei; Zhang, Yang; Xia, Tianyang

    The quantum effective Yang-Mills condensate (YMC) dark energy model has some distinctive features so that it naturally solves the coincidence problem and, at the same time, is able to give an equation of state w crossing -1. In this work we further employ the statefinder pair (r,s), introduced by Sahni et al., to diagnose the YMC model for three cases: the noncoupling, the YMC decaying into matter only, and the YMC decaying into both matter and radiation. The trajectories (r,s) and (r,q), and the evolutions r(z) and s(z), are explicitly presented. It is found that the YMC model in all three cases has r ≃ 1 for z < 10 and s ≃ 0 for z < 5 with only small deviations, ≃ 0.02, quite close to the cosmological constant model (LCDM), but is obviously differentiated from other dark energy models, such as quiessence or kinessence.

  2. N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories and Whitham integrable hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, José D.; Mas, Javier

    1999-07-01

    We review recent work on the study of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(N) from the point of view of the Whitham hierarchy, mainly focusing on three main results: (i) We develop a new recursive method to compute the whole instanton expansion of the low-energy effective prepotential; (ii) We interpret the slow times of the hierarchy as additional couplings and promote them to spurion superfields that softly break N=2 supersymmetry down to N=0 through deformations associated to higher Casimir operators of the gauge group; (iii) We show that the Seiberg-Witten-Whitham equations provide a set of non-trivial constraints on the form of the strong coupling expansion in the vicinity of the maximal singularities. We use them to check a proposal that we make for the value of the off-diagonal couplings at those points of the moduli space.

  3. Inflationary Dilatonic de Sitter Universe from { N} = 4 Super-Yang Mills Theory Perturbed by Scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, John Quiroga

    In this paper a quantum { N} = 4 super-Yang Mills theory perturbed by dilaton-coupled scalars, is considered. The induced effective action for such a theory is calculated on a dilaton-gravitational background using the conformal anomaly found via AdS/CFT correspondence. Considering such an effective action (using the large N method) as a quantum correction to the classical gravity action with cosmological constant we study the effect from dilaton to the scale factor (which corresponds to the inflationary universe without dilaton). It is shown that, depending on the initial conditions for the dilaton, the dilaton may slow down, or accelerate, the inflation process. At late times, the dilaton is decaying exponentially. At the end of this work, we consider the question how the perturbation of the solution for the scale factor affects the stability of the solution for the equations of motion and therefore the stability of the Inflationary Universe, which could be eternal.

  4. Parametric instability of classical Yang-Mills fields in an expanding geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Shoichiro; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the instability of a classical Yang-Mills field in an expanding geometry under a color magnetic background field within the linear regime. We consider homogeneous, boost-invariant, and time-dependent color magnetic fields simulating the glasma configuration. We introduce the conformal coordinates which enable us to map an expanding problem approximately into a nonexpanding problem. We find that the fluctuations with finite longitudinal momenta can grow exponentially due to parametric instability. Fluctuations with finite transverse momenta can also show parametric instability, but their momenta are restricted to be small. The most unstable modes start to grow exponentially in the early stage of the dynamics, and they may affect the thermalization in heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Yin Yang-1 increases apoptosis through Bax activation in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuang; Liu, Xian; Peng, Yun-Peng; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a tumor suppressor known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. We found that overexpression of YY1 promoted apoptosis and increased the expression and mitochondrial localization of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed binding of YY1 to the BAX promoter. Moreover, YY1 promoted pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis through Bax transcriptional activation and subsequent translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane, leading to cytochrome c release, and caspase activation.YY1 and BAX are co-expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and higher BAX expression predicts better outcomes for patients. The ability of YY1 to promote apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells suggests it may represent a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic target. PMID:27074573

  6. Bonus symmetry and the operator product expansion of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Skiba, Witold

    1999-10-01

    The superconformal group of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills has two types of operator representations: short and long. We conjecture that operator product expansions for which at least two of the three operators are short exactly respect a bonus U(1) y R-symmetry, which acts as an automorphism of the superconformal group. This conjecture is for arbitrary gauge group G and gauge coupling gYM. A consequence is that n ⩽ 4-point functions involving only short operators exactly respect the U(1) Y symmetry, as has been previously conjectured based on AdS duality. This, in turn, would imply that all n ⩽ 3-point functions involving only short operators are not renormalized, as has also been previously conjectured and subjected to perturbative checks. It is argued that instantons are compatible with our conjecture. Some perturbative checks of the conjecture are presented and SL(2, Z) modular transformation properties are discussed.

  7. Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Elliot

    2016-07-01

    Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of the Kaluza-Klein reduction of IIB supergravity on a five-sphere that preserves multiple scalar and U(1) gauge fields. We show that the previously constructed black holes become unstable at low temperatures, and construct new classes of exotic black hole solutions. We study the DC thermo-electric conductivity of these U(1) charged black holes, and find a diverging DC conductivity at zero temperature due to the divergence of the gauge field coupling.

  8. Gravity duals for the Coulomb branch of marginally deformed Script N = 4 Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Rafael; Sfetsos, Konstadinos; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2006-03-01

    Supergravity backgrounds dual to a class of exactly marginal deformations of Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills can be constructed through an SL(2,Bbb R) sequence of T-dualities and coordinate shifts. We apply this transformation to multicenter solutions and derive supergravity backgrounds describing the Coulomb branch of Script N = 1 theories at strong 't Hooft coupling as marginal deformations of Script N = 4 Yang-Mills. For concreteness we concentrate to cases with an SO(4) × SO(2) symmetry preserved by continuous distributions of D3-branes on a disc and on a three-dimensional spherical shell. We compute the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator and confirm the Coulombic behaviour of the heavy quark-antiquark potential in the conformal case. When the vev is turned on we find situations where a complete screening of the potential arises, as well as a confining regime where a linear or a logarithmic potential prevails depending on the ratio of the quark-antiquark separation to the typical vev scale. The spectra of massless excitations on these backgrounds are analyzed by turning the associated differential equations into Schrödinger problems. We find explicit solutions taking into account the entire tower of states related to the reduction of type-IIB supergravity to five dimensions, and hence we go beyond the s-wave approximation that has been considered before for the undeformed case. Arbitrary values of the deformation parameter give rise to the Heun differential equation and the related Inozemtsev integrable system, via a non-standard trigonometric limit as we explicitly demonstrate.

  9. Unification Yang-Mills Groups and Representations with CP as a Gauge Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huazhong

    We investigate more generally the possible unification Yang-Mills groups GYM and representations with CP as a gauge symmetry. Besides the possible Yang-Mills groups E8, E7, SO(2n + 1), SO(4n), SP(2n), G2 or F4 (or a product of them) which only allow self-contragredient representations, we present other unification groups GYM and representations which may allow CP as a gauge symmetry. These include especially SU(N) containing Weyl fermions and their CP conjugates from low energy spectra in a basic irreducible representation (IR). Such an example is the 496-dimensional basic IR (on antisymmetric tensors of rank two) of SU(32) containing SO(32) as a subgroup in the adjoint IR, or SU(248) in a fundamental IR containing E8 as a subgroup in the adjoint IR. Our consideration also leads to the construction of a physical operator (CP) intrinsically as an inner automorphism of order higher than two for the unification group. We have also generalized the possible groups as unification GYM to include nonsemisimple Lie groups with CP arising as a gauge symmetry. In this case with U(1) ideals in the GYM, we found that the UY(1) for weak hypercharge in the standard model or a U(1) gauge symmetry at low energies in general is traceless. Possible relevance to superstring theory is also briefly discussed. We expect that our results may open new alternatives for unified model building, especially with deeper or more generalized understanding of anomaly-free theories.

  10. Deconfinement and Duality of (super) Yang-Mills on Toroidially-Compactified Spacetimes for all Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeple, Brett

    I study gauge theories for any gauge group G, in particular Yang-Mills (YM) theories including super Yang-Mills (SYM) and mass deformed super Yang-Mills (SYM*), on toroidially compactified spacetimes. Each compact direction introduces r = rank( G) massive scalar fields into the theory and results in an effective potential added to the Lagrangian of the theory. The mathematics of such potentials is interesting, however important applications begin with special simple cases. The first case studied here is finite temperature super Yang-Mills where a thermal circle of size 1/T is introduced and the temperature dependence of phases of the theory can be studied including the deconfinement phase transition. Further compactification on a spatial circle of size L is useful. For small such L we are in a regime where semiclassical calculations can be performed at weak coupling. The transition is found to be mediated by the competition between non-perturbative objects including monopole-instantons and 'exotic' topological molecules: neutral and magnetic bions composed of BPS and KK monopole constituents, with charges in the co-root lattice of the gauge group G, as well as electrically charged W-bosons (and wino superpartners in the case of SYM) with charges in the root lattice of G.. The second case is super Yang-Mills on circle compactified spacetimes, but with softly broken supersymmetry with a small mass m for the adjoint fermion. This is interesting as there is a conjectured continuity relating this theory, and its quantum deconfining phase transition at some critical mass for the gluino, to pure Yang-Mills with a thermal deconfinement transition at some critical temperature. Furthermore, on torus compactified spacetimes, I determine a duality for all G to a 2D Coulomb gas of bions of different charges of their monopole constituents, and W-bosons of both scalar and electric charges. Aharonov-Bohm interactions exist between magnetic bions and W-bosons. New scalar

  11. The Analytic Structure of Scattering Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsey, Sean Christopher

    We begin the dissertation in Chapter 1 with a discussion of tree-level amplitudes in Yang-. Mills theories. The DDM and BCJ decompositions of the amplitudes are described and. related to one another by the introduction of a transformation matrix. This is related to the. Kleiss-Kuijf and BCJ amplitude identities, and we conjecture a connection to the existence. of a BCJ representation via a condition on the generalized inverse of that matrix. Under. two widely-believed assumptions, this relationship is proved. Switching gears somewhat, we introduce the RSVW formulation of the amplitude, and the extension of BCJ-like features to residues of the RSVW integrand is proposed. Using the previously proven connection of BCJ representations to the generalized inverse condition, this extension is validated, including a version of gravitational double copy. The remainder of the dissertation involves an analysis of the analytic properties of loop. amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Chapter 2 contains a review of the planar case, including an exposition of dual variables and momentum twistors, dual conformal symmetry, and their implications for the amplitude. After defining the integrand and on-shell diagrams, we explain the crucial properties that the amplitude has no poles at infinite momentum and that its leading singularities are dual-conformally-invariant cross ratios, and can therefore be normalized to unity. We define the concept of a dlog form, and show that it is a feature of the planar integrand as well. This leads to the definition of a pure integrand basis. The proceeding setup is connected to the amplituhedron formulation, and we put forward the hypothesis that the amplitude is determined by zero conditions. Chapter 3 contains the primary computations of the dissertation. This chapter treats. amplitudes in fully nonplanar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, analyzing the conjecture that they. follow the pattern of having no poles at infinity, can be written in dlog

  12. In Vivo Chromatin Targets of the Transcription Factor Yin Yang 2 in Trophoblast Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Macías-Redondo, Sofía; Climent, María; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Muniesa, Pedro; Schoorlemmer, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Yin Yang 2 (YY2) is a zinc finger protein closely related to the well-characterized Yin Yang 1 (YY1). YY1 is a DNA-binding transcription factor, with defined functions in multiple developmental processes, such as implantation, cell differentiation, X inactivation, imprinting and organogenesis. Yy2 has been treated as a largely immaterial duplication of Yy1, as they share high homology in the Zinc Finger-region and similar if not identical in vitro binding sites. In contrast to these similarities, gene expression alterations in HeLa cells with attenuated levels of either Yy1 or Yy2 were to some extent gene-specific. Moreover, the chromatin binding sites for YY2, except for its association with transposable retroviral elements (RE) and Endogenous Retroviral Elements (ERVs), remain to be identified. As a first step towards defining potential Yy2 functions matching or complementary to Yy1, we considered in vivo DNA binding sites of YY2 in trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Results We report the presence of YY2 protein in mouse-derived embryonic stem (ES) and TS cell lines. Following up on our previous report on ERV binding by YY2 in TS cells, we investigated the tissue-specificity of REX1 and YY2 binding and confirm binding to RE/ERV targets in both ES cells and TS cells. Because of the higher levels of expression, we chose TS cells to understand the role of Yy2 in gene and chromatin regulation. We used in vivo YY2 association as a measure to identify potential target genes. Sequencing of chromatin obtained in chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays carried out with αYY2 serum allowed us to identify a limited number of chromatin targets for YY2. Some putative binding sites were validated in regular ChIP assays and gene expression of genes nearby was altered in the absence of Yy2. Conclusions YY2 binding to ERVs is not confined to TS cells. In vivo binding sites share the presence of a consensus binding motif. Selected sites were uniquely bound by YY2 as

  13. Small coupling limit and multiple solutions to the Dirichlet problem for Yang-Mills connections in four dimensions. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Takeshi; Marini, Antonella

    2012-06-01

    In this paper and its sequel (Part II), we analyze the space of solutions to the ɛ-Dirichlet problem for the Yang-Mills equations on the four-dimensional disk, for small values of the coupling constant ɛ. These are in 1-1 correspondence with solutions to the Dirichlet problem for Yang-Mills, for small boundary data ɛA0. We establish a Morse theory for this non-compact variational problem and prove the existence of multiple solutions, and, also, non minimal ones. Here, we describe the problem, state the main theorems and do the first part of the proof. This consists in making the problem finite dimensional, by seeking solutions approximated by the connected sum of a minimal solution with an instanton, plus a correction term due to the boundary. By introducing an auxiliary equation, we solve the problem orthogonally to the space of the approximate solutions.

  14. Yang-Lee zeros of the two- and three-state Potts model defined on phi3 Feynman diagrams.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Luiz C; Dalmazi, D

    2003-06-01

    We present both analytical and numerical results on the position of partition function zeros on the complex magnetic field plane of the q=2 state (Ising) and the q=3 state Potts model defined on phi(3) Feynman diagrams (thin random graphs). Our analytic results are based on the ideas of destructive interference of coexisting phases and low temperature expansions. For the case of the Ising model, an argument based on a symmetry of the saddle point equations leads us to a nonperturbative proof that the Yang-Lee zeros are located on the unit circle, although no circle theorem is known in this case of random graphs. For the q=3 state Potts model, our perturbative results indicate that the Yang-Lee zeros lie outside the unit circle. Both analytic results are confirmed by finite lattice numerical calculations.

  15. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Late-time tails of a Yang Mills field on Minkowski and Schwarzschild backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizon, Piotr; Chmaj, Tadeusz; Rostworowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    We study the late-time behaviour of spherically symmetric solutions of the Yang Mills equations on Minkowski and Schwarzschild backgrounds. Using nonlinear perturbation theory we show in both cases that solutions having smooth compactly supported initial data possess tails which decay as t-4 at timelike infinity. Moreover, for small initial data on Minkowski background we derive the third-order formula for the amplitude of the tail and numerically confirm its accuracy.

  16. Non-existence of black-hole solutions for the electroweak Einstein Dirac Yang/Mills equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Yann

    2006-07-01

    We consider a static, spherically symmetric system of a Dirac particle interacting with classical gravity and an electroweak Yang Mills field. It is shown that the only black-hole solutions of the corresponding coupled equations must be the extreme Reissner Nordström solutions, locally near the event horizon. This work generalizes a series of papers published by F Finster, J Smoller and S-T Yau.

  17. Theory of motion for monopole-dipole singularities of classical Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. I. Laws of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold

    1984-02-01

    In two recent papers, the general form of the laws of motion for point particles which are multipole sources of the classical coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields was determined by Havas, and for the special case of monopole singularities of a Yang-Mills field an iteration procedure was developed by Drechsler and Rosenblum to obtain the equations of motion of mass points, i.e., the laws of motion including the explicit form of the fields of all interacting particles. In this paper we give a detailed derivation of the laws of motion of monopole-dipole singularities of the coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields for point particles with mass and spin, following a procedure first applied by Mathisson and developed by Havas. To obtain the equations of motion, a systematic approximation method is developed in the following paper for the solution of the nonlinear field equations and determination of the fields entering the laws of motion found here to any given order in the coupling constant g.

  18. Yang-Mills solutions and Spin(7)-instantons on cylinders over coset spaces with G 2-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Alexander S.

    2016-03-01

    We study {g} -valued Yang-Mills fields on cylinders Zleft(G/Hright)={R}× G/H , where G/H is a compact seven-dimensional coset space with G 2-structure, {g} is the Lie algebra of G, and Z(G/H) inherits a Spin(7)-structure. After imposing a general G-invariance condition, Yang-Mills theory with torsion on Z(G/H) reduces to Newtonian mechanics of a point particle moving in {{R}}^n under the influence of some quartic potential and possibly additional constraints. The kinematics and dynamics depends on the chosen coset space. We consider in detail three coset spaces with nearly parallel G 2-structure and four coset spaces with SU(3)-structure. For each case, we analyze the critical points of the potential and present a range of finite-energy solutions. We also study a higher-dimensional analog of the instanton equation. Its solutions yield G-invariant Spin(7)-instanton configurations on Z(G/H), which are special cases of Yang-Mills configurations with torsion.

  19. Regulation of Transcription Factor Yin Yang 1 by SET7/9-mediated Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; Xu, Huan-teng; Yi, Jia; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shu, Xing-yi; Wang, Fei-fei; Peng, Bing-ling; Xiao, Rong-quan; Gao, Wei-wei; Ding, Jian-cheng; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes. Although it is regulated by multiple types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), whether YY1 is methylated, which enzyme methylates YY1, and hence the functional significance of YY1 methylation remains completely unknown. Here we reported the first methyltransferase, SET7/9 (KMT7), capable of methylating YY1 at two highly conserved lysine (K) residues, K173 and K411, located in two distinct domains, one in the central glycine-rich region and the other in the very carboxyl-terminus. Functional studies revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation regulated YY1 DNA-binding activity both in vitro and at specific genomic loci in cultured cells. Consistently, SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation was shown to involve in YY1-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. Our findings revealed a novel regulatory strategy, methylation by lysine methyltransferase, imposed on YY1 protein, and linked YY1 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:26902152

  20. Magnetic monopole solutions in a modified Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai Viet, Nguyen; Wali, Kameshwar C.

    1995-02-01

    We study the Yang-Mills-Higgs system within the framework of general relativity with an unconventional coupling of the scalar field to gravity. In the static situation, using a Bogomol'nyi-type analysis, we derive a positive-definite energy functional with a lower bound that is attained when the Bogomolnyi conditions are satisfied. Specializing to the gauge group SU(2) and the 't Hooft-Polyakov ansatz for the gauge and Higgs fields, we seek static, spherically symmetric solutions to the coupled system of equations together with Bogomol'nyi conditions. In both the isotropic and standard coordinate systems, in the spontaneously broken symmetry situation, we find great simplifications reducing the solutions of the coupled system to the solution of a single nonlinear differential equation, different one in each case, but well known in other contexts of physics. We find Abelian and non-Abelian monopole solutions with gravitational fields playing the role of Higgs fields in providing attraction that balances the repulsion due to the gague fields. These solutions in general have naked singularities at the origin. But as solutions we also find extreme Reissner-Nordström black holes as well as a new non-Abelian monopole solution that has a horizon enclosing the singularity.

  1. Script N = 4 Super Yang Mills at Finite Density: the Naked Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nick; Hockings, James

    2002-07-01

    We study Script N = 4 super Yang Mills theory at finite U(1)R charge density (and temperature) using the AdS/CFT Correspondence. The ten dimensional backgrounds around spinning D3 brane configurations split into two classes of solution. One class describe spinning black branes and have previously been extensively studied, and interpreted, in a thermodynamic context, as the deconfined high density phase of the dual field theory. The other class have naked singularities and in the supersymmetric limit are known to correspond to multi-centre solutions describing the field theory in the Coulomb phase. We provide evidence that the non-supersymmetric members of this class represent naked, spinning D-brane distributions describing the Coulomb branch at finite density. At a critical density a phase transition occurs to a spinning black brane representing the deconfined phase where the Higgs vevs have evaporated. We perform a free energy calculation to determine the phase diagram of the Coulomb branch at finite temperature and density.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiqi; Zhang, Zhengqing; Tang, Guanghui

    2016-04-25

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are of great importance for better understanding the genome-level characteristics and phylogenetic relationships among related species. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang is sequenced and analyzed, which is 15,379bp in length (GenBank: KT581634) and contains a typical set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (control region). Except for cox1 gene that is initiated by CGA codon, all protein-coding genes start with ATN codons and end with the stop codon T, TA or TAA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1, of which the DHU arm could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS consists of 49 helices and 33 helices, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences and of the amino acid sequences for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes among related species support the view that A. hetaohei is more closely related to the Gelechioidea than Yponomeutoidea. This result is consistent with a previous classification based on morphology. PMID:26800782

  3. On Yang--Mills Theories with Chiral Matter at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-08-20

    Strong coupling dynamics of Yang-Mills theories with chiral fermion content remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. In this work, we propose a dynamical framework in which we can address non-perturbative properties of chiral, non-supersymmetric gauge theories, in particular, chiral quiver theories on S{sub 1} x R{sub 3}. Double-trace deformations are used to stabilize the center-symmetric vacuum. This allows one to smoothly connect smaller(S{sub 1}) to larger(S{sub 1}) physics (R{sub 4} is the limiting case) where the double-trace deformations are switched off. In particular, occurrence of the mass gap in the gauge sector and linear confinement due to bions are analytically demonstrated. We find the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization which depends on the structure of the ring operators, a novel class of topological excitations. The deformed chiral theory, unlike the undeformed one, satisfies volume independence down to arbitrarily small volumes (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) in the large N limit. This equivalence, may open new perspectives on strong coupling chiral gauge theories on R{sub 4}.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiqi; Zhang, Zhengqing; Tang, Guanghui

    2016-04-25

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are of great importance for better understanding the genome-level characteristics and phylogenetic relationships among related species. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang is sequenced and analyzed, which is 15,379bp in length (GenBank: KT581634) and contains a typical set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (control region). Except for cox1 gene that is initiated by CGA codon, all protein-coding genes start with ATN codons and end with the stop codon T, TA or TAA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1, of which the DHU arm could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS consists of 49 helices and 33 helices, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences and of the amino acid sequences for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes among related species support the view that A. hetaohei is more closely related to the Gelechioidea than Yponomeutoidea. This result is consistent with a previous classification based on morphology.

  5. The three-loop Yang-Mills condensate dark energy model and its cosmological constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Xia, T Y E-mail: yzh@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-10-15

    This work is a comprehensive investigation of the Yang-Mills condensate (YMC) dark energy (DE) model, which is extended to include the three-loop quantum corrections. We study its cosmic evolution and the possibility of crossing the phantom divide w = -1, examine in detail the Hubble parameter H, the deceleration parameter q, the statefinder (r,s) diagnostic and the w-w{sup '} diagnostic for the model without and with interaction, and compare our results with other DE models. Also, using the observational data for type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the shift parameter from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak from large scale structures (LSS), we give the cosmological constraints on the three-loop YMC model. It is found that the model can solve the coincidence problem naturally, and its prediction of the aforementioned parameter is much closer to the {Lambda}CDM (CDM: cold dark matter) model one than those from other dynamical DE models; the introduction of the matter-DE interaction will make the YMC model deviate from the {Lambda}CDM model, and will give an equation of state crossing -1. Moreover, it is also found that, for fitting the latest SNIa data alone, the {Lambda}CDM model is slightly better than the three-loop YMC model; but in fitting the combination of SNIa, CMB and LSS data, the three-loop YMC model performs better than the {Lambda}CDM model.

  6. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  7. Gauge invariant perturbation theory and non-critical string models of Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Adrián R.; Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2010-04-01

    We carry out a gauge invariant analysis of certain perturbations of D - 2-branes solutions of low energy string theories. We get generically a system of second order coupled differential equations, and show that only in very particular cases it is possible to reduce it to just one differential equation. Later, we apply it to a multi-parameter, generically singular family of constant dilaton solutions of non-critical string theories in D dimensions, a generalization of that recently found in arXiv:0709.0471 [hep-th]. According to arguments coming from the holographic gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and at least in some region of the parameters space, we obtain glue-ball spectra of Yang-Mills theories in diverse dimensions, putting special emphasis in the scalar metric perturbations not considered previously in the literature in the non critical setup. We compare our numerical results to those studied previously and to lattice results, finding qualitative and in some cases, tuning properly the parameters, quantitative agreement. These results seem to show some kind of universality of the models, as well as an irrelevance of the singular character of the solutions. We also develop the analysis for the T-dual, non trivial dilaton family of solutions, showing perfect agreement between them.

  8. Yang-Mills amplitude relations at loop level from non-adjacent BCFW shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Isermann, Reinke Sven

    2012-03-01

    This article studies methods to obtain relations for scattering amplitudes at the loop level, with concrete examples at one loop. These methods originate in the analysis of large so-called Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts of tree level amplitudes and loop level integrands. In particular BCFW shifts for particles which are not color adjacent and some particular generalizations of this situation are analyzed in some detail in four and higher dimensions. For generic non-adjacent shifts our results are independent of loop order for integrands and hold for generic minimally coupled gauge theories with possible scalar potential and Yukawa terms. By a standard argument this result indicates a generalization of the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations for tree level amplitudes exists to the integrand at all loop levels. A concrete relation is presented at one loop. Furthermore, inspired by results in QED it is shown that the results on generalized BCFW shifts of tree level amplitudes imply relations for the so-called rational, bubble and triangle terms of one loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills theory. Bubble and triangle terms for instance are shown to obey a five photon decoupling identity, while a three photon decoupling identity is demonstrated for the rational terms. Along the same lines recently conjectured relations for helicity equal amplitudes at one loop are shown to generalize to helicity independent relations for the massive box coefficient of the rational terms.

  9. Hamiltonian approach to 1 + 1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, H. Schleifenbaum, W.

    2009-04-15

    We study the Hamiltonian approach to 1 + 1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, considering both the pure Coulomb gauge and the gauge where in addition the remaining constant gauge field is restricted to the Cartan algebra. We evaluate the corresponding Faddeev-Popov determinants, resolve Gauss' law and derive the Hamiltonians, which differ in both gauges due to additional zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel in the pure Coulomb gauge. By Gauss' law the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel constrain the physical wave functionals to zero colour charge states. We solve the Schroedinger equation in the pure Coulomb gauge and determine the vacuum wave functional. The gluon and ghost propagators and the static colour Coulomb potential are calculated in the first Gribov region as well as in the fundamental modular region, and Gribov copy effects are studied. We explicitly demonstrate that the Dyson-Schwinger equations do not specify the Gribov region while the propagators and vertices do depend on the Gribov region chosen. In this sense, the Dyson-Schwinger equations alone do not provide the full non-abelian quantum gauge theory, but subsidiary conditions must be required. Implications of Gribov copy effects for lattice calculations of the infrared behaviour of gauge-fixed propagators are discussed. We compute the ghost-gluon vertex and provide a sensible truncation of Dyson-Schwinger equations. Approximations of the variational approach to the 3 + 1 dimensional theory are checked by comparison to the 1 + 1 dimensional case.

  10. Fengshui forests conserve genetic diversity: a case study of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y J; Liu, Y J; Shen, A H; Lin, X C

    2015-03-20

    Fengshui forests (sacred groves) are important in traditional Chinese culture and home to many endangered species. These forests may provide protection for some endangered plant species outside the nature reserves, but little is known about their role in genetic conservation. Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, we compared the genetic diversity of 6 populations of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang, a commercially important woody species, which is under second-class national protection and endemic to China. Samples were collected from the nature reserves and Fengshui forests in southern China. Herein, we show that Fengshui forest populations are capable of maintaining some level of genetic diversity. For nature reserve populations, the average NA and NE were 1.58 and 1.39, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 1.39 and 1.12, respectively. For nature reserve populations, Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's index (I) were 0.32 and 0.11, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 0.22 and 0.07, respectively. We discuss the reasons for the genetic differences between populations of the Fengshui forests and nature reserves and propose conservation strategies for the Fengshui forest.

  11. Constraints on the infrared behavior of the ghost propagator in Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2008-11-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds for the momentum-space ghost propagator G(p) of Yang-Mills theories in terms of the smallest nonzero eigenvalue (and of the corresponding eigenvector) of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. We apply our analysis to data from simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in Landau gauge, using the largest lattice sizes to date. Our results suggest that, in three and in four space-time dimensions, the Landau gauge ghost propagator is not enhanced as compared to its tree-level behavior. This is also seen in plots and fits of the ghost dressing function. In the two-dimensional case, on the other hand, we find that G(p) diverges as p{sup -2-2{kappa}} with {kappa}{approx_equal}0.15, in agreement with A. Maas, Phys. Rev. D 75, 116004 (2007). We note that our discussion is general, although we make an application only to pure gauge theory in Landau gauge. Our simulations have been performed on the IBM supercomputer at the University of Sao Paulo.

  12. Parametric instability of classical Yang-Mills fields in a color magnetic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Shoichiro; Iida, Hideaki; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira

    2015-04-01

    We investigate instabilities of classical Yang-Mills fields in a time-dependent spatially homogeneous color magnetic background field in a nonexpanding geometry for elucidating the earliest stage dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The background field configuration considered in this article is spatially homogeneous and temporally periodic and is introduced by Berges-Scheffler-Schlichting-Sexty (BSSS). We discuss the whole structure of instability bands of fluctuations around the BSSS background gauge field on the basis of Floquet theory, which enables us to discuss the stability in a systematic way. We find various instability bands on the (pz,pT) plane. These instability bands are caused by parametric resonance despite the fact that the momentum dependence of the growth rate for |p |≤√{B } is similar to a Nielsen-Olesen instability. Moreover, some of the instability bands are found to emerge not only in the low-momentum but also in the high-momentum region, typically of the order of the saturation momentum as |p |˜√{B }˜Qs .

  13. Non-intersecting Brownian walkers and Yang-Mills theory on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We study a system of N non-intersecting Brownian motions on a line segment [0,L] with periodic, absorbing and reflecting boundary conditions. We show that the normalized reunion probabilities of these Brownian motions in the three models can be mapped to the partition function of two-dimensional continuum Yang-Mills theory on a sphere respectively with gauge groups U(N), Sp(2N) and SO(2N). Consequently, we show that in each of these Brownian motion models, as one varies the system size L, a third order phase transition occurs at a critical value L=L(N)˜√{N} in the large N limit. Close to the critical point, the reunion probability, properly centered and scaled, is identical to the Tracy-Widom distribution describing the probability distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random matrix. For the periodic case we obtain the Tracy-Widom distribution corresponding to the GUE random matrices, while for the absorbing and reflecting cases we get the Tracy-Widom distribution corresponding to GOE random matrices. In the absorbing case, the reunion probability is also identified as the maximal height of N non-intersecting Brownian excursions ("watermelons" with a wall) whose distribution in the asymptotic scaling limit is then described by GOE Tracy-Widom law. In addition, large deviation formulas for the maximum height are also computed.

  14. The Two-Loop Six-Point MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.; Roiban, R.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2008-03-12

    We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal symmetry fixes their form at six points and beyond.

  15. Yang-Mills field theory in an axial field-strength gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburski, Lawrence

    1984-02-01

    We introduce what we call an axial field-strength gauge as an alternative to the conventional Coulomb gauge in the Yang-Mills field theory. This new gauge does not share the pathologies that were shown to exist in the Coulomb gauge by Gribov and Mandelstam. We apply this new gauge to the calculation, in two special cases, of the energy possessed by sources J1,20 interacting in the presence of a background field produced by a source J30, which is assumed to be of order g-1, in the limit g goes to zero, where g is the coupling constant. In the case in which the charge density J30 consists of two infinite uniform parallel plates bearing charge densities equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, we find that the potential energy possessed by two point particles bearing charge densities J1,20 grows linearly in proportion to the distance between them at large distances when the two particles are separated along a line parallel to the background field. This is a confining potential.

  16. Exterior integrability: Yang-Baxter form of non-equilibrium steady-state density operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Ilievski, Enej; Popkov, Vladislav

    2013-07-01

    A new type of quantum transfer matrix, arising as a Cholesky factor for the steady-state density matrix of a dissipative Markovian process associated with the boundary-driven Lindblad equation for the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg (XXX) chain, is presented. The transfer matrix forms a commuting family of non-Hermitian operators depending on the spectral parameter, which is essentially the strength of dissipative coupling at the boundaries. The intertwining of the corresponding Lax and monodromy matrices is performed by an infinitely dimensional Yang-Baxter R-matrix, which we construct explicitly and is essentially different from the standard 4 × 4 XXX R-matrix. We also discuss a possibility to construct Bethe ansatz for the spectrum and eigenstates of the non-equilibrium steady-state density operator. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a deformed R-matrix in the infinite dimensional auxiliary space for the anisotropic XXZ spin-1/2 chain, which in general provides a sequence of new, possibly quasi-local, conserved quantities of the bulk XXZ dynamics.

  17. The Yin and Yang of Wnt/Ryk axon guidance in development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte E J; Liu, Yaobo; Cooper, Helen M

    2014-04-01

    In the developing embryo, nascent axons navigate towards their specific targets to establish the intricate network of axonal connections linking neurons within the mature nervous system. Molecular navigational systems comprising repulsive and attractive guidance cues form chemotactic gradients along the pathway of the exploring growth cone. Axon-bound receptors detect these gradients and determine the trajectory of the migrating growth cone. In contrast to their benevolent role in the developing nervous system, repulsive guidance receptors are detrimental to the axon's ability to regenerate after injury in the adult. In this review we explore the essential and beneficial role played by the chemorepulsive Wnt receptor, Ryk/Derailed in axon navigation in the embryonic nervous system (the Yin function). Specifically, we focus on the role of Wnt5a/Rykmediated guidance in the establishment of two major axon tracts in the mammalian central nervous system, the corticospinal tract and the corpus callosum. Recent studies have also identified Ryk as a major suppressor of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Thus, we also discuss this opposing aspect of Ryk function in axonal regeneration where its activity is a major impediment to axon regrowth (the Yang function).

  18. Design and fabrication of liquid nitrogen thermal shields for the MFTF yin-yang magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.L.; Chang, Y.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-10-12

    This paper documents the design and fabrication of thin liquid nitrogen-cooled panels installed on the 340-ton MFTF yin-yang superconducting magnet system. The 344 panels are made of polished 316-L stainless steel with the pillowed fluid channels formed by inflation with a high pressure gas. Strict leak-rate limits required the manufacturer to thermal shock the panels with LN/sub 2/ and then vacuum leak check them with He. The thin-walled panel supports are made from an epoxy base, fiberglass composite which is reliable at cryogenic vacuum conditions. Quick and reliable welding of the manifold system was assured using a pair of automated tube welders on the more than 4000 feet of tubing and 1000 butt-weld fittings. To assure sufficient flow for single-phase LN/sub 2/ flow conditions, we performed a hydraulic network flow analysis. This allowed for some optimization of shield-inlet-flow conditions and manifold design. To verify operating fluid pressure and temperature, special pressure transducers and platinum resistance thermometers capable of operation at cryogenic conditions in a vacuum, high magnetic field, and long-term neutron bombardment were installed. Final assembly is complete. The final installation on the magnet was difficult due to the orientation of the magnet assembly and the restricted access to some installation surfaces.

  19. Massive Yang-Mills theory based on the nonlinearly realized gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinelli, D.; Ferrari, R.; Quadri, A.

    2008-02-15

    We propose a subtraction scheme for a massive Yang-Mills theory realized via a nonlinear representation of the gauge group [here SU(2)]. It is based on the subtraction of the poles in D-4 of the amplitudes, in dimensional regularization, after a suitable normalization has been performed. Perturbation theory is in the number of loops, and the procedure is stable under iterative subtraction of the poles. The unphysical Goldstone bosons, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, and the unphysical mode of the gauge field are expected to cancel out in the unitarity equation. The spontaneous symmetry breaking parameter is not a physical variable. We use the tools already tested in the nonlinear sigma model: hierarchy in the number of Goldstone boson legs and weak-power-counting property (finite number of independent divergent amplitudes at each order). It is intriguing that the model is naturally based on the symmetry SU(2){sub L} local x SU(2){sub R} global. By construction the physical amplitudes depend on the mass and on the self-coupling constant of the gauge particle and moreover on the scale parameter of the radiative corrections. The Feynman rules are in the Landau gauge.

  20. Virtuous trees at five- and six-point levels for Yang-Mills theory and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Broedel, Johannes; Carrasco, John Joseph M.

    2011-10-15

    We present a particularly nice D-dimensional graph-based representation of the full color-dressed five-point tree-level gluon amplitude. It possesses the following virtues: (1) it satisfies the color-kinematic correspondence, and thus trivially generates the associated five-point graviton amplitude, (2) all external-state information is encoded in color-ordered partial amplitudes, and (3) one function determines the kinematic contribution of all graphs in the Yang-Mills amplitude, so the associated gravity amplitude is manifestly permutation symmetric. The third virtue, while shared among all known loop-level correspondence-satisfying representations, is novel for tree-level representations sharing the first two virtues. This new D-dimensional representation makes contact with the recently found multiloop five-point representations, suggesting all-loop, all-multiplicity ramifications through unitarity. Additionally we present a slightly less virtuous representation of the six-point maximally helicity-violating (MHV) and MHV amplitudes that holds only in four dimensions.

  1. The three-loop Yang-Mills condensate dark energy model and its cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xia, T. Y.

    2008-10-01

    This work is a comprehensive investigation of the Yang-Mills condensate (YMC) dark energy (DE) model, which is extended to include the three-loop quantum corrections. We study its cosmic evolution and the possibility of crossing the phantom divide w = -1, examine in detail the Hubble parameter H, the deceleration parameter q, the statefinder (r,s) diagnostic and the w-w' diagnostic for the model without and with interaction, and compare our results with other DE models. Also, using the observational data for type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the shift parameter from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak from large scale structures (LSS), we give the cosmological constraints on the three-loop YMC model. It is found that the model can solve the coincidence problem naturally, and its prediction of the aforementioned parameter is much closer to the ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) model one than those from other dynamical DE models; the introduction of the matter-DE interaction will make the YMC model deviate from the ΛCDM model, and will give an equation of state crossing -1. Moreover, it is also found that, for fitting the latest SNIa data alone, the ΛCDM model is slightly better than the three-loop YMC model; but in fitting the combination of SNIa, CMB and LSS data, the three-loop YMC model performs better than the ΛCDM model.

  2. Non-Abelian Meissner effect in Yang-Mills theories at weak coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2005-02-15

    We present a weak-coupling Yang-Mills model supporting non-Abelian magnetic flux tubes and non-Abelian confined magnetic monopoles. In the dual description the magnetic flux tubes are prototypes of the QCD strings. Dualizing the confined magnetic monopoles we get gluelumps which convert a 'QCD string' in the excited state to that in the ground state. Introducing a mass parameter m we discover a phase transition between the Abelian and non-Abelian confinement at a critical value m=m{sub *}{approx}{lambda}. Underlying dynamics are governed by a Z{sub N} symmetry inherent to the model under consideration. At m>m{sub *} the Z{sub N} symmetry is spontaneously broken, resulting in N degenerate Z{sub N} (Abelian) strings. At m>1.

  3. Thermodynamics, contact, and density profiles of the repulsive Gaudin-Yang model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PâÅ£u, Ovidiu I.; Klümper, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We address the problem of computing the thermodynamic properties of the repulsive one-dimensional two-component Fermi gas with contact interaction, also known as the Gaudin-Yang model. Using a specific lattice embedding and the quantum transfer matrix we derive an exact system of only two nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamics of the homogeneous model which is valid for all temperatures and values of the chemical potential, magnetic field, and coupling strength. This system allows for an easy and extremely accurate calculation of thermodynamic properties circumventing the difficulties associated with the truncation of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz system of equations. We present extensive results for the densities, polarization, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, interaction energy, Tan contact, and local correlation function of opposite spins. Our results show that at low and intermediate temperatures the experimentally accessible contact is a nonmonotonic function of the coupling strength. As a function of the temperature the contact presents a pronounced local minimum in the Tonks-Girardeau regime which signals an abrupt change of the momentum distribution in a small interval of temperature. The density profiles of the system in the presence of a harmonic trapping potential are computed using the exact solution of the homogeneous model coupled with the local density approximation. We find that at finite temperature the density profile presents a double shell structure (partially polarized center and fully polarized wings) only when the polarization in the center of the trap is above a critical value which is monotonically increasing with temperature.

  4. The Yin and Yang of Formative Research in Designing Serious (Exer-)games.

    PubMed

    DeSmet, Ann; Palmeira, António; Beltran, Alicia; Brand, Leah; Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Thompson, Debbe

    2015-02-01

    Despite its relevance, formative research on games may be an undervalued part of the game development process. At the 2014 International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity exergaming preconference satellite meeting, a roundtable discussion was held to assemble experiences and suggestions on enhancing the use of formative research in the development of active videogames (i.e., exergames). This article presents a summary of the concepts discussed. The discussants concluded that, although formative research may slightly expand the project timeline, the potential benefits include a game more in line with preferences of the intended users, with better operationalized theoretical constructs and broader stakeholder support, facilitating implementation and sustainability. It also improves the efficiency of other research parts because of a lower dropout rate of participants. Formative, qualitative research is thus a necessary complement to quantitative measurements of intervention outcomes, in a sort of Yin and Yang dynamic. An adapted version of formative research that casts a wider net may, however, be needed, involving both behavioral scientists and game developers, expanding the topics beyond the game's looks and soliciting the opinions of a larger group of stakeholders, such as implementers, gatekeepers, and funders.

  5. An object oriented code for simulating supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, Simon; Joseph, Anosh

    2012-06-01

    We present SUSY_LATTICE - a C++ program that can be used to simulate certain classes of supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, including the well known N=4 SYM in four dimensions, on a flat Euclidean space-time lattice. Discretization of SYM theories is an old problem in lattice field theory. It has resisted solution until recently when new ideas drawn from orbifold constructions and topological field theories have been brought to bear on the question. The result has been the creation of a new class of lattice gauge theories in which the lattice action is invariant under one or more supersymmetries. The resultant theories are local, free of doublers and also possess exact gauge-invariance. In principle they form the basis for a truly non-perturbative definition of the continuum SYM theories. In the continuum limit they reproduce versions of the SYM theories formulated in terms of twisted fields, which on a flat space-time is just a change of the field variables. In this paper, we briefly review these ideas and then go on to provide the details of the C++ code. We sketch the design of the code, with particular emphasis being placed on SYM theories with N=(2,2) in two dimensions and N=4 in three and four dimensions, making one-to-one comparisons between the essential components of the SYM theories and their corresponding counterparts appearing in the simulation code. The code may be used to compute several quantities associated with the SYM theories such as the Polyakov loop, mean energy, and the width of the scalar eigenvalue distributions. Program summaryProgram title: SUSY_LATTICE Catalogue identifier: AELS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9315 No. of bytes in distributed program

  6. Unified Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Murat; McReynolds, Sean; Zagermann, Marco

    2005-09-01

    We study unified Script N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) and unified Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity theories (YMESGTs) in four dimensions. As their defining property, these theories admit the action of a global or local symmetry group that is (i) simple, and (ii) acts irreducibly on all the vector fields of the theory, including the ``graviphoton''. Restricting ourselves to the theories that originate from five dimensions via dimensional reduction, we find that the generic Jordan family of MESGTs with the scalar manifolds Script M = [SU(1,1)/U(1)]×[SO(2,n)/SO(2)×SO(n)] are all unified in four dimensions with the unifying global symmetry group SO(2,n). Of these theories only one can be gauged so as to obtain a unified YMESGT with the gauge group SO(2,1). Three of the four magical supergravity theories defined by simple euclidean Jordan algebras J3Bbb A(Bbb A = Bbb C,Bbb H,Bbb O) of degree 3 are unified MESGTs in four dimensions. The MESGTs defined by J3Bbb C and J3Bbb O can furthermore be gauged so as to obtain a 4D unified YMESGT with gauge groups SO(3,2) and SO(6,2), respectively. The generic non-Jordan family and the theories whose scalar manifolds are homogeneous but not symmetric do not lead to unified MESGTs in four dimensions. The three infinite families of unified five-dimensional MESGTs defined by simple lorentzian Jordan algebras of degree p≠4, whose scalar manifolds are non-homogeneous, do not lead directly to unified MESGTs in four dimensions under dimensional reduction. However, since their manifolds are non-homogeneous we are not able to completely rule out the existence of symplectic sections in which these theories become unified in four dimensions.

  7. Doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspar, S.; Mesterházy, D.; Olesen, T. Z.; Vlasii, N. D.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2016-11-01

    We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group G in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm phase, which is manifested in the doubled theory in terms of a nontrivial ground-state degeneracy on a single cross. We discuss several examples of these doubled theories with different gauge groups including the cyclic group Z(k) ⊂ U(1) , the symmetric group S3 ⊂ O(2) , the binary dihedral (or quaternion) group D¯2 ⊂ SU(2) , and the finite group Δ(27) ⊂ SU(3) . In each case the spectrum of the single-cross electric Hamiltonian is determined exactly. We examine the nature of the low-lying excited states in the full Hilbert space, and emphasize the role of the center symmetry for the confinement of charges. Whether the investigated doubled models admit a non-Abelian topological state which allows for fault-tolerant quantum computation will be addressed in a future publication.

  8. PCSK9 and LDLR The Yin-Yang in the Cellular Uptake of Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Morales-Villegas, E

    2014-07-01

    The intracellular concentration of cholesterol is a vital constant influenced by the uptake, metabolism and excretion of cholesterol. The synthesis and expression of the PCSK9-LDLR duo is one of the most important mechanisms to regulate this constant; in a physiological state, the yin-yang balance between PCSK9 and LDLR regulates the entry of cholesterol into the cell to keep the intracellular cholesterol concentration stable. The mapping of the human gene encoding the serine protease PCSK9, located at 1p32-3, has allowed the identification of mutations with "gain" and "loss" of protease functions. Gain of function mutations causes decreased LDLR resulting in increased LDL-C and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Loss of function mutations have opposite effect, increased LDLR, decreased LDL-C and decreased incidence of cardiovascular events. The identification of human mutations with PCSK9 "loss" of function demostrated the benefit of decreased PCSK9 and opened the door to developing new anti-PCSK9 therapies. The goal of this research area is to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events beyond statins; the strategy is to mimic the state of PCSK9 "loss" of function by tactics as oligonucleotide therapies targeting PCSK9 mRNA and/or biological therapies with human monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9. This chapter reviews, the characteristics of the PCSK9, the physiological significance of the PCSK9-LDLR duo, and the therapeutic implications of the human genetic models of PCSK9 "loss" of function. The phase I-II clinical trial data of two promising monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9, Alirocumab formerly SAR236553/REGN727and AMG145 will be presented. PMID:24993279

  9. Roles of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in behavioural neuroendocrinology: beyond Yin/Yang.

    PubMed

    Rissman, E F

    2008-06-01

    Oestrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) was discovered more than 10 years ago. It is widely distributed in the brain. In some areas, such as the entorhinal cortex, it is present as the only ER, whereas in other regions, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, it can be found co-expressed with ERalpha, often within the same neurones. These ERs share ligands, and there are several complex relationships between the two receptors. Initially, the relationship between them was labelled as 'yin/yang', meaning that the actions of each complemented those of the other, but now, years later, other relationships have been described. Based on evidence from neuroendocrine and behavioural studies, three types of interactions between the two oestrogen receptors are described in this review. The first relationship is antagonistic; this is evident from studies on the role of oestrogen in spatial learning. When oestradiol is given in a high, chronic dose, spatial learning is impaired. This action of oestradiol requires ERalpha, and when ERbeta is not functional, lower doses of oestradiol have this negative effect on behaviour. The second relationship between the two receptors is one that is synergistic, and this is illustrated in the combined effects of the two receptors on the production of the neuropeptide oxytocin and its receptor. The third relationship is sequential; separate actions of the two receptors are postulated in activation and organisation of sexually dimorphic reproductive behaviours. Future studies on all of these topics will inform us about how ER selective ligands might affect oestrogen functions at the organismal level.

  10. Yang-Mills theory on a momentum lattice: Gauge invariance, chiral invariance, and no fermion doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Berube, D.; Kroeger, H.; Lafrance, R.; Marleau, L. )

    1991-02-15

    We discuss properties of a noncompact formulation of gauge theories with fermions on a momentum ({ital k}) lattice. (a) This formulation is suitable to build in Fourier acceleration in a direct way. (b) The numerical effort to compute the action (by fast Fourier transform) goes essentially like log{ital V} with the lattice volume {ital V}. (c) For the Yang-Mills theory we find that the action conserves gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry in a weak sense: On a finite lattice the action is invariant under infinitesimal transformations with compact support. Under finite transformations these symmetries are approximately conserved and they are restored on an infinite lattice and in the continuum limit. Moreover, these symmetries also hold on a finite lattice under finite transformations, if the classical fields, instead of being {ital c}-number valued, take values from a finite Galois field. (d) There is no fermion doubling. (e) For the {phi}{sup 4} model we investigate the transition towards the continuum limit in lattice perturbation theory up to second order. We compute the two- and four-point functions and find local and Lorentz-invariant results. (f) In QED we compute a one-loop vacuum polarization and find in the continuum limit the standard result. (g) As a numerical application, we compute the propagator {l angle}{phi}({ital k}){phi}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the {phi}{sup 4} model, investigate Euclidean invariance, and extract {ital m}{sub {ital R}} as well as {ital Z}{sub {ital R}}. Moreover we compute {l angle}{ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}){ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the SU(2) model.

  11. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  12. Topological strings and large N phase transitions I: Nonchiral expansion of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Pasquetti, Sara; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the problem of counting bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau threefolds which are fibrations over a Riemann surface by computing the partition function of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. We study in detail the genus zero case and obtain, at finite N, the instanton expansion of the gauge theory. It can be written exactly as the partition function for U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory on a Lens space, summed over all non-trivial vacua, plus a tower of non-perturbative instanton contributions. The correspondence between two and three dimensional gauge theories is elucidated by an explicit mapping between two-dimensional Yang-Mills instantons and flat connections on the Lens space. In the large N limit we find a peculiar phase structure in the model. At weak string coupling the theory reduces exactly to the trivial flat connection sector with instanton contributions exponentially suppressed, and the topological string partition function on the resolved conifold is reproduced in this regime. At a certain critical point all non-trivial vacua contribute, instantons are enhanced and the theory appears to undergo a phase transition into a strong coupling regime. We rederive these results by performing a saddle-point approximation to the exact partition function. We obtain a q-deformed version of the Douglas-Kazakov equation for two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on the sphere, whose one-cut solution below the transition point reproduces the resolved conifold geometry. Above the critical point we propose a two-cut solution that should reproduce the chiral-antichiral dynamics found for black holes on the Calabi-Yau threefold and the Gross-Taylor string in the undeformed limit. The transition from the strong coupling phase to the weak coupling phase appears to be of third order.

  13. A Study of the Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) in the Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2015-03-01

    The Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) is a kind of elevation sundial using three wooden plates. Sang-hyeok Lee (李尙爀, 1810~?) and Byeong-cheol Nam (南秉哲, 1817~1863) gave descriptions of this sundial and explained how to use it in their Gyu-il-go (揆日考) and Ui-gi-jip-seol (儀器輯說), respectively. According to Gyu-il-go (揆日考) there are two horizontal plates and two vertical plates that have lines of season and time. Subseasonal (節候) lines are engraved between seasonal (節氣) lines, subdividing the interval into three equal lines of Cho-hu (初候, early subseason), Jung-hu (中候, mid subseason) and Mal-hu (末候, late subseason); there are 13 seasonal lines for a year, thus resulting in 37 subseasonal lines; also, there are 12 double-hour (時辰) lines for a day engraved on these plates. The only remaining artifact of Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui was made in 1849 (the 15th year of Heon-jong) and is kept at the Korea University Museum. We have compared and analyzed Yanggyeong- gyu-il-ui and similar western sundials. Also, we have reviewed the scientific aspect of this artifact and built a replica. Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui is a new model enhanced from the miniaturization development in the early Joseon Dynasty and can be applied to the southern part of the tropic line through a structure change.

  14. Magnetic black holes and monopoles in a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant: Exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P. S.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2016-04-01

    Alternative theories of gravity and their solutions are of considerable importance since, at some fundamental level, the world can reveal new features. Indeed, it is suspected that the gravitational field might be nonminimally coupled to the other fields at scales not yet probed, bringing into the forefront nonminimally coupled theories. In this mode, we consider a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant. Imposing spherical symmetry and staticity for the spacetime and a magnetic Wu-Yang ansatz for the Yang-Mills field, we find expressions for the solutions of the theory. Further imposing constraints on the nonminimal parameters, we find a family of exact solutions of the theory depending on five parameters—two nonminimal parameters, the cosmological constant, the magnetic charge, and the mass. These solutions represent magnetic monopoles and black holes in magnetic monopoles with de Sitter, Minkowskian, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics, depending on the sign and value of the cosmological constant Λ . We classify completely the family of solutions with respect to the number and the type of horizons and show that the spacetime solutions can have, at most, four horizons. For particular sets of the parameters, these horizons can become double, triple, and quadruple. For instance, for a positive cosmological constant Λ , there is a critical Λc for which the solution admits a quadruple horizon, evocative of the Λc that appears for a given energy density in both the Einstein static and Eddington-Lemaître dynamical universes. As an example of our classification, we analyze solutions in the Drummond-Hathrell nonminimal theory that describe nonminimal black holes. Another application is with a set of regular black holes previously treated.

  15. Classification of Static, Spherically Symmetric Solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills Theory with Positive Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlohner, Peter; Forgács, Peter; Maison, Dieter

    2006-02-01

    We give a complete classification of all static, spherically symmetric solutions of the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a positive cosmological constant. Our classification proceeds in two steps. We first extend solutions of the radial field equations to their maximal interval of existence. In a second step we determine the Carter-Penrose diagrams of all 4-dimensional space-times constructible from such radial pieces. Based on numerical studies we sketch a complete phase space picture of all solutions with a regular origin.

  16. Two-loop five-point amplitudes of super Yang-Mills and supergravity in pure spinor superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Supersymmetric integrands for the two-loop five-point amplitudes in tendimensional super Yang-Mills and type II supergravity are proposed. The kinematic numerators are manifestly local and satisfy the duality between color and kinematics described by Bern, Carrasco and Johansson. Our results are expected to reproduce the integrated two-loop amplitudes in dimensions D < 7. The UV divergence in the critical dimension D = 7 matches the low-energy limit of the corresponding superstring amplitudes and is written in terms of SYM tree amplitudes.

  17. Yang-Mills as massive Chern-Simons theory: a third way to three-dimensional gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Arvanitakis, Alex S; Sevrin, Alexander; Townsend, Paul K

    2015-05-01

    The Yang-Mills (YM) equation in three spacetime dimensions (3D) can be modified to include a novel parity-preserving interaction term, with an inverse mass parameter, in addition to a possible topological mass term. The novelty is that the modified YM equation is not the Euler-Lagrange equation of any gauge-invariant local action for the YM gauge potential alone. Instead, consistency is achieved in the "third way" exploited by 3D minimal massive gravity. We relate our results to the "novel Higgs mechanism" for Chern-Simons gauge theories.

  18. Nonsupersymmetric strong coupling background from the large N quantum mechanics of two matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Joao P.; Zaidi, Alia

    2010-10-15

    We derive a planar sector of the large N nonsupersymmetric background of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction, in terms of the density of eigenvalues of one of the matrices. This background satisfies an implicit nonlinear integral equation, with a perturbative small coupling expansion and a solvable large coupling solution, which is obtained. The energy of system and the expectation value of several correlators are obtained in this strong coupling limit. They are free of infrared divergences.

  19. Comparing the drag force on heavy quarks in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2007-12-15

    Computations of the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a thermal state of strongly coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory have appeared recently. I compare the strength of this effect between N=4 gauge theory and QCD, using the static force between external quarks to normalize the 't Hooft coupling. Comparing N=4 and QCD at fixed energy density then leads to a relaxation time of roughly 2 fm/c for charm quarks moving through a quark-gluon plasma at T=250 MeV. This estimate should be regarded as preliminary because of the difficulties of comparing two such different theories.

  20. Double hairpin diagrams and the planar equivalence of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and one-flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith-Hynes, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Recent work by Armoni, Shifman, and Veneziano suggests a large-N equivalence between super- symmetric Yang-Mills Theory and one-flavor QCD. One consequence of this "orientifold projec- tion" is that scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in one-flavor QCD should have degenerate mass since they lie within the same Wess-Zumino supermultiplet. We use lattice calculations to investigate the mass shifts caused by "double-hairpin" annihilation diagrams in quenched QCD to test for this degeneracy. Similar quark-antiquark annihilation processes are studied in the 2-dimensional CP´N1µ model with quenched fermions.

  1. Spin-connection generalized Yang-Mills fields on double-dual generalized Einstein-Cartan backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1988-05-01

    In every even dimension, a modification of the generalized Yang-Mills systems (modGYM) is introduced. It is shown that spin-connection modGYM fields, which are self-dual on a double-self-dual background of generalized Einstein-Cartan (GEC) gravity, can be constructed—this generalizes the constructions of Charap and Duff [Phys. Lett. B 69, 445 (1977)] in four dimensions, to all even dimensions. Additional duality constraints are also given that must be satisfied by the gravitational fields, if these constructions are to apply also to the full GYM systems. Applications to compactification, as well as relevant physical criteria, are briefly discussed.

  2. Integrable deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring and the classical Yang-Baxter equation - Towards the gravity/CYBE correspondence -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-11-01

    Based on the formulation of Yang-Baxter sigma models developed by Klimcik and Delduc-Magro-Vicedo, we explain that various deformations of type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S5 can be charactered by classical r-matrices satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE). The relation may be referred to as the gravity/CYBE correspondence. We present non-trivial examples of the correspondence including Lunin-Maldacena backgrounds for β-deformations of the N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory and the gravity duals for non-commutative gauge theories. We also discuss non-integrable backgrounds such as AdS5 × T1,1 as a generalization.

  3. Heat shock protein 27 is a potential indicator for response to YangZheng XiaoJi and chemotherapy agents in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Sioned; Zhao, Huishan; Dart, Alwyn; Wang, Yamei; Ruge, Fiona; Gao, Yong; Wei, Cong; Wu, Yiling; Jiang, Wen G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a member of the heat shock protein family which has been linked to tumour progression and, most interestingly, to chemotherapy resistance in cancer patients. The present study examined the potential interplay between HSP27 and YangZheng XiaoJi, a traditional Chinese medicine used in cancer treatment. A range of cell lines from different tumour types including pancreatic, lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer (both wild-type and resistant) were used. Levels and activation of HSP27 and its potential associated signalling pathways were evaluated by protein array and western blotting. Knockdown of HSP27 in cancer cells was achieved using siRNA. Localisation and co-localisation of HSP27 and other proteins were carried out by immunofluorescence. Cell growth and migration were evaluated in their response to a range of chemotherapeutic agents. The present study first identified, by way of protein array, that YangZheng XiaoJi was able to inhibit the phosphorylation of HSP27 protein in cancer cells. We further demonstrated that HSP27, which is co-localised with caspase-9, can be blocked from localising in focal adhesions and co-localising with caspase-9 by YangZheng XiaoJi. The study also demonstrated that YangZheng XiaoJi was able to sensitise cancer cells including those cells that were resistant to chemotherapy, to chemotherapeutic agents. Finally, knocking down HSP27 markedly reduced the migration of cancer cells and increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to the inhibitory effect on cellular migration by YangZheng XiaoJi. YangZheng XiaoJi can act as an agent in first sensitising cancer cells to chemotherapy and secondly to overcome, to some degree, chemoresistance when used in an appropriate fashion in patients who have active HSP27. PMID:27600495

  4. Cho Abelian decomposition to the exact A-M-A solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Khai-Ming; Teh, Rosy; Tie, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    We consider Cho Abelian decomposition to the exact A-M-A configurations in the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. The non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge potential is decomposed into the restricted and the valence part. With the decomposition, the complete Abelian picture that draws to the various monopoles configurations can be seen clearly. The singularities for the two accompanying antimonopoles and the vortex ring are removed by the corresponding valence potential. However the singularity of the composite monopole at the origin is not removed, but strengthened. Hence the composite monopole is a different kind of monopole entity. Elsewhere, the plane singularity in the solution is not readily be removed by the valence potential. On the other hand, we also solve the decomposed equations to study the solutions that lead to the spatial infinity boundary conditions of the various numerical monopoles configurations. The decomposed equations are also solved in the near-origin region for exact solutions and their properties such as the magnetic field are plotted, which confirms the correspondence with their properties at the near infinity region.

  5. On q-deformed symmetries as Poisson-Lie symmetries and application to Yang-Baxter type models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delduc, F.; Lacroix, S.; Magro, M.; Vicedo, B.

    2016-10-01

    Yang-Baxter type models are integrable deformations of integrable field theories, such as the principal chiral model on a Lie group G or σ-models on (semi-)symmetric spaces G/F. The deformation has the effect of breaking the global G-symmetry of the original model, replacing the associated set of conserved charges by ones whose Poisson brackets are those of the q-deformed Poisson-Hopf algebra {{\\mathscr{U}}}q({g}). Working at the Hamiltonian level, we show how this q-deformed Poisson algebra originates from a Poisson-Lie G-symmetry. The theory of Poisson-Lie groups and their actions on Poisson manifolds, in particular the formalism of the non-abelian moment map, is reviewed. For a coboundary Poisson-Lie group G, this non-abelian moment map must obey the Semenov-Tian-Shansky bracket on the dual group {G}* , up to terms involving central quantities. When the latter vanish, we develop a general procedure linking this Poisson bracket to the defining relations of the Poisson-Hopf algebra {{\\mathscr{U}}}q({g}), including the q-Poisson-Serre relations. We consider reality conditions leading to q being either real or a phase. We determine the non-abelian moment map for Yang-Baxter type models. This enables to compute the corresponding action of G on the fields parametrising the phase space of these models.

  6. Similarity between the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 image and the interface curve of Yin-Yang balance in the Ancient Tai-Chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui

    2009-03-01

    The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field between two cylinders simulate well the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 image [1] and the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram [2]. The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field involve four parameters. The normalization of the system of equations significantly simplifies the formulation of the flow process and reduces the original four parameters to only one parameter. Furthermore it provides the similarity between the formulation of the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 and that of the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram.

  7. A Response to Yang, Burrola, and Bryan: Suicide Ideation among Participants in an After-School Program--A Convenience Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The exploratory study conducted by Yang, Burrola, and Bryan (2009) provides an excellent platform for calling attention to the issue of suicide risk among elementary and middle school youth. Using their study as a catalyst, with this commentary I consider the finding that 12% of the young people surveyed acknowledged that they had "seriously…

  8. Optical conductivity of cuprates in the pseudogap state: Yang-Rice-Zhang model and antiferromagnetic spin waves

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    In the underdoped regime of the cuprate phase diagram, the modified version of the Resonance Valence Bond (RVB) model by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ) captures the strong electronic correlation effects very well as corroborated by the ARPES and many other experiments. However, under a non-equilibrium transport setting, YRZ says nothing about the scattering mechanisms of the charge carriers. In the present investigation we include, in a very simplified way, the scattering of charge carriers due to antiferromagnetic type spin waves (ASW). The effect of ASW excitations on conductivity has been studied by changing combined life times of the included process. It has been found that there is a qualitative change in the conductivity in the right direction. The theoretical conductivity reproduces qualitatively the experimental one.

  9. Propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory within the first order formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2007-02-15

    Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory within the first order formalism is considered with a view of deriving the propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first order formalism is studied with special emphasis on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) invariance and it is found that there exists two forms of invariance--invariance under the standard BRS transform and under a second, nonstandard transform. The field equations of motion and symmetries are derived explicitly and certain exact relations that simplify the formalism are presented. It is shown that the Ward-Takahashi identity arising from invariance under the nonstandard part of the BRS transform is guaranteed by the functional equations of motion. The Feynman rules and the general decomposition of the two-point Green's functions are derived. The propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations are derived and certain aspects (energy independence of ghost Green's functions and the cancellation of energy divergences) are discussed.

  10. Optical conductivity of cuprates in the pseudogap state: Yang-Rice-Zhang model and antiferromagnetic spin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-01

    In the underdoped regime of the cuprate phase diagram, the modified version of the Resonance Valence Bond (RVB) model by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ) captures the strong electronic correlation effects very well as corroborated by the ARPES and many other experiments. However, under a non-equilibrium transport setting, YRZ says nothing about the scattering mechanisms of the charge carriers. In the present investigation we include, in a very simplified way, the scattering of charge carriers due to antiferromagnetic type spin waves (ASW). The effect of ASW excitations on conductivity has been studied by changing combined life times of the included process. It has been found that there is a qualitative change in the conductivity in the right direction. The theoretical conductivity reproduces qualitatively the experimental one.

  11. Black p-branes versus black holes in non-asymptotically flat Einstein-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Mazharimousavi, S.; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a class of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) charged black p-branes (BpB) with p-compact dimensions in higher-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Asymptotically the NAF structure manifests itself as an anti-de sitter spacetime. We determine the total mass/energy enclosed in a thin shell located outside the event horizon. By comparing the entropies of BpB with those of black holes in the same dimensions we derive transition criteria between the two types of black objects. Given certain conditions satisfied, our analysis shows that BpB can be considered excited states of black holes. An event horizon r+ versus charge square Q2 plot for the BpB reveals such a transition where r+ is related to the horizon radius rh of the black hole (BH) both with the common charge Q.

  12. Lattice study of two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory at large N

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, Masanori; Kanamori, Issaku

    2009-09-15

    We study two-dimensional N=(2,2) SU(N) super Yang-Mills theory on Euclidean two-torus using Sugino's lattice regularization. We perform the Monte Carlo simulation for N=2,3,4,5 and then extrapolate the result to N={infinity}. With the periodic boundary conditions for the fermions along both circles, we establish the existence of a bound state in which scalar fields clump around the origin, in spite of the existence of a classical flat direction. In this phase the global (Z{sub N}){sup 2} symmetry turns out to be broken. We provide a simple explanation for this fact and discuss its physical implications.

  13. The Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in induction of cancer-specific T-cell responses and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Song; Liu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Jin-Qing; Zhu, Xiaotong; Liu, Zhihao; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences from animal studies have indicated that both endogenous and exogenous IL-27, an IL-12 family of cytokine, can increase antitumor T-cell activities and inhibit tumor growth. IL-27 can modulate Treg responses, and program effector T cells into a unique T-effector stem cell (TSEC) phenotype, which enhances T-cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. However, animal studies also suggest that IL-27 induces molecular pathways such as IL-10, PD-L1 and CD39, which may downregulate tumor-specific T-cell responses. In this review paper, we will discuss the Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses, and the potential impacts of these functions of IL-27 in the design of cancer immunotherapy.

  14. The "enduring mission" of Zing-Yang Kuo to eliminate the nature-nurture dichotomy in psychology.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Hunter

    2011-05-01

    This paper reviews the arguments against the instinct concept and the nature-nurture dichotomy put forward by Zing-Yang Kuo (1898-1970) during the 1920s. Kuo insisted that nativism represented a kind of finished psychology, and that the labels of nature and nurture reflected and promoted one's ignorance of the development of a trait. Also discussed are his lesser known lines of research on the origins of the so-called rat-killing instinct in cats and his analysis on the determinants of animal fighting. His research illustrated the shortcomings of a nature-nurture framework and highlighted the necessity of his developmentally grounded alternative to studying behavior. Reasons for why Kuo's work has been marginalized in modern histories of psychology are also discussed.

  15. Biopsychological structure of Yin-Yang using Cloninger's Temperament model and Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun; Chae, Han

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White's Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger's temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger's temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger's four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p < .001), Novelty-Seeking (F = 4.945, p < .01), and Harm-Avoidance (F = 10.912, p < .001) were observed between high and low SPQ score groups after controlling for sex. The SPQ showed significant correlation with BAS (r = 0.303), Novelty-Seeking (r = 0.225), and Harm-Avoidance (r = - 0.273). However, BIS showed no significant differences between SPQ groups, and did not show correlation with the SPQ. Discussion. The current study demonstrated that Yin-Yang has similarities with and disparities from the Western tradition and may be examined with objective instruments. We showed that the emotionality of the East which is defined as mobility of emotion, not emotional instability as traditionally defined in Western theories, is pivotal for understanding the nature of emotion in the East. Suggestions are made for cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West.

  16. Novel chinmedomics strategy for discovering effective constituents from ShenQiWan acting on ShenYangXu syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hang; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Liang; Tan, Yun-Long; Guan, Yu; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Elucidation of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is of importance for scientists of modern medicine to understand the value of TCM clinical experience, and it is necessary to have a biological language to scientifically describe the efficacy of TCM. With this background?Chinmedomics has been proposed by our team, which includes integrating serum pharmacochemistry and metabolomics technology, defining theory and research methods for expressing the efficacy of TCMs based on the biomarkers discovery of TCM syndrome and elucidating the efficacy of TCM formulae, discovering effective constituents, and finally elucidating the scientific value of TCM. In the present study, the innovative chinmedomics strategy was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ShenQiWan (SQW) acting on ShenYangXu (kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, KYDS). We analyzed the urine metabolic trajectory between the model and control groups, and identified the biomarkers by the multivariate analysis. We found that SQW caused significant restoration of abnormal metabolism of KYDs. Using the method of metabolomics, 17 potential urine biomarkers were analyzed through 4 repeated tests in our serial studies on SQW and KYDS. Under the premise of therapeutic efficacy, a total of 56 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo by the use of serum pharmacochemistry. Correlation analysis between marker metabolites and in vivo constituents of SQW showed that 28 compositions had a close relationship with urine biomarkers of therapeutic effects, whichmight play a key role in the therapeutic effect of SQW. These compounds were imported into an online database to predict their targets. Twenty-three important potential targets were identified, which were related to the metabolism of steroid hormone, tryptophan utilization, and thyroid hormone. In conclusion, chinmedomics is a useful strategy for discovery of potentially effective constituents from complex TCM formulae. PMID:27608946

  17. Faddeev-Popov-ghost propagators for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2008-09-15

    The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  18. Symmetries of the 4D self-dual Yang-Mills equation and the reduction to the 2D KdV equation

    SciTech Connect

    HoSeong La )

    1992-04-01

    The Lie-point and the Lie-Baecklund symmetries of 4D self-dual Yang-Mills equation are investigated as those of differential equations. The Lie-point symmetry is nothing but the gauge symmetry at the level of field equation, but the Lie-Baecklund symmetries are new. In particular, by the symmetry reduction to KdV equation in 2D the corresponding Lie-Baecklund symmetries which reduce to the isospectral symmetries or to the nonisospectral symmetries are identified. Some speculations on the existence of the self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy as well as the derivation of the 4D analogue of the string equation of the nonperturbative 2D quantum gravity are given.

  19. A geometric method of constructing exact solutions in modified f(R, T)-gravity with Yang-Mills and Higgs interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Veliev, Elşen Veli; Yazici, Enis

    2014-09-01

    We show that geometric techniques can be elaborated and applied for constructing generic off-diagonal exact solutions in f(R, T)-modified gravity for systems of gravitational-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. The corresponding classes of metrics and generalized connections are determined by generating and integration functions which depend, in general, on all space and time coordinates and may possess, or not, Killing symmetries. For nonholonomic constraints resulting in Levi-Civita configurations, we can extract solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. We show that the constructions simplify substantially for metrics with at least one Killing vector. Some examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed.

  20. [Effect of Jingui Shenqi pill combined with nifedipine for the treatment of elderly hypertensive patients with spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-dong; Fu, Jian; Feng, Mu-zhong; Zhang, Zheng-hua

    2015-12-01

    Totally 96 elderly patients with spleen-kidney Yang deficiency type hypertension were selected in this study. Patients were randomly divided into study and control group. It was treated with the Jingui Shenqi pill combined nifedipine sustained-release tablets in the study group and only nifedipine sustained-release tablets for the control group. Meanwhile, the clinical features including reducing blood pressure, blood lipid and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes of the two groups were observed pre and post treatment. Finally, the results showed that it could significantly reduce the hypertensive, hyperlipidemia and TCM syndromes in the study group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), which indicated that the combination of the Jingui Shenqi pill with nifedipine sustained-release tablets was effective for the patients with hypertension with spleen-kidney Yang deficiency type, especially for decreasing TCM syndromes and the blood lipid. PMID:27245042

  1. Direct evaluation of n-point single-trace MHV amplitudes in 4d Einstein-Yang-Mills theory using the CHY formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we extend our techniques, developed in a previous paper [1] for direct evaluation of arbitrary n-point tree-level MHV amplitudes in 4d Yang-Mills and gravity theory using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formalism, to the 4d Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory. Any single-trace color-ordered n-point tree-level MHV amplitude in EYM theory, obtained by a direct evaluation of the CHY formula, is of an elegant factorized form of a Parke-Taylor factor and a Hodges determinant, much simpler and more compact than the existing formulas in the literature. We prove that our new expression is equivalent to the conjectured Selivanov-Bern-De Freitas-Wong (SBDW) formula, with the help of a new theorem showing that the SBDW generating function has a graph theory interpretation. Together with ref. [1], we provide strong analytic evidence for hidden simplicity in quantum field theory.

  2. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 2. Application for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.

  3. [To explore "the relief time" of diseases involving the six meridians in Shang Han Lun in light of the sequence of three yin and three yang].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Xue; Cui, Jian

    2008-02-01

    The time of six meridians diseases tending to be cured in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Diseases) is always one of the key points for study, but up till now no satisfied explanations are made. The authors try to study it on the basis of the theory of "three-yin and three-yang" according to the relationship between human body and the environment.

  4. Electrically charged finite energy solutions of an SO(5) and an SU(3) Higgs-Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2015-05-01

    We study spherically symmetric finite energy solutions of two Higgs-Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs (HCS-YMH) models in 3+1 dimensions, one with gauge group SO(5) and the other with SU(3). The Chern-Simons (CS) densities are defined in terms of both the Yang-Mills (YM) and Higgs fields and the choice of the two gauge groups is made so that they do not vanish. The solutions of the SO(5) model carry only electric charge and zero magnetic charge, while the solutions of the SU(3) model are dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges like the Julia-Zee (JZ) dyon. Unlike the latter, however, the electric charge in both models receives an important contribution from the CS dynamics. We pay special attention to the relation between the energies and charges of these solutions. In contrast with the electrically charged JZ dyon of the Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) system, whose mass is larger than that of the electrically neutral (magnetic monopole) solutions, the masses of the electrically charged solutions of our HCS-YMH models can be smaller than their electrically neutral counterparts in some parts of the parameter space. To establish this is the main task of this work, which is performed by constructing the HCS-YMH solutions numerically. In the case of the SU(3) HCS-YMH, we have considered the question of angular momentum and it turns out that it vanishes.

  5. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  6. Targeted systems biology profiling of tomato fruit reveals coordination of the Yang cycle and a distinct regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during postclimacteric ripening.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Markoula, Aikaterina; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Dreesen, Rozemarijn; Wirtz, Markus; Vandoninck, Sandy; Oppermann, Yasmin; Keulemans, Johan; Hell, Ruediger; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Sauter, Margret; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2012-11-01

    The concept of system 1 and system 2 ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening was initially described four decades ago. Although much is known about fruit development and climacteric ripening, little information is available about how ethylene biosynthesis is regulated during the postclimacteric phase. A targeted systems biology approach revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) when fruit have reached their maximal ethylene production level and which is characterized by a decline in ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene production is shut down at the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. At the same time, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity increases. Analysis of the Yang cycle showed that the Yang cycle genes are regulated in a coordinated way and are highly expressed during postclimacteric ripening. Postclimacteric red tomatoes on the plant showed only a moderate regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase and Yang cycle genes compared with the regulation in detached fruit. Treatment of red fruit with 1-methylcyclopropane and ethephon revealed that the shut-down mechanism in ethylene biosynthesis is developmentally programmed and only moderately ethylene sensitive. We propose that the termination of autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis of system 2 in ripe fruit delays senescence and preserves the fruit until seed dispersal.

  7. The one and a half monopoles solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Recently we have reported on the existence of finite energy SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs particle of one-half topological charge. In this paper, we show that this one-half monopole can co-exist with a ’t Hooft-Polyakov monopole. The magnetic charge of the one-half monopole is of opposite sign to the magnetic charge of the ’t Hooft-Polyakov monopole. However the net magnetic charge of the configuration is zero due to the presence of a semi-infinite Dirac string along the positive z-axis that carries the other half of the magnetic monopole charge. The solution possesses gauge potentials that are singular along the z-axis, elsewhere they are regular. The total energy is found to increase with the strength of the Higgs field self-coupling constant λ. However the dipole separation and the magnetic dipole moment decrease with λ. This solution is non-BPS even in the BPS limit when the Higgs self-coupling constant vanishes.

  8. Quantum parameter space and double scaling limits in N=1 super Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2003-04-01

    We study the physics of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory with the gauge group U(N) and one adjoint Higgs field, by using the recently derived exact effective superpotentials. Interesting phenomena occur for some special values of the Higgs potential couplings. We find critical points with massless glueballs and/or massless monopoles, confinement without a mass gap, and tensionless domain walls. We describe the transitions between regimes with different patterns of gauge symmetry breaking, or, in the matrix model language, between solutions with a different number of cuts. The standard large N expansion is singular near the critical points, with domain wall tensions scaling as a fractional power of N. We argue that the critical points are four-dimensional analogues of the Kazakov critical points that are commonly found in low dimensional matrix integrals. We define a double scaling limit that yields the exact tension of BPS two-branes in the resulting N=1, four-dimensional noncritical string theory. D-brane states can be deformed continuously into closed string solitonic states, and vice versa, along paths that go over regions where the string coupling is strong.

  9. Valproate-dependent transcriptional regulation of GLAST/EAAT1 expression: involvement of Ying-Yang 1.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Gisela; Rosas, Sandra; López-Bayghen, Esther; Ortega, Arturo

    2008-06-01

    Valproate, a widely used anti-epileptic drug also employed in the treatment of neurological diseases such as bipolar disorder and migraine, regulates the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems, although its effects in cell physiology have not been thoroughly characterized. High concentrations of glutamate reached during abnormal neurotransmission if not removed properly, become neurotoxic. Glutamate clearance is carried out by high affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter systems. The glutamate/aspartate transporter GLAST/EAAT1 plays the major role in glutamate removal and is regulated at different levels: transcription, post-translational modifications and cytoplasmic trafficking. The aim of this work was to gain insight into a plausible effect of valproate in GLAST function. Using cultured Bergmann glia cells from chick cerebellum we demonstrate here that valproate exposure elicits a dual regulatory effect on GLAST. In the short-term, valproate increases its Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]-d-aspartate uptake activity in a cytochalasin B-sensitive manner. Interestingly, a synergism between valproate and a histone deacetylase inhibitor was observed. Long-term valproate treatment up-regulates chglast promoter activity, GLAST mRNA levels, GLAST molecules at the plasma membrane and its uptake activity. Furthermore, valproate induces histone 3 lysine 14 acetylation and regulates Ying-Yang 1 (YY1) transcriptional repression on the chglast promoter. These results suggest that valproate elicits its effect through its histone deacetylase inhibitor properties.

  10. Topological strings and large N phase transitions II: chiral expansion of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Pasquetti, Sara; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    We continue our study of the large N phase transition in q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the sphere and its role in connecting topological strings to black hole entropy. We study in detail the chiral theory defined in terms of uncoupled single U(N) representations at large N and write down the resulting partition function by means of the topological vertex. The emergent toric geometry has three Kähler parameters, one of which corresponds to the expected fibration over Bbb P1. By taking a suitable double-scaling limit we recover the chiral Gross-Taylor string expansion. To analyse the phase transition we construct a matrix model which describes the chiral gauge theory. It has three distinct phases, one of which should be described by the closed topological string expansion. We verify this expectation by explicit comparison between the matrix model and the chiral topological string free energies. We also show that the critical point in the pertinent phase of the matrix model corresponds to a divergence of the topological string perturbation series.

  11. Bone marrow niche-mediated survival of leukemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia: Yin and Yang

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Carter, Bing Z.; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of circulating immature blasts that exhibit uncontrolled growth, lack the ability to undergo normal differentiation, and have decreased sensitivity to apoptosis. Accumulating evidence shows the bone marrow (BM) niche is critical to the maintenance and retention of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), including leukemia stem cells (LSC), and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that crosstalk between LSC and the stromal cells associated with this niche greatly influences leukemia initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Undeniably, stromal cells in the BM niche provide a sanctuary in which LSC can acquire a drug-resistant phenotype and thereby evade chemotherapy-induced death. Yin and Yang, the ancient Chinese philosophical concept, vividly portrays the intricate and dynamic interactions between LSC and the BM niche. In fact, LSC-induced microenvironmental reprogramming contributes significantly to leukemogenesis. Thus, identifying the critical signaling pathways involved in these interactions will contribute to target optimization and combinatorial drug treatment strategies to overcome acquired drug resistance and prevent relapse following therapy. In this review, we describe some of the critical signaling pathways mediating BM niche-LSC interaction, including SDF1/CXCL12, Wnt/β-catenin, VCAM/VLA-4/NF-κB, CD44, and hypoxia as a newly-recognized physical determinant of resistance, and outline therapeutic strategies for overcoming these resistance factors. PMID:27458532

  12. Two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Wschebor, N.

    2016-05-01

    We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature using a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and of the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first-order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We also show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. Finally, we discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use of the background field itself as an order parameter for confinement. In both cases, we obtain first-order transitions, in agreement with lattice simulations and other continuum approaches.

  13. Spinning superstrings at two loops: Strong-coupling corrections to dimensions of large-twist super Yang-Mills operators

    SciTech Connect

    Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2008-03-15

    We consider folded (S,J) spinning strings in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} (with one spin component in AdS{sub 5} and a one in S{sup 5}) corresponding to the Tr(D{sup S}{phi}{sup J}) operators in the sl(2) sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the special scaling limit in which both the string mass {approx}{radical}({lambda})lnS and J are sent to infinity with their ratio fixed. Expanding in the parameter l=(J/{radical}({lambda})lnS) we compute the 2-loop string sigma-model correction to the string energy and show that it agrees with the expression proposed by Alday and Maldacena [J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2007) 019]. We suggest that a resummation of the logarithmic l{sup 2}ln{sup n}l terms is necessary in order to establish an interpolation to the weakly coupled gauge-theory results. In the process, we set up a general framework for the calculation of higher loop corrections to the energy of multispin string configurations. In particular, we find that in addition to the direct 2-loop term in the string energy there is a contribution from lower loop order due to a finite 'renormalization' of the relation between the parameters of the classical solution and the fixed spins, i.e., the charges of the SO(2,4)xSO(6) symmetry.

  14. Test research of Surface Electromagnetic Prospecting (SEP) System in Yang-jia-zhang-zi of Liao Ning province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Q.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, deep prospecting method such as magnetotelluric and controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric develop rapidly, but the instruments almost monopolized by several big geophysical companies from the United States, Canada and Germany. From prospecting practice, foreign equipment adaptation on complicated geological conditions in China is unsatisfactory. As increasing of national strength, electromagnetic exploration system development independently is on the agenda. In the year of 2010, the institute of geology and geophysics, Chinese academy of sciences, took on one subject of the SinoProbe project, the research of surface Electromagnetic Prospecting (SEP) System, and has achieved some achievements. SEP is an independent research instrumentation system, which is available for MT, AMT and CSAMT soundings. After laboratory testing, in order to test SEP's performance in field, the yang-jia-zhang-zi molybdenum deposit area is selected for SEP experiment. All modules and components of SEP system have been tested, and the field ability of the whole system also has been tested. The experimental results show that SEP performance has reached the level of commercial instruments.

  15. Dyons and dyonic black holes in su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Ben L.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    We present new spherically symmetric, dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills equations in four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The gauge field has nontrivial electric and magnetic components and is described by N -1 magnetic gauge field functions and N -1 electric gauge field functions. We explore the phase space of solutions in detail for su (2 ) and su (3 ) gauge groups. Combinations of the electric gauge field functions are monotonic and have no zeros; in general the magnetic gauge field functions may have zeros. The phase space of solutions is extremely rich, and we find solutions in which the magnetic gauge field functions have more than fifty zeros. Of particular interest are solutions for which the magnetic gauge field functions have no zeros, which exist when the negative cosmological constant has sufficiently large magnitude. We conjecture that at least some of these nodeless solutions may be stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations.

  16. On the instability of the n = 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes and mathematically related systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    The usual approach to analyze the linear stability of a static solution of some system of equations consists of searching for linearized solutions which satisfy suitable boundary conditions spatially and which grow exponentially in time. In the case of the n = 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) black hole, an interesting situation occurs. There exists a perturbation which grows exponentially in time-and spatially decreases to zero at the horizon-but nevertheless is physically singular on the horizon. Thus, this unstable mode is unacceptable as initial data, and the question arises as to whether the n = 1 EYM black hole is stable. The author analyzes this issue here in the more general case. He proves that there exists smooth initial data of compact support in M which give rise to a solution which grows unboundedly with time. This implies that the n = 1 EYM black hole and other mathematically similar systems are unstable despite the nonexistence of physically acceptable exponentially growing modes.

  17. Bone marrow niche-mediated survival of leukemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia: Yin and Yang.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Carter, Bing Z; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of circulating immature blasts that exhibit uncontrolled growth, lack the ability to undergo normal differentiation, and have decreased sensitivity to apoptosis. Accumulating evidence shows the bone marrow (BM) niche is critical to the maintenance and retention of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), including leukemia stem cells (LSC), and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that crosstalk between LSC and the stromal cells associated with this niche greatly influences leukemia initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Undeniably, stromal cells in the BM niche provide a sanctuary in which LSC can acquire a drug-resistant phenotype and thereby evade chemotherapy-induced death. Yin and Yang, the ancient Chinese philosophical concept, vividly portrays the intricate and dynamic interactions between LSC and the BM niche. In fact, LSC-induced microenvironmental reprogramming contributes significantly to leukemogenesis. Thus, identifying the critical signaling pathways involved in these interactions will contribute to target optimization and combinatorial drug treatment strategies to overcome acquired drug resistance and prevent relapse following therapy. In this review, we describe some of the critical signaling pathways mediating BM niche-LSC interaction, including SDF1/CXCL12, Wnt/β-catenin, VCAM/VLA-4/NF-κB, CD44, and hypoxia as a newly-recognized physical determinant of resistance, and outline therapeutic strategies for overcoming these resistance factors. PMID:27458532

  18. Yin yang 1 and adipogenic gene network expression in longissimus muscle of beef cattle in response to nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS. PMID:23700364

  19. Supergravity duals to the noncommutative N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the infinite momentum frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongsu

    2003-09-01

    In this work, the construction of supergravity duals to the noncommutative N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the infinite momentum frame but with a constant momentum density is attempted. In the absence of noncommutativity, it has been known for some time that the previous AdS5/CFT4 correspondence should be replaced by the K5/CFT4 correspondence (with K(p+2) denoting the generalized Kaigorodov spacetime) with a pp wave propagating on the Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield brane worldvolume. Interestingly enough, putting together the two additions, i.e., the introduction of noncommutativity and at the same time that of the pp wave along the brane worldvolume, leads to quite nontrivial consequences such as the emergence of “time-space” noncommutativity in addition to the “space-space” noncommutativity in the manifold on which the dual gauge theory is defined. Taking the gravity decoupling limit, it has been realized that, for small u, the solutions all reduce to K5×S5 geometry, confirming our expectation that the IR dynamics of the dual gauge theory should be unaffected by the noncommutativity while, as u→∞, the solutions start to deviate significantly from the K5×S5 limit, indicating that the UV dynamics of dual gauge theory is heavily distorted by the effect of noncommutativity.

  20. Distinctive ultraviolet structure of extra-dimensional Yang-Mills theories by integration of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jiménez, I.; Novales-Sánchez, H.; Toscano, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    One-loop Standard Model observables produced by virtual heavy Kaluza-Klein fields play a prominent role in the minimal model of universal extra dimensions. Motivated by this aspect, we integrate out all the Kaluza-Klein heavy modes coming from the Yang-Mills theory set on a spacetime with an arbitrary number, n , of compact extra dimensions. After fixing the gauge with respect to the Kaluza-Klein heavy gauge modes in a covariant manner, we calculate a gauge-independent effective Lagrangian expansion containing multiple Kaluza-Klein sums that entail a bad divergent behavior. We use the Epstein-zeta function to regularize and characterize discrete divergences within such multiple sums, and then we discuss the interplay between the number of extra dimensions and the degree of accuracy of effective Lagrangians to generate or not divergent terms of discrete origin. We find that nonrenormalizable terms with mass dimension k are finite as long as k >4 +n . Multiple Kaluza-Klein sums of nondecoupling logarithmic terms, not treatable by Epstein-zeta regularization, are produced by four-dimensional momentum integration. On the grounds of standard renormalization, we argue that such effects are unobservable.

  1. The Four-Loop Planar Amplitude and Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Czakon, Michael; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2006-11-15

    We present an expression for the leading-color (planar) four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4-2{epsilon} dimensions, in terms of eight separate integrals. The expression is based on consistency of unitarity cuts and infrared divergences. We expand the integrals around {epsilon} = 0, and obtain analytic expressions for the poles from 1/{epsilon}{sup 8} through 1/{epsilon}{sup 4}. We give numerical results for the coefficients of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 3} and 1/e{sup 2} poles. These results all match the known exponentiated structure of the infrared divergences, at four separate kinematic points. The value of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} coefficient allows us to test a conjecture of Eden and Staudacher for the four-loop cusp (soft) anomalous dimension. We find that the conjecture is incorrect, although our numerical results suggest that a simple modification of the expression, flipping the sign of the term containing {zeta}{sub 3}{sup 2}, may yield the correct answer. Our numerical value can be used, in a scheme proposed by Kotikov, Lipatov and Velizhanin, to estimate the two constants in the strong-coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension that are known from string theory. The estimate works to 2.6% and 5% accuracy, providing non-trivial evidence in support of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also use the known constants in the strong-coupling expansion as additional input to provide approximations to the cusp anomalous dimension which should be accurate to under one percent for all values of the coupling. When the evaluations of the integrals are completed through the finite terms, it will be possible to test the iterative, exponentiated structure of the finite terms in the four-loop four-point amplitude, which was uncovered earlier at two and three loops.

  2. Why baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, validated by nuclear binding energies and proton and neutron masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is summarized from four recent papers that baryons including protons and neutrons are magnetic monopoles of non-commuting Yang-Mills gauge theories: 1) Protons and neutrons are ``resonant cavities'' with binding energies determined strictly by the masses of the quarks they contain. This is proven true at parts-per million accuracy for each of the 2H, 3H,3He, 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference. 2) Respectively, each free proton and neutron contains 7.64 MeV and 9.81 MeV of mass/energy used to confine its quarks. When these nucleons bind, some, never all, of this energy is released and the mass deficit goes into binding. The balance continues to confine quarks. 56Fe releases 99.8429% of this energy for binding, more than any other nuclide. 3) Once we consider the Fermi vev one also finds an entirely theoretical explanation of proton and neutron masses, which also connects within experimental errors to the CKM quark mixing angles. 4) A related GUT explains fermion generation replication based on generator loss during symmetry breaking, and answers Rabi's question ``who ordered this?'' 5) Nuclear physics is governed by combining Maxwell's two classical equations into one equation using non-commuting gauge fields in view of Dirac theory and Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion. 6) Atoms themselves are core magnetic charges (nucleons) paired with orbital electric charges (electrons and elusive neutrinos), with the periodic table itself revealing an electric/magnetic symmetry of Maxwell's equations often pondered but heretofore unrecognized for a century and a half.

  3. Fine structure and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuemei; Zhang, Chunni; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Lingfei; Dai, Wu

    2013-11-01

    The pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of pear in China, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercing-sucking mouthparts. The ultrastructural morphology and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the adult were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The piercing-sucking mouthparts of C. chinensis are composed of a three-segmented labium with a deep groove in the anterior side, a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and a pyramid-shaped labrum. Proximal to the labium, the stylet fascicle forms a large loop within a membranous crumena. Mandibles, with more than ten teeth on the external convex region, can be seen on the distal extremity. Smooth maxillary stylets are interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal. One dendritic canal housing 2 dendrites is also found in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, four types of sensilla basiconica, single as well as groups of sensilla campaniformia, and oval flattened sensilla occur in different locations on the labium, whereas a kind of sensilla basiconica is at the junction of the labrum and anteclypeus. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia, always present with denticles, are present on the middle labial segment. Three types of sensilla basiconica, two types of sensilla trichodea and two oval flattened sensilla are located on the distal labial segment. The mouthpart morphology and abundance of sensilla located on the labium in C. chinensis are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of their taxonomic and putative functional significance.

  4. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  5. Reduced Health-Related Quality of Life in Body Constitutions of Yin-Xu, and Yang-Xu, Stasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-I; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, I-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate how health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are related in type 2 diabetes patients. Method. Seven hundred and five subjects were recruited in 2010 for this study from a Diabetes Shared Care Network in Taiwan. Generic and disease-specific HRQOL were assessed by the short form 36 (SF-36) and the diabetes impact measurement scale (DIMS). Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were then assessed by the body constitution questionnaire (BCQ), a questionnaire consisting of 44 items that evaluate the physiological state based on subjective symptoms and signs. Results. Estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales of the SF-36 were significantly negative, while estimated effects of the Yang-Xu on all scales (except for SF, RE, MH, and MCS) were significantly negative. For DIMS, the estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales were significantly negative except for Stasis on well-being, while Yang-Xu has a significantly negative effect only on symptoms. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that TCM constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are closely related to a reduction in HRQOL. These findings support the need for further research into the impact of intervention for TCM constitutions on HRQOL in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25093025

  6. GIS Database and Google Map of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Mueang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Joosiri, Apinya; Jantakate, Sirinun; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern and northern regions. Database of population at risk are need required for monitoring, surveillance, home health care, and home visit. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database and Google map of the population at risk of CCA in Mueang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand during June to October 2015. Populations at risk were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST). Software included Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS, and Google Maps. The secondary data included the point of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, point of hospital in Mueang Yang district, used for created the spatial databese. The populations at risk for CCA and opisthorchiasis were used to create an arttribute database. Data were tranfered to WGS84 UTM ZONE 48. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth using online web pages www.earthpoint.us. Some 222 from a 4,800 population at risk for CCA constituted a high risk group. Geo-visual display available at following www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ edit?mid=zPxtcHv_iDLo.kvPpxl5mAs90 and hl=th. Geo-visual display 5 layers including: layer 1, village location and number of the population at risk for CCA; layer 2, sub-district health promotion hospital in Mueang Yang district and number of opisthorchiasis; layer 3, sub-district district and the number of population at risk for CCA; layer 4, district hospital and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis; and layer 5, district and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis. This GIS database and Google map production process is suitable for further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA sufferers.

  7. GIS Database and Google Map of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Mueang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Joosiri, Apinya; Jantakate, Sirinun; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern and northern regions. Database of population at risk are need required for monitoring, surveillance, home health care, and home visit. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database and Google map of the population at risk of CCA in Mueang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand during June to October 2015. Populations at risk were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST). Software included Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS, and Google Maps. The secondary data included the point of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, point of hospital in Mueang Yang district, used for created the spatial databese. The populations at risk for CCA and opisthorchiasis were used to create an arttribute database. Data were tranfered to WGS84 UTM ZONE 48. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth using online web pages www.earthpoint.us. Some 222 from a 4,800 population at risk for CCA constituted a high risk group. Geo-visual display available at following www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ edit?mid=zPxtcHv_iDLo.kvPpxl5mAs90 and hl=th. Geo-visual display 5 layers including: layer 1, village location and number of the population at risk for CCA; layer 2, sub-district health promotion hospital in Mueang Yang district and number of opisthorchiasis; layer 3, sub-district district and the number of population at risk for CCA; layer 4, district hospital and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis; and layer 5, district and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis. This GIS database and Google map production process is suitable for further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA sufferers. PMID:27039762

  8. Generalized zeta function representation of groups and 2-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory: The example of GL(2, 𝔽q) and PGL(2, 𝔽q)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Ph.

    2016-03-01

    We recall the relation between zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of zeta function representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group GL(2, 𝔽q) and PGL(2, 𝔽q). We recall the table characters of these groups for any q, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations, and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings.

  9. [An experimental study on the Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone CPA-Yang1-BR with brain metastasis potency in nude mice and in vivo imaging research].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bei; Cao, Jie; Shen, Jie; Zhao, Lanxiang; Liang, Sheng; Meng, Qinggang; Xie, Wenhui; Yang, Shunfang

    2013-08-20

    背景与目的 肺癌脑转移是临床常见的严重并发症,由于脑部结构和功能的特殊性、脑转移检测方法的局限性,预后很差。本研究旨在筛选人肺腺癌脑转移细胞株CPA-Yang1-BR以及建立裸小鼠动物模型和检测方法。方法 将人肺腺癌细胞株CPA-Yang1-GFP接种于裸小鼠左心室,约7周-8周后比较三种小动物显像方法:micro PET/CT显像,X线、放射性核素、荧光(三合一)活体成像系统和小动物线圈MRI显像,实验证明MRI显像是最准确的小鼠脑转移病灶检测方法。脑核磁共振成像(magnatic resonance imaging, MRI)显像找到脑转移灶,深麻醉处死裸小鼠取出脑转移病灶,部分病理验证,部分行原代培养后获得人肺腺癌脑转移细胞,再次接种裸小鼠,用上述方法重复以上体内外循环4次,观察脑转移形成情况。结果 获得人肺腺癌脑转移细胞株CPA-Yang1-BR及其裸小鼠模型。结论 CPA-Yang1细胞经反复裸小鼠脑组织内外筛选的方法可获得具有高转移潜能的裸小鼠脑转移模型,为肺癌脑转移的生物学研究提供了一个良好的技术平台。小动物线圈MRI或micro MRI活体显像是检测小鼠肺癌脑转移敏感、准确、无创伤的显像方法。

  10. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in Tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 2 ---the similarity and characteristic of Tai-chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Huo, Yuhua

    2002-05-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the Tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device presented in reference [1] is further developed. The system of equations formulating the melting and freezing processes is transformed to a dimensionless form. The advantage of dimensionless equations not only reduces a significant number of parameters involved in the problem but also provides physical insight of the Tai-chi diagram. The solution of dimensionless equations offers the similarity and characteristic of the Tai-chi diagram[1].

  11. Large-N ground state of the Lieb-Liniger model and Yang-Mills theory on a two-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flassig, Daniel; Franca, Andre; Pritzel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We derive the large-particle-number limit of the Bethe equations for the ground state of the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) on a ring and solve it for arbitrary coupling. We show that the ground state of this system can be mapped to the large-N saddle point of Euclidean Yang-Mills theory on a two-sphere with a U(N ) gauge group, and the phase transition that interpolates between the homogeneous and solitonic regime is dual to the Douglas-Kazakov confinement-deconfinement phase transition.

  12. Yin Yang 1 is associated with cancer stem cell transcription factors (SOX2, OCT4, BMI1) and clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Kaufhold, Samantha; Garbán, Hermes; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is frequently overexpressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues and has regulatory roles in cell proliferation, cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis and drug/immune resistance. YY1 shares many properties with cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drive tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance and are regulated by overexpression of certain transcription factors, including SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1), BMI1 and NANOG. Based on these similarities, it was expected that YY1 expression would be associated with SOX2, OCT4, BMI1, and NANOG's expressions and activities. Data mining from the proteomic tissue-based datasets from the Human Protein Atlas were used for protein expression patterns of YY1 and the four CSC markers in 17 types of cancer, including both solid and hematological malignancies. A close association was revealed between the frequency of expressions of YY1 and SOX2 as well as SOX2 and OCT4 in all cancers analyzed. Two types of dynamics were identified based on the nature of their association, namely, inverse or direct, between YY1 and SOX2. These two dynamics define distinctive patterns of BMI1 and OCT4 expressions. The relationship between YY1 and SOX2 expressions as well as the expressions of BMI1 and OCT4 resulted in the classification of four groups of cancers with distinct molecular signatures: (1) Prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and glioma cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(hi)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) (2) Skin, testis and breast cancers (YY1(hi)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) (3) Liver, stomach, renal, pancreatic and urothelial cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) and (4) Colorectal cancer, lymphoma and melanoma (YY1(hi)SOX2(hi)BMI1(lo)OCT4(hi)). A regulatory loop is proposed consisting of the cross-talk between the NF-kB/PI3K/AKT pathways and the downstream inter-regulation of target gene products YY1, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1. PMID:27225481

  13. A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.

    2011-06-10

    A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.

  14. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM/sup 2/, excluding substructure.

  15. Yang-Mills mass gap at large-N, noncommutative YM theory, topological quantum field theory and hyperfiniteness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochicchio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We review a number of old and new concepts in quantum gauge theories, some of which are well-established but not widely appreciated, some are most recent, that may have analogs in gauge formulations of quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity, and their topological versions, and may be of general interest. Such concepts involve noncommutative gauge theories and their relation to the large-N limit, loop equations and the change to the anti-selfdual (ASD) variables also known as Nicolai map, topological field theory (TFT) and its relation to localization and Morse-Smale-Floer homology, with an emphasis both on the mathematical aspects and the physical meaning. These concepts, assembled in a new way, enter a line of attack to the problem of the mass gap in large-NSU(N) Yang-Mills (YM), that is reviewed as well. Algebraic considerations furnish a measure of the mathematical complexity of a complete solution of large-NSU(N) YM: In the large-N limit of pure SU(N) YM the ambient algebra of Wilson loops is known to be a type II1 nonhyperfinite factor. Nevertheless, for the mass gap problem at the leading 1/N order, only the subalgebra of local gauge-invariant single-trace operators matters. The connected two-point correlators in this subalgebra must be an infinite sum of propagators of free massive fields, since the interaction is subleading in (1)/(N), a vast simplification. It is an open problem, determined by the growth of the degeneracy of the spectrum, whether the aforementioned local subalgebra is in fact hyperfinite. Moreover, the sum of free propagators that occurs in the two-point correlators in the aforementioned local subalgebra must be asymptotic for large momentum to the result implied by the asymptotic freedom and the renormalization group: This fundamental constraint fixes asymptotically the residues of the poles of the propagators in terms of the mass spectrum and of the anomalous dimensions of the local operators. For the mass gap problem, in the search of a

  16. File Compression and Expansion of the Genetic Code by the use of the Yin/Yang Directions to find its Sphered Cube

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the genetic code can be studied and represented in a 3-D Sphered Cube for bioinformatics and for education by using the graphical help of the ancient “Book of Changes” or I Ching for the comparison, pair by pair, of the three basic characteristics of nucleotides: H-bonds, molecular structure, and their tautomerism. Methods The source of natural biodiversity is the high plasticity of the genetic code, analyzable with a reverse engineering of its 2-D and 3-D representations (here illustrated), but also through the classical 64-hexagrams of the ancient I Ching, as if they were the 64-codons or words of the genetic code. Results In this article, the four elements of the Yin/Yang were found by correlating the 3×2=6 sets of Cartesian comparisons of the mentioned properties of nucleic acids, to the directionality of their resulting blocks of codons grouped according to their resulting amino acids and/or functions, integrating a 384-codon Sphered Cube whose function is illustrated by comparing six brain peptides and a promoter of osteoblasts from Humans versus Neanderthal, as well as to Negadi’s work on the importance of the number 384 within the genetic code. Conclusions Starting with the codon/anticodon correlation of Nirenberg, published in full here for the first time, and by studying the genetic code and its 3-D display, the buffers of reiteration within codons codifying for the same amino acid, displayed the two long (binary number one) and older Yin/Yang arrows that travel in opposite directions, mimicking the parental DNA strands, while annealing to the two younger and broken (binary number zero) Yin/Yang arrows, mimicking the new DNA strands; the graphic analysis of the of the genetic code and its plasticity was helpful to compare compatible sequences (human compatible to human versus neanderthal compatible to neanderthal), while further exploring the wondrous biodiversity of nature for

  17. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 3 — The contemporary tai-chi diagram, the yuan-chi diagram and the Fu Xi's eight trigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes in a rotating device presented in parts 1 and 2 is further developed for the contemporary tai-chi diagram and in the yuan-chi diagram. The contemporary tai-chi diagram shown in Fig.1 is a simplification form of the ancient tai-chi diagram presented in Reference [2]. There are two semi-circles forming the interface curve between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram. By knowing the location of the interface between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram, the requirement for the simulation model is to find the condition to match the interface location. The simplification changes not only the structure but also the physical insight of the ancient tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the present study. The yuan-chi diagram shown in Fig.2 is the combination of the Master Chen’s tai-chi diagram presented in References [1,2] and the contemporary tai-chi diagram. The formulation of the yuan-chi diagram is similar to that of contemporary tai-chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s eight trigrams present three levels of yin-yang relation that are a natural result from the contemporary tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the last part of this study.

  18. Photochemistry of α-diketones in carbohydrates: anomalous Norrish type II photoelimination and Norrish-Yang photocyclization promoted by the internal carbonyl group.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dorta, Dimitri; León, Elisa I; Kennedy, Alan R; Martín, Angeles; Pérez-Martín, Inés; Riesco-Fagundo, Concepción; Suárez, Ernesto

    2014-02-24

    A series of four α-diketones placed as 1α-pyruvoyl tethers on D-glucopyranose and D-glucopyranosiduronic acid skeletons was prepared in order to determine the influence of captodative and stereoelectronic effects on the regioselectivity of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) in Norrish type II photochemical processes. We observed that the 1,5-HAT regioselectivity can be switched between the two potentially abstractable syn-1,3-diaxial hydrogens at H6 and H8. Highly unusual photoproducts from Norrish type II photoelimination and Norrish-Yang photocyclization initiated by the excited internal carbonyl group were obtained, in some cases in excellent synthetic yield. The 1,5-HAT transition state in the Norrish type II photoelimination was investigated by photochemical experiments in the crystalline state.

  19. On the stability of soliton and hairy black hole solutions of 𝔰𝔲(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, J. Erik; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the stability of spherically symmetric, purely magnetic, soliton and black hole solutions of four-dimensional 𝔰𝔲(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant Λ. These solutions are described by N - 1 magnetic gauge field functions ωj. We consider linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of these solutions. The perturbations decouple into two sectors, known as the sphaleronic and gravitational sectors. For any N, there are no instabilities in the sphaleronic sector if all the magnetic gauge field functions ωj have no zeros and satisfy a set of N - 1 inequalities. In the gravitational sector, we prove that there are solutions which have no instabilities in a neighbourhood of stable embedded 𝔰𝔲(2) solutions, provided the magnitude of the cosmological constant |" separators=" Λ | is sufficiently large.

  20. Holographic Screening Length on Parallel Motion of Quark-Antiquark Pair in Four Dimensional Strongly Coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2014-10-01

    We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a strongly coupled hot plasma of = 4 super-Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is five dimensional AdS black hole. We take the string solution as such the separation length L of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the string velocity v. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions that are related to the momentum flow of the drag force configuration Pc. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame by boosting the AdS black hole.

  1. Perturbation Theory at Eight Loops: Novel Structures and the Breakdown of Manifest Conformality in N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory.

    PubMed

    Bourjaily, Jacob L; Heslop, Paul; Tran, Vuong-Viet

    2016-05-13

    We use the soft-collinear bootstrap to construct the 8-loop integrand for the 4-point amplitude and 4-stress-tensor correlation function in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Both have a unique representation in terms of planar, conformal integrands grouped according to a hidden symmetry discovered for correlation functions. The answer we find exposes a fundamental tension between manifest locality and planarity with manifest conformality not seen at lower loops. For the first time, the integrand must include terms that are finite even on-shell and terms that are divergent even off-shell (so-called pseudoconformal integrals). We describe these novelties and their consequences in this Letter, and we make the full correlator and amplitude available as part of the Supplemental Material. PMID:27232016

  2. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubov modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.

  3. On the global existence of hairy black holes and solitons in anti-de Sitter Einstein-Yang-Mills theories with compact semisimple gauge groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, J. Erik

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the existence of black hole and soliton solutions to four dimensional, anti-de Sitter (adS), Einstein-Yang-Mills theories with general semisimple connected and simply connected gauge groups, concentrating on the so-called regular case. We here generalise results for the asymptotically flat case, and compare our system with similar results from the well-researched adS {mathfrak {su}}(N) system. We find the analysis differs from the asymptotically flat case in some important ways: the biggest difference is that for Λ <0, solutions are much less constrained as r→ infty , making it possible to prove the existence of global solutions to the field equations in some neighbourhood of existing trivial solutions, and in the limit of |Λ |→ infty . In particular, we can identify non-trivial solutions where the gauge field functions have no zeroes, which in the {mathfrak {su}}(N) case proved important to stability.

  4. Spontaneous Z{sub 2} symmetry breaking in the orbifold daughter of N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory, fractional domain walls and vacuum structure

    SciTech Connect

    Armoni, A.; Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.

    2005-11-15

    We discuss the fate of the Z{sub 2} symmetry and the vacuum structure in a SU(N)xSU(N) gauge theory with one bifundamental Dirac fermion. This theory can be obtained from SU(2N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory by virtue of Z{sub 2} orbifolding. We analyze dynamics of domain walls and argue that the Z{sub 2} symmetry is spontaneously broken. Since unbroken Z{sub 2} is a necessary condition for nonperturbative planar equivalence we conclude that the orbifold daughter is nonperturbatively nonequivalent to its supersymmetric parent. En route, our investigation reveals the existence of fractional domain walls, similar to fractional D-branes of string theory on orbifolds. We conjecture on the fate of these domain walls in the true solution of the Z{sub 2}-broken orbifold theory. We also comment on relation with nonsupersymmetric string theories and closed-string tachyon condensation.

  5. [Study on the characteristics of personality, emotion and the plasma arginine vasopressin levels in patients with Gan Yang Shang Kang Zheng].

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Hu, S

    1998-01-01

    Eighty patients with Gan Yang Shang Kang Zheng (GYSKZ) and the related Zheng were questioned with three psychological scales: Type A Behavior Inventory, STAI and SDS and plasma AVP (arginine ressopressin) levels were determined by RIA. The TAB, S-AI, T-AI scores and plasma AVP levels of the patients with GYSKZ increased consistently and the changes of all parameters in different diseases in the same Zheng were similar. The results suggest that in patients with GYSKZ, type A behavior is the dominant personality and anxiety is the chief emotional disorder. Patients with GYSKZ are in the state of high level of psychological stress. Patients with GYSKZ and GHSYZ have some common pathophysiological basis.

  6. Supersymmetric electric-magnetic duality in D =3 +3 and D =5 +5 dimensions as foundation of self-dual supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-05-01

    We present electric-magnetic (EM)-duality formulations for non-Abelian gauge groups with N =1 supersymmetry in D =3 +3 and 5 +5 space-time dimensions. We show that these systems generate self-dual N =1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SDSYM) theory in D =2 +2 . For a N =2 supersymmetric EM-dual system in D =3 +3 , we have the Yang-Mills multiplet (Aμ I,λA I) and a Hodge-dual multiplet (Bμν ρ I,χA I) , with an auxiliary tensors Cμν ρ σ I and Kμ ν. Here, I is the adjoint index, while A is for the doublet of S p (1 ). The EM-duality conditions are Fμν I=(1 /4 !)ɛμν ρ σ τ λGρσ τ λ I with its superpartner duality condition λA I=-χA I . Upon appropriate dimensional reduction, this system generates SDSYM in D =2 +2 . This system is further generalized to D =5 +5 with the EM-duality condition Fμν I=(1 /8 !)ɛμν ρ1⋯ρ8Gρ1⋯ρ8 I with its superpartner condition λI=-χI . Upon appropriate dimensional reduction, this theory also generates SDSYM in D =2 +2 . As long as we maintain Lorentz covariance, D =5 +5 dimensions seems to be the maximal space-time dimensions that generate SDSYM in D =2 +2 . Namely, EM-dual system in D =5 +5 serves as the Master Theory of all supersymmetric integrable models in dimensions 1 ≤D ≤3 .

  7. Yin Yang 1, Oct1, and NFAT-4 form repeating, cyclosporin-sensitive regulatory modules within the murine CD21 intronic control region.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Mark D; Wheeler, Wells; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H

    2002-04-01

    The murine complement receptor type 2 gene (Cr2/CD21) is expressed by murine B and follicular dendritic cells, but not murine T cells. We have previously shown that appropriate transcriptional control of the CD21 gene requires the CD21 promoter as well as intronic sequences. We have also demonstrated that altering chromatin structure by inhibiting histone deacetylases induces CD21 expression in murine T cells by increasing the accessibility of promoter and intronic regulatory elements. In this report, we identify seven distinct regulatory areas within the first intron of the murine CD21 gene that are conserved between mouse and human CD21 intronic sequences. EMSA competition and supershift analyses reveal the formation of multiple DNA-protein complexes at these sites that include Yin Yang 1, Oct1, and NFAT-4. NFAT-containing complexes were altered in B cells treated with the NFAT inhibitor cyclosporin A and correlated with a repression of CD21 gene transcription implicating NFAT transcriptional control. Functional data revealed that no single region conferred cell-specific reporter gene expression, but rather the entire CD21 regulatory element was required to confer cell-specific gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the formation of repeating, overlapping regulatory modules, all of which are required to coordinately control the cell-specific expression of the murine CD21 gene. We propose a model in which Yin Yang 1 and Oct1 may recruit histone deacetylase to multiple sites in the CD21 intronic regulatory element in nonexpressing cells and NFAT either displaces this histone deacetylase or recruits a histone acetylase to allow the formation of a functional transcriptional complex in expressing cells.

  8. Biopsychological structure of Yin-Yang using Cloninger’s Temperament model and Carver and White’s BIS/BAS scale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White’s Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger’s temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger’s temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger’s four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p < .001), Novelty-Seeking (F = 4.945, p < .01), and Harm-Avoidance (F = 10.912, p < .001) were observed between high and low SPQ score groups after controlling for sex. The SPQ showed significant correlation with BAS (r = 0.303), Novelty-Seeking (r = 0.225), and Harm-Avoidance (r = − 0.273). However, BIS showed no significant differences between SPQ groups, and did not show correlation with the SPQ. Discussion. The current study demonstrated that Yin-Yang has similarities with and disparities from the Western tradition and may be examined with objective instruments. We showed that the emotionality of the East which is defined as mobility of emotion, not emotional instability as traditionally defined in Western theories, is pivotal for understanding the nature of emotion in the East. Suggestions are made for cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West. PMID:27231654

  9. Theory of motion for monopole-dipole singularities of classical Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. II. Approximation scheme and equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold

    1984-02-01

    In the preceding paper, the laws of motion were established for classical particles with spin which are monopole-dipole singularities of Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. In this paper, a systematic approximation scheme is developed for solving the coupled nonlinear field equations in any order and for determining the corresponding equations of motion. In zeroth order the potentials are taken as the usual Liénard-Wiechert and Bhabha-Harish-Chandra potentials (generalized to isospace); in this order the solutions are necessarily Abelian, since the isovector describing the charge is constant. The regularization necessary to obtain expressions finite on the world lines of the particles is achieved by the method of Riesz potentials. All fields are taken as retarded and are expressed in integral form. Omitting dipole interactions, the integrals for the various terms are carried out as far as possible for general motions, including radiation-reaction terms. In first order, the charge isovectors are no longer necessarily constant; thus the solutions are not necessarily Abelian, and it is possible for charge to be radiated away. The cases of time-symmetric field theory and of an action-at-a-distance formulation of the theory are discussed in an appendix.

  10. High-throughput screening of inhibitory effects of Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang on human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vitro using UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miran; Park, Jeonghyeon; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Lee, Joomi; Seo, Jeong Ju; Park, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang (BHT) is an oriental herbal medicine for treating brain disorders such as cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to develop an economically feasible and time-saving high-throughput screening method to monitor the potential inhibitory effects of BHT on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro. Two cocktail sets were used for incubation of human liver microsomes: Cocktail A: 6 probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4; Cocktail B: 3 for CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1. The concentrations of the substrate metabolites were simultaneously analyzed using UPLC/MS/MS. The BHT extract had almost negligible inhibitory effects on the nine human CYP isoforms tested, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value ranged from 3624.99 to 45412.44 μg/ml. The results suggest that BHT extract has no inhibitory effects on CYP isoforms within the clinically recommended dosage range. We conclude that BHT might be free of drug-herb interactions when co-administered with other medicines. However, more in vivo human studies are needed to confirm these results. The high-throughput screening method can be a useful tool for drug discovery and for understanding drug interactions. PMID:23232241

  11. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  12. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  13. The four-loop remainder function and multi-Regge behavior at NNLLA in planar = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Duhr, Claude; Pennington, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    We present the four-loop remainder function for six-gluon scattering with maximal helicity violation in planar = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as an analytic function of three dual-conformal cross ratios. The function is constructed entirely from its analytic properties, without ever inspecting any multi-loop integrand. We employ the same approach used at three loops, writing an ansatz in terms of hexagon functions, and fixing coefficients in the ansatz using the multi-Regge limit and the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit. We express the result in terms of multiple polylogarithms, and in terms of the coproduct for the associated Hopf algebra. From the remainder function, we extract the BFKL eigenvalue at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy (NNLLA), and the impact factor at N3LLA. We plot the remainder function along various lines and on one surface, studying ratios of successive loop orders. As seen previously through three loops, these ratios are surprisingly constant over large regions in the space of cross ratios, and they are not far from the value expected at asymptotically large orders of perturbation theory.

  14. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  15. Lattice gluon and ghost propagators and the strong coupling in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory: Finite lattice spacing and volume effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Anthony G.; Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J.

    2016-07-01

    The dependence of the Landau gauge two-point gluon and ghost correlation functions on the lattice spacing and on the physical volume are investigated for pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions using lattice simulations. We present data from very large lattices up to 1284 and for two lattice spacings 0.10 fm and 0.06 fm corresponding to volumes of ˜(13 fm )4 and ˜(8 fm )4 , respectively. Our results show that, for sufficiently large physical volumes, both propagators have a mild dependence on the lattice volume. On the other hand, the gluon and ghost propagators change with the lattice spacing a in the infrared region, with the gluon propagator having a stronger dependence on a compared to the ghost propagator. In what concerns the strong coupling constant αs(p2), as defined from gluon and ghost two-point functions, the simulations show a sizeable dependence on the lattice spacing for the infrared region and for momenta up to ˜1 GeV .

  16. Estimation of monthly values of atmospheric turbidity using measured values of global irradiation and estimated values from CSR and Yang Hybrid models. Study case: Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Germán A.

    2011-05-01

    For ten sites in Argentina, monthly average Ångström turbidity coefficient β values were estimated using mean monthly global solar irradiation values measured at these sites from the former Argentinean radiometric network REDSOL. The values of the horizontal direct and diffuse components of the global irradiation were estimated using the Yang Hybrid model (YHM) and, to determine the representativeness of those results, they were compared to values from the SWERA database which uses the CSR model, developed by NREL, to make estimates. An inconsistency in the estimated values of the diffuse component was detected, therefore a new expression for that component was proposed, generating a corrected version of the YHM (CYHM). The turbidity coefficient β is considered an independent variable in the equation that estimates the direct transmittance and the values that forces an exact correlation between the measured monthly average global irradiance values with those estimated with the CYHM are considered representative for each site since the RMSE between the monthly global irradiation values of SWERA and CYHM is 11.7%, this value being very close to that found by the designers of the CSR model (10%) when they tested it with meteorological data from USA. The monthly average value estimates of turbidity coefficient β show expected behavior, with values varying according to the season of the year.

  17. Yin Yang 1 contributes to gastric carcinogenesis and its nuclear expression correlates with shorter survival in patients with early stage gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor that regulates diverse biological processes and increasing recognized to have important roles in carcinogenesis. The function and clinical significance of YY1 in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) have not been elucidated. Methods In this study, the functional role of YY1 in gastric cancer was investigated by MTT proliferation assays, monolayer colony formation, cell cycle analysis, signaling pathway analysis, Western blot analysis and in vivo study through YY1 knockdown or overexpression. Immunohistochemical study with YY1 antibody was performed on tissue microarray consisting of 247 clinical GAC samples. The clinical correlation and prognosis significance were evaluated. Results YY1 expression was up-regulated in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric cancers. Knocking down YY1 by siYY1 inhibited cell growth, inducing G1 phase accumulation and apoptosis. Ectopic YY1 expression enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Knocking down YY1 in gastric cancer cells suppressed proliferation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas its overexpression exerted oncogenic property by activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In primary GAC samples, YY1 nuclear expression correlated with shorter survival and predicted poor prognosis in early stage GACs. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that YY1 contributes to gastric carcinogenesis in gastric cancer. In early stage GACs YY1 might serve as a poor prognostic marker and possibly as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24674326

  18. Identification of multiple ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine preparation (bu-yang-huan-wu-tang) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum), that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds. PMID:24036516

  19. Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Here it is documented how an existing code for modelling mantle convection in a cartesian domain, Stag3D, has been converted to model a 3D spherical shell by using the recently introduced yin-yang grid. StagYY is thus the latest evolution of a code that has been in continuous use and development for about 15 years so incorporates much physics and several features including compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, non-linear rheology, parallelisation, tracers to track composition, partial melting and melt migration, and the ability to also model spherical patches, cartesian boxes, and various 2D geometries by changing one input switch. StagYY uses a multigrid solver to obtain a velocity-pressure solution at each timestep on a staggered grid, a finite-volume scheme for advection of temperature and tracers to track composition. Convergence of multigrid solvers in the presence of realistically large viscosity variations has always been a problem; here a new pressure interpolation scheme is presented that can dramatically improve the robustness of the iterations to large viscosity variations, with up to 19 orders of magnitude variation in presented tests. Benchmark tests show that StagYY produces results that are consistent with those produced by other codes. Performance tests show reasonable scaling on a parallel Beowulf cluster up to 64 CPUs, with up to 1.2 billion unknowns solved for in a few minutes. StagYY is designed to be a stand-alone application with no libraries required and if MPI is installed it can be run in parallel. Technical issues and goals for the future are discussed.

  20. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well-characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD). In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-O Tang (mBHT), a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague-Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO])-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF-κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase-3 and increased the Bcl-2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis. PMID:26246747

  1. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (P<0.009). The end-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices.

  2. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (P<0.009). The end-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID

  3. Energy loss of a nonaccelerating quark moving through a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills vacuum or plasma in strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2016-08-01

    Using AdS /CFT correspondence, we find that a massless quark moving at the speed of light v =1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum at T =0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B , loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/} 6 π B . We also show that a heavy quark of mass M ≠0 moving at near the speed of light v2=v*2=1 -4/π2T2 B ≃1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 SYM plasma at finite temperature T ≠0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B ≫T2, loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/}6 π B v*2≃-√{λ/}6 π B . Moreover, we argue that, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD theories (when the adjoint QCD theory has four flavors of Weyl fermions and is at its conformal IR fixed point λ =λ*) have the same microscopic degrees of freedom (i.e., gluons and lowest Landau levels of Weyl fermions) even though they have quite different microscopic degrees of freedom in the UV when we consider higher Landau levels. Therefore, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties of N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD plasmas, as well as the rates of energy loss of a quark moving through the plasmas, should be the same.

  4. Study of the maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger's treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, Z{sub g}Z{sub A}{sup 1/2}=1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Z{sub g} and of the diagonal gluon field Z{sub A}, still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field.

  5. The protective and toxic effects of rhubarb tannins and anthraquinones in treating hexavalent chromium-injured rats: the Yin/Yang actions of rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Lin-dong; Li, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Li, Qi; Jiang, Bing-qian; Pu, Shi-biao; Lü, Yang; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-02-15

    Chromium nephrotoxicity (CrNT) is thought to occur through the oxidant lesion mechanism. There is still a lack of specific remedies against CrNT. We primarily screened Chinese herbal medicines with a potential protective effect against CrNT, e.g., rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.). However, the active constituents in rhubarb and its mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the total rhubarb extract (TR) was successively separated into three parts: total anthraquinone extract (TA), total tannin extract (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). The effects of each extract on the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were comparatively assessed. The results showed that only the administration of TT protected the kidney function in K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-injured rats. Besides, TT showed significant activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, which is considered to be the dominant lesion product generated by hexavalent chromium. TT also showed a reduced ability to transform toxic high valence chromium ions into non-toxic low valence ions. And TT was able to further precipitate chromium ions. These results suggested that rhubarb tannins treat CrNT as a free radical scavenger, reductant, and metal precipitant. The multiple protective routes of the plant tannins reveal a superior option for development into a promising natural remedy against CrNT. In addition, the opposite effects of rhubarb anthraquinones in treating CrNT were observed compared to rhubarb tannins, which suggested the duo-directional effects (Yin and Yang) of herbal medicines should be addressed.

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of the Astrocytic Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1) via NF-κB and Yin Yang 1 (YY1)*

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Kim, Clifford; Smith, Keisha; Son, Deok-Soo; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytic glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1, also known as glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in rodents, is one of two glial glutamate transporters that are responsible for removing excess glutamate from synaptic clefts to prevent excitotoxic neuronal death. Despite its important role in neurophysiological functions, the molecular mechanisms of EAAT1 regulation at the transcriptional level remain to be established. Here, we report that NF-κB is a main positive transcription factor for EAAT1, supported by the following: 1) EAAT1 contains two consensus sites for NF-κB, 2) mutation of NF-κB binding sites decreased EAAT1 promoter activity, and 3) activation of NF-κB increased, whereas inhibition of NF-κB decreased EAAT1 promoter activity and mRNA/protein levels. EGF increased EAAT1 mRNA/protein levels and glutamate uptake via NF-κB. The transcription factor yin yang 1 (YY1) plays a role as a critical negative regulator of EAAT1, supported by the following: 1) the EAAT1 promoter contains multiple consensus sites for YY1, 2) overexpression of YY1 decreased EAAT1 promoter activity and mRNA/protein levels, and 3) knockdown of YY1 increased EAAT1 promoter activity and mRNA/protein levels. Manganese decreased EAAT1 expression via YY1. Epigenetic modifiers histone deacetylases (HDACs) served as co-repressors of YY1 to further decrease EAAT1 promoter activity, whereas inhibition of HDACs reversed manganese-induced decrease of EAAT1 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that NF-κB is a critical positive regulator of EAAT1, mediating the stimulatory effects of EGF, whereas YY1 is a negative regulator of EAAT1 with HDACs as co-repressors, mediating the inhibitory effects of manganese on EAAT1 regulation. PMID:26269591

  7. Expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in human lung cancer and the impact of YangZheng XiaoJi on SHH-mediated biological function of lung cancer cells and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen G; Ye, Lin; Ruge, Fiona; Sun, Ping-Hui; Sanders, Andrew J; Ji, Ki; Lane, Jane; Zhang, Lijian; Satherley, Lucy; Weeks, Hoi P; Zhi, Xiuyi; Gao, Yong; Wei, Cong; Wu, Yiling; Mason, Malcolm D

    2015-03-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a protein that is aberrantly expressed in various human tumors. SHH and its signaling molecules have been indicated as potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of SHH transcript in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and investigated the impact of inhibiting SHH together with a traditional Chinese medicine formula, YangZheng XiaoJi (YZXJ), on the function and growth of lung cancer cells. Human NSCLC tissues had significantly higher levels of the SHH transcript compared matched normal lung tissues (n=83). TNM2 tumors and tumors with pleural invasion had higher levels than TNM1 and non-invasive tumors. High SHH levels were associated with a shorter overall survival (OS) of the patients. A SHH inhibitor, cyclopamine, and YZXJ alone or in combination had a marked inhibitory effect on cellular invasion and cellular migration of human lung cancer cells, A549 and SKMES1. YangZheng XiaoJi and its combination with cyclopamine also significantly reduced the growth of lung tumors in vivo together with a reduction of SHH and smoothened (Smo) proteins in the lung tumors. The present study provides evidence that blocking SHH by way of small inhibitor and by YangZheng XiaoJi has a profound influence on lung cancer cells as seen by in vitro invasion and cell migration and in vivo tumor growth. Together with the aberrant expression of SHH in NSCLC tumors in the patients, it is suggested that SHH is a potential target for therapies for NSCLC. PMID:25750281

  8. Glueballs amass at the RHIC and LHC! The early quarkless first-order phase transition at T = 270 MeV—from pure Yang-Mills glue plasma to Hagedorn glueball states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoecker, Horst; Zhou, Kai; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P.; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Sándor Biró, Tamás; Panero, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The early stage of a high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collisions is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, {T}c=270 {{MeV}}, a first-order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn glueball fluid. This new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high p T photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  9. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  10. Transcriptional suppression of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase by 25-hydroxycholesterol is mediated by nuclear factor-Y and Yin Yang 1.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiromi; Aoyama, Chieko; Horibata, Yasuhiro; Satou, Motoyasu; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Itoh, Masahiko; Hosaka, Kohei; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Pcyt2 (CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) biosynthesis. Previously, we reported that Pcyt2 mRNA levels increased in several types of cells after serum starvation, an effect that could be suppressed by supplementation with low-density lipoprotein or 25-HC (25-hydroxycholesterol). Transcription of Hmgcr, which encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, is also suppressed by 25-HC in the same dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, a sterol-regulatory element was not detected in the Pcyt2 promoter region. The important element for transcriptional control of Pcyt2 by 25-HC (1.25 μM) was determined to reside between -56 and -36 on the basis of analysis with several Pcyt2 promoter deletion-luciferase reporters in NIH 3T3 cells. Using the yeast one-hybrid system, we found that NF-Y (nuclear factor-Y) binds at C(-37)CAAT(-41) and YY1 (Yin Yang1) binds at C(-42)AT(-40) in the Pcyt2 promoter. Endogenous NF-Y and YY1 bind clearly and competitively to these sites and are important for basal Pcyt2 transcription. Moreover, NF-Y binds to the Hmgcr promoter at C(-14)CA(-12) in gel-shift analysis, and suppression of the basal luciferase activity of the Hmgcr promoter-reporter construct (-30/+61) by 25-HC was abolished when C(-14)CA(-12) was mutated. Furthermore, transcriptional suppression of Pcyt2 by 25-HC was reduced following knockdown targeting of NF-YA or YY1. ChIP analysis revealed that 25-HC inhibited the interaction between NF-Y and RNA polymerase II on the Pcyt2 and Hmgcr promoters. On the basis of these results, we conclude that NF-Y and YY1 are important for the basal transcription of Pcyt2 and that NF-Y is involved in the inhibitory effects of 25-HC on Pcyt2 transcription.

  11. Evaluation of the host specificity of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Northeast Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-specificity determination prior to the introduction of non-native natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) is a critical component of the risk assessment for modern classical biological control programs. In the present study, we assessed the host specificity of a newly described parasitoid,...

  12. On the phase diagram of water with density functional theory potentials: the melting temperature of Ice I-h with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2009-06-11

    The melting temperature (Tm) of ice Ih was determined from constant enthalphy (NPH) Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations to be 417±3 K for the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and 411±4 K for the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals using a coexisting ice (Ih)-liquid phase at constant pressures of P = 2,500 and 10,000 bar and a density ρ = 1 g/cm3, respectively. This suggests that ambient condition simulations at ρ = 1 g/cm3 will rather describe a supercooled state that is overstructured when compared to liquid water. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  13. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  14. Effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line

    PubMed Central

    LI, YACHAN; LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; YIN, LIANHUA; SHEN, JIANYING; KANG, JIE; DING, SHANSHAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of the Kidney-Yang deficiency (KYD) pattern of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of a certain age range by comparing the effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the KYD pattern with that of serum from postmenopausal women without osteoporosis on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line. A random selection of 30 female, postmenopausal volunteers aged 60–70 years, including 15 cases without osteoporosis and 15 cases with the KYD pattern of osteoporosis, were enrolled at the Physical Examination Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Venous blood was extracted and the serum was separated. The hFOB 1.19 cells were treated with 10% KYD pattern-serum or control serum from postmenopausal women of the same age range without osteoporosis. It was found that the KYD pattern-serum significantly decreased the cell viability, activity of alkaline phosphatase and number of calcified nodules, as well as downregulated the expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and upregulated that of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the hFOB 1.19 cells. In addition, the present results showed that the concentrations of estradiol (E2), OPG and insulin-like factor-1 (IGF-1) in the KYD pattern-serum were lower than those in the control serum. In combination, these findings suggest that the downregulation of E2, OPG and IGF-1 in the KYD pattern-serum inhibits the OPG/RANKL system, leading to a decrease in bone formation in the hFOB 1.19 cells. This indicates that the alterations in E2, OPG and IGF-1 may account for the susceptibility of certain postmenopausal women to the KYD pattern of osteoporosis. PMID:26622445

  15. Some Thoughts About Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, A.

    President Guaning Su mentioned that he was very much inspired by the news of parity violation in 1957 and its impact on the Chinese community worldwide. I like to add that I remember very clearly that my father came home one day saying that he heard that two Chinese had overthrown Einstein. I was quite young at that time and knew only vaguely who Einstein was, but still I felt that this was very important and that I should perhaps study physics later...

  16. Gravity and Yang-Mills amplitude relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Soendergaard, Thomas; FengBo

    2010-11-15

    Using only general features of the S matrix and quantum field theory, we prove by induction the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations that link products of gauge theory amplitudes to gravity amplitudes at tree level. As a bonus of our analysis, we provide a novel and more symmetric form of these relations. We also establish an infinite tower of new identities between amplitudes in gauge theories.

  17. Asymptotic symmetries of Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Asymptotic symmetries at future null infinity ( +) of Minkowski space for electrodynamics with massless charged fields, as well as nonabelian gauge theories with gauge group G, are considered at the semiclassical level. The possibility of charge/color flux through + suggests the symmetry group is infinite-dimensional. It is conjectured that the symmetries include a G Kac-Moody symmetry whose generators are "large" gauge transformations which approach locally holomorphic functions on the conformal two-sphere at + and are invariant under null translations. The Kac-Moody currents are constructed from the gauge field at the future boundary of +. The current Ward identities include Weinberg's soft photon theorem and its colored extension.

  18. Release and recovery of parasitiods of the emerlad ash borer agrilus planipennis in Michigan, Ohio and Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenotperan parasitoid species were introduced to the United State from China for biological control of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in 2007. These species are Tetrastichus planipennisi (Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid; Oobius agrili (Encyrtidae), a solitary pa...

  19. The Ying and Yang of STAT3 in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Tiphanie P.; Milner, Joshua D.; Cooper, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a critical regulator of multiple, diverse cellular processes. Heterozgyous, germline, loss-of-function mutations in STAT3 lead to the primary immune deficiency Hyper-IgE syndrome. Heterozygous, somatic, gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 have been reported in malignancy. Recently, germline, heterozygous mutations in STAT3 that confer a gain-of-function have been discovered and result in early-onset, multi-organ autoimmunity. This review summarizes what is known about the role of STAT3 in human disease. PMID:26280891

  20. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  1. The Yin and Yang of Sleep and Attention.

    PubMed

    Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports several physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. This capacity may have only become possible with the evolution of related neural mechanisms that support two key sleep functions: stimulus suppression and synaptic plasticity. We argue here that sleep and attention may have coevolved as brain states that regulate each other.

  2. Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim

    2009-01-01

    To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…

  3. Lower Dimension Vacuum Defects in Lattice Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V.I.

    2005-04-01

    We overview lattice data on d = 0, 1, 2, 3 dimensional vacuum defects in lattice four-dimensional SU(2) (SU(3)) gluodynamics. In all the cases, defects have a total volume which scales in physical units (with zero fractal dimension). In the case of d = 1, 2, the defects are distinguished by ultraviolet divergent non-Abelian action as well. This sensitivity to the ultraviolet scale allows us to derive strong constraints from the continuum theory on the properties of the defects, which turn out to be satisfied by the lattice data. We discuss a classification scheme of the defects which allows us to (at least) visualize the defect properties in a simple and unified way. A not-yet-checked relation of the defects to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is suggested by the scheme. Finally, we present some arguments that the defects considered could become fundamental variables of a dual formulation of the theory.

  4. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. > Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. > The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  5. The Yin and Yang of copper during infection.

    PubMed

    Besold, Angelique N; Culbertson, Edward M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for both pathogens and the animal hosts they infect. However, copper can also be toxic in cells due to its redox properties and ability to disrupt active sites of metalloproteins, such as Fe-S enzymes. Through these toxic properties, copper is an effective antimicrobial agent and an emerging concept in innate immunity is that the animal host intentionally exploits copper toxicity in antimicrobial weaponry. In particular, macrophages can attack invading microbes with high copper and this metal is also elevated at sites of lung infection. In addition, copper levels in serum rise during infection with a wide array of pathogens. To defend against this toxic copper, the microbial intruder is equipped with a battery of copper detoxification defenses that promote survival in the host, including copper exporting ATPases and copper binding metallothioneins. However, it is important to remember that copper is also an essential nutrient for microbial pathogens and serves as important cofactor for enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase for respiration, superoxide dismutase for anti-oxidant defense and multi-copper oxidases that act on metals and organic substrates. We therefore posit that the animal host can also thwart pathogen growth by limiting their copper nutrients, similar to the well-documented nutritional immunity effects for starving microbes of essential zinc, manganese and iron micronutrients. This review provides both sides of the copper story and evaluates how the host can exploit either copper-the-toxin or copper-the-nutrient in antimicrobial tactics at the host-pathogen battleground. PMID:26790881

  6. LOX-1/LOXIN: the yin/yang of atheroscleorosis.

    PubMed

    Mango, Ruggiero; Predazzi, Irene Marta; Romeo, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is the first cause of death in industrialized countries. Together with traditional risk factors (male gender, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and age), non-traditional risk factors have also been described as predisposing to this disease. Among these, oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) have been described in correlation to many proatherogenic processes. Many of the effects of OxLDL are mediated by the lectin like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), expressed on endothelial cells, macrophages, SMCs and platelets. LOX-1 is encoded by the lectin like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1) gene, located in the p12.3-p13.2 region of human chromosome 12. Variations on this gene have been studied extensively both at the functional and epidemiological level. Despite the fact that functional roles for two variants have been demonstrated, the epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent and inconclusive results. Of particular interest, it has been demonstrated that a linkage disequilibirum block of SNPs located in the intronic sequence of the OLR1 gene modulates the alternative splicing of OLR1 mRNA, leading to different ratios of LOX-1 full receptor and LOXIN, an isoform lacking part of the functional domain. As demonstrated, LOXIN acts by blocking the negative effective of LOX-1 activation. Here we review the state of the art regarding LOX-1, LOXIN, and the functional effects that are associated with the interaction of these molecules. PMID:21904818

  7. Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradlin, Marcus

    These lecture notes provide a lightning introduction to some aspects of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric theory, aimed at the audience of students attending the 2014 TASI summer school "Journeys Through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders". Emphasis is placed on explaining modern terminology so that students needing to delve further may more easily access the available literature.

  8. Looking East: Yin and Yang of an Academic Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Claire Reeves

    2011-01-01

    Intended as a brief guide to the cultural differences associated with an East-West academic exchange, this paper discusses customs and cultural norms likely to be encountered. Chinese economic growth has been accompanied by rapidly increasing East-West study abroad opportunities. Over the past decade, China has sent more students to study abroad…

  9. The Yin and Yang of Sleep and Attention.

    PubMed

    Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports several physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. This capacity may have only become possible with the evolution of related neural mechanisms that support two key sleep functions: stimulus suppression and synaptic plasticity. We argue here that sleep and attention may have coevolved as brain states that regulate each other. PMID:26602764

  10. Retinoid-xenobiotic interactions: the Ying and the Yang

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The literature provides compelling evidence pointing to tight metabolic interactions between retinoids and xenobiotics. These are extensive and important for understanding xenobiotic actions in the body. Within the body, retinoids affect xenobiotic metabolism and actions and conversely, xenobiotics affect retinoid metabolism and actions. This article summarizes data that establish the importance of retinoid-dependent metabolic pathways for sustaining the body’s responses to xenobiotic exposure, including the roles of all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid for protecting mammals from harmful xenobiotic effects and for ensuring xenobiotic elimination from the body. This review will also consider molecular mechanisms underlying xenobiotic toxicity focusing on how this may contribute to retinoid deficiency and disruption of normal retinoid homeostasis. Special attention is paid to xenobiotic molecular targets (nuclear receptors, regulatory proteins, enzymes, and transporters) which affect retinoid metabolism and signaling. PMID:26311625

  11. Large- N limit of the non-local 2D Yang Mills and generalized Yang Mills theories on a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaidi, K.; Khorrami, M.

    2002-04-01

    The large-group behavior of the non-local YM_2's and gYM_2's on a cylinder or a disk is investigated. It is shown that this behavior is similar to that of the corresponding local theory, but with the area of the cylinder replaced by an effective area depending on the dominant representation. The critical areas for non-local YM_2's on a cylinder with some special boundary conditions are also obtained.

  12. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  13. The framed Standard Model (I) — A physics case for framing the Yang-Mills theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun

    2015-10-01

    Introducing, in the underlying gauge theory of the Standard Model, the frame vectors in internal space as field variables (framons), in addition to the usual gauge boson and matter fermions fields, one obtains: the standard Higgs scalar as the framon in the electroweak sector; a global su˜(3) symmetry dual to colour to play the role of fermion generations. Renormalization via framon loops changes the orientation in generation space of the vacuum, hence also of the mass matrices of leptons and quarks, thus making them rotate with changing scale μ. From previous work, it is known already that a rotating mass matrix will lead automatically to: CKM mixing and neutrino oscillations, hierarchical masses for quarks and leptons, a solution to the strong-CP problem transforming the theta-angle into a Kobayashi-Maskawa phase. Here in the framed standard model (FSM), the renormalization group equation has some special properties which explain the main qualitative features seen in experiment both for mixing matrices of quarks and leptons, and for their mass spectrum. Quantitative results will be given in Paper II. The present paper ends with some tentative predictions on Higgs decay, and with some speculations on the origin of dark matter.

  14. The Framed Standard Model (I) -- A Physics Case for Framing the Yang-Mills Theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun

    Introducing, in the underlying gauge theory of the Standard Model, the frame vectors in internal space as field variables (framons), in addition to the usual gauge boson and matter fermions fields, one obtains: * the standard Higgs scalar as the framon in the electroweak sector; * a global widetilde{su}(3) symmetry dual to colour to play the role of fermion generations. Renormalization via framon loops changes the orientation in generation space of the vacuum, hence also of the mass matrices of leptons and quarks, thus making them rotate with changing scale μ. From previous work, it is known already that a rotating mass matrix will lead automatically to: * CKM mixing and neutrino oscillations, * hierarchical masses for quarks and leptons, * a solution to the strong-CP problem transforming the theta-angle into a Kobayashi-Maskawa phase. Here in the framed standard model (FSM), the renormalization group equation has some special properties which explain the main qualitative features seen in experiment both for mixing matrices of quarks and leptons, and for their mass spectrum. Quantitative results will be given in Paper II. The present paper ends with some tentative predictions on Higgs decay, and with some speculations on the origin of dark matter...

  15. The yin and yang of intestinal epithelial cells in controlling dendritic cell function

    PubMed Central

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Matteoli, Gianluca; Rescigno, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Recent work suggests that dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal tissues are “educated” by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to suppress inflammation and promote immunological tolerance. After attack by pathogenic microorganisms, however, “non-educated” DCs are recruited from nearby areas, such as the dome of Peyer's patches (PPs) and the blood, to initiate inflammation and the ensuing immune response to the invader. Differential epithelial cell (EC) responses to commensals and pathogens may control these two tolorogenic and immunogenic functions of DCs. PMID:17893197

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric redshifts in the Hawaii-HDF-N (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cui, W.; Kong, X.; Lehmer, B. D.; Wang, J.-X.; Wu, X.-B.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2015-02-01

    We collect the U-, B-, V-, R-, I-, z'-, and HK'-band images from Capak+, 2004, J/AJ/127/180, the J- and H-band images from Keenan et al. (2010ApJS..186...94K), and the Ks-band image from Wang et al. (2010, J/ApJS/187/251), respectively. We also make use of an independently observed z'-band image from Ouchi et al. (2009ApJ...706.1136O). The IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um images were obtained from the Spitzer Heritage Archive, while another set of IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um images were taken from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) presented in Ashby et al. (2013, J/ApJ/769/80). (1 data file).

  17. Good news–bad news: the Yin and Yang of immune privilege in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, John V.; Xu, Heping

    2012-01-01

    The eye and the brain are prototypical tissues manifesting immune privilege (IP) in which immune responses to foreign antigens, particularly alloantigens are suppressed, and even completely inhibited. Explanations for this phenomenon are numerous and mostly reflect our evolving understanding of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning immunological responses generally. IP is now viewed as a property of many tissues and the level of expression of IP varies not only with the tissue but with the nature of the foreign antigen and changes in the limited conditions under which privilege can operate as a mechanism of immunological tolerance. As a result, IP functions normally as a homeostatic mechanism preserving normal function in tissues, particularly those with highly specialized function and limited capacity for renewal such as the eye and brain. However, IP is relatively easily bypassed in the face of a sufficiently strong immunological response, and the privileged tissues may be at greater risk of collateral damage because its natural defenses are more easily breached than in a fully immunocompetent tissue which rapidly rejects foreign antigen and restores integrity. This two-edged sword cuts its swathe through the eye: under most circumstances, IP mechanisms such as blood–ocular barriers, intraocular immune modulators, induction of T regulatory cells, lack of lymphatics, and other properties maintain tissue integrity; however, when these are breached, various degrees of tissue damage occur from severe tissue destruction in retinal viral infections and other forms of uveoretinal inflammation, to less severe inflammatory responses in conditions such as macular degeneration. Conversely, ocular IP and tumor-related IP can combine to permit extensive tumor growth and increased risk of metastasis thus threatening the survival of the host. PMID:23230433

  18. T-cell activation or tolerization: the Yin and Yang of bacterial superantigens

    PubMed Central

    Sähr, Aline; Förmer, Sandra; Hildebrand, Dagmar; Heeg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial superantigens (SAg) are exotoxins from pathogens which interact with innate and adaptive immune cells. The paradox that SAgs cause activation and inactivation/anergy of T-cells was soon recognized. The structural and molecular events following SAg binding to antigen presenting cells (APCs) followed by crosslinking of T-cell receptors were characterized in detail. Activation, cytokine burst and T-cell anergy have been described in vitro and in vivo. Later it became clear that SAg-induced T-cell anergy is in part caused by SAg-dependent activation of T-regulatory cells (Tregs). Although the main focus of analyses was laid on T-cells, it was also shown that SAg binding to MHC class II molecules on APCs induces a signal, which leads to activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly APCs are mandatory for T-cell activation. So far it is not known, whether APCs play a role during SAg-triggered activation of Tregs. We therefore tested whether in SAg (Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) -treated APCs an anti-inflammatory program is triggered in addition. We show here that not only the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the co-inhibitory surface molecule PD-L1 (CD274) but also inhibitory effector systems like indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) or intracellular negative feedback loops (suppressor of cytokine signaling molecules, SOCS) are induced by SAgs. Moreover, cyclosporine A completely prevented induction of this program. We therefore propose that APCs triggered by SAgs play a key role in T-cell activation as well as inactivation and induction of Treg cells. PMID:26539181

  19. Yin and Yang of hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling in regulating white adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Thomas; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Fatty acids released from white adipose tissue (WAT) provide important energy substrates during fasting. However, uncontrolled fatty acid release from WAT during non-fasting states causes lipotoxicity and promotes inflammation and insulin resistance, which can lead to and worsen type 2 diabetes (DM2). WAT is also a source for insulin sensitizing fatty acids such as palmitoleate produced during de novo lipogenesis. Insulin and leptin are two major hormonal adiposity signals that control energy homeostasis through signaling in the central nervous system. Both hormones have been implicated to regulate both WAT lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis through the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) in an opposing fashion independent of their respective peripheral receptors. Here, we review the current literature on brain leptin and insulin action in regulating WAT metabolism and discuss potential mechanisms and neuro-anatomical substrates that could explain the opposing effects of central leptin and insulin. Finally, we discuss the role of impaired hypothalamic control of WAT metabolism in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, metabolic inflexibility and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21713385

  20. Yin-Yang of costimulation: crucial controls of immune tolerance and function

    PubMed Central

    Nurieva, Roza I.; Liu, Xikui; Dong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Summary In addition to signals from the T cell receptor complex, it has been recognized for many years that a “second” signal, most notably from CD28, is also important in T cell activation. In the recent years, many new members of CD28 family as well as the molecules that are share structural homology to CD28 ligands CD80 and CD86 have been discovered. Interestingly, some of these proteins function to dampen T cell activation and regulate the induction of T cell tolerance. Therefore, positive and negative costimulation are the two sides of the coin to fine tune T cell receptor signaling to determine the outcome of T cell receptor engagement- tolerance vs. function. PMID:19426216

  1. The Yin and Yang of Repair Mechanisms in DNA Structure-induced Genetic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Karen M.; Wang, Guliang

    2013-01-01

    DNA can adopt a variety of secondary structures that deviate from the canonical Watson-Crick B-DNA form. More than 10 types of non-canonical or non-B DNA secondary structures have been characterized, and the sequences that have the capacity to adopt such structures are very abundant in the human genome. Non-B DNA structures have been implicated in many important biological processes and can serve as sources of genetic instability, implicating them in disease and evolution. Non-B DNA conformations interact with a wide variety of proteins involved in replication, transcription, DNA repair, and chromatin architectural regulation. In this review, we will focus on the interactions of DNA repair proteins with non-B DNA and their roles in genetic instability, as the proteins and DNA involved in such interactions may represent plausible targets for selective therapeutic intervention. PMID:23219604

  2. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    PubMed

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:16713391

  3. The Yin and the Yang of Prediction: An fMRI Study of Semantic Predictive Processing

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kirsten; Lau, Ellen F.; Stillerman, Benjamin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic prediction plays a crucial role in language comprehension. When predictions are fulfilled, the resulting facilitation allows for fast, efficient processing of ambiguous, rapidly-unfolding input; when predictions are not fulfilled, the resulting error signal allows us to adapt to broader statistical changes in this input. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the neuroanatomical networks engaged in semantic predictive processing and adaptation. We used a relatedness proportion semantic priming paradigm, in which we manipulated the probability of predictions while holding local semantic context constant. Under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, we replicate previous observations of reduced activity to semantically predictable words in the left anterior superior/middle temporal cortex, reflecting facilitated processing of targets that are consistent with prior semantic predictions. In addition, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity we observed significant differences in the effects of semantic relatedness within the left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior portion of the left superior/middle temporal gyrus. We suggest that together these two regions mediated the suppression of unfulfilled semantic predictions and lexico-semantic processing of unrelated targets that were inconsistent with these predictions. Moreover, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, a functional connectivity analysis showed that the left inferior frontal and left posterior superior/middle temporal gyrus were more tightly interconnected with one another, as well as with the left anterior cingulate cortex. The left anterior cingulate cortex was, in turn, more tightly connected to superior lateral frontal cortices and subcortical regions—a network that mediates rapid learning and adaptation and that may have played a role in switching to a more predictive mode of processing in response to the statistical structure of the wider environmental context. Together, these findings highlight close links between the networks mediating semantic prediction, executive function and learning, giving new insights into how our brains are able to flexibly adapt to our environment. PMID:27010386

  4. Apathy and Impulse Control Disorders: Yin & Yang of Dopamine Dependent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, María; Carnicella, Sébastien; Strafella, Antonio P; Bichon, Amélie; Lhommée, Eugénie; Castrioto, Anna; Chabardes, Stephan; Thobois, Stéphane; Krack, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy and impulse control disorders (ICD) are two opposite motivational expressions of a continuous behavioural spectrum involving hypo- and hyperdopaminergia. Both syndromes share pathological (decreased vs increased) dopamine receptor stimulation states. Apathy belongs to the spectrum of hypodopaminergic symptoms together with anhedonia, anxiety and depression. Apathy is a key symptom of PD which worsens with disease progression. Animal models, imaging and pharmacological studies concur in pointing out dopaminergic denervation in the aetiology of parkinsonian apathy with a cardinal role of decreased tonic D2/D3 receptor stimulation. ICDs are part of the hyperdopaminergic behavioural spectrum, which also includes punding, and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which are all related to non-physiological dopaminergic stimulation induced by antiparkinsonian drugs. According to clinical data tonic D2/D3 receptor stimulation can be sufficient to induce ICDs. Clinical observations in drug addiction and PD as well as data from studies in dopamine depleted rodents provide hints allowing to argue that both pulsatile D1 and D2 receptor stimulation and the severity of dopaminergic denervation are risk factors to develop punding behavior and DDS. Imaging studies have shown that the brain structures involved in drug addiction are also involved in hyperdopaminergic behaviours with increase of bottom-up appetitive drive and decrease in prefrontal top down behavioural control.

  5. The yin-yang of dendrite morphology: unity of actin and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Georges, Penelope C; Hadzimichalis, Norell M; Sweet, Eric S; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2008-12-01

    Actin and microtubules (MT) are targets of numerous molecular pathways that control neurite outgrowth. To generate a neuronal protrusion, coordinated structural changes of the actin and MT cytoskeletons must occur. Neurite formation occurs when actin filaments (F-actin) are destabilized, filopodia are extended, and MTs invade filopodia. This process results in either axon or dendrite formation. Axonal branching involves interplay between F-actin and MTs, with F-actin and MTs influencing polymerization, stabilization, and maintenance of each other. Our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating development of the axon, however, far eclipses our understanding of dendritic development and branching. The two classes of neurites, while fundamentally similar in their ability to elongate and branch, dramatically differ in growth rate, orientation of polarized MT bundles, and mechanisms that initiate branching. In this review, we focus on how F-actin, MTs, and proteins that link the two cytoskeletons coordinate to specifically initiate dendritic events. PMID:18987787

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ZZ Cyg times of minima (Yang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Dai, H.; Li, H.

    2015-07-01

    CCD photometry of ZZ Cyg was carried out on 2009 October and 2013 July and August, with the 60-cm telescope and the 85-cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). This telescope was equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI filters. The data reduction was performed by using the IMRED and APPHOT packages in IRAF in a standard mode. (1 data file).

  7. Zero Modes Enhancement Quantum Model of the Yang-Mills Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogohia, V.; Toki, H.

    2002-09-01

    Using the effective potential approach for composite operators we have formulated new zero modes enhancement quantum model of the QCD ground state. It is based on the existence and importance of such kind of the nonperturbative, topologically nontrivial excitations of the gluon field configurations (due to self-interactions of massless gluons only), which can be effectively corrctly described by the q-4-type behavior of the full gluon propagator in the deep infrared domain. The ultraviolet part of the full gluon propagator is approximated by the asymptotic freedom to-leading order perturbative logarithm term of the running coupling constant. We minimize the regularized and correspondingly subtracted effective potential at a fixed scale as a function of the physically meaningful parameter. When it is zero, then perturbative phase survives only in our model. This makes it possible for the first time to establish relation between the nonperturbative scale parameter and flavorless QCD asymptotic scale parameter.

  8. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.

  9. On the Infrared Behaviour of Landau Gauge Yang-Mills Theory with Differently Charged Scalar Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alkofer, Reinhard; Maas, Axel; Macher, Veronika; Fister, Leonard

    2011-05-23

    Recently it has been argued that infrared singularities of the quark-gluon vertex of Landau gauge QCD can confine static quarks via a linear potential. It is demonstrated that the same mechanism also may confine fundamental scalar fields. This opens the possibility that within functional approaches static confinement is an universal property of the gauge sector even though it is formally represented in the functional equations of the matter sector. The colour structure of Dyson-Schwinger equations for fundamental and adjoint scalar fields is determined for the gauge groups SU(N) and G(2) exhibiting interesting cancellations purely due to colour algebra.

  10. The yin-yang of long pentraxin PTX3 in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Kenji; Mantovani, Alberto; Bottazzi, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Pentraxins are a family of multimeric proteins characterized by the presence of a pentraxin signature in their C-terminus region. Based on the primary structure, pentraxins are divided into short and long pentraxin: C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototype of the short pentraxin subfamily while pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the prototypic long pentraxin. Despite these two molecules exert similar fundamental actions in the regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses, several differences exist between CRP and PTX3, including gene organization, protein oligomerization and expression pattern. The pathophysiological roles of PTX3 have been investigated using genetically modified mice since PTX3 gene organization and regulation are well conserved between mouse and human. Such in vivo studies figured out that PTX3 mainly have host-protective effects, even if it could also exert negative effects under certain pathophysiologic conditions. Here we will review the general properties of CRP and PTX3, emphasizing the differences between the two molecules and the regulatory functions exerted by PTX3 in innate immunity and inflammation.

  11. Yin and Yang of disease genes and death genes between reciprocally scale-free biological networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Wook; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Ju Han

    2013-11-01

    Biological networks often show a scale-free topology with node degree following a power-law distribution. Lethal genes tend to form functional hubs, whereas non-lethal disease genes are located at the periphery. Uni-dimensional analyses, however, are flawed. We created and investigated two distinct scale-free networks; a protein-protein interaction (PPI) and a perturbation sensitivity network (PSN). The hubs of both networks exhibit a low molecular evolutionary rate (P < 8 × 10(-12), P < 2 × 10(-4)) and a high codon adaptation index (P < 2 × 10(-16), P < 2 × 10(-8)), indicating that both hubs have been shaped under high evolutionary selective pressure. Moreover, the topologies of PPI and PSN are inversely proportional: hubs of PPI tend to be located at the periphery of PSN and vice versa. PPI hubs are highly enriched with lethal genes but not with disease genes, whereas PSN hubs are highly enriched with disease genes and drug targets but not with lethal genes. PPI hub genes are enriched with essential cellular processes, but PSN hub genes are enriched with environmental interaction processes, having more TATA boxes and transcription factor binding sites. It is concluded that biological systems may balance internal growth signaling and external stress signaling by unifying the two opposite scale-free networks that are seemingly opposite to each other but work in concert between death and disease.

  12. The "Yin" and "Yang" of Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation in the Oligodendroglial Lineage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Laurent; Borgs, Laurence; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Mangin, Jean-Marie; Beukelaers, Pierre; Moonen, Gustave; Gallo, Vittorio; Malgrange, Brigitte; Belachew, Shibeshih

    2006-01-01

    In white matter disorders such as leukodystrophies (LD), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), or multiple sclerosis (MS), the hypomyelination or the remyelination failure by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells involves errors in the sequence of events that normally occur during development when progenitors proliferate, migrate through the white…

  13. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Hwang, Phoebe W; Saksa, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D) have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni) has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni's several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni's exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their "natural" origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation "from bench side to bedside". In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni's health benefits.

  14. The Yin-Yang Principle of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle, which performs several cellular functions and is thus an important site for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Sometimes pathways within the ER are disturbed, especially those regulating the protein folding, gene expression, cellular metabolism, and calcium signaling, and is called an "ER stress."(1) The accumulation of unfolded, misfolded, or damaged proteins can irreparably damage cellular functions and can pose a severe threat to the existence of the cell. Under such circumstances, ER functions become overwhelmed triggering the homeostatic "ER stress response" or "unfolded protein response" (UPR).(2). PMID:27595714

  15. The Yin and the Yang of Prediction: An fMRI Study of Semantic Predictive Processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Lau, Ellen F; Stillerman, Benjamin; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic prediction plays a crucial role in language comprehension. When predictions are fulfilled, the resulting facilitation allows for fast, efficient processing of ambiguous, rapidly-unfolding input; when predictions are not fulfilled, the resulting error signal allows us to adapt to broader statistical changes in this input. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the neuroanatomical networks engaged in semantic predictive processing and adaptation. We used a relatedness proportion semantic priming paradigm, in which we manipulated the probability of predictions while holding local semantic context constant. Under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, we replicate previous observations of reduced activity to semantically predictable words in the left anterior superior/middle temporal cortex, reflecting facilitated processing of targets that are consistent with prior semantic predictions. In addition, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity we observed significant differences in the effects of semantic relatedness within the left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior portion of the left superior/middle temporal gyrus. We suggest that together these two regions mediated the suppression of unfulfilled semantic predictions and lexico-semantic processing of unrelated targets that were inconsistent with these predictions. Moreover, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, a functional connectivity analysis showed that the left inferior frontal and left posterior superior/middle temporal gyrus were more tightly interconnected with one another, as well as with the left anterior cingulate cortex. The left anterior cingulate cortex was, in turn, more tightly connected to superior lateral frontal cortices and subcortical regions-a network that mediates rapid learning and adaptation and that may have played a role in switching to a more predictive mode of processing in response to the statistical structure of the wider environmental context. Together, these findings highlight close links between the networks mediating semantic prediction, executive function and learning, giving new insights into how our brains are able to flexibly adapt to our environment. PMID:27010386

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Algol-type binaries. IX. V548 Cyg (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Wu, C.; van Hamme, W.; Hu, J.-Y.; Wei, J.-Y.

    2016-09-01

    The UV photometry of V548 Cyg was obtained in 2014 May 13-14 with the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT), which is a component of the Chinese Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon (Ip et al., 2014RAA....14.1511I). We obtained a total of 1417 images (see Table2). (1 data file).

  17. The Yin and the Yang of Prediction: An fMRI Study of Semantic Predictive Processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Lau, Ellen F; Stillerman, Benjamin; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic prediction plays a crucial role in language comprehension. When predictions are fulfilled, the resulting facilitation allows for fast, efficient processing of ambiguous, rapidly-unfolding input; when predictions are not fulfilled, the resulting error signal allows us to adapt to broader statistical changes in this input. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the neuroanatomical networks engaged in semantic predictive processing and adaptation. We used a relatedness proportion semantic priming paradigm, in which we manipulated the probability of predictions while holding local semantic context constant. Under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, we replicate previous observations of reduced activity to semantically predictable words in the left anterior superior/middle temporal cortex, reflecting facilitated processing of targets that are consistent with prior semantic predictions. In addition, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity we observed significant differences in the effects of semantic relatedness within the left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior portion of the left superior/middle temporal gyrus. We suggest that together these two regions mediated the suppression of unfulfilled semantic predictions and lexico-semantic processing of unrelated targets that were inconsistent with these predictions. Moreover, under conditions of higher (versus lower) predictive validity, a functional connectivity analysis showed that the left inferior frontal and left posterior superior/middle temporal gyrus were more tightly interconnected with one another, as well as with the left anterior cingulate cortex. The left anterior cingulate cortex was, in turn, more tightly connected to superior lateral frontal cortices and subcortical regions-a network that mediates rapid learning and adaptation and that may have played a role in switching to a more predictive mode of processing in response to the statistical structure of the wider environmental context. Together, these findings highlight close links between the networks mediating semantic prediction, executive function and learning, giving new insights into how our brains are able to flexibly adapt to our environment.

  18. The Yin and Yang of Bacterial Resilience in the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Molly K.; Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Dantas, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is home to trillions of microbes that form a symbiotic relationship with the human host. During health, the intestinal microbiota provides many benefits to the host and is generally resistant to colonization by new species; however, disruption of this complex community can lead to pathogen invasion, inflammation, and disease. Restoration and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota composition requires effective therapies to reduce and prevent colonization of harmful bacteria (pathogens) while simultaneously promoting growth of beneficial bacteria (probiotics). Here we review the mechanisms by which the host modulates the gut community composition during health and disease, and discuss prospects for antibiotic and probiotic therapy for restoration of a healthy intestinal community following disruption. PMID:24911583

  19. Gravity as an internal Yang-Mills gauge field theory of the Poincaré group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Jörg; Nitsch, Jürgen

    1981-10-01

    In the framework of affine bundles we present gravity as an “internal” gauge field theory of the Poincaré group. The resulting geometry is a Riemann-Cartan space-time carrying torsion and curvature. In order to admit a nontrivial action of the translation group we formally extend the matter Lagrangian to affine field variables. Finally, we establish the relation of our approach with the formalism of Hehl et al.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).