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Sample records for spatial forest patterns

  1. Forest fire spatial pattern analysis in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santos, I; Marey-Pérez, M F; González-Manteiga, W

    2013-10-15

    Knowledge of fire behaviour is of key importance in forest management. In the present study, we analysed the spatial structure of forest fire with spatial point pattern analysis and inference techniques recently developed in the Spatstat package of R. Wildfires have been the primary threat to Galician forests in recent years. The district of Fonsagrada-Ancares is one of the most seriously affected by fire in the region and, therefore, the central focus of the study. Our main goal was to determine the spatial distribution of ignition points to model and predict fire occurrence. These data are of great value in establishing enhanced fire prevention and fire fighting plans. We found that the spatial distribution of wildfires is not random and that fire occurrence may depend on ownership conflicts. We also found positive interaction between small and large fires and spatial independence between wildfires in consecutive years.

  2. Spatial Patterns of Carbon Exchange Seasonality in Amazonian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.; Myneni, R.; Frankenberg, C.; Chowdhury, D.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is considered the largest CO2 flux (123±8 petagrams) and responsible for driving several ecosystem functions globally. However, estimates of magnitude and regional variations of this flux remain uncertain in humid tropical forests, particularly in Amazonia where limited ground data have caused gross assumptions about seasonality and heterogeneity of these forests. Empirical upscaling of the in situ observations or refined process-based modeling using remote sensing inputs have improved estimates of carbon exchange, but the seasonal variation of this exchange in Amazonia remains a challenge and has been the subject of recent scientific debates. Here, we used satellite observations of canopy structure, skin temperature, water content, and optical properties over 10 years (2000-2009) to quantify spatial patterns of seasonality of Amazonian forests. We found 9 pheno-regions with distinct seasonal cycles in Amazonia, among them 3 regions showing strong seasonal variations with maximized GPP in the wet season; another 3 exhibiting rising GPP in the dry season; and the remaining 3 with low seasonality. These patterns were verified by direct measurements of photosynthetic activity using florescence from GOSAT satellite. Our results suggest that water and radiation represented by canopy water content and skin temperature regulate photosynthetic activities over Amazonia that can be captured by spatial variations of Near Infrared Reflectance. Our detection of patterns of seasonality in Amazonia will improve modeling global exchange of carbon and predicting future impacts of climate change on tropical forests.

  3. Alternative characterization of forest fire regimes: incorporating spatial patterns

    Treesearch

    Brandon M. Collins; Jens T. Stevens; Jay D. Miller; Scott L. Stephens; Peter M. Brown; Malcolm P. North

    2017-01-01

    ContextThe proportion of fire area that experienced stand-replacing fire effects is an important attribute of individual fires and fire regimes in forests, and this metric has been used to group forest types into characteristic fire regimes. However, relying on proportion alone ignores important spatial characteristics...

  4. Impact of scale on morphological spatial pattern of forest

    Treesearch

    Katarzyna Ostapowicz; Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Jacek Kozak; Christine Estreguil

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and monitoring landscape pattern structure from multi-scale land-cover maps can utilize morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA), only if various influences of scale are known and taken into account. This paper lays part of the foundation for applying MSPA analysis in landscape monitoring by quantifying scale effects on six classes of spatial patterns...

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  7. International research to monitor sustainable forest spatial patterns: proceedings of the 2005 IUFRO World Congress symposium

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; Christine Estreguil

    2007-01-01

    Presentations from the symposium "International Research to Monitor Sustainable Forest Spatial Patterns," which was organized as part of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) World Congress in August 2005, are summarized in this report. The overall theme of the World Congress was "Forests in the Balance: Linking Tradition and...

  8. Evolution of Canada's Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space.

    PubMed

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Gergel, Sarah E; Andison, David W; Marshall, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies.

  9. Evolution of Canada’s Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Paul D.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gergel, Sarah E.; Andison, David W.; Marshall, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:27383055

  10. ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND CONTROLS ON FOREST TREE GROWTH, MORTALITY AND SPATIAL PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the relative importance of above- and belowground competition in controlling growth, mortality and spatial patterns of trees in a nitrogen-limited, old-growth forest in western Oregon. To assess the effects of competition for light, we applied a spatially-explici...

  11. ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND CONTROLS ON FOREST TREE GROWTH, MORTALITY AND SPATIAL PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the relative importance of above- and belowground competition in controlling growth, mortality and spatial patterns of trees in a nitrogen-limited, old-growth forest in western Oregon. To assess the effects of competition for light, we applied a spatially-explici...

  12. Long-term mortality rates and spatial patterns in an old-growth forest

    Treesearch

    Emily J. Silver; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Tuomas Aakala; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Understanding natural mortality patterns and processes of forest tree species is increasingly important given projected changes in mortality owing to global change. With this need in mind, the rate and spatial pattern of mortality was assessed over an 89-year period in a natural-origin Pinus resinosa (Aiton)-dominated system to assess these processes...

  13. Spatial pattern of diversity in an old-growth temperate forest in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xugao; Hao, Zhanqing; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Jian; Li, Buhang; Yao, Xiaolin

    2008-05-01

    Species diversity has attracted particular attention because of its significance for helping determine present species performance and likely future community composition. The spatial pattern of species diversity (species richness, abundance and Shannon diversity) in Changbai temperate forest in Northeastern China was studied to investigate the present and likely causes for the formation of spatial patterns. To fulfill this goal, three aspects of diversity were addressed: 1) changes in the relationships of the diversity variables, species richness, abundance and Shannon diversity, to sampling area and sampling design. The three diversity variables were found to respond to sampling area in a dissimilar way. Sampling design had no significant effect on the diversity variable-area curves. The power function, which was derived under the assumption that the forest was in equilibrium, did not fit the observed species-area curves, indicating that the Changbai temperate forest was probably not in equilibrium. 2) Variograms, used to examine the spatial structure of species diversity, showed that the spatial structure of species diversity in the Changbai temperate forest was weakly anisotropic. 3) Partitioning the variation of species diversity into spatial and environmental factors indicated that the spatial pattern of the Changbai forest community was unpredictable, probably because there were many undetermined processes controlling its development.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns in erosion from forest roads

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Luce; Thomas A. Black

    2001-01-01

    Erosion from forest roads is an important contribution to the sediment budget of many forested basins, particularly over short time scales. Sediment production from 74 road segments was measured over three years to examine how road slope, segment length, cutslope height, and soil texture affect sediment production and how these relationships change with time. In the...

  15. Partial net primary production of a mixed dipterocarp forest: Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zheng-Hong; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Hughes, Alice; Tang, Yong; Cao, Min; Zhang, Wen-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Sha, Li-Qing; Song, Liang; Zhao, Jun-Fu

    2015-03-01

    We examined how and why partial net primary production (NPPpart) varies across time and space in a Chinese dipterocarp forest. We hypothesize that (1) soil geochemistry explains the spatial pattern of NPPpart within the plot and (2) NPPpart can be used to measure the degree of drought resilience of a natural forest. Spatially, NPPpart was autocorrelated in the range of 75.3 m and homogenous. This spatial pattern could not be well explained by any of the soil properties individually or in combination. If drought sensitivity is defined by marked reduction in NPPpart, the studied forest is drought resilient even when a longer and drier than usual drought hit. Although annual NPPpart was unchanged (vary within 18.24 and 18.52 t ha-1 yr-1) after the drought, the allocation of NPPpart to short-lived litterfall increased, which has further effects on the ecosystem net carbon balance.

  16. Catchment hydrological responses to forest harvest amount and spatial pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest harvest effects on streamflow dynamics have been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological controls can be difficult to ascertain from data alone. We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VE...

  17. Catchment hydrological responses to forest harvest amount and spatial pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest harvest effects on streamflow dynamics have been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological controls can be difficult to ascertain from data alone. We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VE...

  18. Catchment hydrological responses to forest harvest amount and spatial pattern

    Treesearch

    Alex Abdelnour; Marc Stieglitz; Feifei Pan; Robert. McKane

    2011-01-01

    Forest harvest effects on streamflow generation have been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological controls can be difficult to ascertain from data alone. We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA), to elucidate how hillslope and catchment-scale processes control stream discharge in...

  19. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  20. Management implications of recent changes in spatial patterns of interior northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Paul. F. Hessburg; Bradley G. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Declining health of forest ecosystems in the interior West has been the subject of much study, concern and controversy in recent years (e.g., Everett et al. 1994, Harvey et al. 1995, Lehmkuhl et al. 1994, O'Laughlin et al. 1993, Wickman 1992). Land-use practices of this century have altered disturbance regimes and spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation, and...

  1. Catchment hydro-biogeochemical response to forest harvest intensity and spatial pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment (VELMA), to Watershed 10 (WS10) in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest to simulate the effects of harvest intensity and spatial pattern on catchment hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Specificall...

  2. Catchment hydro-biogeochemical response to forest harvest intensity and spatial pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment (VELMA), to Watershed 10 (WS10) in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest to simulate the effects of harvest intensity and spatial pattern on catchment hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Specificall...

  3. [Spatial pattern of sub-alpine forest restoration in west Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuandong; Liu, Shirong; Zhao, Changming

    2005-09-01

    West Sichuan sub-alpine is an extension of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to southeast China, which is covered mainly with dark coniferous forest. As a result of long-term large scale over-logging, the forests have been greatly reduced and degraded. Nowadays, the forest restoration and regeneration in the region are being highlighted. Selecting Miyaluo as a case study area and employing the methods of plot investigation, ETM image interpretation, and overlaying vegetation map with digital topography, this paper analyzed the relations between the appearance and origin of four forest vegetation types, along with their topography differentiation and spatial patterns after a large scale logging and regeneration. The results showed that the appearance of forest vegetations was significantly correlated with their origin. Old coniferous forests (OC) were primitive ones, middle-aged and young coniferous forests (MYC) were from artificial regeneration, deciduous broadleaf forests (DB) were natural secondary ones, while mixed coniferous and deciduous forests (MCD) were partly from natural secondary ones and others from the conjunct action of artificial and natural regeneration. The main cut area in Miyaluo located in the sites with elevation from 2 800 to 3 600 m, where forest restoration appeared difference among different aspects. MYC was mainly distributed on sunny and half-sunny slope, DB and MCD were distributed on shady and half-shady slope, and OC were reserved on the sites with elevation more than 3 600 m. In the process of forest restoration, the four forest vegetation types were in mosaic pattern, and the landscape was seriously fragmentized.

  4. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change.

  5. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989–1993, 1994–1998, 1999–2003, and 2004–2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change. PMID:26353011

  6. Contrasting spatial patterns in active-fire and fire-suppressed Mediterranean climate old-growth mixed conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Danny L. Fry; Scott L. Stephens; Brandon M. Collins; Malcolm North; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Samantha J. Gill

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference...

  7. Factors influencing spatial pattern in tropical forest clearance and stand age: Implications for carbon storage and species diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Brandeis, Thomas J.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Kennaway, Todd

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the tropical forests that undergo clearing as urban/built-up and other developed lands spread. This study uses remote sensing-based maps of Puerto Rico, multinomial logit models and forest inventory data to explain patterns of forest age and the age of forests cleared for land development and assess their implications for forest carbon storage and tree species richness. Accessibility, arability and spatial contagion emerge strongly as overriding spatial controls on tropical forest age, determining (1) the pattern of agricultural abandonment that permits forest regrowth, and (2) where humans leave old-growth forest remnants. Covariation between the factors patterning forest age and land development explains why most forest cleared for land development is younger. Forests are increasingly younger in more accessible and fertile areas where agriculture has lasted longer and land development is most common. All else equal, more species-rich older forest on less arable lands are somewhat less likely to undergo development, but they are still vulnerable to clearing for land development if close to urban centers and unprotected. Accounting for forest age leads to a 19% lower estimate of forest biomass cleared for land development than if forest age is not accounted for.

  8. [Spatial pattern of forest biomass and its influencing factors in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Jiao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Based on field inventory data and vegetation index EVI (enhanced vegetation index), the spatial pattern of the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province was quantitatively analyzed. Using the spatial analysis and statistics tools in ArcGIS software, the impacts of climatic zone, elevation, slope, aspect and vegetation type on the spatial pattern of forest biomass were explored. The results showed that the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains was 350 Tg and spatially aggregated with great increasing potentials. Forest biomass density in the cold temperate humid zone (64.02 t x hm(-2)) was higher than that in the temperate humid zone (60.26 t x hm(-2)). The biomass density of each vegetation type was in the order of mixed coniferous forest (65.13 t x hm(-2)) > spruce-fir forest (63.92 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest (63.79 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest (61.97 t x hm(-2)) > Larix gmelinii forest (61.40 t x hm(-2)) > deciduous broadleaf forest (58.96 t x hm(-2)). With the increasing elevation and slope, the forest biomass density first decreased and then increased. The forest biomass density in the shady slopes was greater than that in the sunny slopes. The spatial pattern of forest biomass in the Great Xing' an Mountains exhibited a heterogeneous pattern due to the variation of climatic zone, vegetation type and topographical factor. This spatial heterogeneity needs to be accounted when evaluating forest biomass at regional scales.

  9. Using foliar and forest floor mercury concentrations to assess spatial patterns of mercury deposition.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated spatial patterns of mercury (Hg) deposition through analysis of foliage and forest floor samples from 45 sites across Adirondack Park, NY. Species-specific differences in foliar Hg were evident with the lowest concentrations found in first-year conifer needles and highest concentrations found in black cherry (Prunus serotina). For foliage and forest floor samples, latitude and longitude were negatively correlated with Hg concentrations, likely because of proximity to emission sources, while elevation was positively correlated with Hg concentrations. Elemental analysis showed moderately strong, positive correlations between Hg and nitrogen concentrations. The spatial pattern of Hg deposition across the Adirondacks is similar to patterns of other contaminants that originate largely from combustion sources such as nitrogen and sulfur. The results of this study suggest foliage can be used to assess spatial patterns of Hg deposition in small regions or areas of varied topography where current Hg deposition models are too coarse to predict deposition accurately. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial patterns and controls on historical fire regimes and forest structure in the Klamath Mountains

    Treesearch

    Alan H. Taylor; Carl N. Skinner

    2003-01-01

    Fire exclusion in mixed conifer forests has increased the risk of fire due to decades of fuel accumulation. Restoration of fire into altered forests is a challenge because of a poor understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of fire regimes. In this study the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes and forest age structure are reconstructed in a...

  11. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lookingbill, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted

  12. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development's attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth within the area of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Eric Pfaff; Justin Braaten; Peder. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding fine-grain patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth at the landscape scale is critical for effective management, particularly in forests in western Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S., where the policy known as the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was imposed in 1994 over > 8 million ha of forest in an effort to balance environmental and economic...

  14. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guodong; Yu, Xinxiao; Fan, Dengxing; Jia, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley’s L(r) functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono) and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined. PMID:27028757

  15. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guodong; Yu, Xinxiao; Fan, Dengxing; Jia, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r) functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono) and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Forest Treatments on Hydrologic Pattern at Temporal and Spatial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Gao, M.

    2016-12-01

    Various temporal and spatial disturbances in forested watersheds change the pattern of snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics, evapotranspiration, runoff generation among others. These changes cause difficulties and uncertainties in the evaluation of forest management practices. Under these circumstances, a physically-based distributed hydrologic model is an effective tool to detect the potential land cover changes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of long-term land cover change on hydrological processes using the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model, a geographic information system based distributed model. The study site was the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho. The MCEW is a paired watershed design and has been instrumented since 1990 for precipitation, air temperature, discharge and sediment. Forest treatments and road building began in 1997, and have been monitored until present. By applying the spatial and temporal land cover change information in SMR model, we analyzed model output for water flux changes and associated state variables. At the temporal scale, runoff processes of three similar adjacent subwatersheds with different treatments and controls were analyzed and simulated based on measured hydrologic data from 1991 to 2013. Annual runoff depth increased immediately in the treated subwatersheds after timber harvesting comparing to the subwatersheds remaining intact. The amplitude of the increasing runoff depth was greater for the clear-cut than the partial-cut area. Both annual baseflow and peak flow (1st and 10th percentile flows) values increased in the treatment catchments. At the spatial scale, the distribution of runoff and snowmelt at a certain time was analyzed based on the forest land cover distribution. Based on the changes in snow distribution and melting, soil moisture dynamics, and the proportion of different water flow components, the results explain the mechanisms of when, where and how land

  17. Spatial patterning of fuels and fire hazard across a central U.S. deciduous forest region

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Hong S. He; Joseph M. Marschall

    2011-01-01

    Information describing spatial and temporal variability of forest fuel conditions is essential to assessing overall fire hazard and risk. Limited information exists describing spatial characteristics of fuels in the eastern deciduous forest region, particularly in dry oak-dominated regions that historically burned relatively frequently. From an extensive fuels survey...

  18. Spatially variant lagged responses of forest extent and landscape patterns to socioeconomic drivers in the Li River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xu, Ruofeng; Lin, Cong

    2016-01-01

    Forest cover change is one of the most important land cover changes. Intensified economic development and population growth have led to extensive deforestation and afforestation, and greatly altered the forest landscape patterns. This paper analyzed how socioeconomic drivers influenced the forest extent and landscape patterns in a lagged manner within the Li River Basin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, during the period of 1991 to 2013. First, the temporal variations of forest extent and landscape patterns as quantified by six forest cover metrics were analyzed. The cross-correlation analysis was employed to examine the lagged responses of forest cover metrics to each socioeconomic driver across regions. Last, the fixed effects regression models were built to quantitatively assess the spatially variant relationships. The results demonstrated that the influence of socioeconomic drivers lagged, and the lagged influence varied across regions.

  19. Using Moran's I and GIS to study spatial pattern of forest litter carbon density in typical subtropical region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W. J.; Jiang, P. K.; Zhou, G. M.; Zhao, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial variation of forest litter carbon (FLC) density in the typical subtropical forests in southeast China was investigated using Moran's I, geostatistics and a geographical information system (GIS). A total of 839 forest litter samples were collected based on a 12 km (South-North) × 6 km (East-West) grid system in Zhejiang Province. Forest litter carbon density values were very variable, ranging from 10.2 kg ha-1 to 8841.3 kg ha-1, with an average of 1786.7 kg ha-1. The aboveground biomass had the strongest positive correlation with FLC density, followed by forest age and elevation. Global Moran's I revealed that FLC density had significant positive spatial autocorrelation. Clear spatial patterns were observed using Local Moran's I. A spherical model was chosen to fit the experimental semivariogram. The moderate "nugget-to-sill" (0.536) value revealed that both natural and anthropogenic factors played a key role in spatial heterogeneity of FLC density. High FLC density values were mainly distributed in northwestern and western part of Zhejiang province, which were related to adopting long-term policy of forest conservation in these areas. While Hang-Jia-Hu (HJH) Plain, Jin-Qu (JQ) basin and coastal areas had low FLC density due to low forest coverage and intensive management of economic forests. These spatial patterns in distribution map were in line with the spatial-cluster map described by local Moran's I. Therefore, Moran's I, combined with geostatistics and GIS could be used to study spatial patterns of environmental variables related to forest ecosystem.

  20. [Retrieval of forest topsoil organic matter's spatial pattern based on LiDAR data].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Liu, Zhao-Gang; Yue, Shu-Feng; Li, Feng-Ri; Dong, Ling-Bo; Bi, Meng

    2012-09-01

    Forest soil is one of the main carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystem. Its organic matter content can provide basic information for estimating soil carbon storage, and also, is an important index for evaluating the function of soil carbon sink. Based on the LiDAR data and the topsoil organic matter contents in 55 permanent plots at Liangshui National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China in August 2009, and by using partial least squares (PLS) method, this paper retrieved the forest topsoil organic matter's spatial pattern in the Reserve, extracted and screened the variables related to the distribution of the topsoil organic matter (e. g. , intensity, counts, elevation, slope, and aspect), and analyzed and defined the correlations between the screened variables and topsoil organic matter content, with the prediction model of forest soil organic matter content established and validated. In the Reserve, the forest topsoil organic matter content was significantly and positively correlated with three variables (intensity, r = 0.765; counts, r = 0.423; and elevation r = 0.475; all P<0.001). The model prediction on the topsoil organic matter content was reliable (precision = 83.3%, R2 = 0.725, RMSE = 1.955 ). In the areas of forest edge and of low canopy stands, the topsoil organic matter content was less than 100 g x kg(-1). The majority of the study area had a topsoil organic matter content of 100-150 g x kg(-1), while a few areas had the topsoil organic matter content as high as 150-318.4 g x kg(-1).

  1. Spatial pattern of 137Cs in soils in a mixed deciduous forest in Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Yamada, T.; Takahara, T.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs contamination was studied in a forest floor of Fukushima region, c.a. 40 km NW of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) focusing on downwards flow from forest canopy via stemflow and throughfall which play major role in determining spatial contamination of 137Cs after the FNDP accident. Setting a study plot (400 m2) in a secondary mixed deciduous forest, dominated by Quercus crispula and Abies firma in canopy layer in August and November 2014, we sampled the souk from surface to 5 cm in depth of soils and measured 137Cs in every 2 m grids and at tree stem bases. The total estimated activity of 137Cs in soil within the study plot was approximately 210 kBq/m2, but showed large spatial heterogeneity showing 30 times of difference between the lowest and highest activities. The activity decreased with increasing distances from tree stem bases. High activity around tree stem bases was presumably due to the stemflow containing 137Cs seeped into soil only around tree stem bases that raised radioactivity in soil locally in the areas. Relatively low activity away from trees (outside canopies) may be due to small effects of stemflow and throughfall. Activity of 137Cs around bases of deciduous broadleaf trees increased with increasing the tree size. Because larger trees have higher potentials to capture larger amount of 137Cs on the tree surface, cumulative activity of 137Cs included in stemflow may increase with increasing the tree size. However evergreen coniferous tree species (Abies firma) did not show such a pattern relating to the tree size. The difference is assumed to be affected by phenological characteristics as the accident happened in winter and deciduous broadleaf trees did not have leaves and 137Cs deposited on tree bodies, while evergreen coniferous tree had leaves and 137Cs was intercepted by the canopies.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of bioindicator mercury in pennsylvania oak forest.

    PubMed

    McClenahen, James R; Hutnik, Russell J; Davis, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored spatial and temporal patterns of total Hg in forest bioindicators to assess possible local, regional, and global changes in atmospheric Hg deposition. Total Hg concentrations were monitored in leaves and fresh litterfall of northern red oak ( L.), on an epiphytic moss ( Hedw.) on northern red oak stems, and in surface soil organic matter (O and O horizons) in Pennsylvania oak-dominated forests. Variously configured plots were used to monitor Hg deposition near local coal-fired generating stations and an industrial city and along an extended regional transect. Linearly decreasing temporal trends in Hg concentrations occurred in leaves, litterfall, moss, and soil O and O. Mean annual Hg concentrations were often greater near local emissions sources compared with remote areas, especially in the initial monitoring period. Decreasing time trends for different impact areas tended to converge due to greater rates of Hg decrease where initial bioindicator Hg levels were higher. Fresh litter and soil O showed the greatest overall potential as Hg bioindicators. We conclude that Hg deposition has been significantly decreasing over time throughout the study area as a result of locally and regionally declining Hg emissions. Reductions in Hg emissions are likely a co-benefit of the 1990 Clean Air Act regulations and changing industrial activities. Recent leveling of several bioindicator Hg time trends may foretell a shift in Hg depositional patterns. Mercury monitoring studies such as this fulfill a need for documenting local and regional effects of emissions reduction.

  3. Spatial patterns in forest composition and standing dead red spruce in montane forests of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Craig, B W; Friedland, A J

    1991-08-01

    The decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in montane forests of the northeastern United States has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess spatial patterns, if any, in standing dead red spruce stems in the Adirondacks of New York and northern Appalachians of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. A stratified random sample of 19 mountains along a west to east transect in the Adirondacks and the northern Appalachians showed that the live basal area of all species was highest in the White Mountains (34.6 m(2) ha(-1)) and lowest in the Adirondack Mountains (23.7 m(2) ha(-1)) in the Green Mountains was significantly lower than in any other region. Intact standing dead red spruce in the Adirondack and Green Mountains (30%) was significantly higher than that in the three eastern clusters (14%). The amount of intact standing dead red spruce trees increased with elevation in only the western part of the region. With the exception of the Adirondacks, there was a greater average percent dead red spruce on the west side than on the east side of each mountain. The sum of standing dead for other tree species (average 13%) showed no statistically significant patterns with region, elevation or aspect, and was significantly lower than the amount of total dead red spruce (average 42%). The standing dead red spruce patterns we observed cannot be associated with any specific causal factors at this time.

  4. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  5. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion. Salter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to address tree stocking, spacing, composition, and canopy and surface fuel conditions in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on snag abundance and spatial pattern across 12 10-ha treatment units in central Washington State. A snag...

  6. Effects of nitrogen on temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate in streams and soil solution of a central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in stream and soil water NO3- and their relationship to temporal and spatial patterns of NO3- in soil solution of watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Following tenfold increases in stream NO3

  7. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Sonali; Dadhwal, V. K.; Jha, C. S.; Rao, N. Rama; Diwakar, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km2, which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880-2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multi-layer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  8. A GIS-based approach to stand visualization and spatial pattern analysis in a mixed hardwood forest in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin Wang; Gary Miller

    2008-01-01

    Tree spatial patterns were characterized for a 75-year-old mixed hardwood forest dominated by northern red oak, chestnut oak, red maple and yellow-poplar. All trees ≥5 inches diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured for diameter, total height, crown height, and crown width along with their locations in the field over an area of 8 acres. The spatial...

  9. Linking spatial patterns of leaf litterfall and soil nutrients in a tropical forest: a neighborhood approach.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Turner, Benjamin L; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2015-10-01

    Leaf litter represents an important link between tree community composition, forest productivity and biomass, and ecosystem processes. In forests, the spatial distribution of trees and species-specific differences in leaf litter production and quality are likely to cause spatial heterogeneity in nutrient returns to the forest floor and, therefore, in the redistribution of soil nutrients. Using mapped trees and leaf litter data for 12 tree species in a subtropical forest with a well-documented history of land use, we: (1) parameterized spatially explicit models of leaf litter biomass and nutrient deposition; (2) assessed variation in leaf litter inputs across forest areas with different land use legacies; and (3) determined the degree to which the quantity and quality of leaf litter inputs and soil physical characteristics are associated with spatial heterogeneity in soil nutrient ratios (C:N and N:P). The models captured the effects of tree size and location on spatial variation in leaf litterfall (R² = 0.31-0.79). For all 12 focal species, most of the leaf litter fell less than 5 m away from the source trees, generating fine- scale spatial heterogeneity in leaf litter inputs. Secondary forest species, which dominate areas in earlier successional stages, had lower leaf litter C:N ratios and produced less litter biomass than old-growth specialists. In contrast, P content and N:P ratios did not vary consistently among successional groups. Interspecific variation in leaf litter quality translated into differences in the quantity and quality (C:N) of total leaf litter biomass inputs and among areas with different land use histories. Spatial variation in leaf litter C:N inputs was the major factor associated with heterogeneity in soil C:N ratios relative to soil physical characteristics. In contrast, spatial variation soil N:P was more strongly associated with spatial variation in topography than heterogeneity in leaf litter inputs. The modeling approach presented here

  10. Quantifying spatial patterns of tree groups and gaps in mixed-conifer forests: reference conditions and long-term changes following fire suppression and logging

    Treesearch

    Jamie M. Lydersen; Malcolm P. North; Eric E. Knapp; Brandon M. Collins

    2013-01-01

    Fire suppression and past logging have dramatically altered forest conditions in many areas, but changes to within-stand tree spatial patterns over time are not as well understood. The few studies available suggest that variability in tree spatial patterns is an important structural feature of forests with intact frequent fire regimes that should be incorporated in...

  11. Spatial Co-Occurrence and Activity Patterns of Mesocarnivores in the Temperate Forests of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Hongliang; Wang, Fang; McShea, William J.; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. Mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. The moist temperate forests of Southwest China harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex predators. Sympatric species tend to partition limited resources along time, diet and space to facilitate coexistence. We determined the spatial and temporal patterns for five species of mesocarnivores. We used detection histories from a large camera-trap dataset collected from 2004–2015 with an extensive effort of 23,313 camera-days from 495 camera locations. The five mesocarnivore species included masked palm civet Paguma larvata, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, hog badger Arctonyx collaris, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, and Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica. Only the masked palm civet and hog badger tended to avoid each other; while for other pairs of species, they occurred independently of each other, or no clear pattern observed. With regard to seasonal activity, yellow-throated marten was most active in winter, opposite the pattern observed for masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger. For diel activity, masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger were primarily nocturnal and crepuscular; yellow-throated marten was diurnal, and Siberian weasel had no clear pattern for most of the year (March to November), but was nocturnal in the winter (December to February). The seasonal shift of the Siberian weasel may be due to the high diet overlap among species in winter. Our results provided new facts and insights into this unique community of mesocarnivores of southwest China, and will facilitate future studies on the mechanism determining coexistence

  12. Spatial Co-Occurrence and Activity Patterns of Mesocarnivores in the Temperate Forests of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongliang; Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. Mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. The moist temperate forests of Southwest China harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex predators. Sympatric species tend to partition limited resources along time, diet and space to facilitate coexistence. We determined the spatial and temporal patterns for five species of mesocarnivores. We used detection histories from a large camera-trap dataset collected from 2004-2015 with an extensive effort of 23,313 camera-days from 495 camera locations. The five mesocarnivore species included masked palm civet Paguma larvata, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, hog badger Arctonyx collaris, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, and Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica. Only the masked palm civet and hog badger tended to avoid each other; while for other pairs of species, they occurred independently of each other, or no clear pattern observed. With regard to seasonal activity, yellow-throated marten was most active in winter, opposite the pattern observed for masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger. For diel activity, masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger were primarily nocturnal and crepuscular; yellow-throated marten was diurnal, and Siberian weasel had no clear pattern for most of the year (March to November), but was nocturnal in the winter (December to February). The seasonal shift of the Siberian weasel may be due to the high diet overlap among species in winter. Our results provided new facts and insights into this unique community of mesocarnivores of southwest China, and will facilitate future studies on the mechanism determining coexistence of

  13. Complex Network Simulation of Forest Network Spatial Pattern in Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network's power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network's degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network's main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc.) for networking a standard and base datum.

  14. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020): A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India)

    PubMed Central

    Giriraj, Amarnath; Irfan-Ullah, Mohammed; Murthy, Manchi Sri Ramachandra; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2008-01-01

    This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), South Western Ghats (India). Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and spectral resolution presented a technical challenge. Quantitative change analysis over a long period provided a valuable insight into forest cover dynamics in this area. Time-series maps were combined within a geographical information system (GIS) with biotic and abiotic factors for modelling its future change. The land-cover change has been modelled using GEOMOD and predicted for year 2020 using the current disturbance scenario. Comparison of the forest change maps over the 31-year period shows that evergreen forest being degraded (16%) primarily in the form of selective logging and clear felling to raise plantations of coffee, tea and cardamom. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, invasions after clearance and soil erosion induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in KMTR. The study demonstrates the role of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring of large-coverage of forest area continuously for a given region over time more precisely and in cost-effective manner which will be ideal for conservation planning and prioritization. PMID:27873862

  15. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020): A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India).

    PubMed

    Giriraj, Amarnath; Irfan-Ullah, Mohammed; Murthy, Manchi Sri Ramachandra; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2008-10-01

    This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), South Western Ghats (India). Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and spectral resolution presented a technical challenge. Quantitative change analysis over a long period provided a valuable insight into forest cover dynamics in this area. Time-series maps were combined within a geographical information system (GIS) with biotic and abiotic factors for modelling its future change. The land-cover change has been modelled using GEOMOD and predicted for year 2020 using the current disturbance scenario. Comparison of the forest change maps over the 31-year period shows that evergreen forest being degraded (16%) primarily in the form of selective logging and clear felling to raise plantations of coffee, tea and cardamom. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, invasions after clearance and soil erosion induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in KMTR. The study demonstrates the role of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring of large-coverage of forest area continuously for a given region over time more precisely and in cost-effective manner which will be ideal for conservation planning and prioritization.

  16. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha−1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥56%) in large patches (≥10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

  17. Contrasting spatial patterns in active-fire and fire-suppressed Mediterranean climate old-growth mixed conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Fry, Danny L; Stephens, Scott L; Collins, Brandon M; North, Malcolm P; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha(-1), and occupied 27-46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11-20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥ 56%) in large patches (≥ 10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types.

  18. Catchment Hydro-biogeochemical Responses to Forest Harvest Intensity and Spatial Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, A.; Stieglitz, M.; Pan, F.; McKane, R.

    2009-12-01

    We apply a new model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment (VELMA), to Watershed 10 (WS10) in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest to simulate the effects of harvest intensity and spatial pattern on catchment hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we test for the occurrence of hydrological and biogeochemical threshold behavior in the catchment response. VELMA is a spatially-distributed eco-hydrology model that simulates the effects of climate, and land cover on daily changes in soil water storage, surface and subsurface runoff, vertical drainage, evapotranspiration, vegetation and soil C and N dynamics, and transport of nitrate, ammonium, DON, and DOC to streams. We simulate pre- and post-disturbance hydrological and biogeochemical responses of the WS10 catchment. Model parameters were initialized to simulate the post-fire build-up of ecosystem C and N stocks from 1725 to 1975. These parameters are then fixed and used to simulate the hydro-biogeochemical response after the 1975 clear-cut. Comparison of modeled and observed soil moisture, streamflow, DIN, DON and DOC losses for the post-clear-cut period (1975-2007) show that VELMA accurately captures spatial and temporal dynamics of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in WS10. We then examine the catchment response to alternative clear-cut scenarios for which the location and fraction of harvested area varied. These alternative clear-cut simulations suggest that the streamflow and harvest area relationship in this rain-dominated catchment is nearly linear, irrespective of clear-cut area and location. Simulations designed to identify threshold responses of DOC, DON and DIN export in relation to harvest area and location will be presented.

  19. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Pau; Boixadera, Ester; Muñoz, Alberto; Bonal, Raúl; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitation effect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent's behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  20. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Boixadera, Ester; Bonal, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitationeffect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent’s behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs) may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural regeneration in

  1. Spatial pattern analysis in Persian oak (Quercus brantii var. persica) forests on B&W aerial photographs.

    PubMed

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Feghhi, Jahangir; Zobeiri, Mahmoud; Namiranian, Manouchehr

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a method to determine the spatial pattern of trees as a robust indicator to monitor changes from B&W aerial photographs in Persian oak forests of Zagros, Iran. A 500 x 600 m study area was selected in Servak forests next to Yasuj city in Kohgiluyeh-Va-BuyerAhmad Province. All the trees were tagged in the study area and the point map of stems were prepared. The spatial distribution of trees was determined as "dispersed" using nearest neighbour technique. Then the index of "C" calculated by T-square sampling method was applied to the point map of the study area in 30 systematic sample points in a 100 x 100 m network. Comparing the results of this method with the true spatial pattern of the study area showed that "C" can detect the spatial arrangement of trees. Thereafter the index was used on the air photo of the study area that was made of B&W aerial photographs. The method suggested in this study provides a suitable approach for detecting the spatial pattern of trees in Zagros forests on B&W air photos.

  2. Spatial patterns of forest composition, successional pathways, and biomass production among landscape ecosystems of northwestern Lower Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Host, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial patterns of forest composition, successional pathways, and biomass production were related to glacial landforms in a regional area of northwestern Lower Michigan. There were three general objectives: (1) to develop a geomorphic map of the study area, (2) to define and describe upland forest ecosystems, and (3) to study variation in species composition, successional pattern, and biomass production among landforms and ecosystems. Glacial landforms were mapped using field observation, airphoto interpretation, and topographic profile analysis. Eighty sample stands were located in upland landscape positions using a landform-based stratified random sampling design. Compositional patterns detected in multivariate analysis of floristic data were used to form ecological species groups and relate vegetation pattern to environmental factors. Chi-squared analyses showed significant patterns of species distribution related to landform. Potential successional pathways were studied by comparing seedling and sapling densities with current overstory composition. Total above ground biomass and biomass increment varied significantly among landforms and ecosystems. Variation in the composition, production, and structure of upland forests exhibits a pattern that corresponds closely to the geomorphic surface on which the forests developed.

  3. Legacy of Pre-Disturbance Spatial Pattern Determines Early Structural Diversity following Severe Disturbance in Montane Spruce Forests

    PubMed Central

    Bače, Radek; Svoboda, Miroslav; Janda, Pavel; Morrissey, Robert C.; Wild, Jan; Clear, Jennifer L.; Čada, Vojtěch; Donato, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe canopy-removing disturbances are native to many temperate forests and radically alter stand structure, but biotic legacies (surviving elements or patterns) can lend continuity to ecosystem function after such events. Poorly understood is the degree to which the structural complexity of an old-growth forest carries over to the next stand. We asked how pre-disturbance spatial pattern acts as a legacy to influence post-disturbance stand structure, and how this legacy influences the structural diversity within the early-seral stand. Methods Two stem-mapped one-hectare forest plots in the Czech Republic experienced a severe bark beetle outbreak, thus providing before-and-after data on spatial patterns in live and dead trees, crown projections, down logs, and herb cover. Results Post-disturbance stands were dominated by an advanced regeneration layer present before the disturbance. Both major species, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), were strongly self-aggregated and also clustered to former canopy trees, pre-disturbance snags, stumps and logs, suggesting positive overstory to understory neighbourhood effects. Thus, although the disturbance dramatically reduced the stand’s height profile with ~100% mortality of the canopy layer, the spatial structure of post-disturbance stands still closely reflected the pre-disturbance structure. The former upper tree layer influenced advanced regeneration through microsite and light limitation. Under formerly dense canopies, regeneration density was high but relatively homogeneous in height; while in former small gaps with greater herb cover, regeneration density was lower but with greater heterogeneity in heights. Conclusion These findings suggest that pre-disturbance spatial patterns of forests can persist through severe canopy-removing disturbance, and determine the spatial structure of the succeeding stand. Such patterns constitute a subtle but key legacy effect, promoting structural

  4. Regional gradient analysis and spatial pattern of woody plant communities in Oregon forests.

    Treesearch

    J.L. Ohmann; T.A. Spies

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of regional-scale patterns of ecological community structure, and of factors that control them, is largely conceptual. Regional- and local-scale factors associated with regional variation in community composition have not been quantified. We analyzed data on woody plant species abundance from 2443 field plots across natural and seminatural forests and...

  5. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

  6. Ectomycorrhizal-dominated boreal and tropical forests have distinct fungal communities, but analogous spatial patterns across soil horizons.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Allison, Steven D; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0-20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling.

  7. [Spatial pattern of land surface dead combustible fuel load in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Guo-Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Meng

    2008-03-01

    By using geo-statistics and based on time-lag classification standard, a comparative study was made on the land surface dead combustible fuels in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains. The results indicated that the first level land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 1 h time-lag dead fuel, presented stronger spatial auto-correlation, with an average of 762.35 g x m(-2) and contributing to 55.54% of the total load. Its determining factors were species composition and stand age. The second and third levels land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 10 h and 100 h time-lag dead fuels, had a sum of 610.26 g x m(-2), and presented weaker spatial auto-correlation than 1 h time-lag dead fuel. Their determining factor was the disturbance history of forest stand. The complexity and heterogeneity of the factors determining the quality and quantity of forest land surface dead combustible fuels were the main reasons for the relatively inaccurate interpolation. However, the utilization of field survey data coupled with geo-statistics could easily and accurately interpolate the spatial pattern of forest land surface dead combustible fuel loads, and indirectly provide a practical basis for forest management.

  8. Spatial pattern of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along a stream drainage in a forested, Piedmont catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Singh, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how dissolved organic matter (DOM) varies spatially in catchments and the processes and mechanisms that regulate this variation is critical for developing accurate and reliable models of DOM. We determined the concentrations and composition of DOM at multiple locations along a stream drainage network in a 79 ha forested, Piedmont, watershed in Maryland, USA. DOM concentrations and composition was compared for five stream locations during baseflow (drainage areas - 0.62, 3.5, 4.5, 12 and 79 ha) and three locations (3.5, 12, 79 ha) for storm flow. Sampling was conducted by manual grab samples and automated ISCO samplers. DOM composition was characterized using a suite of spectrofluorometric indices which included - HIX, a254, and FI. A site-specific PARAFAC model was also developed for DOM fluorescence to determine the humic-, fulvic-, and protein-like DOM constituents. Hydrologic flow paths during baseflow and stormflow were characterized for all stream locations using an end-member mixing model (EMMA). DOM varied notably across the sampled positions for baseflow and stormflow. During baseflow, mean DOC concentrations for the sampled locations ranged between 0.99-3.1 mg/L whereas for stormflow the range was 5.22-8.11 mg/L. Not surprisingly, DOM was more humic and aromatic during stormflow versus baseflow. The 3.5 ha stream drainage location that contained a large wetland yielded the highest DOC concentration as well as the most humic and aromatic DOM, during both, baseflow and stormflow. In contrast, a headwater stream location (0.62 ha) that received runoff from a groundwater seep registered the highest mean value for % protein-like DOM (30%) and the lowest index for aromaticity (mean a254 = 6.52) during baseflow. During stormflow, the mean % protein-like DOM was highest at the largest 79 ha drainage location (mean = 11.8%) and this site also registered the lowest mean value for a254 (46.3). Stream drainage locations that received a larger proportion

  9. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Throughfall Amounts and Solutes in a Tropical Montane Forest - Comparisons with Findings From Lowland Rain Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, A.

    2007-05-01

    The diverse tree species composition, irregular shaped tree crowns and a multi-layered forest structure affect the redistribution of rainfall in lower montane rain forests. In addition, abundant epiphyte biomass and associated canopy humus influence spatial patterns of throughfall. The spatial variability of throughfall amounts controls spatial patterns of solute concentrations and deposition. Moreover, the living and dead biomass interacts with the rainwater during the passage through the canopy and creates a chemical variability of its own. Since spatial and temporal patterns are intimately linked, the analysis of temporal solute concentration dynamics is an important step to understand the emerging spatial patterns. I hypothesized that: (1) the spatial variability of volumes and chemical composition of throughfall is particularly high compared with other forests because of the high biodiversity and epiphytism, (2) the temporal stability of the spatial pattern is high because of stable structures in the canopy (e.g. large epiphytes) that show only minor changes during the short term observation period, and (3) the element concentrations decrease with increasing rainfall because of exhausting element pools in the canopy. The study area at 1950 m above sea level is located in the south Ecuadorian Andes far away from anthropogenic emission sources and marine influences. Rain and throughfall were collected from August to October 2005 on an event and within-event basis for five precipitation periods and analyzed for pH, K, Na, Ca, Mg, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, TN, TP and TOC. Throughfall amounts and most of the solutes showed a high spatial variability, thereby the variability of H+, K, Ca, Mg, Cl- and NO3- exceeded those from a Brazilian tropical rain forest. The temporal persistence of the spatial patterns was high for throughfall amounts and varied depending on the solute. Highly persistent time stability patterns were detected for K, Mg and TOC concentrations. Time

  10. Fine-scale, multidimensional spatial patterns of forest canopy structure derived from remotely sensed and simulated datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, Gordon Wilson

    Forests are not simply storehouses of timber or wood fibre for human consumption and economic development. They represent structurally and ecologically rich habitat for an estimated 40 percent of the earth's extant species, and form the functional interface between the biosphere and atmosphere for some 27 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface. Forests, therefore, play a vital role in the maintenance of biodiversity and the regulation of local to global scale ecosystem processes and functions. Present strategies for conserving biodiversity in managed forests are based on the notion that maintaining the full range of structural conditions historically present in natural forests is the best approach for assuring the long-term persistence of a broad range of native species. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of novel forest measurements that are relevant to organisms and ecosystems, and much needed by forest scientists and managers to recognize and retain the key elements and patterns of forest structure that are crucial for the conservation of forest biodiversity. This study focuses explicitly on fine-spatial-scale, multidimensional patterns of forest canopy structure based on the assumption that the 'canopy' is the primary focal site of complex interactions between vegetation and the physical environment. Two disparate remote sensing technologies---ground-based hemispherical (fisheye) canopy photography and airborne discrete-return LiDAR---are employed to characterize angular, vertical, and horizontal patterns of forest canopy structure. A quantitative technique is developed for precise measurements of gap fraction (P), element clumping (O), mean projection coefficient (G), and leaf area index (L) from sequences (sets) of black and white pixels extracted at specific view angles in digital fisheye photos. Results are compared with three other leading techniques and validated using well-documented simulated and real

  11. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  12. [Biodiversity of tree species, their populations' spatial distribution pattern and interspecific association in mixed deciduous broadleaved forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhongling; Ma, Yuandan; Zheng, Jiping; Liu, Wande; Jin, Zefeng

    2004-11-01

    Based on the data collected from the sampling plot with an area of 1 hm2 at the Experimental and Management Bureau of Jiaohe in Jilin Province, this paper analyzed and researched the community structure, biological diversity, spatial distribution pattern and interspecific association between tree species populations in a mixed deciduous broadleaved forest. The results indicated that there was no obvious dominant order among tree species populations, and the indices of tree species diversity such as Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Pielou evenness index (E) and Simpson ecological dominant index (D) were all low. Shrub and herb species diversity indices were also not high. The spatial distribution pattern of five dominant tree species all presented aggregative. Based on 2 x 2 contigency table, the interspecific associations of 15 tree species in the community were examined by means of chi2-test, together with the association coefficient (AC). The results showed that there were 14 species pairs in 15 species showing significantly negative association. The proportion of species pairs showing negative association was much more than that of showing positive association. It could be deduced that the community was instable and at the stage of autogenic succession from soft deciduous broadleaved forest to hard deciduous broadleaved forest, and then, the Korean pine broadleaved forest.

  13. Factors influencing spatial pattern in tropical forest clearance and stand age: Implications for carbon storage and species diversity.

    Treesearch

    E. H. Helmer; Thomas J. Brandeis; Ariel E. Lugo; Todd. Kennaway

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the tropical forests that undergo clearing as urban/built-up and other developed lands spread. This study uses remote sensing-based maps of Puerto Rico, multinomial logit models and forest inventory data to explain patterns of forest age and the age of forests cleared for land development and assess their implications for forest carbon storage and...

  14. Spatial distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea abundance in subtropical forests at early and late successional stages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Lian, Juyu; Ye, Wanhui; Shen, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms is helpful in understanding the biogeochemical processes they perform, but has been less studied relative to those of macroorganisms. In this study, we investigated and compared the spatially explicit distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance and the influential factors between an early (ES) and a late successional (LS) subtropical forest stand. The average AOA abundance, vegetational attributes, and soil nutrient contents were mostly greater in the LS than the ES stand (P = 0.085 or smaller), but their spatial variations were more pronounced in the ES than the LS stand. The spatial distribution patches of AOA abundance were smaller and more irregular in the ES stand (patch size <50 m) than in the LS stand (patch size about 120 m). Edaphic and vegetational variables contributed more to the spatial variations of AOA abundance for the ES (9.3%) stand than for LS stand, whereas spatial variables (MEMs) were the main contributors (62%) for the LS stand. These results suggest that environmental filtering likely influence the spatial distribution of AOA abundance at early successional stage more than that at late successional stage, while spatial dispersal is dominant at late successional stage. PMID:26565069

  15. Spatially nonrandom tree mortality and ingrowth maintain equilibrium pattern in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest.

    PubMed

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Furniss, Tucker J; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; Bible, Kenneth J; Chen, Jiquan; Franklin, Jerry F

    2014-08-01

    Mortality processes in old-growth forests are generally assumed to be driven by gap-scale disturbance, with only a limited role ascribed to density-dependent mortality, but these assumptions are rarely tested with data sets incorporating repeated measurements. Using a 12-ha spatially explicit plot censused 13 years apart in an approximately 500-year-old Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest, we demonstrate significant density-dependent mortality and spatially aggregated tree recruitment. However, the combined effect of these strongly nonrandom demographic processes was to maintain tree patterns in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Density-dependent mortality was most pronounced for the dominant late-successional species, Tsuga heterophylla. The long-lived, early-seral Pseudotsuga menziesii experienced an annual stem mortality rate of 0.84% and no new recruitment. Late-seral species Tsuga and Abies amabilis had nearly balanced demographic rates of ingrowth and mortality. The 2.34% mortality rate for Taxus brevifolia was higher than expected, notably less than ingrowth, and strongly affected by proximity to Tsuga. Large-diameter Tsuga structured both the regenerating conspecific and heterospecific cohorts with recruitment of Tsuga and Abies unlikely in neighborhoods crowded with large-diameter competitors (P < 0.001). Density-dependent competitive interactions strongly shape forest communities even five centuries after stand initiation, underscoring the dynamic nature of even equilibrial old-growth forests.

  16. Spatial patterns of ice and snow storms disturbance on a subtropical forested landscape in the Poyang Lake region, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.

    2011-12-01

    In early 2008, an unexpected ice and snow storm (major freezing rain events) hit southern China, severely affected the subtropical forest ecosystems, especially in the Poyang Lake region. While plot and stand-scale ecological impacts of the 2008 storm have received attention, spatial heterogeneity of larger-extent damage has not been previously evaluated. The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial pattern of the 2008 ice and snow storm on subtropical forests and to analyze the effect of topography features (elevation, aspect and slope inclination) on the damage with remote sensing data in the Poyang Lake region. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was employed to assess forest vigor and canopy density in atmospherically corrected Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery of study area. Digital change analysis of the baseline forest condition (2004 EVI data), and the condition encountered in a post-storm image (2008 EVI data) was conducted. The results display a northeast-to-southwest gradient and a gradient from the center to boundary of Poyang basin and Jitai basin in damage that apparently corresponds to a gradient in the depth of ice and snow that accumulated during the storms (Figure 1). Damage also varied topographically, particularly by elevation and slope in the Poyang Lake region. Topography affected patterns of ice and snow damages in study area with the greatest EVI losses occurring on north-, northeast- and east-facing (windward) slopes; and at middle elevations; and on slopes of moderate steepness. Unlike previous studies in North America that found damage was most extensive at middle elevations, EVI decrease associated with the 2008 storm was greater not only at the middle elevations (0.09), but also at the higher elevations (0.07) in the Poyang Lake region. This result suggests that subtropical forests are more vulnerable to ice and snow disturbance.

  17. Using Moran's I and GIS to study the spatial pattern of forest litter carbon density in a subtropical region of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W. J.; Jiang, P. K.; Zhou, G. M.; Zhao, K. L.

    2014-04-01

    Spatial pattern information of carbon density in forest ecosystem including forest litter carbon (FLC) plays an important role in evaluating carbon sequestration potentials. The spatial variation of FLC density in the typical subtropical forests in southeastern China was investigated using Moran's I, geostatistics and a geographical information system (GIS). A total of 839 forest litter samples were collected based on a 12 km (south-north) × 6 km (east-west) grid system in Zhejiang province. Forest litter carbon density values were very variable, ranging from 10.2 kg ha-1 to 8841.3 kg ha-1, with an average of 1786.7 kg ha-1. The aboveground biomass had the strongest positive correlation with FLC density, followed by forest age and elevation. Global Moran's I revealed that FLC density had significant positive spatial autocorrelation. Clear spatial patterns were observed using local Moran's I. A spherical model was chosen to fit the experimental semivariogram. The moderate "nugget-to-sill" (0.536) value revealed that both natural and anthropogenic factors played a key role in spatial heterogeneity of FLC density. High FLC density values were mainly distributed in northwestern and western part of Zhejiang province, which were related to adopting long-term policy of forest conservation in these areas, while Hang-Jia-Hu (HJH) Plain, Jin-Qu (JQ) Basin and coastal areas had low FLC density due to low forest coverage and intensive management of economic forests. These spatial patterns were in line with the spatial-cluster map described by local Moran's I. Therefore, Moran's I, combined with geostatistics and GIS, could be used to study spatial patterns of environmental variables related to forest ecosystem.

  18. Abrupt State Change in Spatially-Patterned Subalpine Forests in Northern Colorado During the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, W. J.; Shuman, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial patterns in many ecosystems arise from feedbacks associated with the potential for critical transitions and multiple stable states. Such systems may be susceptible to abrupt change, which could be indicated by early-warning signals, such as critical slowing down (increasingly long recovery from perturbation as a threshold approaches). Paleoecological data from ribbon forests, a type of subalpine parkland found in the Rocky Mountains, offer an opportunity to test these hypotheses. The forests consist of alternating strips of forest and meadow that form because bands of Picea and Abies trees act as snow fences with large snowdrifts forming on their lee sides. Drifts provide moisture for the adjacent trees, but also increase seedling mortality and shorten the growing season where drifts accumulate. The feedbacks between forest growth and snow accumulation maintain the ribbon forest-meadow pattern, and raise the potential for abrupt change if the feedbacks breakdown in response to factors like drought or fire. Our fossil pollen data from Summit Lake, located on the Continental Divide in the Park Range, northern Colorado, indicate that a closed forest transitioned rapidly to a ribbon forest state at ca. 1000 BP. Artemisia pollen increased (20 to 35%) and Picea and Abies pollen decreased (25 to 15%) within a century or less after a pair of charcoal peaks. Decreased charcoal influx (from 0.6 to 0.4 pieces/cm2/yr) and fire frequency (from 4.5 to 1.5 fires/ka) coincided with the pollen assemblage changes, and is consistent with decreased landscape biomass and fuel connectivity. Initial analyses show evidence of critical slowing down before the state change. After eight of eleven fires recorded by peaks in charcoal accumulation, Artemisia pollen percentages rise to a peak consistent with brief opening of the initially forested landscape. After 2000 BP, the magnitude and duration of the post-fire changes increases until no recovery is recorded after the shift at 1000

  19. Spatial patterns of soil pH and the factors that influence them in plantation forests of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Songbai; Liu, Yongwen; Piao, Shilong

    2017-04-01

    Climate and anthropogenic activities such as afforestation and nitrogen deposition all impact soil pH. Understanding the spatial pattern of soil pH and the factors that influence it can provide basic information for generating appropriate strategies for soil resource management and protection, especially in light of increasing anthropogenic influences and climate change. In this study, we investigated the spatial and vertical pattern of soil pH and evaluated the influence of climate and nitrogen deposition using 1647 soil profiles 1 meter in depth from 549 plots in plantation forests of northern China. We found that soil pH decreased from the southwest to the northeast in the study region and had a similar spatial pattern before and after afforestation. Furthermore, our results show that climate and nitrogen deposition fundamentally influence the pattern of soil pH. Specifically, increasing precipitation significantly decreased soil pH (with a mean rate of 0.3 for every 100 mm rainfall, p<0.001), whereas increasing temperature significantly increased soil pH (0.13 for every degree centigrade, p<0.001). Nitrogen deposition, especially nitrate nitrogen, significantly decreased soil pH (p<0.01). All these factors impact soil pH directly and indirectly through climate-plant-soil interactions. As the risks from both climate change and nitrogen deposition increase, there is an urgent need to further understanding of soil pH dynamics and to develop informed policies to protect soil resources.

  20. Spatial Patterns of Ectomycorrhizal Assemblages in a Monospecific Forest in Relation to Host Tree Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with increasing distance of the sampling points. The alternative was that the EcM species showed preferences for distinct beech genotypes resulting in intraspecific variation of EcM-host assemblages. EcM species identities, abundance and exploration type as well as the genotypes of the colonized roots were determined in each sampling unit of a 1 L soil core (r = 0.04 m, depth 0.2 m). The Morisita-Horn similarity indices (MHSI) based on EcM species abundance and multiple community comparisons were calculated. No pronounced variation of MHSI with increasing distances of the sampling points within a plot was found, but variations between plots. Very high similarities and no between plot variation were found for MHSI based on EcM exploration types suggesting homogenous soil foraging in this ecosystem. The EcM community on different root genotypes in the same soil core exhibited high similarity, whereas the EcM communities on the root of the same tree genotype in different soil cores were significantly dissimilar. This finding suggests that spatial structuring of EcM assemblages occurs within the root system of an individual. This may constitute a novel, yet unknown mechanism ensuring colonization by a diverse EcM community of the roots of a given host individual. PMID:23630537

  1. Forest fragmentation in Massachusetts, USA: a town-level assessment using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis and affinity propagation

    Treesearch

    J. Rogan; T.M. Wright; J. Cardille; H. Pearsall; Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger; Rachel Riemann; Kurt Riitters; K. Partington

    2016-01-01

    Forest fragmentation has been studied extensively with respect to biodiversity loss, disruption of ecosystem services, and edge effects although the relationship between forest fragmentation and human activities is still not well understood. We classified the pattern of forests in Massachusetts using fragmentation indicators to address...

  2. The Relative Importance of Janzen-Connell Effects in Influencing the Spatial Patterns at the Gutianshan Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Ren, Haibao; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis is among the most important theories put forward to explain species coexistence in species-rich communities. However, the relative importance of Janzen-Connell effects with respect to other prominent mechanisms of community assembly, such as dispersal limitation, self-thinning due to competition, or habitat association, is largely unresolved. Here we use data from a 24-ha Gutianshan subtropical forest to address it. First we tested for significant associations of adults, juveniles, and saplings with environmental variables. Second we evaluated if aggregation decreased with life stage. In a third analysis we approximately factored out the effect of habitat association and comprehensively analyzed the spatial associations of intraspecific adults and offspring (saplings, juveniles) of 46 common species at continuous neighborhood distances. We found i) that, except for one, all species were associated with at least one environmental variable during at least one of their life stages, but the frequency of significant habitat associations declined with increasing life stage; ii) a decline in aggregation with increasing life stage that was strongest from juveniles to adults; and iii) intraspecific adult-offspring associations were dominated by positive relationships at neighborhood distances up to 10 m. Our results suggest that Janzen-Connell effects were not the dominant mechanisms in structuring the spatial patterns of established trees in the subtropical Gutianshan forest. The spatial patterns may rather reflect the joint effects of size-dependent self-thinning, dispersal limitation and habitat associations. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of Janzen-Connell effects in influencing plant community structure under strong topographic heterogeneity. PMID:24040283

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2004-01-01

    Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and 0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (~1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps...

  4. Hierarchical analysis of spatial pattern and processes of Douglas-fir forests. Ph.D. Thesis, 10 Sep. 1991 Abstract Only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the quantification of pattern in ecological systems over the past years. This interest is motivated by the desire to construct valid models which extend across many scales. Spatial methods must quantify pattern, discriminate types of pattern, and relate hierarchical phenomena across scales. Wavelet analysis is introduced as a method to identify spatial structure in ecological transect data. The main advantage of the wavelet transform over other methods is its ability to preserve and display hierarchical information while allowing for pattern decomposition. Two applications of wavelet analysis are illustrated, as a means to: (1) quantify known spatial patterns in Douglas-fir forests at several scales, and (2) construct spatially-explicit hypotheses regarding pattern generating mechanisms. Application of the wavelet variance, derived from the wavelet transform, is developed for forest ecosystem analysis to obtain additional insight into spatially-explicit data. Specifically, the resolution capabilities of the wavelet variance are compared to the semi-variogram and Fourier power spectra for the description of spatial data using a set of one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary processes. The wavelet cross-covariance function is derived from the wavelet transform and introduced as a alternative method for the analysis of multivariate spatial data of understory vegetation and canopy in Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades of Oregon.

  5. Spatial patterns of soil nitrification and nitrate export from forested headwaters in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; Shanley, J.B.; Campbell, J.L.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Likens, G.E.; Wemple, B.C.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen export from small forested watersheds is known to be affected by N deposition but with high regional variability. We studied 10 headwater catchments in the northeastern United States across a gradient of N deposition (5.4 - 9.4 kg ha -1 yr -1) to determine if soil nitrification rates could explain differences in stream water NO 3 - export. Average annual export of two years (October 2002 through September 2004) varied from 0.1 kg NO 3 --N ha -1 yr -1 at Cone Pond watershed in New Hampshire to 5.1 kg ha -1 yr -1 at Buck Creek South in the western Adirondack Mountains of New York. Potential net nitrification rates and relative nitrification (fraction of inorganic N as NO 3 -) were measured in Oa or A soil horizons at 21-130 sampling points throughout each watershed. Stream NO 3 - export was positively related to nitrification rates (r 2 = 0.34, p = 0.04) and the relative nitrification (r 2 = 0.37, p = 0.04). These relationships were much improved by restricting consideration to the 6 watersheds with a higher number of rate measurements (59-130) taken in transects parallel to the streams (r 2 of 0.84 and 0.70 for the nitrification rate and relative nitrification, respectively). Potential nitrification rates were also a better predictor of NO 3 - export when data were limited to either the 6 sampling points closest to the watershed outlet (r 2 = 0.75) or sampling points <250 m from the watershed outlet (r 2 = 0.68). The basal area of conifer species at the sampling plots was negatively related to NO 3 - export. These spatial relationships found here suggest a strong influence of near-stream and near-watershed-outlet soils on measured stream NO 3 - export. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. [Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing' An Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Ya; Wang, Li-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Korean pine broadleaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the species composition and diameter class structure, and by using point pattern analysis, analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of the main populations. In the Reserve, there were a total of 16 species with diameter greater than 1 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. Coniferous trees such as Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were dominant. The diameter class structure of the populations presented as an inverse "J" curve, indicating a good regeneration across the community. The main populations were mostly in aggregated distribution pattern, except that the P. koraiensis populations at the scales of 19-21 m and 44 m as well as the Acer tegmentosum populations close to the largest research scale were in random distribution. The P. koraiensis populations at all research scales were approximately in random distribution, and had the minimum aggregation. A. nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum populations all presented a random distribution trend. Except that the P. koraiensis and A. nephrolepis at 2-3 m scale and the A. nephrolepis and A. tegmentosum populations at 37-81 m scale had significant positive association, no significant associations were observed between other populations. All the tree species presented an overall non-significant positive association.

  7. Quantifying forest visibility with spatial data.

    PubMed

    Wing, M G; Johnson, R

    2001-03-01

    We use spatial data representing transportation networks, elevation, stand height, and recreation use to construct and compare models of recreation use patterns and visibility in a forest. The recreation use pattern model depicts use frequencies along travel corridors. The visibility model quantifies visibility for all forest areas. We find that the models provide different but complementary types of information. Forest managers who are involved in scheduling harvest operations and want to address the visual concerns of forest visitors may benefit most from the visibility model. Managers who wish to know more about travel patterns or to reroute forest visitors affected by operations may benefit from the use pattern model. A combination of the two models has the highest potential for providing planning assistance in multiple-use forests. Both models may be able to enhance visual resource management (VRM) systems already in use by providing spatially explicit recreation use and visibility data.

  8. Spatial patterns in oxygen and redox sensitive biogeochemistry in tropical forest soils

    Treesearch

    Daniel Liptzin; Whendee L. Silver

    2015-01-01

    Humid tropical forest soils are characterized by warm temperatures, abundant rainfall, and high rates of biological activity that vary considerably in both space and time. These conditions, together with finely textured soils typical of humid tropical forests lead to periodic low redox conditions, even in well-drained upland environments. The relationship between redox...

  9. Spatial pattern of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor in the early phase of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Wakahara, Taeko; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2017-09-29

    Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor and the temporal evolution were measured in two Japanese cedar stands and a secondary mixed broad-leaved forest in the early phase of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In situ measurements of the (137)Cs gamma count were made using a portable germanium gamma ray detector. These measurements revealed that the forest floors were contaminated with radionuclides derived from the accident. In the cedar stands, the inter-canopy area had higher (137)Cs count rate relative to the under-canopy area, whereas no clear relationship was found between the radiocesium pattern and canopy cover in the mixed broad-leaved forest. Repeated radiocesium measurements revealed that the spatial pattern of radiocesium activity on the forest floor did not substantially change following additional deposition inputs. Furthermore, the magnitude of canopy cover partially explained spatial variability of the (137)Cs on the forest floor in cedar stands. These results suggest that canopy structure affected the genesis of the horizontal variability of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor during the early phase of the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of Amazon rainfall. Consequences for the planning of agricultural occupation and the protection of primary forests.

    PubMed

    Sombroek, W

    2001-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of annual rainfall and the strength of the dry season within the Amazon region are poorly known. Existing rainfall maps are based on the data from full-scale, long-term meteorological stations, operated by national organizations linked to the World Meteorological Organisation, such as INMET in Brazil. Stations with 30 or more years of uninterrupted and reliable recordings are very few, considering the size of the region, and most of them are located along the major rivers. It has been suggested that rainfall conditions away from these rivers are substantially different. An analysis has been made of the records of a network of simple pluviometric sites in the Brazilian part of the region as maintained by the National Agency for Electric Energy (ANEEL) since 1970. The latter data sets were used to draw more detailed maps on annual rainfall, and on the strength of the dry season in particular; average number of consecutive months with less than 100 mm, 50 mm, and 10 mm, respectively. Also, some data were obtained on the spatial expression of El Niño events within the region. Subregional differences are large, and it is argued that they are important for the success or failure of agricultural settlements; for the hazard of large-scale fire damage of the still existing primary forest vegetation; for the functioning of this land cover as stock and sink of CO2, and for the likelihood that secondary forests on abandoned agricultural lands will have less biomass. The effects of past El Niño rainfall anomalies on the biodiversity of the natural savannahs within the forest region are discussed.

  11. Spatial patterns of mercury in macroinvertebrates and fishes from streams of contrasting forested landscapes in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Chasar, Lia C.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Smith, Martyn J.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Controls on mercury bioaccumulation in lotic ecosystems are not well understood. During 2007–2009, we studied mercury and stable isotope spatial patterns of macroinvertebrates and fishes from two medium-sized (2) forested basins in contrasting settings. Samples were collected seasonally from multiple sites across the Fishing Brook basin (FBNY), in New York's Adirondack Mountains, and the McTier Creek basin (MCSC), in South Carolina's Coastal Plain. Mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations within macroinvertebrate feeding groups, and mean total mercury (THg) concentrations within most fish feeding groups were similar between the two regions. However, mean THg concentrations in game fish and forage fish, overall, were much lower in FBNY (1300 and 590 ng/g dw, respectively) than in MCSC (2300 and 780 ng/g dw, respectively), due to lower trophic positions of these groups from FBNY (means 3.3 and 2.7, respectively) than MCSC (means 3.7 and 3.3, respectively). Much larger spatial variation in topography and water chemistry across FBNY contributed to greater spatial variation in biotic Hg and positive correlations with dissolved MeHg and organic carbon in streamwater. Hydrologic transport distance (HTD) was negatively correlated with biotic Hg across FBNY, and was a better predictor than wetland density. The small range of landscape conditions across MCSC resulted in no consistent spatial patterns, and no discernable correspondence with local-scale environmental factors. This study demonstrates the importance of local-scale environmental factors to mercury bioaccumulation in topographically heterogeneous landscapes, and provides evidence that food-chain length can be an important predictor of broad-scale differences in Hg bioaccumulation among streams.

  12. Spatial patterns of mercury in macroinvertebrates and fishes from streams of two contrasting forested landscapes in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Chasar, Lia C; Bradley, Paul M; Burns, Douglas A; Brigham, Mark E; Smith, Martyn J; Abrahamsen, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    Controls on mercury bioaccumulation in lotic ecosystems are not well understood. During 2007-2009, we studied mercury and stable isotope spatial patterns of macroinvertebrates and fishes from two medium-sized (<80 km(2)) forested basins in contrasting settings. Samples were collected seasonally from multiple sites across the Fishing Brook basin (FB(NY)), in New York's Adirondack Mountains, and the McTier Creek basin (MC(SC)), in South Carolina's Coastal Plain. Mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations within macroinvertebrate feeding groups, and mean total mercury (THg) concentrations within most fish feeding groups were similar between the two regions. However, mean THg concentrations in game fish and forage fish, overall, were much lower in FB(NY) (1300 and 590 ng/g dw, respectively) than in MC(SC) (2300 and 780 ng/g dw, respectively), due to lower trophic positions of these groups from FB(NY) (means 3.3 and 2.7, respectively) than MC(SC) (means 3.7 and 3.3, respectively). Much larger spatial variation in topography and water chemistry across FB(NY) contributed to greater spatial variation in biotic Hg and positive correlations with dissolved MeHg and organic carbon in streamwater. Hydrologic transport distance (HTD) was negatively correlated with biotic Hg across FB(NY), and was a better predictor than wetland density. The small range of landscape conditions across MC(SC) resulted in no consistent spatial patterns, and no discernable correspondence with local-scale environmental factors. This study demonstrates the importance of local-scale environmental factors to mercury bioaccumulation in topographically heterogeneous landscapes, and provides evidence that food-chain length can be an important predictor of broad-scale differences in Hg bioaccumulation among streams.

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  14. Mercury distribution across 14 U.S. Forests. Part I: spatial patterns of concentrations in biomass, litter, and soils.

    PubMed

    Obrist, D; Johnson, D W; Lindberg, S E; Luo, Y; Hararuk, O; Bracho, R; Battles, J J; Dail, D B; Edmonds, R L; Monson, R K; Ollinger, S V; Pallardy, S G; Pregitzer, K S; Todd, D E

    2011-05-01

    Results from a systematic investigation of mercury (Hg) concentrations across 14 forest sites in the United States show highest concentrations in litter layers, strongly enriched in Hg compared to aboveground tissues and indicative of substantial postdepositional sorption of Hg. Soil Hg concentrations were lower than in litter, with highest concentrations in surface soils. Aboveground tissues showed no detectable spatial patterns, likely due to 17 different tree species present across sites. Litter and soil Hg concentrations positively correlated with carbon (C), latitude, precipitation, and clay (in soil), which together explained up to 94% of concentration variability. We observed strong latitudinal increases in Hg in soils and litter, in contrast to inverse latitudinal gradients of atmospheric deposition measures. Soil and litter Hg concentrations were closely linked to C contents, consistent with well-known associations between organic matter and Hg, and we propose that C also shapes distribution of Hg in forests at continental scales. The consistent link between C and Hg distribution may reflect a long-term legacy whereby old, C-rich soil and litter layers sequester atmospheric Hg depositions over long time periods. Based on a multiregression model, we present a distribution map of Hg concentrations in surface soils of the United States.

  15. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Treesearch

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  16. Spatial pattern corrections and sample sizes for forest density estimates of historical tree surveys

    Treesearch

    Brice B. Hanberry; Shawn Fraver; Hong S. He; Jian Yang; Dan C. Dey; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. General Land Office land surveys document trees present during European settlement. However, use of these surveys for calculating historical forest density and other derived metrics is limited by uncertainty about the performance of plotless density estimators under a range of conditions. Therefore, we tested two plotless density estimators, developed by...

  17. Catchment hydrological responses to forest harvest amount and spatial pattern - 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used an ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA), to analyze the effects of forest harvest location and amount on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in an intensively studied headwater catchment (WS10) in western Oregon,...

  18. Catchment hydrological responses to forest harvest amount and spatial pattern - 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used an ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA), to analyze the effects of forest harvest location and amount on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in an intensively studied headwater catchment (WS10) in western Oregon,...

  19. Spatial patterns of soil nitrification and nitrate export from forested headwaters in the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Donald S. Ross; James B. Shanley; John L. Campbell; Gregory B. Lawrence; Scott W. Bailey; Gene E. Likens; Beverley C. Wemple; I.F. Creed; F. Courchesne

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen export from small forested watersheds is known to be affected by N deposition but with high regional variability. We studied 10 headwater catchments in the northeastern United States across a gradient of N deposition (5.4 − 9.4 kg ha−1 yr−1) to determine if soil nitrification rates...

  20. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  1. Methods for the quantification of coarse woody debris and an examination of its spatial patterning: A study from the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, MT

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Alaback; Duncan C. Lutes

    1997-01-01

    Methods for the quantification of coarse woody debris volume and the description of spatial patterning were studied in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. The line transect method was found to be an accurate, unbiased estimator of down debris volume (> 10cm diameter) on 1/4 hectare fixed-area plots, when perpendicular lines were used. The Fischer...

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns of remotely sensed litterfall in tropical and subtropical forests of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Lin, Kuo-Chuan; Huang, Cho-ying

    2016-02-01

    Litterfall is important for returning nutrients and carbon to the forest floor, and microbes decompose the litterfall to release CO2 into the atmosphere. Litterfall is a pivotal component in the forest biogeochemical cycle, which is sensitive to climate variability and plant physiology. In this study, we combined field litterfall estimates and time series (2001-2011) climate (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitations) and green vegetation (MODIS photosynthetically active vegetation cover (PV)) variables to estimate regional annual litterfall in tropical/subtropical forests in Taiwan. We found that time series MODIS LST- and PV-derived metrics, the annual accumulated MODIS LST, and coefficient of variation of PV, respectively, but not the TRMM precipitation variables were salient factors for the estimation (r2 = 0.548 and p < 0.001). The mean (±standard deviation) annual litterfall was 5.1 ± 1.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1 during the observation period. The temporal dynamics of the litterfall revealed that typhoons and consecutive drought events might affect the litterfall temporal variation. Overall, the annual litterfall decreased along the elevation gradient, which may reflect a change in the vegetation type. The northeast and northwest facing slopes yielded the highest amount of annual litterfall (≥5.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1), which was in contrast with the southern aspect (5.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1). This variation may be associated with the dryness of the microclimate influenced by solar radiation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing time series MODIS LST and PV data to predict large-scale field litterfall, which may facilitate large-scale monitoring of biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems.

  3. Comparative phylogeography in the Atlantic forest and Brazilian savannas: pleistocene fluctuations and dispersal shape spatial patterns in two bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Françoso, Elaine; Zuntini, Alexandre Rizzo; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2016-12-07

    Bombus morio and B. pauloensis are sympatric widespread bumblebee species that occupy two major Brazilian biomes, the Atlantic forest and the savannas of the Cerrado. Differences in dispersion capacity, which is greater in B. morio, likely influence their phylogeographic patterns. This study asks which processes best explain the patterns of genetic variation observed in B. morio and B. pauloensis, shedding light on the phenomena that shaped the range of local populations and the spatial distribution of intra-specific lineages. Results suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations directly influenced the population structure of both species. Correlative species distribution models predict that the warmer conditions of the Last Interglacial contributed to population contraction, while demographic expansion happened during the Last Glacial Maximum. These results are consistent with physiological data suggesting that bumblebees are well adapted to colder conditions. Intra-specific mitochondrial genealogies are not congruent between the two species, which may be explained by their documented differences in dispersal ability. While populations of the high-dispersal B. morio are morphologically and genetically homogeneous across the species range, B. pauloensis encompasses multiple (three) mitochondrial lineages, and show clear genetic, geographic, and morphological differences. Because the lineages of B. pauloensis are currently exposed to distinct climatic conditions (and elevations), parapatric diversification may occur within this taxon. The eastern portion of the state of São Paulo, the most urbanized area in Brazil, represents the center of genetic diversity for B. pauloensis.

  4. Spatial pattern of nitrogen deposition flux over Czech forests: a novel approach accounting for unmeasured nitrogen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hůnová, Iva; Stoklasová, Petra; Kurfürst, Pavel; Vlček, Ondřej; Schovánková, Jana; Stráník, Vojtěch

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen plays an important role in the biogeochemistry of forests as an essential plant nutrient and indispensable substance for many reactions in living cell. Most temperate forests are N-limited (Townsend, 1999), and increased nitrogen deposition results in many negative environmental effects, such as eutrofication, acidification, and loss of biodiversity (Bobbink et al., 2010). The nitrogen biogeochemical cycle is still poorly understood (Fowler et al., 2014). In studies addressing the association between atmospheric deposition and its impacts on ecosystems, a reliable estimation of N deposition is a key factor of successful approach of this issue. The quantification of real deposition of nitrogen is a complicated task, however, due to several reasons: only some constituents are regularly measured, and throughfall is not a relevant proxy for estimation of the total deposition due to complicated interchange of nitrogen between forest canopy, understory, and atmosphere. There are studies estimating the total nitrogen deposition at one particular site, on the other hand, there are studies estimating the total nitrogen deposition over a larger domain, such as e.g. Europe. The studies for a middle scale, like one country, are practically lacking with few exceptions (Fowler et al., 2005). The advantage of such a country-scale approach is that measured constituents might be mapped in detail, which enhances also spatial accuracy and reliability. The ambient air quality monitoring in the Czech Republic is paid an appreciable attention (Hůnová, 2001) due to the fact, that in the recent past its territory belonged to the most polluted parts of Europe. The time trends and spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition were published (Hůnová et al. 2014). It is obvious, however, that nitrogen deposition is substantially underestimated, particularly due not fully accounted for dry and occult deposition. We present an advanced approach for estimation of spatial pattern of

  5. Population structure and spatial pattern of main tree species in secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Ziwuling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Guo, Yaoxin; Ren, Chengjie; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2014-11-03

    This study investigated a typical secondary Betula platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains, Loess Plateau, China. In the sample plot, the DBH (diameter at breast height) class structure of B. platyphylla was bimodal. Individuals with small and large DBH values were abundant. The DBH structures of Quercus wutaishanica and Pinus tabulaeformis were close to that of the logistic model, thus suggesting the increasing population of these species. B. platyphylla and Populus davidiana showed random spatial distributions at almost all scales. However, Q. wutaishanica and P. tabulaeformis were significantly clumped at small scales. B. platyphylla had a negative spatial relation with Q. wutaishanica at small spatial scales. P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica showed negative spatial correlations at small scales, but they had positive correlations at large scales. These results suggest that P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica shared habitat preferences at these scales. In the future, the secondary B. platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains in the Loess Plateau will probably change into a multi-species mixed forest (Quercus-Pinus mixed forest). Assisted restoration strategies must be employed to improve the regeneration dynamics of the forest in the long term.

  6. Spatial Patterns between Regolith Thickness and Forest Productivity in the Southern Sierra CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, R. M.; Ferrell, D. F.; Hartsough, P. C.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil in conjunction with underlying weathered bedrock make up what is referred to as regolith, which can be thought of as the substrate that actively contributes water and nutrients to above ground biomass. As a result, regolith thickness is an important regulating factor of forest health and drought tolerance in the Sierra Nevada. Our project examined the relationships between landscape position, regolith thickness, and tree productivity within a sub watershed of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. We hypothesized that tree productivity will increase with increasing regolith thickness. Data was collected in the summer of 2015 at sixty-five sites within a 522-ha watershed averaging 1180m in elevation with a MAP of 80cm and a MAT of 11C. Sites were randomly selected from a grid and then stratified in the field to capture representative samples from different landscape positions. Regolith was sampled using a hand auger with attachable extensions. At each site we augered to hard bedrock or a maximum depth of 7.56 m, which ever was shallower. Biomass measurements were made for all conifer species (DBH>20cm) within a 10m radius of the primary auger hole. Tree age was measured from a representative tree for all species in the plots. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a weak correlation between landscape position/slope and regolith thickness, likely due to differences in lithology. It also appears that terrain shape can result in conflicting outcomes: 1. It can focus water to promote physical and chemical weathering and thick regolith; or, 2. water focusing can result in landscape scouring, removing soil and weathered bedrock to create shallow regolith. Productivity appears to be a function of regolith thickness, effective precipitation and landscape position. Water collecting areas in the lower watershed are shallow to bedrock, but typically receive high amounts of effective precipitation resulting in greater tree productivity. Moreover, thick regolith

  7. Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980-2014).

    PubMed

    Nunes, A N; Lourenço, L; Meira, A C Castro

    2016-12-15

    Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing support for environmental and civil protection policies, designing appropriate prevention measures and allocating firefighting resources. The key objectives of this study were to analyse the geographical incidence and temporal trends for wildfires, as well as the main drivers of fire ignition and burnt area in Portugal on a municipal level. The results show that fires are not distributed uniformly throughout Portuguese territory, both in terms of ignition density and burnt area. One spot in the north-western area is well defined, covering 10% of the municipalities where more than one third of the total fire ignitions are concentrated. In >80% of Portuguese municipalities, ignition density has registered a positive trend since the 1980s. With regard to burnt area, 60% of the municipalities had a nil annual trend, 35% showed a positive trend and 5%, located mainly in the central region, revealed negative trends. Geographically weighted regression proved more efficient in identifying the most relevant physical and anthropogenic drivers of municipal wildfires in comparison with simple linear regression models. Topography, density of population, land cover and livestock were found to be significant in both ignition density and burnt area, although considerable variations were observed in municipal explanatory power.

  8. Occurrence, spatial pattern, and influence of atmospheric deposition on top- and subsoil water repellency in a beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Joerg; Böttcher, Jürgen; Krüger, Jiem; Woche, Susanne K.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that enhanced solute input due to stemflow infiltration causes enhanced soil acidification near the tree base. Infiltration-driven alteration of chemical soil properties like pH, and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) may also affect soil wettability (quantified as contact angle, CA) with a trend to increased soil water repellency (SWR) with decreased pH. Objective of this study was to analyze the impact of tree location on top- and subsoil wettability and selected soil chemical parameters on two large-scale transects (length  50 m, sampling depths 0.1-0.2 m). The transects were about 50 m apart from each other, time of sampling was in July 2013 and July 2015. To analyze subsoil wettability in the vicinity of selected trees, three transects (lengths =3 m, sampling depths = 0.1 - 2.0 m) were additionally sampled in June 2013. Sampling site is a 100 years old beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.). Soil type is a well-drained sandy Dystric Cambisol in northern Germany with moderate to locally extended acidification. According to standard statistics, the total variance of chemical soil properties and SWR was independent of stemflow infiltration pattern. Results of spectral variance analyses, however, showed that the spatial variability of acidification (pH, Al content) as well as SWR in the soil horizon close to the surface was strongly affected by the pattern of patches with and without stemflow infiltration on both large-distance transects, no matter if sampling took place in 2013 (mean CA = 40°, SD = 12°) or 2015 (mean CA = 110°, SD = 14°). Regarding subsoil wettability on the smaller transects, CA were always in the range 0° < CA < 90°. A significant impact of the distance to the tree on SWR was observed for none of the transects, indicating that the impact of tree canopy is restricted to surface-near soil layers. Specific chemical surface properties analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed specific chemical alteration of the

  9. Spatial pattern and temporal changes in the NH4+/NO3- ratio in atmospheric deposition in Czech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunova, Iva; Kurfurst, Pavel; Stráník, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    The ratio between NH4+ and NO3- in wet atmospheric deposition is an essential indicator of atmospheric chemistry, reflects the share of emission sources (Du et al., 2014), and is also important regarding the nitrogen deposition environmental impacts. There are evidences for differential effects of reduced and oxidised nitrogen deposition on vegetation independent of nitrogen load (van den Berg et al., 2016). NH4+ deposition appears to be more effective than NO3- deposition in decreasing biodiversity and is more harmful to vegetation (Erisman et al., 2007). We present temporal trends and spatial patterns for NH4+/NO3- ratio on one-country scale based on long-term monitoring precipitation chemistry in Central European forests. We discuss the indicated changes within the changing emission patterns. Acknowledgements: We would like to acknowledge the grant GA14-12262S - Effects of changing growth conditions on tree increment, stand production and vitality - danger or opportunity for the Central-European forestry? for support of this contribution. The input data used for the analysis were provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. References: Du, E., de Vries, W., Galloway, J.N., Hu, X., Fang, J., 2014. Changes in wet nitrogen deposition in the United States between 1985 and 2012. Environmental Research Letters 9, 095004. Erisman, J.W., Bleeker, A., Galloway, J.N., Sutton, M.S., 2007. Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment. Environmental Pollution 150, 140-149. van den Berg, L.J.L., Jones L., Sheppard, L.J., Smart, S.M., Bobbink, R., Dise, N.B., Ashmore, M.R., 2016. Evidence for differential effects of reduced and oxidized nitrogen deposition on vegetation independent of nitrogen load. Environmental Pollution 208, 890-897.

  10. Patterns of spatial distribution of mineral components of the complex of gray forest soils Vladimir opolye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpova, Dina; Chizhikova, Natalya; Starokozhko, Natalya; Hadyushina, Viktorya; Korotaeva, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the work is the analysis of spatial distribution of soil fundamental characteristics - fine fractions content (less than 1, 1-5, 5-10 and more than 10 mkm) and their mineralogical composition. The experiments were carried out on the experimental field in Suzdal region in a trench (22 m length and 2 m depth) laid in upland, well-drained conditions. Soil samples from 5 different soil profiles were collected. Fractions were obtained by Gorbunov method. Mineralogical analysis were carried out by universal X-ray diffractometer (Carl Zeiss Jena, Germany). The dominant fraction is a coarse silt fraction, the sand fraction content is negligible. The soil is characterized by medium-textured loam composition from the above and a sandy loam composition in the bottom. Textural differentiation occured due to the distribution of clay fraction. The content of this fraction in plough horizons varies depending on addition of part of other horizons during plowing. The plogh-layer of the residual-carbonate agrogrey soil is characterized by higher (20-23 %) amount of fraction less than 1 mkm, in comparison with plough horizon above the second humus horizon (SHH ), where the amount of silt is 15-16 %. The main components of the fraction derived from the rock are complex mixed- lattice formations dominated by mica - smectite with a high proportion of smectite packages, mica - smectites with low content of smectite packages were in subordinate quantity. The next component is hydromica - a mixture of dioctahedral and trioctahedral varieties. Smectite phase and hydromica add up to 85-90 % of the silt component. The amount of kaolinite and chlorite usually range in 7-13 %. Kaolinite is generally imperfect, chlorite is magnesia-ferric. The presence of fine quartz and feldspars (less amount) is revealed. During the soil formation the redistribution of the above minerals whose behavior is caused by the type of soil is occurring. Agrogrey heavy-textured soils are characterized by

  11. Spatial patterns of land cover in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Land cover patterns inventoried from a national land cover map provide information about the landscape context and fragmentation of the Nation’s forests, grasslands, and shrublands. This inventory is required to quantify, map, and evaluate the capacities of landscapes to provide ecological goods and services sustainably. This report documents the procedures to...

  12. Using expert judgments to understand spatial patterns of forest-based camping: a values-at-risk application.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Anish; Boxall, Peter C; McFarlane, Bonita L; Pelletier, Rick T

    2007-10-01

    Fire management agencies in Canada are mandated with protecting multiple forest values from wildfire. Deciding where to reduce fire hazard and how to allocate resources and fire suppression efforts requires an understanding of the values-at-risk from wildfire. The protection of recreation infrastructure is often assumed to provide adequate protection of recreation values. We use an expert judgment approach to provide a spatial distribution of recreation values-at-risk in the forested eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountain region of Alberta, Canada. Data were collected in 2004 from 11 land managers responsible for public lands management and wildfire prevention in the region. Expert assessments showed that recreation values were not confined to areas with publicly funded infrastructure. Exploratory spatial analysis of the ratings identified hotspots and cold spots of recreation activity. Maps resulting from these efforts will provide guidance to fire managers in the prioritization of fire management activities.

  13. [Spatial distribution pattern of main populations and gap makers in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin; Wang, Ting; Du, Shan; Zhang, Yu-shuan; Chen, Qi-min

    2015-10-01

    Species composition and diameter class structure were investigated in 1.5 hm2 (100 m x 150 n) permanent plot in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains. The spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of main populations and gap makers were analyzed by using point pattern analysis. The results showed that there were a total of 13 species with diameters at breast height greater than 2 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. The importance values of A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis, Betula platyphylla and Acer ukurunduense were ranked in the first 4 in the plot. The diameter class structure of their populations presented an inverse 'J' curve. The spatial distribution patterns for A. nephrolepis and P. koraiensis were similar, which changed from aggregated, random to uniform distribution with the spatial scale. For B. platyphylla, the distribution was aggregated at ≤40 m scale, and random at >40 m scale, whereas A. ukurunduense presented an aggregated distribution pattern at the whole research scale. Except that the negative correlation between B. platyphylla and A. ukurunduense existed at the whole research scale, positive correlation between the other populations at small scale and negative correlation at large scale were observed. Only A. nephrolepis and B. platyphylla had significant positive correlation, and generally no significant correlation existed between other populations. Spatial distribution pattern of gap makers was characterized as aggregated distribution at small and middle scales, and random distribution with increasing scale. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by uprooting exhibited unimodal type distribution, and random, aggregated, and uniform distribution also occurred. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by breaking overall presented a little fluctuation, random and aggregated distributions alternatively appeared at small scale, and random

  14. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.-S.; Zhu, Z.-L.; Lu, H.; Xu, D.; Liu, A.-X.; Peng, S.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns. ?? 2008 Northeast Forestry University.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Throughfall on a Douglas-Fir Forest and its relation with canopy metrics derived from high resolution Lidar measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros Vaca, César; Ucer, Murat; van der Tol, Christiaan

    2016-04-01

    Forest canopy structure intercepts around 15 to 35% of the gross precipitation (Pg) in temperate climates, the remaining proportion of Pg that reaches the forest floor is commonly known as throughfall (TF). The spatial distribution of TF below the forest canopy is relevant for many physical, chemical and biological process on the forest floor. In order to understand the spatial patterns of throughfall many sample methodologies have been tested, but most of them require big efforts and they cover relatively small areas. Nowadays, Lidar technology allows us to estimate canopy structure metrics at high resolution for a large spatial extend. This seems to be a promising tool for improving the sampling methodologies of TF. In the present study we use a rover and a stationary sampling methods to study the spatial patterns of throughfall beneath the canopy of a mid-age Douglas-Fir forest (Speulderbos) in the centre of The Netherlands, to latter to compare the results with a set of canopy metrics derived from high resolution Airborne Lidar measurements. We used 32 funnel-type collectors randomly distributed in a 32x64m plot to measure the spatial variability bellow the canopy from February to November 2015 divided in periods of around 15 days. During the first 8 periods we used the roving method and during the last 5 periods the stationary method. We also measured stemflow (SF) in 5 trees of different diametric classes, but it was negligible (~1% of Pg). To allow the comparison among periods we fitted standardized variograms. The length scale over which throughfall amounts were correlated in the stationary methodology was 7 m for aggregated TF values. In order to compare spatial distribution patterns among periods, we used standardized TF values. In this way we could combine TF values collected with the roving methodology, and this reduced the spatial correlation length to 3m , probably as an effect of the standardization of TF. We also derived a series of canopy metrics

  16. [Dimensional characteristics and spatial distribution patterns of pit and mound complexes in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen-Biao; Wei, Quan-Shuai; Qiao, Lu; Chen, Li-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xin; Gu, Wei; Sun, Hu

    2014-11-01

    Characteristics of pit and mound complexes in different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands and their distribution patterns were compared and analyzed. The results showed that mean mound width, mound height, mound thickness of all pit and mound complexes were larger than corresponding mean pit length, pit width, pit depth in large, medium and small gaps as well as in closed stands. Mound width, mound height, mound thickness, pit length, pit width, pit depth were the largest in large gap, being 2.85, 0.37, 2.00, 2.99, 2.10, 0.39 m, respectively, and the smallest in closed stands, being 2.35, 0.19, 1.60, 2.66, 1.65, 0.21, respectively. Mean mound volume (1.66 m3) was larger than mean pit volume (1.44 m3). The difference in characteristic values between the most of pit and mound complexes was significant for the same size of forest gap, not significant for closed stands, significant for different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands. Most of characteristic values for pit and mound complexes within the plot in 2012 were significantly less than those in 2011. 89.5% and 60.5% of type and shape of pit and mound complexes were hinge and semiellipse, respectively. Their distribution was relatively centralized.

  17. Arkansas forest resource patterns

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Van Sickle

    1970-01-01

    A new forest survey of Arkansas reveals that forests cover 55 percent of the land in the State. In all, 18.2 million acres are available for and capable of growing industrial timber. Substantial change has occurred in the timber resource. In the 10 years preceding the new survey, forest area declined by one-eighth . Clearing for cropland and pasture claimed...

  18. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Indiana, USA

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; George R. Parker; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    We examined the spatial pattern of forests in Indiana to: (1) determine the extent, connectivity and percent edge of all forests, (2) examine the change in connectivity among these forests if all riparian zones were replanted to forest or other native vegetation, (3) determine the location, spatial dispersion and percent edge of current old-growth forest remnants, (4)...

  19. Mapping the spatial pattern of temperate forest above ground biomass by integrating airborne lidar with Radarsat-2 imagery via geostatistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai; Wang, Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are two competitive active remote sensing techniques in forest above ground biomass estimation, which is important for forest management and global climate change study. This study aims to further explore their capabilities in temperate forest above ground biomass (AGB) estimation by emphasizing the spatial auto-correlation of variables obtained from these two remote sensing tools, which is a usually overlooked aspect in remote sensing applications to vegetation studies. Remote sensing variables including airborne LiDAR metrics, backscattering coefficient for different SAR polarizations and their ratio variables for Radarsat-2 imagery were calculated. First, simple linear regression models (SLR) was established between the field-estimated above ground biomass and the remote sensing variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2) was used to find which LiDAR metric showed the most significant correlation with the regression residuals and could be selected as co-variable in regression co-kriging (RCoKrig). Second, regression co-kriging was conducted by choosing the regression residuals as dependent variable and the LiDAR metric (Hmean) with highest R2 as co-variable. Third, above ground biomass over the study area was estimated using SLR model and RCoKrig model, respectively. The results for these two models were validated using the same ground points. Results showed that both of these two methods achieved satisfactory prediction accuracy, while regression co-kriging showed the lower estimation error. It is proved that regression co-kriging model is feasible and effective in mapping the spatial pattern of AGB in the temperate forest using Radarsat-2 data calibrated by airborne LiDAR metrics.

  20. Changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of natural forest cover on Hainan Island from the 1950s to the 2010s: implications for natural forest conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siliang; Jiang, Yaozhu; He, Jiekun; Ma, Guangzhi; Xu, Yang; Jiang, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    The study of the past, present, and future state and dynamics of the tropical natural forest cover (NFC) might help to better understand the pattern of deforestation and fragmentation as well as the influence of social and natural processes. The obtained information will support the development of effective conservation policies and strategies. In the present study, we used historical data of the road network, topography, and climatic productivity to reconstruct NFC maps of Hainan Island, China, from the 1950s to the 2010s, using the random forest algorithm. We investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of NFC change from the 1950s to the 2010s and found that it was highly dynamic in both space and time. Our data showed that grid cells with low NFC were more vulnerable to NFC decrease, suggesting that conservation actions regarding natural forests need to focus on regions with low NFC and high ecological value. We also identified the hot spots of NFC change, which provides insights into the dynamic changes of natural forests over time.

  1. Changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of natural forest cover on Hainan Island from the 1950s to the 2010s: implications for natural forest conservation and management

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiekun; Ma, Guangzhi; Xu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The study of the past, present, and future state and dynamics of the tropical natural forest cover (NFC) might help to better understand the pattern of deforestation and fragmentation as well as the influence of social and natural processes. The obtained information will support the development of effective conservation policies and strategies. In the present study, we used historical data of the road network, topography, and climatic productivity to reconstruct NFC maps of Hainan Island, China, from the 1950s to the 2010s, using the random forest algorithm. We investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of NFC change from the 1950s to the 2010s and found that it was highly dynamic in both space and time. Our data showed that grid cells with low NFC were more vulnerable to NFC decrease, suggesting that conservation actions regarding natural forests need to focus on regions with low NFC and high ecological value. We also identified the hot spots of NFC change, which provides insights into the dynamic changes of natural forests over time. PMID:28533968

  2. Spatial, spectral and temporal patterns of tropical forest cover change as observed with multiple scales of optical satellite data.

    Treesearch

    D.J. Hayes; W.B. Cohen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a methodology for scaling observations of changes in tropical forest cover to large areas at high temporal frequency from coarse-resolution satellite imagery. The approach for estimating proportional forest cover change as a continuous variable is based on a regression model that relates multispectral, multitemporal Moderate...

  3. Decade-long bird community response to the spatial pattern of variable retention harvesting in red pine (Pinus resinosa) forests

    Treesearch

    Eddie L. Shea; Lisa A. Schulte; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity is widely recognized as an inherent characteristic of unmanaged forests critical to their function and resilience, but often reduced in their managed counterparts. Variable retention harvesting (VRH) has been proposed as a way to restore or enhance structural complexity in managed forests, and thereby sustain attendant biodiversity and ecosystem...

  4. Spatial Analysis for Monitoring Forest Health

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    1994-01-01

    A plan for the spatial analysis for the sample design for the detection monitoring phase in the joint USDA Forest Service/EPA Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) in the United States is discussed. The spatial analysis procedure is intended to more quickly identify changes in forest health by providing increased sensitivity to localized changes. The procedure is...

  5. [Spatial distribution patterns and associations of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Song, Bo; Ye, Ji; Li, Bu-Hang; Yao, Xiao-Lin

    2007-08-01

    Based on the investigation data from a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest plot in Changbai Mountains of China, the dominant species Korean pine and Tilia amurensis were chosen as research objects. One point pattern analysis method, O-ring statistics, was used to analyze the spatial patterns of the species in three vertical layers, i. e., overstory, midstory and understory layers, and the spatial associations of intra- and inter-species between different vertical layers were studied. The results showed that P. koraiensis and T. amurensis were clumped at smaller scales. Higher layers tended to be randomly or regularly distributed, while lower layers tended to be aggregated at smaller scales. The aggregation degree decreased with canopy height. P. koraiensis stems in overstory layer were significantly positively associated to the stems in midstory layer at scales < 11 m, and T. amurensis in overstory layer showed negatively correlation with that in midstory and understory layers. There was generally a positive correlation between the two species, but the association varied among different layers. No significant correlation was observed between P. koraiensis stems in overstory layer and T. amurensis in three layers. P. koraiensis stems in midstory layer showed slightly negative correlation with T. amurensis in the same layer at scales > 4 m, but no significant association to T. amurensis in understroy layer. T. amurensis in overstory layer was significantly positively associated to P. koraiensis in midstory layer at scales < 100 m.

  6. Climatic water deficit and wildfire: predicting spatial patterns in forest ecosystem sensitivity to warming and earlier spring snowmelt. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerling, A. L.; Keyser, A.; Milostan, J.

    2013-12-01

    Western U.S. forest wildfire area burned increased significantly in recent decades, with much of the increase in the US Rocky Mountains (Westerling et al 2006). While Westerling et al (2006) noted that interannual variability in aggregate regional forest wildfire has been highly correlated with regional indices of warming and spring snowmelt, our analysis of the hydroclimatic conditions coincident with the occurrence of large forest wildfires in recent decades reveals that sensitivity of wildfire in specific forest areas has been characterized by a narrow range of climatic conditions: long-term average snow-free season of ~2-4 months and relatively high cumulative water-year actual evapotranspiration (AET). These forests have shown large increases in cumulative water year moisture deficit concomitant with large increases in wildfire in recent years with warmer than average temperatures and earlier spring snowmelt. Forests with high AET and snow-free seasons between 4 and 5 months have exhibited significant but more moderate increases in wildfire activity. Mean snow-free season length and cumulative AET may also be predictive of forest wildfire sensitivity to projected warming. Recent climate change impact studies indicate that the same forests where wildfire activity has exhibited the most sensitivity to observed warming in recent decades may continue to exhibit large increases in the next few decades, until reductions in fuel availability and continuity become dominant constraints on the growth of large wildfires (e.g., Westerling et al 2011a, Litschert et al 2012, Westerling et al unpublished data). We also find that similar forests that may have been buffered from recent climate change by elevation or latitude may also show very large increases in wildfire under projected warming. Conversely, warmer, drier forests where recent changes in moisture deficit and fire activity have been more moderate (particularly those with snow-free seasons ~4-5 months), are

  7. Climatic water deficit and wildfire: predicting spatial patterns in forest ecosystem sensitivity to warming and earlier spring snowmelt. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerling, A. L.; Keyser, A.; Milostan, J.

    2011-12-01

    Western U.S. forest wildfire area burned increased significantly in recent decades, with much of the increase in the US Rocky Mountains (Westerling et al 2006). While Westerling et al (2006) noted that interannual variability in aggregate regional forest wildfire has been highly correlated with regional indices of warming and spring snowmelt, our analysis of the hydroclimatic conditions coincident with the occurrence of large forest wildfires in recent decades reveals that sensitivity of wildfire in specific forest areas has been characterized by a narrow range of climatic conditions: long-term average snow-free season of ~2-4 months and relatively high cumulative water-year actual evapotranspiration (AET). These forests have shown large increases in cumulative water year moisture deficit concomitant with large increases in wildfire in recent years with warmer than average temperatures and earlier spring snowmelt. Forests with high AET and snow-free seasons between 4 and 5 months have exhibited significant but more moderate increases in wildfire activity. Mean snow-free season length and cumulative AET may also be predictive of forest wildfire sensitivity to projected warming. Recent climate change impact studies indicate that the same forests where wildfire activity has exhibited the most sensitivity to observed warming in recent decades may continue to exhibit large increases in the next few decades, until reductions in fuel availability and continuity become dominant constraints on the growth of large wildfires (e.g., Westerling et al 2011a, Litschert et al 2012, Westerling et al unpublished data). We also find that similar forests that may have been buffered from recent climate change by elevation or latitude may also show very large increases in wildfire under projected warming. Conversely, warmer, drier forests where recent changes in moisture deficit and fire activity have been more moderate (particularly those with snow-free seasons ~4-5 months), are

  8. Spatial patterns of recreational impact on experimental campsites

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole; Christopher A. Monz

    2004-01-01

    Management of camping impacts in protected areas worldwide is limited by inadequate understanding of spatial patterns of impact and attention to spatial management strategies. Spatial patterns of campsite impact were studied in two subalpine plant communities in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, USA (a forest and a meadow). Response to chronic disturbance and recovery...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Nitrification Rates in Forested Floodplain Wetland Soils of Upper Mississippi River Pool 8, Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overbank flooding is thought to be a critical process controlling nitrogen retention and cycling. In this study we investigated the effects of season and flood frequency on soil nitrification rates at ten sites in forested floodplains of Upper Mississippi River, Pool 8...A rough ...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Nitrification Rates in Forested Floodplain Wetland Soils of Upper Mississippi River Pool 8, Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overbank flooding is thought to be a critical process controlling nitrogen retention and cycling. In this study we investigated the effects of season and flood frequency on soil nitrification rates at ten sites in forested floodplains of Upper Mississippi River, Pool 8...A rough ...

  11. Substrate availability drives spatial patterns in richness of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in temperate forest soils

    Treesearch

    J.S. Norman; J.E. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the drivers of richness of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in temperate forest soils. We sampled soils across four experimental watersheds in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina USA. These watersheds are geographically close, but vary in soil chemistry due to differences in land use history. While we...

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns in fire occurrence during the establishment of mixed-oak forests in eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Ryan W. McEwan; Todd F. Hutchinson; Robert P. Long; Robert D. Ford; Brian C. McCarthy

    2007-01-01

    What was the role of fire during the establishment of the current overstory (ca. 1870-1940) in mixed-oak forests of eastern North America? Nine sites representing a 240-km latitudinal gradient on the Allegheny and Cumberland Plateaus of eastern North America. Basal cross-sections were collected from 225 trees. Samples were surfaced, and fire scars were dated. Fire...

  13. Long-term change and spatial pattern in a late-successional hemlock-northern hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Kerry D. Woods

    2000-01-01

    When unlogged, mesic forest of the Great lakes region of North America are "slow systems' dominant trees can live for over 300 years and canopy-residence times range from 100 to over 200 years (frelich & Lorimer 1991: Frelich & Graumlich 1994: parshall 1995: Dahir & Lorimer 1996: Woods 2000). Catastrophic wind-throw caused by tornadoes and derecho...

  14. [Spatial patterns of and specific correlations between dominant tree species in a karst evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Mulun Karst National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-heng; Xiang, Wu-sheng; Ye, Duo; Lü, Shi-hong; Ding, Tao; Li, Xian-kun

    2010-11-01

    In order to understand the biological characteristics and specific correlations of dominant tree species in a karst characteristic evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Mulun National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, a point pattern analysis was made on the spatial distribution patterns and inter- and intraspecific correlations of four dominant species in a one-hectare plot. Among the four species, Boniodendron minius dominated in tree sublayer I, while Ligustrum japonicum, Sinosideroxylon wightianum, and Rapanea kwangsiensis dominated in tree sublayers II and III. All the four species had a clumped distribution at scale <10 m, a transition from clumped to random distribution at scale 10-25 m, and a random or regular distribution at scale >25 m. The critical scale from clumped to random distribution varied with species. No significant correlations were observed between the B. minius in sublayer I and the dominant species in sublayer II. The correlations of B. minius with the dominant species in sublayers II and III showed greater fluctuation, with significant positive correlation for L. japonicum at scale <50 m, no significant correlation for S. wightianum, and no significant correlation for R. kwangsiensis at scale <20 m but significant negative correlation at scale 20-50 m.

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage and species richness in three South Carolina coastal plain riparian forests

    Treesearch

    Laura A. Giese; W. Michael Aust; Carl C. Trettin; Randall K. Kolka

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of organic matter within a floodplain is a controlling factor affecting water quality, habitat, and food webs. Accordingly, developn~ent of vegetation in the riparian zone can be expected to influence ecosystem functions, and organic matter storage patterns are believed to be indicators of functional recovery in disturbed riparian zones. Our objective...

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  17. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  18. The spatial and temporal analysis of forest resources and institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweik, Charles M.

    This study addresses a central puzzle facing the Human Dimensions of Global Change research community: How can we understand the influence of environmental policies on human behavior when little or no information is available on the condition of forest resources? This dissertation capitalizes on new research tools, methods and approaches to overcome the "no information about the resource" problem. Specifically, I combine (1) forest mensuration techniques, (2) Global Positioning Systems, (3) Geographic Information Systems (GIS), (4) spatial statistics, (5) remote sensing, and (6) institutional analysis to analyze forest vegetation patterns. I provide explanation of these patterns by considering the incentive structures driving human decision-making and activity and do this through two studies in very different empirical settings. Both studies apply applicable theory related to human behavior and action. Both examine the incentive structures individuals face as they undertake daily activities related to forest resources. The first study, set in East Chitwan, Nepal, identifies spatial patterns in georeferenced forest inventory data and links these to patterns predicted by optimal foraging subject to institutional constraints. The second study compares forest management in one state and one national forest in Indiana, U.S.A. In this effort, I identify spatio-temporal patterns in the forest vegetation captured by a time series of Landsat multispectral images. The combination of natural forest regrowth and property manager actions in response to incentives and constraints explain these patterns. Substantively, both studies identify change in forest resources associated with combinations of the physical, human community and institutional "landscapes" in their regions. In both cases, geographic attributes of institutions (e.g., laws, rules) are found to influence the type and location of human actions. Methodologically, the two studies provide examples of how to control

  19. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...

  20. Analysis of forest fires spatial clustering using local fractal measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Rochat, Mikael; Timonin, Vadim

    2013-04-01

    The research deals with an application of local fractal measure - local sandbox counting or mass counting, for the characterization of patterns of spatial clustering. The main application concerns the simulated (random patterns within validity domain in forest regions) and real data (forest fires in Ticino, Switzerland) case studies. The global patterns of spatial clustering of forest fires were extensively studied using different topological (nearest-neighbours, Voronoi polygons), statistical (Ripley's k-function, Morisita diagram) and fractal/multifractal measures (box-counting, sandbox counting, lacunarity) (Kanevski, 2008). Generalizations of these measures to functional ones can reveal the structure of the phenomena, e.g. burned areas. All these measures are valuable and complementary tools to study spatial clustering. Moreover, application of the validity domain (complex domain where phenomena is studied) concept helps in understanding and interpretation of the results. In the present paper a sandbox counting method was applied locally, i.e. each point of ignition was considered as a centre of events counting with an increasing search radius. Then, the local relationships between the radius and the number of ignition points within the given radius were examined. Finally, the results are mapped using an interpolation algorithm for the visualization and analytical purposes. Both 2d (X,Y) and 3d (X,Y,Z) cases were studied and compared. Local "fractal" study gives an interesting spatially distributed picture of clustering. The real data case study was compared with a reference homogeneous pattern - complete spatial randomness. The difference between two patterns clearly indicates the regions with important spatial clustering. An extension to the local functional measure was applied taking into account the surface of burned area, i.e. by analysing only data with the fires above some threshold of burned area. Such analysis is similar to marked point processes and

  1. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    PubMed

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young (< 60-year-old) and old-growth (> 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  2. Forest ownership patterns are changing

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2008-01-01

    The fate of the nation's forests lies primarily in the hands of the people who own and manage (or do not manage) the land. Any report that claims to analyze forest resources must consider not only the biophysical characteristics of the forests, but also the social context in which they exist. It is ultimately landowners, within the social constraints imposed by...

  3. Forest stand structure and pattern of old-growth western hemlock/Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen; Brian Oakley; Bo Song; Mark Rudnicki; Andrew Gray; Jim Innes

    2004-01-01

    With fire suppression, many western forests are expected to have fewer gaps and higher stem density of shade-tolerant species as light competition becomes a more significant influence on stand pattern and composition. We compared species composition, structure, spatial pattern, and environmental factors such as light and soil moisture between two old-growth forests:...

  4. Spatial patterns of tidal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2013-03-01

    In a body periodically strained by tides, heating produced by viscous friction is far from homogeneous. The spatial distribution of tidal heating depends in a complicated way on the tidal potential and on the internal structure of the body. I show here that the distribution of the dissipated power within a spherically stratified body is a linear combination of three angular functions. These angular functions depend only on the tidal potential whereas the radial weights are specified by the internal structure of the body. The 3D problem of predicting spatial patterns of dissipation at all radii is thus reduced to the 1D problem of computing weight functions. I compute spatial patterns in various toy models without assuming a specific rheology: a viscoelastic thin shell stratified in conductive and convective layers, an incompressible homogeneous body and a two-layer model of uniform density with a liquid or rigid core. For a body in synchronous rotation undergoing eccentricity tides, dissipation in a mantle surrounding a liquid core is highest at the poles. Within a soft layer (or asthenosphere) in contact with a more rigid layer, the same tides generate maximum heating in the equatorial region with a significant degree-four structure if the soft layer is thin. The asthenosphere can be a layer of partial melting in the upper mantle or, very differently, an icy layer in contact with a silicate mantle or solid core. Tidal heating patterns are thus of three main types: mantle dissipation (with the icy shell above an ocean as a particular case), dissipation in a thin soft layer and dissipation in a thick soft layer. Finally, I show that the toy models predict well patterns of dissipation in Europa, Titan and Io. The formalism described in this paper applies to dissipation within solid layers of planets and satellites for which internal spherical symmetry and viscoelastic linear rheology are good approximations.

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution patterns of forest fires in northern Mexico

    Treesearch

    Gustavo Pérez-Verdin; M. A. Márquez-Linares; A. Cortes-Ortiz; M. Salmerón-Macias

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2000-2011 CONAFOR databases, a spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of forest fires in Durango, one of the most affected States in Mexico, was conducted. The Moran's index was used to determine a spatial distribution pattern; also, an analysis of seasonal and temporal autocorrelation of the data collected was completed. The geographically weighted...

  6. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  7. A comparison of techniques for generating forest ownership spatial products

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand forest resources, it is imperative to understand the social context in which the forests exist. A pivotal part of that context is the forest ownership. It is the owners, operating within biophysical and social constraints, who ultimately decide if the land will remain forested, how the resources will be used, and by whom. Forest ownership patterns...

  8. Spatial patterns of movement of dung beetle species in a tropical forest suggest a new trap spacing for dung beetle biodiversity studies.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles.

  9. Spatial Patterns of Movement of Dung Beetle Species in a Tropical Forest Suggest a New Trap Spacing for Dung Beetle Biodiversity Studies

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles. PMID:25938506

  10. Seed Dispersal and Spatial Pattern in Tropical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Tristram G; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2006-01-01

    Theories of tropical tree diversity emphasize dispersal limitation as a potential mechanism for separating species in space and reducing competitive exclusion. We compared the dispersal morphologies, fruit sizes, and spatial distributions of 561 tree species within a fully mapped, 50-hectare plot of primary tropical forest in peninsular Malaysia. We demonstrate here that the extent and scale of conspecific spatial aggregation is correlated with the mode of seed dispersal. This relationship holds for saplings as well as for mature trees. Phylogenetically independent contrasts confirm that the relationship between dispersal and spatial pattern is significant even after controlling for common ancestry among species. We found the same qualitative results for a 50-hectare tropical forest plot in Panama. Our results provide broad empirical evidence for the importance of dispersal mode in establishing the long-term community structure of tropical forests. PMID:17048988

  11. A New Method for the Spatialization of Forest Cover by Fusing Forest Inventory and MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The acquisition of accurate spatial and temporal data on forest cover is the foundation for the sustainable management and utilization of forest resources. Although forest inventory data can provide accurate statistical information about forest type, such data do not give the specific spatial distribution. Remote sensing data provide accurate spatial information, and vegetation indices provide measures of land surface vegetation cover and growth conditions. By fusing these two sources of data, specific information about the spatial distribution of different types of forest can be obtained. Here, in a case study of Heilongjiang Province, we obtained forest dominant species area from the sixth and seventh national forest inventories and MODIS composite remote sensing data for the same periods to study forest cover by developing a spatialization method. Based on pixel features (such as NDVI and near-infrared reflectance) and their relationships with forest types, thresholds between different forest types in the remote sensing information were set according to the statistical data, which allowed the two sets of data to be fused. As a result, we generated forest cover maps for 2000 and 2005 that show the distribution of four forest types. Taking vegetation map of China as reference data, an error matrix analysis shows that the overall classification consistency reaches 76.7%, but only 70% for evergreen needleleaf forest and mixed forest. This study paves the way for further research on improving the accuracy of forest cover classification accuracy, on expanding the spatial and temporal scales of interest, and on quantifying forest dynamics

  12. Spatially random mortality in old-growth red pine forests of northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Tuomas ​Aakala; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution of tree mortality is critical to understanding forest dynamics, but empirical studies on these patterns under old-growth conditions are rare. This rarity is due in part to low mortality rates in old-growth forests, the study of which necessitates long observation periods, and the confounding influence of tree in-growth during...

  13. Linking linear programming and spatial simulation models to predict landscape effects of forest management alternatives

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; L. Jay Roberts; Larry A. Leefers

    2006-01-01

    Forest management planners require analytical tools to assess the effects of alternative strategies on the sometimes disparate benefits from forests such as timber production and wildlife habitat. We assessed the spatial patterns of alternative management strategies by linking two models that were developed for different purposes. We used a linear programming model (...

  14. Using forest inventory plot data and satellite imagery from MODIS and Landsat-TM to model spatial distribution patterns of honeysuckle and privet

    Treesearch

    Dumitru Salajanu; Dennis M. Jacobs

    2009-01-01

    Forest inventory and analysis data monitor the presence and extent of certain non-native invasive species. Onforestland, non-native species are considered part of the understory vegetation and can be found near canopyopenings as well as and...

  15. Spatial Variability of VOCl Fluxes From Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, T.; Black, A. T.; Fulton, T.; Molodovskaya, M. S.; Nesic, Z.; Pickering, L.; Pilz, J.; Oberg, G.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally formed volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) are involved in various atmospheric processes such as ozone depletion. These compounds are present in several environmental compartments and some of them are of ecotoxicological concern. Over the past few years, a small but growing literature has focused on the emission of VOCls from terrestrial environments and there are indications that the emissions vary between ecosystems and that spatial and temporal patterns exist. Due to methodological challenges, the studies have hitherto been based on rather few measurements; subsequently estimates of both the magnitude and the variability of the fluxes are quite uncertain. To enable collection of larger sample sets, which would allow reliable surveying of spatial variability, we developed a portable chamber system. The system consists of a non-steady-state chamber (area 0.20 m2, volume 56.9L), a close-looped air-circulation unit with a diaphragm pump, and a VOCl sampling unit with carbon-based adsorbent tubes for later analysis in the laboratory by gas chromatography (GC7890, Agilent Technologies, USA) with micro-ECD detection (Agilent Technologies, USA), a thermal desorption system (TDSA2, Gerstel Inc., USA) and cryocooled inlet system (CIS4, Gerstel Inc., USA). We are using the portable system to investigate the spatial variability of chloroform fluxes at different scales and at various forested sites in south-west British Columbia, Canada. Our pilot observations strongly indicate that the flux from adjacent chambers (0.5-2 m between locations), may vary ten times or more, and that small-scale variability often overrides any larger scale patterns, or differences between sites. In addition, 'hot' and 'cold' measurement locations were not consistent spatially, indicating non-consistent spatial patterns in time. The study highlights that we need to better understand small-scale spatial heterogeneity of VOCl fluxes to interpret larger scale temporal and spatial

  16. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing

    Treesearch

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham

    2006-01-01

    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  17. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  18. Valuation of spatial configurations and forest types in the southern appalachian highlands.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Jung, Suhyun; Kim, Seung Gyu

    2009-04-01

    Site-specific estimates of the values of spatial configuration and forest composition are presented. Amenity values of forest patches are found to vary the most by urban and sprawling development patterns of specific areas and forest types. For example, smaller patches of deciduous forest are more highly valued in the urban and sprawling areas of Greensboro, North Carolina, whereas larger patches of deciduous forest are more highly valued in the urban and sprawling areas of Greenville, South Carolina. Within the Greenville and Greensboro areas, visible landscape complexity is highly valued for deciduous and evergreen forest patches, whereas lower visible landscape complexity, i.e., smoothly trimmed forest patch boundaries, is highly valued for mixed forest patches.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest

    Treesearch

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity....

  20. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida) in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination), soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, N O; Gualberto, T L; Franklin, E

    2006-08-01

    In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km2 at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH), to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  1. Natural disturbances are spatially diverse but temporally synchronized across temperate forest landscapes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Senf, Cornelius; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-09-07

    Natural disturbance regimes are changing substantially in forests around the globe. However, large-scale disturbance change is modulated by a considerable spatiotemporal variation within biomes. This variation remains incompletely understood particularly in the temperate forests of Europe, for which consistent large-scale disturbance information is lacking. Here, our aim was to quantify the spatiotemporal patterns of forest disturbances across temperate forest landscapes in Europe using remote sensing data and determine their underlying drivers. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: (1) Topography determines the spatial patterns of disturbance, and (2) climatic extremes synchronize natural disturbances across the biome. We used novel Landsat-based maps of forest disturbances 1986-2016 in combination with landscape analysis to compare spatial disturbance patterns across five unmanaged forest landscapes with varying topographic complexity. Furthermore, we analyzed annual estimates of disturbances for synchronies and tested the influence of climatic extremes on temporal disturbance patterns. Spatial variation in disturbance patterns was substantial across temperate forest landscapes. With increasing topographic complexity, natural disturbance patches were smaller, more complex in shape, more dispersed, and affected a smaller portion of the landscape. Temporal disturbance patterns, however, were strongly synchronized across all landscapes, with three distinct waves of high disturbance activity between 1986 and 2016. All three waves followed years of pronounced drought and high peak wind speeds. Natural disturbances in temperate forest landscapes of Europe are thus spatially diverse but temporally synchronized. We conclude that the ecological effect of natural disturbances (i.e., whether they are homogenizing a landscape or increasing its heterogeneity) is strongly determined by the topographic template. Furthermore, as the strong biome-wide synchronization of

  2. Simulation Studies of the Effect of Forest Spatial Structure on InSAR Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Liu, Dawei; Ranson, K. Jon; Koetz, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The height of scattering phase retrieved from InSAR data is considered being correlated with the tree height and the spatial structure of the forest stand. Though some researchers have used simple backscattering models to estimate tree height from the height of scattering center, the effect of forest spatial structure on InSAR data is not well understood yet. A three-dimensional coherent radar backscattering model for forest canopies based on realistic three-dimensional scene was used to investigate the effect in this paper. The realistic spatial structure of forest canopies was established either by field measurements (stem map) or through use of forest growth model. Field measurements or a forest growth model parameterized using local environmental parameters provides information of forest species composition and tree sizes in certain growth phases. A fractal tree model (L-system) was used to simulate individual 3- D tree structure of different ages or heights. Trees were positioned in a stand in certain patterns resulting in a 3-D medium of discrete scatterers. The radar coherent backscatter model took the 3-D forest scene as input and simulates the coherent radar backscattering signature. Interferometric SAR images of 3D scenes were simulated and heights of scattering phase centers were estimated from the simulated InSAR data. The effects of tree height, crown cover, crown depth, and the spatial distribution patterns of trees on the scattering phase center were analyzed. The results will be presented in the paper.

  3. Spatial elements of mortality risk in old-growth forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian; Battles, John; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    For many species of long-lived organisms, such as trees, survival appears to be the most critical vital rate affecting population persistence. However, methods commonly used to quantify tree death, such as relating tree mortality risk solely to diameter growth, almost certainly do not account for important spatial processes. Our goal in this study was to detect and, if present, to quantify the relevance of such processes. For this purpose, we examined purely spatial aspects of mortality for four species, Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, and Pinus lambertiana, in an old-growth conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. The analysis was performed using data from nine fully mapped long-term monitoring plots.In three cases, the results unequivocally supported the inclusion of spatial information in models used to predict mortality. For Abies concolor, our results suggested that growth rate may not always adequately capture increased mortality risk due to competition. We also found evidence of a facilitative effect for this species, with mortality risk decreasing with proximity to conspecific neighbors. For Pinus lambertiana, mortality risk increased with density of conspecific neighbors, in keeping with a mechanism of increased pathogen or insect pressure (i.e., a Janzen-Connell type effect). Finally, we found that models estimating risk of being crushed were strongly improved by the inclusion of a simple index of spatial proximity.Not only did spatial indices improve models, those improvements were relevant for mortality prediction. For P. lambertiana, spatial factors were important for estimation of mortality risk regardless of growth rate. For A. concolor, although most of the population fell within spatial conditions in which mortality risk was well described by growth, trees that died occurred outside those conditions in a disproportionate fashion. Furthermore, as stands of A. concolor become increasingly dense, such spatial

  4. Measurement and management of human-induced patterns of forest fragmentation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tole, Lise

    2006-06-01

    In many tropical developing countries, the twin pressures of population and poverty are resulting in substantial fragmentation of forests, increasing the probability of extinction for many species, Forest fragmentation occurs when large contiguous forests are perforated by small holes or broken up into edges and smaller patches to form a nonforested matrix of open spaces. Thus, forest fragmentation refers not only to the area of forest cleared, but also to the pattern of this clearance, the resulting forest's spatial properties. Both characteristics are important for species survivability. Apart from opening up forests to many abiotic and biotic influences, fragmentation can affect species dispersal and migration through its effects on forest connectivity. Landscape ecology conceptualizes connectivity as a gradient of critical thresholds, ranging from the large intact forest to the small unconnected forest patch. This article reports results from a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation in Jamaica's Cockpit Country, an area of once contiguous forest now under threat from human encroachment. Spatial forest data derived from classification of ETM+ satellite imagery are used to measure fragmentation patterns representing various degrees of forest connectivity and density. The results suggest that, overall, 81% of the region is in forest. However, fragmentation patterns also suggest that this forest is riven with extensive perforations indicative of an early stage in the decline of contiguity. The results provided by the spatial fragmentation model are a first step in the design of effective conservation and rehabilitation plans for the area. The article concludes with a discussion of possible multiscale management options for the region.

  5. Life stages: interactions and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Suzanne L; Cushing, J M; Costantino, R F

    2012-02-01

    In many stage-structured species, different life stages often occupy separate spatial niches in a heterogeneous environment. Life stages of the giant flour beetle Tribolium brevicornis (Leconte), in particular adults and pupae, occupy different locations in a homogeneous habitat. This unique spatial pattern does not occur in the well-studied stored grain pests T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Duval). We propose density dependent dispersal as a causal mechanism for this spatial pattern. We model and explore the spatial dynamics of T. brevicornis with a set of four density dependent integrodifference and difference equations. The spatial model exhibits multiple attractors: a spatially uniform attractor and a patchy attractor with pupae and adults spatially separated. The model attractors are consistent with experimental observations.

  6. Simulation of Landscape Pattern of Old Growth Forests of Korean Pine by Block Kringing

    Treesearch

    Wang Zhengquan; Wang Qingcheng; Zhang Yandong

    1997-01-01

    The study area was located in Liangshui Natural Reserve. Xaozing'an Mountains, Northeastern China. Korean pine forests are the typical forest ecosystems and landscapes in this region. It is a high degress of spatial and temporal heterogeneity at different scales, which effected on landscape pattern and processes. In this paper we used the data of 144 plots and...

  7. Using estimates of natural variation to detect ecologically important change in forest spatial patterns: a case study, Cascade Range, eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Bradley G. Smith; R. Brion. Salter

    1999-01-01

    Using hierarchical clustering techniques, we grouped subwatersheds on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range in Washington State into ecological subregions by similarity of area in potential vegetation and climate attributes. We then built spatially continuous historical and current vegetation maps for 48 randomly selected subwatersheds from interpretations of 1938-49...

  8. Spatial downscaling of precipitation using adaptable random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaogang; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Schleiss, Marc; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces Prec-DWARF (Precipitation Downscaling With Adaptable Random Forests), a novel machine-learning based method for statistical downscaling of precipitation. Prec-DWARF sets up a nonlinear relationship between precipitation at fine resolution and covariates at coarse/fine resolution, based on the advanced binary tree method known as Random Forests (RF). In addition to a single RF, we also consider a more advanced implementation based on two independent RFs which yield better results for extreme precipitation. Hourly gauge-radar precipitation data at 0.125° from NLDAS-2 are used to conduct synthetic experiments with different spatial resolutions (0.25°, 0.5°, and 1°). Quantitative evaluation of these experiments demonstrates that Prec-DWARF consistently outperforms the baseline (i.e., bilinear interpolation in this case) and can reasonably reproduce the spatial and temporal patterns, occurrence and distribution of observed precipitation fields. However, Prec-DWARF with a single RF significantly underestimates precipitation extremes and often cannot correctly recover the fine-scale spatial structure, especially for the 1° experiments. Prec-DWARF with a double RF exhibits improvement in the simulation of extreme precipitation as well as its spatial and temporal structures, but variogram analyses show that the spatial and temporal variability of the downscaled fields are still strongly underestimated. Covariate importance analysis shows that the most important predictors for the downscaling are the coarse-scale precipitation values over adjacent grid cells as well as the distance to the closest dry grid cell (i.e., the dry drift). The encouraging results demonstrate the potential of Prec-DWARF and machine-learning based techniques in general for the statistical downscaling of precipitation.

  9. Spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morlon, Hélène; Schwilk, Dylan W; Bryant, Jessica A; Marquet, Pablo A; Rebelo, Anthony G; Tauss, Catherine; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists and conservation biologists have historically used species–area and distance–decay relationships as tools to predict the spatial distribution of biodiversity and the impact of habitat loss on biodiversity. These tools treat each species as evolutionarily equivalent, yet the importance of species' evolutionary history in their ecology and conservation is becoming increasingly evident. Here, we provide theoretical predictions for phylogenetic analogues of the species–area and distance–decay relationships. We use a random model of community assembly and a spatially explicit flora dataset collected in four Mediterranean-type regions to provide theoretical predictions for the increase in phylogenetic diversity – the total phylogenetic branch-length separating a set of species – with increasing area and the decay in phylogenetic similarity with geographic separation. These developments may ultimately provide insights into the evolution and assembly of biological communities, and guide the selection of protected areas. PMID:21166972

  10. Spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Morlon, Hélène; Schwilk, Dylan W; Bryant, Jessica A; Marquet, Pablo A; Rebelo, Anthony G; Tauss, Catherine; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L

    2011-02-01

    Ecologists and conservation biologists have historically used species-area and distance-decay relationships as tools to predict the spatial distribution of biodiversity and the impact of habitat loss on biodiversity. These tools treat each species as evolutionarily equivalent, yet the importance of species' evolutionary history in their ecology and conservation is becoming increasingly evident. Here, we provide theoretical predictions for phylogenetic analogues of the species-area and distance-decay relationships. We use a random model of community assembly and a spatially explicit flora dataset collected in four Mediterranean-type regions to provide theoretical predictions for the increase in phylogenetic diversity - the total phylogenetic branch-length separating a set of species - with increasing area and the decay in phylogenetic similarity with geographic separation. These developments may ultimately provide insights into the evolution and assembly of biological communities, and guide the selection of protected areas.

  11. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H

    2003-06-01

    Geographically explicit analysis tools are needed to assess forest health indicators that are measured over large regions. Spatial scan statistics can be used to detect spatial or spatiotemporal clusters of forests representing hotspots of extreme indicator values. This paper demonstrates the approach through analyses of forest fragmentation indicators in the southeastern United States and insect and pathogen indicators in the Pacific Northwest United States. The scan statistic detected four spatial clusters of fragmented forest including a hotspot in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain region. Three recurring clusters of insect and pathogen occurrence were found in the Pacific Northwest. Spatial scan statistics are a powerful new tool that can be used to identify potential forest health problems.

  12. Evaluation of spatial models to predict vulnerability of forest birds to brood parasitism by cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, E.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Friberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    We constructed alternative spatial models at two scales to predict Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism rates from land cover maps. The local-scale models tested competing hypotheses about the relationship between cowbird parasitism and distance of host nests from a forest edge (forest-nonforest boundary). The landscape models tested competing hypotheses about how landscape features (e.g., forests, agricultural fields) interact to determine rates of cowbird parasitism. The models incorporate spatial neighborhoods with a radius of 2.5 km in their formulation, reflecting the scale of the majority of cowbird commuting activity. Field data on parasitism by cowbirds (parasitism rate and number of cowbird eggs per nest) were collected at 28 sites in the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa and were compared to the predictions of the alternative models. At the local scale, there was a significant positive relationship between cowbird parasitism and mean distance of nest sites from the forest edge. At the landscape scale, the best fitting models were the forest-dependent and forest-fragmentation-dependent models, in which more heavily forested and less fragmented landscapes had higher parasitism rates. However, much of the explanatory power of these models results from the inclusion of the local-scale relationship in these models. We found lower rates of cowbird parasitism than did most Midwestern studies, and we identified landscape patterns of cowbird parasitism that are opposite to those reported in several other studies of Midwestern songbirds. We caution that cowbird parasitism patterns can be unpredictable, depending upon ecoregional location and the spatial extent, and that our models should be tested in other ecoregions before they are applied there. Our study confirms that cowbird biology has a strong spatial component, and that improved spatial models applied at multiple spatial scales will be required to predict the effects of

  13. Spatially explicit measurements of forest structure and fire behavior following restoration treatments in dry forests

    Treesearch

    Justin Paul Ziegler; Chad Hoffman; Michael Battaglia; William Mell

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in dry forests of the western US often attempt silvicultural practices to restore the historical characteristics of forest structure and fire behavior. However, it is suggested that a reliance on non-spatial metrics of forest stand structure, along with the use of wildland fire behavior models that lack the ability to handle complex structures,...

  14. Retinocortical processing of spatial patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Donald H.

    1990-10-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the major functions of early vision by considering how various components cooperate in preparing visual information to organize our perceptions of the world around us. To this end, and with the cooperation of SRI's Machine Vision Group, we have assembled some of these functions in a computational working model, which can graphically display the spatial structure of the information at a given stage of the visual process, in the form of a two-dimensional intensity array (or "image"). The development of such a capability should facilitate the study and comparison of retinal and cortical inputs and outputs of spatial information. The individual components of the model are well known, and the relations among them are based on available data from the literature. However, two aspects of this study seem novel. One is the exploitation of powerful, state-of-the-art tools of computational vision, such as Symbolics 3600-series LISP machines, to create and display our results. These tools were developed primarily for artificial intelligence purposes; they have rarely been used for basic studies in human vision. Another important novelty is the combination, into a single, integrated emulation, of the following properties of the visual process: . Inhomogeneous filtering by retinal receptive fields. . Re-mapping of visual space by the retinocortical projection. . Image analysis by receptive fields of the striate cortex. . Multiple fixations of a single scene. Each of these mechanisms has been studied in detail previously, but they have scarcely been interrelated. Taking a different approach, we use a relatively broad-brush description of each to study how they could all behave in concert.

  15. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a global database, we found that forest turnover rates (the average of tree mortality and recruitment rates) parallel broad-scale patterns of net primary productivity. First, forest turnover was higher in tropical than in temperate forests. Second, as recently demonstrated by others, Amazonian forest turnover was higher on fertile than infertile soils. Third, within temperate latitudes, turnover was highest in angiosperm forests, intermediate in mixed forests, and lowest in gymnosperm forests. Finally, within a single forest physiognomic type, turnover declined sharply with elevation (hence with temperature). These patterns of turnover in populations of trees are broadly similar to the patterns of turnover in populations of plant organs (leaves and roots) found in other studies. Our findings suggest a link between forest mass balance and the population dynamics of trees, and have implications for understanding and predicting the effects of environmental changes on forest structure and terrestrial carbon dynamics. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Analysis of forest naturalness and tree mortality patterns in Estonia

    Treesearch

    J.A. Stanturf

    2009-01-01

    New methods for evaluating structural properties of stands and individual tree mortality within forests are needed to enhance biodiversity assessment in forest inventories. One approach is to assess the degree of naturalness in a forest. We assessed forest naturalness by examining patterns and causes of mortality and deadwood amount and...

  17. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  18. Forest age correlates with fine-scale spatial structure of Matsutake mycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony; Keeley, Sterling; Garbelotto, Matteo

    2009-05-01

    Examining the fine-scale spatial structure of fungal populations can tell us much about how individual species reproduce and disperse throughout natural landscapes. Here we study the fine-scale genetic structure of Tricholoma matsutake, a prized edible and medicinal mushroom, by systematic sampling of mycorrhizas within fairy rings in 50-y-old and old-growth forests in two villages. Using single nucleotide polymorphism DNA markers we show that mycorrhizas in both forest age classes in both villages showed high levels of genotypic diversity, consistent with a reproductive life history predominated by outcrossing via basidiospore dispersal. Both the percentage of polymorphic loci within fairy rings, as well as genotype diversity were higher in old-growth compared to 50-y-old forests. Fifty-year-old forests showed significant spatial autocorrelation between pairs of mycorrhizas up to 42m, and a pattern consistent isolation-by-distance structure. Spatial patterns in old-growth forests were random. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis indicates that 11% of molecular variance in 50-y-old forests is partitioned between villages, whereas no significant variance is partitioned between villages in old-growth forests. We conclude that populations of T. matsutake in 50-y-old forests are the result of a founder effect maintained by local inoculation sources. This pattern attenuates as forests age and accumulate inocula from more distance sources. We speculate on how genetic mosaicism within T. matsutake fairy rings may structure populations within a chronosequence. Finally, we discuss how population spatial dynamics and dispersal strategy in T. matsutake contrast with other ectomycorrhizal species.

  19. Towards capturing detailed patterns of taiga-tundra ecotone forests from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesano, P. M.; Neigh, C. S. R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, K.

    2015-12-01

    High northern latitude forests, particularly those in the taiga-tundra ecotone (TTE), lie at the leading edge of climate change. The structure of these forests contribute to climate feedbacks by modifying surface albedo and above- and below-ground carbon storage. These modifications are associated with vertical and horizontal forest characteristics such as tree height and canopy cover. These characteristics are changing unevenly throughout the TTE, and the degree to which forests are vulnerable to such changes varies, in part, according to whether the primary drivers of their response are controlled by site-scale factors or climate. Observing spatial variations in TTE forest structure is difficult given the uncertainties associated with spaceborne measurements of sparse forests. Global-scale spaceborne observations of these forests tend to overestimate sparse tree cover. This overestimation increases the uncertainty in the patterns of forests that may reflect critical site-scale controls of its structure, its vulnerability to change and the potential for climate feedbacks. The key to improving prediction of feedbacks between TTE forests and climate may be linked to how well we understand the fine-scale patterns of heterogeneous TTE forest structure. We examine the spaceborne potential for delineating fine-scale (< 2m) forest structure (height and cover) in sparse forests in the TTE. We apply automated digital stereo-photogrammetry to high resolution spaceborne images. This processing allows us to combine surface elevation models and multispectral data at forested study sites to extract detailed vertical and horizontal forest structure characteristics. With this data, we can validate coarser (~30m) global tree cover data, model forest structure characteristics and patterns, and use these patterns to examine the differences in the vulnerability of TTE forest structure at multiple scales across the circumpolar domain.

  20. Can the functional stability of forest ecosystems be evaluated from the spatial analysis of stands? A case study from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)

    Treesearch

    Andrzej Bobiec

    2000-01-01

    Variability of external and internal factors entails specific spatial patterns and functional dynamics of communities. The study of the oak-lime-hornbeam (Quercus robur-Tilia cordata-Carpimus) forest in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest supports the concept of silvatic unit, determining the minimal structural area. To find out if the dynamics of a stand...

  1. Development of spatial database on intact forest landscapes of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Singh, Jyoti; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased interest in identifying the status of biodiversity in different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of the current research is to prepare a consistent spatial database of intact forest landscapes of India. The intact forest landscapes are located in the Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats and Sunderbans. At national level 237 forest landscapes and 5.4% of the total natural forest remained as intact in India. Current intact forest landscapes of India consists of blocks larger than 10 km2 covering an area of 34,061 km2. Of the total area under intact forest landscapes, Eastern Himalayas represent 76.7% of the area, followed by Western Himalayas (8.8%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (6.2%) and Western Ghats (5.7%). The largest intact forest landscape block occupies an area of 3342.9 km2 (9.8%) is found in western Arunachal Pradesh. Temperate forest zone represents the highest intactness (56.6%), followed by subtropical zone (19.2%), tropical zone (18.6%) and alpine zone (5.6%). Himalayan moist temperate forests represent the highest area (39.1%) of intact forest landscapes followed by subtropical broad-leaved hill forests, wet evergreen forests, and montane wet temperate forests. It is estimated that 4.4% of the area of intact forest landscapes fall inside the existing 47 protected areas. The results of the analysis best suited as input for the process of identification of new protected areas. The study recommends fine-scale mapping of biodiversity within the intact forest landscapes and to prepare efficient conservation plans.

  2. Lithologic, structural, and geomorphic controls on ribbon forest patterns in a glaciated mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, David R.; Malanson, George P.; Bekker, Matthew F.; Resler, Lynn M.

    2003-09-01

    So-called "ribbon forests" have been attributed to snowdrift patterns and fire history without reference to geomorphology [Vegetatio 19 (1969) 192.]. This paper illustrates how site conditions of geomorphology and geology explain the origin of ribbon forests. In Glacier National Park, MT (USA), regional tectonic uplift associated with the Laramide Orogeny produced structural features that amplify lithologic differences. Pleistocene glaciation scoured deeply along the strike of bedding planes, highlighting this pattern and in some cases producing fine-scale parallel finger lakes between forested ribbon strips. Twelve ribbon forest sites on both sides of the Continental Divide were closely studied on stereoscopic aerial photographs, and several of these sites were examined in the field or from helicopter overflights. In all cases, geologic and geomorphic conditions explain the location and distribution of the ribbon forests. Change-detection of the distribution of trees versus nontree-covered surfaces in an area of ribbon forest on Flattop Mountain, a complex uplifted synclinal structure, was undertaken using panchromatic, low-altitude aerial photographs from 1966 to 1991. Areas changed from forest to meadow and from meadow to forest in roughly equal amounts in a generally random spatial pattern. No evidence was seen to suggest that the creation of one ribbon eventually created another downwind, as suggested by Billings. Aerial photograph interpretation, field examination and soils analyses of forest ribbons and adjacent unforested meadows clearly illustrated that trees occupy higher, parallel to subparallel, well-drained sites where the spatial pattern is in turn a distinct reflection of the spatial pattern of structure and stratigraphy. Meadows occupy topographically lower positions between ridges where erosion along bedding plane strike was concentrated. Topography sets conditions that allow tree growth in certain locations while precluding it in immediately

  3. Spatial and topographic trends in forest expansion and biomass change, from regional to local scales.

    PubMed

    Buma, Brian; Barrett, Tara M

    2015-09-01

    Natural forest growth and expansion are important carbon sequestration processes globally. Climate change is likely to increase forest growth in some regions via CO2 fertilization, increased temperatures, and altered precipitation; however, altered disturbance regimes and climate stress (e.g. drought) will act to reduce carbon stocks in forests as well. Observations of asynchrony in forest change is useful in determining current trends in forest carbon stocks, both in terms of forest density (e.g. Mg ha(-1) ) and spatially (extent and location). Monitoring change in natural (unmanaged) areas is particularly useful, as while afforestation and recovery from historic land use are currently large carbon sinks, the long-term viability of those sinks depends on climate change and disturbance dynamics at their particular location. We utilize a large, unmanaged biome (>135 000 km(2) ) which spans a broad latitudinal gradient to explore how variation in location affects forest density and spatial patterning: the forests of the North American temperate rainforests in Alaska, which store >2.8 Pg C in biomass and soil, equivalent to >8% of the C in contiguous US forests. We demonstrate that the regional biome is shifting; gains exceed losses and are located in different spatio-topographic contexts. Forest gains are concentrated on northerly aspects, lower elevations, and higher latitudes, especially in sheltered areas, whereas loss is skewed toward southerly aspects and lower latitudes. Repeat plot-scale biomass data (n = 759) indicate that within-forest biomass gains outpace losses (live trees >12.7 cm diameter, 986 Gg yr(-1) ) on gentler slopes and in higher latitudes. This work demonstrates that while temperate rainforest dynamics occur at fine spatial scales (<1000 m(2) ), the net result of thousands of individual events is regionally patterned change. Correlations between the disturbance/establishment imbalance and biomass accumulation suggest the potential for relatively

  4. Spatial complementarity of forests and farms: accounting for ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; David T. Butry

    2006-01-01

    Our article considers the economic contributions of forest ecosystem services, using a case study from Flores, Indonesia, in which forest protection in upstream watersheds stabilize soil and hydrological flows in downstream farms. We focus on the demand for a weak complement to the ecosystem services--farm labor-- and account for spatial dependence due to economic...

  5. Perspectives of Spatial Scale in a Wildland Forest Epidemic

    Treesearch

    W.W. Dillon; S.E. Haas; D.M. Rizzo; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of observing interactions between plant pathogens, their hosts, and environmental heterogeneity across multiple spatial scales commonly limits our ability to understand and manage wildland forest epidemics. Using the forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum as a case study, we established 20 multiscale field sites to analyze how host-...

  6. A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning.

    Treesearch

    Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette; K. Norman Johnson; Thomas A. Spies

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian...

  7. A spatially explicit estimate of avoided forest loss.

    PubMed

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Ramírez, M Isabel

    2011-10-01

    With the potential expansion of forest conservation programs spurred by climate-change agreements, there is a need to measure the extent to which such programs achieve their intended results. Conventional methods for evaluating conservation impact tend to be biased because they do not compare like areas or account for spatial relations. We assessed the effect of a conservation initiative that combined designation of protected areas with payments for environmental services to conserve over wintering habitat for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. To do so, we used a spatial-matching estimator that matches covariates among polygons and their neighbors. We measured avoided forest loss (avoided disturbance and deforestation) by comparing forest cover on protected and unprotected lands that were similar in terms of accessibility, governance, and forest type. Whereas conventional estimates of avoided forest loss suggest that conservation initiatives did not protect forest cover, we found evidence that the conservation measures are preserving forest cover. We found that the conservation measures protected between 200 ha and 710 ha (3-16%) of forest that is high-quality habitat for monarch butterflies, but had a smaller effect on total forest cover, preserving between 0 ha and 200 ha (0-2.5%) of forest with canopy cover >70%. We suggest that future estimates of avoided forest loss be analyzed spatially to account for how forest loss occurs across the landscape. Given the forthcoming demand from donors and carbon financiers for estimates of avoided forest loss, we anticipate our methods and results will contribute to future studies that estimate the outcome of conservation efforts.

  8. Spatial Patterns of Trees from Airborne LiDAR Using a Simple Tree Segmentation Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeronimo, S.; Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Franklin, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives for management of forest ecosystems on public land incorporate a focus on maintenance and restoration of ecological functions through silvicultural manipulation of forest structure. The spatial pattern of residual trees - the horizontal element of structure - is a key component of ecological restoration prescriptions. We tested the ability of a simple LiDAR individual tree segmentation method - the watershed transform - to generate spatial pattern metrics similar to those obtained by the traditional method - ground-based stem mapping - on forested plots representing the structural diversity of a large wilderness area (Yosemite NP) and a large managed area (Sierra NF) in the Sierra Nevada, Calif. Most understory and intermediate-canopy trees were not detected by the LiDAR segmentation; however, LiDAR- and field-based assessments of spatial pattern in terms of tree clump size distributions largely agreed. This suggests that (1) even when individual tree segmentation is not effective for tree density estimates, it can provide a good measurement of tree spatial pattern, and (2) a simple segmentation method is adequate to measure spatial pattern of large areas with a diversity of structural characteristics. These results lay the groundwork for a LiDAR tool to assess clumping patterns across forest landscapes in support of restoration silviculture. This tool could describe spatial patterns of functionally intact reference ecosystems, measure departure from reference targets in treatment areas, and, with successive acquisitions, monitor treatment efficacy.

  9. Linking linear programming and spatial simulation models to predict landscape effects of forest management alternatives.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Eric J; Roberts, L Jay; Leefers, Larry A

    2006-12-01

    Forest management planners require analytical tools to assess the effects of alternative strategies on the sometimes disparate benefits from forests such as timber production and wildlife habitat. We assessed the spatial patterns of alternative management strategies by linking two models that were developed for different purposes. We used a linear programming model (Spectrum) to optimize timber harvest schedules, then a simulation model (HARVEST) to project those schedules in a spatially explicit way and produce maps from which the spatial pattern of habitat could be calculated. We demonstrated the power of this approach by evaluating alternative plans developed for a national forest plan revision in Wisconsin, USA. The amount of forest interior habitat was inversely related to the amount of timber cut, and increased under the alternatives compared to the current plan. The amount of edge habitat was positively related to the amount of timber cut, and increased under all alternatives. The amount of mature northern hardwood interior and edge habitat increased for all alternatives, but mature pine habitat area varied. Mature age classes of all forest types increased, and young classes decreased under all alternatives. The average size of patches (defined by age class) generally decreased. These results are consistent with the design goals of each of the alternatives, but reveal that the spatial differences among the alternatives are modest. These complementary models are valuable for quantifying and comparing the spatial effects of alternative management strategies.

  10. Mapping spatial distribution of forest age in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yao, Yitong; Wang, Xuhui; Liu, Yongwen; Piao, Shilong

    2017-03-01

    Forest stand age is a meaningful metric, which reflects the past disturbance legacy, provides guidelines for forest management practices, and is an important factor in qualifying forest carbon cycles and carbon sequestration potential. Reliable large-scale forest stand age information with high spatial resolutions, however, is difficult to obtain. In this study, we developed a top-down method to downscale the provincial statistics of national forest inventory data into 1 km stand age map using climate data and light detection and ranging-derived forest height. We find that the distribution of forest stand age in China is highly heterogeneous across the country, with a mean value of 42.6 years old. The relatively young stand age for Chinese forests is mostly due to the large proportion of newly planted forests (0-40 years old), which are more prevailing in south China. Older forests (stand age > 60 years old) are more frequently found in east Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the central mountain areas of west and northeast China, where human activities are less intensive. Among the 15 forest types, forests dominated by species of Taxodiaceae, with the exception of Cunninghamia lanceolata stands, have the oldest mean stand age (136 years), whereas Pinus massoniana forests are the youngest (18 years). We further identified uncertainties associated with our forest age map, which are high in west and northeast China. Our work documents the distribution of forest stand age in China at a high resolution which is useful for carbon cycle modeling and the sustainable use of China's forest resources.

  11. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  12. Abiotic and biotic controls of spatial pattern at alpine treeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Xiao, Ningchuan; Alftine, K.J.; Bekker, Mathew; Butler, David R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Cairns, David M.; Fagre, Daniel; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    At alpine treeline, trees and krummholz forms affect the environment in ways that increase their growth and reproduction. We assess the way in which these positive feedbacks combine in spatial patterns to alter the environment in the neighborhood of existing plants. The research is significant because areas of alpine tundra are susceptible to encroachment by woody species as climate changes. Moreover, understanding the general processes of plant invasion is important. The importance of spatial pattern has been recognized, but the spatial pattern of positive feedbacks per se has not been explored in depth. We present a linked set of models of vegetation change at an alpine forest-tundra ecotone. Our aim is to create models that are as simple as possible in order to test specific hypotheses. We present results from a model of the resource averaging hypothesis and the positive feedback switch hypothesis of treelines. We compare the patterns generated by the models to patterns observed in fine scale remotely sensed data.

  13. Spatial patterns of modern period human-caused fire occurrence in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Jian Yang; Hong S. Healy; Stephen R. Shifley; Eric J. Gustafson

    2007-01-01

    The spatial pattern of forest fire locations is important in the study of the dynamics of fire disturbance. In this article we used a spatial point process modeling approach to quantitatively study the effects of land cover, topography, roads, municipalities, ownership, and population density on fire occurrence reported between 1970 and 2002 in the Missouri Ozark...

  14. Investigating the Spatial Characteristics of Forest Fire in North Korea using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RI, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Forest fires cause billions of dollar damage to property and the environment in the world every year. In North Korea (NK) forest fire occurred frequently in the entire region with the exception of the western plains and massive forest fires broke out throughout NK in May 2004. Furthermore, few researches focused on NK forest fire because of data unavailability and inaccessibility to the region. Operational fire monitoring over large areas can be approached through satellite remote sensing (RS). Thus, it is necessary to investigate the area damaged by forest fire and get information of damaged area for restoration of forest in NK after reunification. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the location of forest fire and to estimate the damaged area by forest fire and finally to detect the landscape change after forest fire in Gangwon and South Hamgyong Province, NK using satellite RS data. In this study, we will investigate the area damaged by forest fire and investigate the spatial characteristics of forest fire in Gangwon and South Hamgyong Province using RS. Landsat data from USGS Were preprocessed (band composition), NBR and dNBR are calculated for figuring out the burned area and investigating the burn severity (BS) in burned area. NBR and dNBR (differenced NBR) are mostly useful to estimate BS by forest fires damage from RS data. The dNBR was then calculated by subtracting the post-fire NBR from the pre-fire NBR: The burned area from Landsat data processing were stored in GIS database to be retrieved and analyzed to figure out the chronological change pattern of forest fire damaged area. Finally, the spatiotemporal characteristics of forest fire in NK were analyzed and discussed to provide the information for restoring forest fire damaged area after reunification.

  15. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  16. [Prediction of spatial distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province using spatial error model].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng-Ri; Zhen, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract: Based on the data from Chinese National Forest Inventory (CNFI) and Key Ecological Benefit Forest Monitoring plots (5075 in total) in Heilongjiang Province in 2010 and concurrent meteorological data coming from 59 meteorological stations located in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Inner Mongolia, this paper established a spatial error model (SEM) by GeoDA using carbon storage as dependent variable and several independent variables, including diameter of living trees (DBH), number of trees per hectare (TPH), elevation (Elev), slope (Slope), and product of precipitation and temperature (Rain_Temp). Global Moran's I was computed for describing overall spatial autocorrelations of model results at different spatial scales. Local Moran's I was calculated at the optimal bandwidth (25 km) to present spatial distribution residuals. Intra-block spatial variances were computed to explain spatial heterogeneity of residuals. Finally, a spatial distribution map of carbon storage in Heilongjiang was visualized based on predictions. The results showed that the distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang had spatial effect and was significantly influenced by stand, topographic and meteorological factors, especially average DBH. SEM could solve the spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity well. There were significant spatial differences in distribution of forest carbon storage. The carbon storage was mainly distributed in Zhangguangcai Mountain, Xiao Xing'an Mountain and Da Xing'an Mountain where dense, forests existed, rarely distributed in Songnen Plains, while Wanda Mountain had moderate-level carbon storage.

  17. LANDIS 4.0 users guide. LANDIS: a spatially explicit model of forest landscape disturbance, management, and succession

    Treesearch

    Hong S. He; Wei Li; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jian Yang; Bo Z. Shang; Eric J. Gustafson; David J. Mladenoff

    2005-01-01

    LANDIS 4.0 is new-generation software that simulates forest landscape change over large spatial and temporal scales. It is used to explore how disturbances, succession, and management interact to determine forest composition and pattern. Also describes software architecture, model assumptions and provides detailed instructions on the use of the model.

  18. A Bio-Inspired Spatial Patterning Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J.; Shealy, James B.; Land, Bruce R.; Shen, Xiling

    2015-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical. PMID:25569903

  19. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-02-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0-60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0-60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests.

  20. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0–60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0–60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests. PMID:28195207

  1. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-02-14

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0-60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0-60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests.

  2. Seasonal and topographic patterns of forest floor CO(2) efflux from an upland oak forest.

    PubMed

    Hanson, P J; Wullschleger, S D; Bohlman, S A; Todd, D E

    1993-07-01

    Forest floor CO(2) efflux (FF(cer)) is an important component of global carbon budgets, but the spatial variability of forest floor respiration within a forest type is not well documented. Measurements of FF(cer) were initiated in mid-March of 1991 and continued at biweekly to monthly intervals until mid-November. Observations were made at 45 sites along topographic gradients of the Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee including northeast and southwest facing slopes, valley-bottoms, and exposed ridge-top locations. The FF(cer) measurements were made with a portable gas-exchange system, and all observations were accompanied by soil temperature and soil water content measurements. As expected, FF(cer) exhibited a distinct seasonal trend following patterns of soil temperature, but soil water content and the volume percent of the soil's coarse fraction were also correlated with observed rates. Over the entire measurement period, FF(cer) ranged from a typical minimum of 0.8 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) to an average maximum near 5.7 micro mol m(-2) s(-1). No significant differences in FF(cer) were observed among the ridge-top and slope positions, but FF(cer) in the valley-bottom locations was lower on several occasions. An empirical model of FF(cer) based on these observations is suggested for application to whole-stand estimates of forest carbon sequestration.

  3. Forest Classification Accuracy as Influenced by Multispectral Scanner Spatial Resolution. [Sam Houston National Forest, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A supervised classification within two separate ground areas of the Sam Houston National Forest was carried out for two sq meters spatial resolution MSS data. Data were progressively coarsened to simulate five additional cases of spatial resolution ranging up to 64 sq meters. Similar processing and analysis of all spatial resolutions enabled evaluations of the effect of spatial resolution on classification accuracy for various levels of detail and the effects on area proportion estimation for very general forest features. For very coarse resolutions, a subset of spectral channels which simulated the proposed thematic mapper channels was used to study classification accuracy.

  4. Chaotic Pattern Dynamics in Spatially Ramped Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, R. J.; Ashbaker, E.; Olsen, T.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2003-11-01

    In previous experiments(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997)., Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry has demonstrated a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics. A spatial ramp exists in the Reynolds number. For low reduced Reynolds numbesr \\varepsilon, supercritical vortex flow occurs between regions of subcritical structureless flow with soft boundaries that allow for pattern dynamics. At \\varepsilon ≈ 0.5, the pattern exhibits phase slips that occur irregularly in time. At \\varepsilon ≈ 1.0 the entire system is supercritical, and the pattern is stabilized against phase slips. At \\varepsilon > 15, shear flow creates a spatial ramp in turbulence. Remarkably, the phase slip instability reoccurs. Vortex pairs are created chaotically, possibly due to the spatial variation of the turbulence. The variance and Fourier spectra of time series of light scattered off Kalliroscope tracer were measured. These indicate that a region of turbulence exists, within which phase slips occur, bounded by regions of laminar flow which may provide soft boundaries that allow for the phase dynamics. Despite the presence of turbulence, the dynamics might be describable by a phase equation.

  5. A spatially explicit reconstruction of forest cover in China over 1700-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fanneng; Li, Shicheng; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-08-01

    The spatially explicit reconstruction of historical forest plays an important role in understanding human modifications of land surfaces and its environmental effects. Based on an analysis of the forest change history of China, we devised a reconstruction method for the historical forest cover in China. The core idea of the method is that the lands with high suitability for cultivation will be cultivated and deforested first, spreading to marginal lands with lower suitability for cultivation. By determining the possible maximum distribution extent of the forest, as well as devising the land suitability for cultivation assessment model and provincial forest area allocation model, we created 10 km forest cover maps of China for the years 1700 to 2000 with 10 year intervals. By comparison with satellite-based data in 2000, we found that the grids within 25% differences account for as much as 66.07% of all grids. The comparison with the historical documents-based data in northeast China indicated that the number of counties within 30% relative differences is 99, accounting for 74.44% of all counties. Therefore, the forest area allocation model we devised can accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of historical forest cover in China. Our reconstruction indicates that from 1700 to the 1960s, the deforestation mainly occurred in southwest China, the hilly regions of south China, the southeast of Gansu province, and northeast China; from the 1960s to 2000, the reforestation occurred in most traditional forested regions of China, particularly in the Tibet Plateau, hilly regions of south China and the Greater Khingan Mountains. The spatially explicit forest cover data sets we reconstructed can be used in global or regional climatic models to study the impact of land cover change on climate change.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  7. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Treesearch

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  8. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Morrissey, Michael B; Diamond, Sarah E; DiBattista, Joseph D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2013-11-01

    Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data set includes 60 studies, consisting of 3937 estimates of selection across an average of five populations. We performed meta-analyses to explore features characterising spatial variation in directional selection. We found that selection tends to vary mainly in strength and less in direction among populations. Although differences in the direction of selection occur among populations they do so where selection is often weakest, which may limit the potential for ongoing adaptive population divergence. Overall, we also found that spatial variation in selection appears comparable to temporal (annual) variation in selection within populations; however, several deficiencies in available data currently complicate this comparison. We discuss future research needs to further advance our understanding of spatial variation in selection.

  9. Historical forest patterns of Oregon's central Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, W.J.; Hershey, K.T.; Anthony, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the composition and pattern of unmanaged forestland in Oregon's central Coast Range, we analyzed forest conditions from a random sample of 18 prelogging (1949 and earlier) landscapes. We also compared the amount and variability of old forest (conifer-dominated stands > 53 cm dbh) in the prelogging landscapes with that in the current landscapes. Sixty-three percent of the prelogging landscape comprised old forest, approximately 21% of which also had a significant (> 20% cover) hardwood component. The proportions of forest types across the 18 prelogging landscapes varied greatly for both early seral stages (cv = 81194) and hardwoods (cv = 127) and moderately for old forest (cv = 39). With increasing distance from streams, the amount of hardwoods and nonforest decreased, whereas the amount of seedling/sapling/pole and young conifers increased. The amount of old forest was significantly greater (p < 0.002) in prelogging forests than in current landscapes. Old-forest patterns also differed significantly (p < 0.015) between prelogging and current landscapes; patch density, coefficient of variation of patch size, edge density, and fragmentation were greater in current landscapes and mean patch size, largest patch size, and core habitat were greater in prelogging forests. Generally, old-forest landscape pattern variables showed a greater range in prelogging landscapes than in current landscapes. Management strategies designed to increase the amount of old forest and the range in landscape patterns would result in a landscape more closely resembling that found prior to intensive logging. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Mitigation benefits of forestation greatly varies on short spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, Dan; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatin, Shani; Ramati, Efrat; Asaf, David; Dicken, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of global warming by forestation is controversial because of its linkage to increasing surface energy load and associated surface warming. Such tradeoffs between cooling associated with carbon sequestration and warming associated with radiative effects have been considered predominantly on large spatial scales, indicating benefits of forestation mainly in the tropics but not in the boreal regions. Using mobile laboratory for measuring CO2, water and energy flux in forest and non-forest ecosystem along the climatic gradient in Israel over three years, we show that the balance between cooling and warming effects of forestation can be transformed across small spatial scale. While converting shrubland to pine forest in a semi-arid site (280 mm annual precipitations) requires several decades of carbon sequestration to balance the radiative warming effects, similar land use change under moist Mediterranean conditions (780 mm annual precipitation) just ~200 km away showed reversal of this balance. Specifically, the results indicated that in the study region (semi-arid to humid Mediterranean), net absorb radiation in pine forests is always larger than in open space ecosystems, resulting in surface warming effects (the so-called albedo effect). Similarly, depression of thermal radiation emission, mainly due canopy skin surface cooling associated with the 'convector effect' in forests compared with shrubland ecosystems also appears in all sites. But both effects decrease by about 1/2 in going from the semi-arid to the humid Mediterranean sites, while enhanced productivity of forest compared to grassland increase about fourfold. The results indicate a greater potential for forestation as climate change mitigation strategy than previously assumed.

  11. Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Creer, David J.; Romberg, Carola; Saksida, Lisa M.; van Praag, Henriette; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular exercise improves brain health and promotes synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise improves learning, but specific mechanisms of information processing influenced by physical activity are unknown. Here, we report that voluntary running enhanced the ability of adult (3 months old) male C57BL/6 mice to discriminate between the locations of two adjacent identical stimuli. Improved spatial pattern separation in adult runners was tightly correlated with increased neurogenesis. In contrast, very aged (22 months old) mice had impaired spatial discrimination and low basal cell genesis that was refractory to running. These findings suggest that the addition of newly born neurons may bolster dentate gyrus-mediated encoding of fine spatial distinctions. PMID:20133882

  12. Spatial interference encoding patterns based photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiri, Amihai; Strohm, Eric M.; Kolios, Michael C.; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-10-01

    Single sensor (pixel) signals require scanning of the sample in order to obtain spatial information. In this paper we show that using interference, optically induced signals can be reconstructed when recorded using interference pattern excitation, rather than a point illumination. This method reduces the need for dense scanning and requires a small number of scans, or can eliminate the need for scanning in some cases. It is shown that this method can be used in particular in 2D photo-acoustic imaging.

  13. Nonlinear ring resonator: spatial pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir Y.; Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Irochnikov, Nikita G.

    2000-03-01

    We consider theoretically spatial pattern formation processes in a unidirectional ring cavity with thin layer of Kerr-type nonlinear medium. Our method is based on studying of two coupled equations. The first is a partial differential equation for temporal dynamics of phase modulation of light wave in the medium. It describes nonlinear interaction in the Kerr-type lice. The second is a free propagation equation for the intracavity field complex amplitude. It involves diffraction effects of light wave in the cavity.

  14. Spatial dynamics of deforestation and forest fragmentation (1930-2013) in Eastern Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    The tropical forests are the most unique ecosystems for their potential economic value. Eastern Ghats, a phytogeographical region of India has rugged hilly terrain distributed in parts of five states, viz. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The present study is mainly aimed to analyse the trends in deforestation and its role in forest fragmentation of Eastern Ghats. The long term changes in forest cover with its spatial pattern over time has been assessed by analyzing a set of topographical maps and satellite remote sensing datasets. The multi-source and multi-date mapping has been carried out using survey of India topographical maps (1930's), Landsat MSS (1975 and 1985), IRS 1B LISS-I (1995), IRS P6 AWiFS (2005) and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS (2013) satellite images. The classified spatial data for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 showed that the forest cover for the mentioned years are 102213 km2 (45.6 %), 76630 (34.2 %), 73416 km2 (32.7 %), 71730 km2 (32 %), 71305 km2 (31.8 %) and 71186 km2 (31.7 %) of the geographical area of Eastern Ghats respectively. A spatial statistical analysis of the deforestation rates and forest cover change were carried out based on distinctive time phases, i.e. 1930-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The spatial analysis was carried out first by segmenting the study area into grid cells of 5 km x 5 km for time series assessment and determining spatial changes in forests. The distribution of loss and gain of forest was calculated across six classes i.e. <1 km2, 1-5 km2, 5-10 km2, 10-15 km2, 15-20 km2 and >20 km2. Landscape metrics were used to quantify spatial variability of landscape structure and composition. The results of study on net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.64 during 1935 to 1975, 0.43 during 1975-1985, 0.23 during 1985-1995, 0.06 during 1995-2005 and 0.02 during 2005-2013. The number of forest patches increased from 2688 (1930) to 13009 (2013). The largest forest patch in

  15. Model Analysis of Spatial Patterns in Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Logan; White; Bentz; Powell

    1998-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle [MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)] is an aggressive bark beetle, one that typically needs to kill host trees in order to successfully reproduce. This ecological adaptation has resulted in an organism that is both economically important and ecologically significant. Even though significant resources have been expended on MPB research, and a great deal of knowledge exists regarding individual aspects of MPB ecology, some of the most basic questions regarding outbreaks remain unanswered. In our opinion, one reason for the lack of synthesis and predictive power is the inadequate treatment of spatial dynamics in outbreak theories. This paper explicitly addresses the role of spatial dynamics in the precipitation and propagation of MPB outbreaks. We first describe a spatially dynamic model of the MPB/forest interaction that includes chemical ecology, spatial redistribution of beetles, attack, and resulting host mortality. The model is a system of 6 coupled, partial differential equations with 7 state variables and 20 parameters. It represents an attempt to capture the relatively complex predator/prey interaction between MPB and host trees by including the minimum phenomenological descriptions necessary for ecological credibility. This system of equations describes the temporal dynamics of: beetle attraction as a function of pheromone concentration; the change in numbers of flying and nesting beetles; tree resistance/susceptibility; and tree recovery from attack. Spatial dynamics are modeled by fluxes due to gradients in pheromones and kairomones, and the random redistribution of beetles in absence of semiochemicals. We then use the parameterized model to explore three issues central to the ecology of MPB/forest interaction. The first of these is in response to the need for objective ways to compare patterns of successful beetle attacks as they evolve in space. Simulation results indicate that at endemic levels, the

  16. Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Imagery to Map Forest Burn Severity Across Spatial Scales in a Pine Barrens Ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Ran; Wu, Jin; Schwager, Kathy L.; Zhao, Feng; Dennison, Philip E.; Cook, Bruce D.; Brewster, Kristen; Green, Timothy M.; Serbin, Shawn P.

    2017-01-01

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences local processes and services of forest ecosystems. Although a variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to Landsat mission imagery to infer burn severity at 30 m spatial resolution, forest burn severity have still been seldom assessed at fine spatial scales (less than or equal to 5 m) from very-high-resolution (VHR) data. We assessed a 432 ha forest fire that occurred in April 2012 on Long Island, New York, within the Pine Barrens region, a unique but imperiled fire-dependent ecosystem in the northeastern United States. The mapping of forest burn severity was explored here at fine spatial scales, for the first time using remotely sensed spectral indices and a set of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) fraction images from bi-temporal - pre- and post-fire event - WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery at 2 m spatial resolution. We first evaluated our approach using 1 m by 1 m validation points at the sub-crown scale per severity class (i.e. unburned, low, moderate, and high severity) from the post-fire 0.10 m color aerial ortho-photos; then, we validated the burn severity mapping of geo-referenced dominant tree crowns (crown scale) and 15 m by 15 m fixed-area plots (inter-crown scale) with the post-fire 0.10 m aerial ortho-photos and measured crown information of twenty forest inventory plots. Our approach can accurately assess forest burn severity at the sub-crown (overall accuracy is 84% with a Kappa value of 0.77), crown (overall accuracy is 82% with a Kappa value of 0.76), and inter-crown scales (89% of the variation in estimated burn severity ratings (i.e. Geo-Composite Burn Index (CBI)). This work highlights that forest burn severity mapping from VHR data can capture heterogeneous fire patterns at fine spatial scales over the large spatial extents. This is important since most ecological processes associated with fire effects vary at the less than 30 m scale and

  17. Using high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map forest burn severity across spatial scales in a Pine Barrens ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Ran; Wu, Jin; Schwager, Kathy L.; ...

    2017-01-21

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences local processes and services of forest ecosystems. Although a variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to Landsat mission imagery to infer burn severity at 30 m spatial resolution, forest burn severity have still been seldom assessed at fine spatial scales (≤ 5 m) from very-high-resolution (VHR) data. Here we assessed a 432 ha forest fire that occurred in April 2012 on Long Island, New York, within the Pine Barrens region, a unique but imperiled fire-dependent ecosystem in the northeastern United States. The mapping of forest burn severitymore » was explored here at fine spatial scales, for the first time using remotely sensed spectral indices and a set of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) fraction images from bi-temporal — pre- and post-fire event — WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery at 2 m spatial resolution. We first evaluated our approach using 1 m by 1 m validation points at the sub-crown scale per severity class (i.e. unburned, low, moderate, and high severity) from the post-fire 0.10 m color aerial ortho-photos; then, we validated the burn severity mapping of geo-referenced dominant tree crowns (crown scale) and 15 m by 15 m fixed-area plots (inter-crown scale) with the post-fire 0.10 m aerial ortho-photos and measured crown information of twenty forest inventory plots. Our approach can accurately assess forest burn severity at the sub-crown (overall accuracy is 84% with a Kappa value of 0.77), crown (overall accuracy is 82% with a Kappa value of 0.76), and inter-crown scales (89% of the variation in estimated burn severity ratings (i.e. Geo-Composite Burn Index (CBI)). Lastly, this work highlights that forest burn severity mapping from VHR data can capture heterogeneous fire patterns at fine spatial scales over the large spatial extents. This is important since most ecological processes associated with fire effects vary at the < 30 m scale and

  18. The Spatial Distribution of Forest Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon: A Comparison of Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.; Lawrence, J. L.; Hackler, J. L.; Brown, S.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of carbon released to the atmosphere as a result of deforestation is determined, in part, by the amount of carbon held in the biomass of the forests converted to other uses. Uncertainty in forest biomass is responsible for much of the uncertainty in current estimates of the flux of carbon from land-use change. We compared several estimates of forest biomass for the Brazilian Amazon, based on spatial interpolations of direct measurements, relationships to climatic variables, and remote sensing data. We asked three questions. First, do the methods yield similar estimates? Second, do they yield similar spatial patterns of distribution of biomass? And, third, what factors need most attention if we are to predict more accurately the distribution of forest biomass over large areas? Amazonian forests (including dead and below-ground biomass) vary by more than a factor of two, from a low of 39 PgC to a high of 93 PgC. Furthermore, the estimates disagree as to the regions of high and low biomass. The lack of agreement among estimates confirms the need for reliable determination of aboveground biomass over large areas. Potential methods include direct measurement of biomass through forest inventories with improved allometric regression equations, dynamic modeling of forest recovery following observed stand-replacing disturbances (the approach used in this research), and estimation of aboveground biomass from airborne or satellite-based instruments sensitive to the vertical structure plant canopies.

  19. A Spatial Landscape Model of Forest Patch Dynamics and Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    FOREL (a FOREst Landscape model) is an individual-based, multi-scale simulator of forest and climate dynamics. Rationale and design of the model are presented in relation to other forest patch models. Information on implementation of the model is also provided. Capabilities of the FOREL model are demonstrated for forest composition, structure and dynamics along climatic gradients. The model relies on a patch simulation approach that has been tested and developed by independent ecologists for more than three decades. Improvements made over the last decade to the simulation of climate effects on trees are incorporated in the landscape model. A single parameterization of the model is capable of simulating major shifts in forest composition and structure across broad climatic gradients. It is responsive along moisture gradients and temperature gradients. The landscape model is flexible and can be altered easily to test various assumptions about the effects of climate on trees, and the effects of spatial pattern on processes operating within and among forest stands. The spatial structure of the model makes interaction of patches possible. Interactions may include dispersal of propagules and competition for light. The model is a useful tool for projecting temporal climate change effects on forested sites, landscapes and regions.

  20. Landscape Metrics to Predict Soil Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillin, C. P.; McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S.; Prisley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent literature has advocated the application of hydropedology, or the integration of hydrology and pedology, to better understand hydrologic flowpaths and soil spatial heterogeneity in a landscape. Hydropedology can be used to describe soil units affected by distinct topography, geology, and hydrology. Such a method has not been applied to digital soil mapping in the context of spatial variations in hydrological and biogeochemical processes. The purpose of this study is to use field observations of soil morphology, geospatial information technology, and a multinomial logistic regression model to predict the distribution of five hydropedological units (HPUs) across a 41-hectare forested headwater catchment in New England. Each HPU reflects varying degrees of lateral flow influence on soil development. Ninety-six soil characterization pits were located throughout the watershed, and HPU type was identified at each pit based on the presence and thickness of genetic soil horizons. Digital terrain analysis was conducted using ArcGIS and SAGA software to compute topographic and landscape metrics. Results indicate that each HPU occurs under specific topographic settings that influence subsurface hydrologic conditions. Among the most important landscape metrics are distance from stream, distance from bedrock outcrop, upslope accumulated area, the topographic wetness index, the downslope index, and curvature. Our project is unique in that it delineates high resolution soil units using a process-based morphological approach rather than a traditional taxonomical method taken by conventional soil surveys. Hydropedological predictor models can be a valuable tool for informing forest and land management decisions, water quality planning, soil carbon accounting, and understanding subsurface hydrologic dynamics. They can also be readily calibrated for regions of differing geology, topography, and climate regimes.

  1. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riitters, K.; Wickham, J.; O'Neill, R.; Jones, B.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 ?? 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 ?? 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe - Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types) and Europe - Asia (four types), in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland). The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf. Copyright ?? 2000 by The Resilience Alliance.

  2. How Landscape Characteristics Influence Spatial Patterns of Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Zehe, E.; Blume, T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying transpiration in landscapes remains a challenging task. Especially bridging the gap between tree- or plot-scale measurements and information on the landscape scale which could be gathered from remote sensing, digital elevation models or forest inventories still poses considerable problems. These problems reach from errors associated with the measurements to the reliability of representing transpiration amounts by large-scale data. In this study we analyse spatial patterns of sap velocity to identify the importance of tree- or site-specific characteristics for transpiration at the landscape scale. We set up multiple linear regression models for a dataset of daily sap velocities for 61 trees at 24 locations in mixed beech and oak forests in a catchment in Luxemburg, recorded during the growing season of 2014. As predictors we use the tree-specific characteristics species, diameter and height and the site-specific characteristics basal area and number of stems for the respective stands as well as landscape attributes such as aspect, slope position and geology. Analysing the importance of these predictors could be useful for upscaling tree-based measurements to the landscape-scale based on data from digital elevation models, forest inventories or remote sensing. We also assess the temporal dynamics of the importance of tree- vs. site-specific predictors and link them to typical controls for sap flow such as atmospheric demand and soil moisture. First results indicate that site-specific predictors contribute considerably to the explained variance of the linear models. However, remotely sensed information explained very little of the variation in daily sap velocity patterns. Further analyses will quantify to which extent we can use the landscape-scale information from digital elevation models, geology and forest inventories to upscale tree-based transpiration estimates.

  3. Landscape Context and Regional Patterns in Arkansas' Forests

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Recent results from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surveys provided an opportunity to explore the spatial and temporal context for Arkansas’ forests, including associated range, recreation, water, and wildlife habitat resources. Noted were damage agents and multipurpose resource indicators: evidence of human-associated activities (...

  4. Complex Networks Unveiling Spatial Patterns in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsoglio, Stefania; Iacobello, Giovanni; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Numerical and experimental turbulence simulations are nowadays reaching the size of the so-called big data, thus requiring refined investigative tools for appropriate statistical analyses and data mining. We present a new approach based on the complex network theory, offering a powerful framework to explore complex systems with a huge number of interacting elements. Although interest in complex networks has been increasing in the past years, few recent studies have been applied to turbulence. We propose an investigation starting from a two-point correlation for the kinetic energy of a forced isotropic field numerically solved. Among all the metrics analyzed, the degree centrality is the most significant, suggesting the formation of spatial patterns which coherently move with similar vorticity over the large eddy turnover time scale. Pattern size can be quantified through a newly-introduced parameter (i.e. average physical distance) and varies from small to intermediate scales. The network analysis allows a systematic identification of different spatial regions, providing new insights into the spatial characterization of turbulent flows. Based on present findings, the application to highly inhomogeneous flows seems promising and deserves additional future investigation.

  5. Forest Resources Study in Mongolia Using Advanced Spatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsaikhan, D.; Saandar, M.; Battsengel, V.; Amarjargal, Sh.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a forest resources study using optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images. For this purpose, a forest-dominated site around the Lake Khuvsgul located in northern Mongolia is selected. As remote sensing (RS) data sources, panchromatic and multispectral Landsat 7 images as well as ALOS PALSAR L-band HH polarization data are used. To produce a reliable land cover map from the multisensor images, a novel refined maximum likelihood classification based on the spectral and spatial thresholds are applied and for the accuracy assessment an overall accuracy is used. Overall, the research demonstrates that advanced spatial technologies based on optical and microwave RS are reliable tools for different forest studies.

  6. Quantifying and mapping spatial variability in simulated forest plots

    Treesearch

    Gavin R. Corral; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    We used computer simulations to test the efficacy of multivariate statistical methods to detect, quantify, and map spatial variability of forest stands. Simulated stands were developed of regularly-spaced plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We assumed no affects of competition or mortality, but random variability was added to individual tree characteristics...

  7. Spatial resilience of forested landscapes under climate change and management

    Treesearch

    Melissa S. Lucash; Robert M. Scheller; Eric J. Gustafson; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    Context Resilience, the ability to recover from disturbance, has risen to the forefront of scientific policy, but is difficult to quantify, particularly in large, forested landscapes subject to disturbances, management, and climate change. Objectives Our objective was to determine which spatial drivers will control landscape...

  8. Induced spatial heterogeneity in forest canopies: responses of small mammals.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that creating a mosaic of interspersed patches of different densities of canopy trees in a second-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesiz) forest would accelerate development of biocomplexity (diversity in ecosystem structure, composition, and processes) by promoting spatial heterogeneity in understory, midstory, and canopy,...

  9. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water in two old-growth coniferous forests: quantifying patterns and controls.

    Treesearch

    J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; R. Coulombe

    2006-01-01

    We incorporated soil/plant biophysical properties into a simple model to predict seasonal trajectories of hydraulic redistribution (HR). We measured soil water content, water potential root conductivity, and climate across multiple years in two old-growth coniferous forests. The HR variability within sites (0 to 0.5 mm/d) was linked to spatial patterns of roots, soil...

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation.

  11. Spatially explicit forest characteristics of Europe through integrating Forest Inventory and Remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Adam; Neumann, Mathias; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Carbon stock estimates are critical for any carbon trading scheme or climate change mitigation strategy. Understanding the carbon allocation and the structure of its ecosystem further help scientists and policy makers develop realistic plans for utilizing these systems. Forests play an important role in global carbon storage. Therefore it is imperative to include forests in any climate change mitigation and/or carbon trading scheme. Currently there is no estimate of forest carbon stocks and allocation nor forest structure maps throughout Europe. We compiled National Forest Inventory (NFI) data from 12 European countries. We integrated the NFI data with Net Primary Production data (NPP) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), tree height data from Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, and various other spatially explicit data sets. Through this process of integration of terrestrial and space based data we produced wall-to-wall forest characteristics maps of Europe. These maps include forest age, basal area, average diameter at breast height, total carbon, carbon allocation (stem, branches, leaves, roots), and other characteristics derived from forest inventory data. These maps cover Europe - including countries without terrestrial data - and give one coherent harmonized data set of current forest structure and carbon storage on a 16x16km resolution. The methodology presented here has the potential to be used world-wide in regions with data limitations or with limited access to data.

  12. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION WITH CMAQ PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One indication of model performance is the comparison of spatial patterns of pollutants, either as concentration or deposition, predicted by the model with spatial patterns derived from measurements. If the spatial patterns produced by the model are similar to the observations i...

  13. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  14. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; R. O' Neill; B. Jones; E. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (...

  15. Global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengli; Guo, Qinghua; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-12-01

    Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes. Water availability, quantified by the difference between annual precipitation and annual potential evapotranspiration (P-PET), was the best predictor of global forest canopy height, which supports the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. However, in striking contrast with previous studies, the canopy height exhibited a hump-shaped curve along a gradient of P-PET: it initially increased, then peaked at approximately 680 mm of P-PET, and finally declined, which suggests that excessive water supply negatively affects the canopy height. This trend held true across continents and forest types, and it was also validated using forest inventory data from China and the United States. Our findings provide new insights into the climatic controls of the world's giant trees and have important implications for forest management and improvement of forest growth models.

  16. Spatial optimization of the pattern of fuel management activities and subsequent effects on simulated wildfires

    Treesearch

    Young-Hwan Kim; Pete Bettinger; Mark Finney

    2009-01-01

    Methods for scheduling forest management activities in a spatial pattern (dispersed, clumped, random, and regular) are presented, with the intent to examine the effects of placement of activities on resulting simulated wildfire behavior. Both operational and fuel reduction management prescriptions are examined, and a heuristic was employed to schedule the activities....

  17. Spatial patterns and processes for shifting cultivation landscape in Garo Hills, India.

    Treesearch

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; P.S. Roy

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed a few spatial patterns and processes of a shifting cultivation landscape in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in North East India, where about 85% of land belongs to native community. The landscape comprised 2459 km2 of land with forest cover and shifting cultivation patches over 69% and 7% area of landscape, respectively. The mean...

  18. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought Effects in a Heterogeneous Semi-Arid Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, T.; Anderson, P. J.; Sibold, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across genera in recent years in western North America. Understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers, given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985-2012) to determine changes in forest that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between vegetation indices and field measures, applied the index to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change, and assessed the interaction of climate on topography. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) had the strongest correlation with plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). During the study period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p < 0.05) negative trend in NDMI, compared to less than 10% in a positive trend. Trends were not consistent across forest type as a larger amount of coniferous forest was impacted by negative trends than deciduous forest. Southern aspects were least likely to exhibit a negative trend and north aspects were most prevalent. Field plots with a negative trend had a lower live density, and higher amounts of standing dead and down trees compared to plots with no trend. Our analysis identifies spatially explicit patterns of long-term trends anchored with ground based evidence to highlight areas of forest that are resistant, persistent and vulnerable to severe drought. The results provide a long-term perspective for the resource management of this area and can be applied to similar ecosystems throughout western North America.

  19. Measuring forest landscape patterns in the Cascade Range of Oregon, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.; Bradshaw, G. A.; Spies, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a set of spatial statistics to quantify the landscape pattern caused by the patchwork of clearcuts made over a 15-year period in the western Cascades of Oregon. Fifteen areas were selected at random to represent a diversity of landscape fragmentation patterns. Managed forest stands (patches) were digitized and analyzed to produce both tabular and mapped information describing patch size, shape, abundance and spacing, and matrix characteristics of a given area. In addition, a GIS fragmentation index was developed which was found to be sensitive to patch abundance and to the spatial distribution of patches. Use of the GIS-derived index provides an automated method of determining the level of forest fragmentation and can be used to facilitate spatial analysis of the landscape for later coordination with field and remotely sensed data. A comparison of the spatial statistics calculated for the two years indicates an increase in forest fragmentation as characterized by an increase in mean patch abundance and a decrease in interpatch distance, amount of interior natural forest habitat, and the GIS fragmentation index. Such statistics capable of quantifying patch shape and spatial distribution may prove important in the evaluation of the changing character of interior and edge habitats for wildlife.

  20. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  1. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  2. Effects of spatial habitat heterogeneity on habitat selection and annual fecundity for a migratory forest songbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornell, K.L.; Donovan, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how spatial habitat patterns influence abundance and dynamics of animal populations is a primary goal in landscape ecology. We used an information-theoretic approach to investigate the association between habitat patterns at multiple spatial scales and demographic patterns for black-throated blue warblers (Dendroica caerulescens) at 20 study sites in west-central Vermont, USA from 2002 to 2005. Sites were characterized by: (1) territory-scale shrub density, (2) patch-scale shrub density occurring within 25 ha of territories, and (3) landscape-scale habitat patterns occurring within 5 km radius extents of territories. We considered multiple population parameters including abundance, age ratios, and annual fecundity. Territory-scale shrub density was most important for determining abundance and age ratios, but landscape-scale habitat structure strongly influenced reproductive output. Sites with higher territory-scale shrub density had higher abundance, and were more likely to be occupied by older, more experienced individuals compared to sites with lower shrub density. However, annual fecundity was higher on sites located in contiguously forested landscapes where shrub density was lower than the fragmented sites. Further, effects of habitat pattern at one spatial scale depended on habitat conditions at different scales. For example, abundance increased with increasing territory-scale shrub density, but this effect was much stronger in fragmented landscapes than in contiguously forested landscapes. These results suggest that habitat pattern at different spatial scales affect demographic parameters in different ways, and that effects of habitat patterns at one spatial scale depends on habitat conditions at other scales. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Spatial Pattern of Attacks of the Invasive Woodwasp Sirex noctilio, at Landscape and Stand Scales.

    PubMed

    Lantschner, M Victoria; Corley, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Invasive insect pests are responsible for important damage to native and plantation forests, when population outbreaks occur. Understanding the spatial pattern of attacks by forest pest populations is essential to improve our understanding of insect population dynamics and for predicting attack risk by invasives or planning pest management strategies. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is an invasive woodwasp that has become probably the most important pest of pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Our aim was to study the spatial dynamics of S. noctilio populations in Southern Argentina. Specifically we describe: (1) the spatial patterns of S. noctilio outbreaks and their relation with environmental factors at a landscape scale; and (2) characterize the spatial pattern of attacked trees at the stand scale. We surveyed the spatial distribution of S. noctilio outbreaks in three pine plantation landscapes, and we assessed potential associations with topographic variables, habitat characteristics, and distance to other outbreaks. We also looked at the spatial distribution of attacked trees in 20 stands with different levels of infestation, and assessed the relationship of attacks with stand composition and management. We found that the spatial pattern of pine stands with S. noctilio outbreaks at the landscape scale is influenced mainly by the host species present, slope aspect, and distance to other outbreaks. At a stand scale, there is strong aggregation of attacked trees in stands with intermediate infestation levels, and the degree of attacks is influenced by host species and plantation management. We conclude that the pattern of S. noctilio damage at different spatial scales is influenced by a combination of both inherent population dynamics and the underlying patterns of environmental factors. Our results have important implications for the understanding and management of invasive insect outbreaks in forest systems.

  4. Spatial Pattern of Attacks of the Invasive Woodwasp Sirex noctilio, at Landscape and Stand Scales

    PubMed Central

    Lantschner, M. Victoria; Corley, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive insect pests are responsible for important damage to native and plantation forests, when population outbreaks occur. Understanding the spatial pattern of attacks by forest pest populations is essential to improve our understanding of insect population dynamics and for predicting attack risk by invasives or planning pest management strategies. The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is an invasive woodwasp that has become probably the most important pest of pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Our aim was to study the spatial dynamics of S. noctilio populations in Southern Argentina. Specifically we describe: (1) the spatial patterns of S. noctilio outbreaks and their relation with environmental factors at a landscape scale; and (2) characterize the spatial pattern of attacked trees at the stand scale. We surveyed the spatial distribution of S. noctilio outbreaks in three pine plantation landscapes, and we assessed potential associations with topographic variables, habitat characteristics, and distance to other outbreaks. We also looked at the spatial distribution of attacked trees in 20 stands with different levels of infestation, and assessed the relationship of attacks with stand composition and management. We found that the spatial pattern of pine stands with S. noctilio outbreaks at the landscape scale is influenced mainly by the host species present, slope aspect, and distance to other outbreaks. At a stand scale, there is strong aggregation of attacked trees in stands with intermediate infestation levels, and the degree of attacks is influenced by host species and plantation management. We conclude that the pattern of S. noctilio damage at different spatial scales is influenced by a combination of both inherent population dynamics and the underlying patterns of environmental factors. Our results have important implications for the understanding and management of invasive insect outbreaks in forest systems. PMID:25992640

  5. [Spatial distribution of human activities and their influences on landscape patterns in Daqingshan Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Hui; Meng, Li; Tian, Lü; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Yue-Hui; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Based on forest inventory data and field survey information, and by using GIS spatial analysis technique and landscape indices, this paper studied the spatial distribution of three categories of human activities (settlement, roads, and other sources of disturbances) and their impacts on landscape patterns in three sub-divided regions, i. e., the west, central and east regions of the Daqingshan Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia. Results showed that the impacts of human activities were stronger in the east and west regions and weaker in the central region. Among the three subdivided regions, the landscape pattern in the west region was predominantly affected by other sources of disturbances, making the landscape patterns of coniferous forests, broadleaf forests and shrubs tended to be of aggregated distribution; the central region was mainly affected by roads, resulting in reduced landscape patch aggregation of broadleaf forests and shrubs; the east region was mostly affected by settlement, resulting in increased fragmentation of coniferous forests and broadleaf forests and apparent increases in landscape patch aggregation of shrubs and grasslands.

  6. Spatial Configuration of Drought Disturbance and Forest Gap Creation across Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Margaret E.; Ruthrof, Katinka X.; Matusick, George; Hardy, Giles E. St. J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing the risk of drought to forested ecosystems. Although drought impacts are often anecdotally noted to occur in discrete patches of high canopy mortality, the landscape effects of drought disturbances have received virtually no study. This study characterized the landscape configuration of drought impact patches and investigated the relationships between patch characteristics, as indicators of drought impact intensity, and environmental gradients related to water availability to determine factors influencing drought vulnerability. Drought impact patches were delineated from aerial surveys following an extreme drought in 2011 in southwestern Australia, which led to patchy canopy dieback of the Northern Jarrah Forest, a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. On average, forest gaps produced by drought-induced dieback were moderate in size (6.6 ± 9.7 ha, max = 85.7 ha), compact in shape, and relatively isolated from each other at the scale of several kilometers. However, there was considerable spatial variation in the size, shape, and clustering of forest gaps. Drought impact patches were larger and more densely clustered in xeric areas, with significant relationships observed with topographic wetness index, meteorological variables, and stand height. Drought impact patch clustering was more strongly associated with the environmental factors assessed (R2 = 0.32) than was patch size (R2 = 0.21); variation in patch shape remained largely unexplained (R2 = 0.02). There is evidence that the xeric areas with more intense drought impacts are ‘chronic disturbance patches’ susceptible to recurrent drought disturbance. The spatial configuration of drought disturbances is likely to influence ecological processes including forest recovery and interacting disturbances such as fire. Regime shifts to an alternate, non-forested ecosystem may occur preferentially in areas with large or clustered drought impact patches. Improved understanding of drought impacts

  7. Tropical montane forest conversion affects spatial and temporal nitrogen dynamics in Kenyan headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Suzanne; Weeser, Björn; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Guzha, Alphonce; Rufino, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and land use change (LUC) are often stated as major contributors to changes in water quality, although other catchment characteristics such as topography, geology and climate can also play a role. Understanding how stream water chemistry is affected by LUC is essential for sustainable water management and land use planning. However, there is often a lack of reliable data, especially in less studied regions such as East Africa. This study focuses on three sub-catchments (27-36 km2) with different land use types (natural forest, smallholder agriculture and tea/tree plantations) nested in a 1023 km2 headwater catchment in the Mau Forest Complex, Kenya's largest closed-canopy indigenous tropical montane forest. In the past decades approx. 25% of the natural forest was lost due to land use change. We studied seasonal, diurnal and spatial patterns of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3-N) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) using a combination of high-resolution in-situ measurements, bi-weekly stream water samples and spatial sampling campaigns. Multiple linear regression analysis of the spatial data indicates that land use shows a strong influence on TDN and nitrate, while DON is more influenced by precipitation. Highest TDN and nitrate concentrations are found in tea plantations, followed by smallholder agriculture and natural forest. This ranking does not change throughout the year, though concentrations of TDN and nitrate are respectively 27.6 and 25.4% lower in all catchments during the dry season. Maximum Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) analysis of the high resolution nitrate data revealed a seasonal effect on diurnal patterns in the natural forest catchment, where the daily peak shifts from early morning in the wet season to mid-afternoon in the dry season. The smallholder and tea catchment do not exhibit clear diurnal patterns. The results suggest that land use affects dissolved nitrogen concentrations, leading to higher N

  8. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  9. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun-Wie; Pearce, David A.; Convey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes. We further consider the applicability of the concept of “functional redundancy” for the Antarctic microbial community and highlight the requirements for proper consideration of their important and distinctive roles in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26483777

  10. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-02

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) for GTP, and 2.14·10(-14) ± 0.11·10(-14) °C (kg yr(-1))(-1) for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Dynamics and pattern of a managed coniferous forest landscape in Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spies, Thomas A.; Ripple, William J.; Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the process of fragmentation in a managed forest landscape by comparing rates and patterns of disturbance (primarily clear-cutting) and regrowth between 1972 and 1988 using Landsat imagery. A 2589-km(exp 2) managed forest landscape in western Oregon was classified into two forest types, closed-canopy conifer forest (CF) (typically, greater than 60% conifer cover) and other forest and nonforest types (OT) (typically, less than 40 yr old or deciduous forest). The percentage of CF declined from 71 to 58% between 1972 and 1988. Declines were greatest on private land, least in wilderness, and intermediate in public nonwilderness. High elevations (greater than 914 m) maintained a greater percentage of CF than lower elevations (less than 914 m). The percentage of the area at the edge of the two cover types increased on all ownerships and in both elevational zones, whereas the amount of interior habitat (defined as CF at least 100 m from OT) decreased on all ownerships and elevational zones. By 1988 public lands contained approximately 45% interior habitat while private lands had 12% interior habitat. Mean interior patch area declined from 160 to 62 ha. The annual rate of disturbance (primarily clear-cutting) for the entire area including the wilderness was 1.19%, which corresponds to a cutting rotation of 84 yr. The forest landscape was not in a steady state or regulated condition which is not projected to occur for at least 40 yr under current forest plans. Variability in cutting rates within ownerships was higher on private land than on nonreserve public land. However, despite the use of dispersed cutting patterns on public land, spatial patterns of cutting and remnant forest patches were nonuniform across the entire public ownership. Large remaining patches (less than 5000 ha) of contiguous interior forest were restricted to public lands designated for uses other than timber production such as wilderness areas and research natural areas.

  13. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  14. Dynamic patterns of nitrogen: Phosphorus ratios in forest soils of China under changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leiyi; Li, Pin; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry is essential for understanding biogeochemical cycle and ecosystem functioning. However, large-scale patterns in soil stoichiometry are not yet fully understood along environmental gradients nor over the temporal scale. Using a comprehensive data set and artificial neural network approach, we evaluated spatial and temporal patterns in topsoil N and P concentrations and N:P ratio across China's forests. Our results revealed that soil weathering stage, climatic factors (i.e., temperature and precipitation), and forest types jointly explained approximately 34.1% and 30.4% of spatial variations in soil N and P, respectively. By contrast, only precipitation could explain the variation in N:P ratio, with soil N:P ratio exhibiting a trend of increase along the precipitation gradient. The observed spatial patterns in soil N:P ratio were consistent with previous findings derived from plants and microbes, suggesting that variation in precipitation may induce the imbalance of N:P stoichiometry in forest ecosystems. Our results also indicated that topsoil N:P ratios exhibited a significant increase from the 1980s to 2000s. However, the associations of N:P dynamics with a single element largely depended on forest type. In evergreen forests, soil N:P dynamics were caused by increasing N and decreasing P. Conversely, N:P changes in deciduous broadleaf forests were triggered only by soil N accumulation. Overall, these results demonstrated a stoichiometric shift in soil N:P both spatially and temporally, implying that nutrient imbalance between soil N and P may be accelerated under global change scenarios.

  15. Spatial variability of soils in a seasonally dry tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, Hebbalalu; Dattaraja, Handanakere; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Soil structures communities of plants and soil organisms in tropical forests. Understanding the controls of soil spatial variability can therefore potentially inform efforts towards forest restoration. We studied the relationship between soils and lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southern India. We extensively sampled soil (available nutrients, Al, pH, and moisture), rocks, relief, woody vegetation, and spatial variation in fire burn frequency in a permanent 50-ha plot. Lower elevation soils tended to be less moist and were depleted in several nutrients and clay. The availability of several nutrients was, in turn, linked to whole-rock chemical composition differences since some lithologies were associated with higher elevations, while the others tended to dominate lower elevations. We suggest that local-scale topography in this region has been shaped by the spatial distribution of lithologies, which differ in their susceptibility to weathering. Nitrogen availability was uncorrelated with the presence of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species. No effect of burning on soil parameters could be discerned at this scale.

  16. Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

  17. Spatial distribution of lacunarity of voxelized airborne LiDAR point clouds in various forest assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Székely, Balázs; Kania, Adam; Standovár, Tibor; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems have characteristic structure of features defined by various structural elements of different scales and vertical positions: shrub layers, understory vegetation, tree trunks, and branches. Furthermore in most of the cases there are superimposed structures in distributions (mosaic or island patterns) due to topography, soil variability, or even anthropogenic factors like past/present forest management activity. This multifaceted spatial context of the forests is relevant for many ecological issues, especially for maintaining forest biodiversity. Our aim in this study is twofold: (1) to quantify this structural variability laterally and vertically using lacunarity, and (2) to relate these results to relevant ecological features, i.e quantitatively described forest properties. Airborne LiDAR data of various quality and point density have been used for our study including a number of forested sites in Central and East Europe (partly Natura 2000 sites). The point clouds have been converted to voxel format and then converted to horizontal layers as images. These images were processed further for the lacunarity calculation. Areas of interest (AOIs) have been selected based on evaluation of the forested areas and auxiliary field information. The calculation has been performed for the AOIs for all available vertical data slices. The lacunarity function referring to a certain point and given vicinity varies horizontally and vertically, depending on the vegetation structure. Furthermore, the topography may also influence this property as the growth of plants, especially spacing and size of trees are influenced by the local topography and relief (e.g., slope, aspect). The comparisons of the flatland and hilly settings show interesting differences and the spatial patterns also vary differently. Because of the large amount of data resulting from these calculations, sophisticated methods are required to analyse the results. The large data amount then has been

  18. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  19. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  20. Comparing spatial regression to random forests for large ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental data may be “large” due to number of records, number of covariates, or both. Random forests has a reputation for good predictive performance when using many covariates, whereas spatial regression, when using reduced rank methods, has a reputation for good predictive performance when using many records. In this study, we compare these two techniques using a data set containing the macroinvertebrate multimetric index (MMI) at 1859 stream sites with over 200 landscape covariates. Our primary goal is predicting MMI at over 1.1 million perennial stream reaches across the USA. For spatial regression modeling, we develop two new methods to accommodate large data: (1) a procedure that estimates optimal Box-Cox transformations to linearize covariate relationships; and (2) a computationally efficient covariate selection routine that takes into account spatial autocorrelation. We show that our new methods lead to cross-validated performance similar to random forests, but that there is an advantage for spatial regression when quantifying the uncertainty of the predictions. Simulations are used to clarify advantages for each method. This research investigates different approaches for modeling and mapping national stream condition. We use MMI data from the EPA's National Rivers and Streams Assessment and predictors from StreamCat (Hill et al., 2015). Previous studies have focused on modeling the MMI condition classes (i.e., good, fair, and po

  1. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire...

  2. Random Forest and Rotation Forest for fully polarized SAR image classification using polarimetric and spatial features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Waske, Björn; Liu, Sicong; Li, Zhenhong

    2015-07-01

    Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, day and night observation and high resolution capabilities. The collected data are usually sorted in Sinclair matrix, coherence or covariance matrices which are directly related to physical properties of natural media and backscattering mechanism. Additional information related to the nature of scattering medium can be exploited through polarimetric decomposition theorems. Accordingly, PolSAR image classification gains increasing attentions from remote sensing communities in recent years. However, the above polarimetric measurements or parameters cannot provide sufficient information for accurate PolSAR image classification in some scenarios, e.g. in complex urban areas where different scattering mediums may exhibit similar PolSAR response due to couples of unavoidable reasons. Inspired by the complementarity between spectral and spatial features bringing remarkable improvements in optical image classification, the complementary information between polarimetric and spatial features may also contribute to PolSAR image classification. Therefore, the roles of textural features such as contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity and local range, morphological profiles (MPs) in PolSAR image classification are investigated using two advanced ensemble learning (EL) classifiers: Random Forest and Rotation Forest. Supervised Wishart classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as benchmark classifiers for the evaluation and comparison purposes. Experimental results with three Radarsat-2 images in quad polarization mode indicate that classification accuracies could be significantly increased by integrating spatial and polarimetric features using ensemble learning strategies. Rotation Forest can get better accuracy than SVM and Random Forest, in the meantime, Random Forest is much faster than Rotation Forest.

  3. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10–1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama. MCH was strongly associated with the hydrological network: canopy height was highest in areas of positive convexity (valleys, depressions) close to channels draining 1 ha or more. Average MCH declined strongly with decreasing convexity (transition to ridges, hilltops) and increasing distance from the nearest channel. Spectral analysis, performed with wavelet decomposition, showed that the variance in MCH had fractal similarity at scales of ∼30–600 m, and was strongly associated with variation in elevation, with peak correlations at scales of ∼250 m. Whereas previous studies of topographic correlates of tropical forest structure conducted analyses at just one or a few spatial grains, our study found that correlations were strongly scale-dependent. Multi-scale analyses of correlations of MCH with slope, aspect, curvature, and Laplacian convexity found that MCH was most strongly related to convexity measured at scales of 20–300 m, a topographic variable that is a good proxy for position with respect to the hydrological network. Overall, our results support the idea that, even in these mesic forests, hydrological networks and associated topographical variation serve as templates upon which vegetation is organized over specific ranges of scales. These findings constitute an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of these patterns, and can guide upscaling and downscaling. PMID:24204610

  4. Hydrological networks and associated topographic variation as templates for the spatial organization of tropical forest vegetation.

    PubMed

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama. MCH was strongly associated with the hydrological network: canopy height was highest in areas of positive convexity (valleys, depressions) close to channels draining 1 ha or more. Average MCH declined strongly with decreasing convexity (transition to ridges, hilltops) and increasing distance from the nearest channel. Spectral analysis, performed with wavelet decomposition, showed that the variance in MCH had fractal similarity at scales of ∼30-600 m, and was strongly associated with variation in elevation, with peak correlations at scales of ∼250 m. Whereas previous studies of topographic correlates of tropical forest structure conducted analyses at just one or a few spatial grains, our study found that correlations were strongly scale-dependent. Multi-scale analyses of correlations of MCH with slope, aspect, curvature, and Laplacian convexity found that MCH was most strongly related to convexity measured at scales of 20-300 m, a topographic variable that is a good proxy for position with respect to the hydrological network. Overall, our results support the idea that, even in these mesic forests, hydrological networks and associated topographical variation serve as templates upon which vegetation is organized over specific ranges of scales. These findings constitute an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of these patterns, and can guide upscaling and downscaling.

  5. Numerical investigation of aggregated fuel spatial pattern impacts on fire behavior

    DOE PAGES

    Parsons, Russell A.; Linn, Rodman Ray; Pimont, Francois; ...

    2017-06-18

    Here, landscape heterogeneity shapes species distributions, interactions, and fluctuations. Historically, in dry forest ecosystems, low canopy cover and heterogeneous fuel patterns often moderated disturbances like fire. Over the last century, however, increases in canopy cover and more homogeneous patterns have contributed to altered fire regimes with higher fire severity. Fire management strategies emphasize increasing within-stand heterogeneity with aggregated fuel patterns to alter potential fire behavior. Yet, little is known about how such patterns may affect fire behavior, or how sensitive fire behavior changes from fuel patterns are to winds and canopy cover. Here, we used a physics-based fire behavior model,more » FIRETEC, to explore the impacts of spatially aggregated fuel patterns on the mean and variability of stand-level fire behavior, and to test sensitivity of these effects to wind and canopy cover. Qualitative and quantitative approaches suggest that spatial fuel patterns can significantly affect fire behavior. Based on our results we propose three hypotheses: (1) aggregated spatial fuel patterns primarily affect fire behavior by increasing variability; (2) this variability should increase with spatial scale of aggregation; and (3) fire behavior sensitivity to spatial pattern effects should be more pronounced under moderate wind and fuel conditions.« less

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges (Hesse, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifflard, Peter; Weishaupt, Philipp; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall can affect the heterogeneity of ecological, biogeochemical and hydrological processes at a forest floor and further the underlying soil. Previous research suggests different factors controlling the spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall, but most studies focus on coniferous forest, where the vegetation coverage is more or less constant over time. In deciduous forests the leaf area index varies due to the leaf fall in autumn which implicates a specific spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and furthermore of the soil moisture. Therefore, in the present study, the measurements of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges focused especially on the period of leaf fall. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect the spatial and temporal variability of both the throughfall and the soil moisture, 2) to examine the temporal stability of the spatial patterns of the throughfall and soil moisture and 3) relate the soil moisture patterns to the throughfall patterns and further to the canopy characteristics. The study was carried out in a small catchment on middle Hesse (Germany) which is covered by beech forest. Annual mean air temperature is 9.4°C (48.9˚F) and annual mean precipitation is 650 mm. Base materials for soil genesis is greywacke and clay shale from Devonian deposits. The soil type at the study plot is a shallow cambisol. The study plot covers an area of about 150 m2 where 77 throughfall samplers where installed. The throughfall and the soil moisture (FDR-method, 20 cm depth) was measured immediately after every rainfall event at the 77 measurement points. During the period of October to December 2015 altogether 7 events were investigated. The geostatistical method kriging was used to interpolate between the measurements points to visualize the spatial patterns of each investigated parameter. Time-stability-plots were applied to examine temporal scatters of each

  7. Spatial and temporal trends of drought effects in a heterogeneous semi-arid forest ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2016-01-01

    trend. Our analysis identifies spatially explicit patterns of long-term trends anchored with ground based evidence to highlight areas of forest that are resistant, persistent or vulnerable to severe drought. The results provide a long-term perspective for the resource management of this area and can be applied to similar ecosystems throughout western North America.

  8. Spatial impact assessment of conifer stands in the Hoosier National Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard Thurau; Craig Wayson; Dale Weigel; Jeff. Ehman

    2011-01-01

    Forest management decisions on Federal lands must be administered at many spatial and temporal scales. Forest condition, size class, and cover type at the stand level determine how silvicultural practices today will impact management area and overall forest goals in the future. The Hoosier National Forest (HNF) Land Resource Management Plan lists eight goals for...

  9. Effects of satellite image spatial aggregation and resolution on estimates of forest land area

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; R.E. McRoberts; G.R. Holden; M.E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Satellite imagery is being used increasingly in association with national forest inventories (NFIs) to produce maps and enhance estimates of forest attributes. We simulated several image spatial resolutions within sparsely and heavily forested study areas to assess resolution effects on estimates of forest land area, independent of other sensor characteristics. We...

  10. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  11. Spatial distribution and succession of epiphytes on Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest

    Treesearch

    Betsy Lyons; Nalini M. Nadkarni; Malcolm P. North

    2000-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of nonvascular epiphytes on western hemlock trees in an oldgrowth coniferous forest focusing on patterns of epiphyte distribution at different spatial scales, epiphyte abundance amongst trees differing in size, and crown structures associated with epiphyte abundance. Total epiphyte cover was greatest in four canopy...

  12. Multi-scale spatial controls of understory vegetation in Douglas-fir–western hemlock forests of western Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    Julia I. Burton; Lisa M. Ganio; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2014-01-01

    Forest understory vegetation is influenced by broad-scale variation in climate, intermediate scale variation in topography, disturbance and neighborhood interactions. However, little is known about how these multi-scale controls interact to influence observed spatial patterns. We examined relationships between the aggregated cover of understory plant species (%...

  13. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 for GTP, and 2.14·10−14 ± 0.11·10−14 °C (kg yr−1)−1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26830755

  14. Multitrophic diversity in a biodiverse forest is highly nonlinear across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Andreas; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Staab, Michael; Assmann, Thorsten; Böhnke-Kammerlander, Martin; Both, Sabine; Erfmeier, Alexandra; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Ma, Keping; Pietsch, Katherina; Schultze, Sabrina; Wirth, Christian; Zhang, Jiayong; Zumstein, Pascale; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-12-10

    Subtropical and tropical forests are biodiversity hotspots, and untangling the spatial scaling of their diversity is fundamental for understanding global species richness and conserving biodiversity essential to human well-being. However, scale-dependent diversity distributions among coexisting taxa remain poorly understood for heterogeneous environments in biodiverse regions. We show that diversity relations among 43 taxa-including plants, arthropods and microorganisms-in a mountainous subtropical forest are highly nonlinear across spatial scales. Taxon-specific differences in β-diversity cause under- or overestimation of overall diversity by up to 50% when using surrogate taxa such as plants. Similar relationships may apply to half of all (sub)tropical forests-including major biodiversity hotspots-where high environmental heterogeneity causes high biodiversity and species turnover. Our study highlights that our general understanding of biodiversity patterns has to be improved-and that much larger areas will be required than in better-studied lowland forests-to reliably estimate biodiversity distributions and devise conservation strategies for the world's biodiverse regions.

  15. A spatial simulation model for forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    A Markov-chain transition model (FORSUM) and Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the succession patterns and predict a long-term impact of flood on the forest structure and growth in the floodplain of the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River. Model variables, probabilities, functions, and parameters were derived from the analysis of two comprehensive field surveys conducted in this floodplain. This modeling approach describes the establishment, growth, competition, and death of individual trees for modeled species on a 10,000-ha landscape with spatial resolution of 1 ha. The succession characteristics of each Monte Carlo simulation are summed up to describe forest development and dynamics on a landscape level. FORSUM simulated the impacts of flood intensity and frequency on species composition and dynamics in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem. The model provides a useful tool for testing hypotheses about forest succession and enables ecologists and managers to evaluate the impacts of flood disturbances and ecosystem restoration on forest succession. The simulation results suggest that the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is an efficient tool to help organize the existing data and knowledge of forest succession into a system of quantitative predictions for the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Interactions across spatial scales among forest dieback, fire, and erosion in northern New Mexico landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem patterns and disturbance processes at one spatial scale often interact with processes at another scale, and the result of such cross-scale interactions can be nonlinear dynamics with thresholds. Examples of cross-scale pattern-process relationships and interactions among forest dieback, fire, and erosion are illustrated from northern New Mexico (USA) landscapes, where long-term studies have recently documented all of these disturbance processes. For example, environmental stress, operating on individual trees, can cause tree death that is amplified by insect mortality agents to propagate to patch and then landscape or even regional-scale forest dieback. Severe drought and unusual warmth in the southwestern USA since the late 1990s apparently exceeded species-specific physiological thresholds for multiple tree species, resulting in substantial vegetation mortality across millions of hectares of woodlands and forests in recent years. Predictions of forest dieback across spatial scales are constrained by uncertainties associated with: limited knowledge of species-specific physiological thresholds; individual and site-specific variation in these mortality thresholds; and positive feedback loops between rapidly-responding insect herbivore populations and their stressed plant hosts, sometimes resulting in nonlinear “pest” outbreak dynamics. Fire behavior also exhibits nonlinearities across spatial scales, illustrated by changes in historic fire regimes where patch-scale grazing disturbance led to regional-scale collapse of surface fire activity and subsequent recent increases in the scale of extreme fire events in New Mexico. Vegetation dieback interacts with fire activity by modifying fuel amounts and configurations at multiple spatial scales. Runoff and erosion processes are also subject to scale-dependent threshold behaviors, exemplified by ecohydrological work in semiarid New Mexico watersheds showing how declines in ground surface cover lead to non

  17. Spatial patterns in tactile perception: is there a tactile field?

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Giovagnoli, Giulia

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of tactile spatial perception focussed either on a single point of stimulation, on local patterns within a single skin region such as the fingertip, on tactile motion, or on active touch. It remains unclear whether we should speak of a tactile field, analogous to the visual field, and supporting spatial relations between stimulus locations. Here we investigate this question by studying perception of large-scale tactile spatial patterns on the hand, arm and back. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between perception of tactile patterns and the identification of subsets of those patterns. The results suggest that perception of tactile spatial patterns is based on representing the spatial relations between locations of individual stimuli. Experiment 2 investigated the spatial and temporal organising principles underlying these relations. Experiment 3 showed that tactile pattern perception makes reference to structural representations of the body, such as body parts separated by joints. Experiment 4 found that precision of pattern perception is poorer for tactile patterns that extend across the midline, compared to unilateral patterns. Overall, the results suggest that the human sense of touch involves a tactile field, analogous to the visual field. The tactile field supports computation of spatial relations between individual stimulus locations, and thus underlies tactile pattern perception. 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, M.; Hayes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how habitat structure at multiple spatial scales influences vertebrates can facilitate development of effective conservation strategies, but until recently most studies have focused on habitat relationships only at fine or intermediate scales. In particular, patterns of amphibian occurrence across broad spatial scales are not well studied, despite recent concerns over regional and global declines. We examined habitat relationships of larval and neotenic Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), larval and adult Pacific tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei) (hereafter 'tailed frogs'), and torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton spp.) at three spatial scales (2-m sample unit, intermediate, and drainage). In 1998 and 1999, we captured 1568 amphibians in 702 sample units in 16 randomly chosen drainages in the Oregon Coast Range. We examined species-habitat associations at each spatial scale using an information-theoretic approach of analysis to rank sets of logistic regression models developed a priori. At the 2-m sample unit scale, all groups were negatively associated with proportion of small substrate and positively associated with stream width or elevation. At the intermediate scale, Pacific giant salamanders, adult tailed frogs, and torrent salamanders were positively associated with presence of a 46-m band of forested habitat on each side of the stream, and larval tailed frogs were positively associated with presence of forest >105 years old. Aspect was important for Pacific giant salamanders and larval tailed frogs at the intermediate scale. At the drainage scale, all groups except torrent salamanders were positively associated with proportion of stream length having forested bands >46 m in width, but further analysis suggests narrower bands may provide adequate protection for some groups. Population- and community-level responses at broad spatial scales may be reflected in species-level responses at fine spatial scales, and our results suggest that

  19. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  20. Landscape analysis and pattern of hurricane impact and circulation on mangrove forests of the everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Krauss, K.W.; Wells, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Everglades ecosystem contains the largest contiguous tract of mangrove forest outside the tropics that were also coincidentally intersected by a major Category 5 hurricane. Airborne videography was flown to capture the landscape pattern and process of forest damage in relation to storm trajectory and circulation. Two aerial video transects, representing different topographic positions, were used to quantify forest damage from video frame analysis in relation to prevailing wind force, treefall direction, and forest height. A hurricane simulation model was applied to reconstruct wind fields corresponding to the ground location of each video frame and to correlate observed treefall and destruction patterns with wind speed and direction. Mangrove forests within the storm's eyepath and in the right-side (forewind) quadrants suffered whole or partial blowdowns, while left-side (backwind) sites south of the eyewall zone incurred moderate canopy reduction and defoliation. Sites along the coastal transect sustained substantially more storm damage than sites along the inland transect which may be attributed to differences in stand exposure and/or stature. Observed treefall directions were shown to be non-random and associated with hurricane trajectory and simulated forewind azimuths. Wide-area sampling using airborne videography provided an efficient adjunct to limited ground observations and improved our spatial understanding of how hurricanes imprint landscape-scale patterns of disturbance. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. How do frugivores track resources? Insights from spatial analyses of bird foraging in a tropical forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, J.F.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frugivores often track ripe fruit abundance closely across local areas despite the ephemeral and typically patchy distributions of this resource. We use spatial auto- and cross-correlation analyses to quantify spatial patterns of fruit abundance and avian frugivory across a 4-month period within a forested 4.05-ha study grid in Puerto Rico. Analyses focused on two tanager species, Spindalis portoricensis and Nesospingus speculiferus, and their principal food plants. Three broad questions are addressed: (1) at what spatial scales is fruit abundance and frugivory patchy; (2) at what spatial scales do frugivores respond to fruit abundance; and (3) to what extent do spatial patterns of frugivory overlap between bird species? Fruit patch size, species composition, and heterogeneity was variable among months, despite fruit patch locations remaining relatively consistent between months. Positive correlations between frugivory and fruit abundance suggested tanagers successfully tracked fruit abundance. Frugivory was, however, more localized than fruit abundance. Scales of spatial overlap in frugivory and monthly variation in the foraging locations of the two tanager species suggested that interspecific facilitation may have been important in determining bird foraging locations. In particular, S. portoricensis, a specialist frugivore, may have relied on the loud calls of the gregarious generalist, N. speculiferus, to find new foraging areas. Such a mechanism could help explain the formation of mixed species feeding flocks and highlights the potential importance of facilitation between species that share resources. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  2. Regeneration of Rhizophora mucronata (Lamk.) in degraded mangrove forest: Lessons from point pattern analyses of local tree interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olagoke, Adewole O.; Bosire, Jared O.; Berger, Uta

    2013-07-01

    Spatial structural patterns emerging from local tree interactions influence growth, mortality and regeneration processes in forest ecosystems, and decoding them enhance the understanding of ecological mechanisms affecting forest regeneration. Point-Patterns analysis was applied for the very first time to mangrove ecology to explore the spatial structure of Rhizophora mucronata regeneration in a disturbed mangrove forest; and the pattern of associations of juvenile-adult trees. R. mucronata trees were mapped in plots of 50 m × 10 m located at the seaward, central and landward edge along 50 m wide transect in the forest, and the mapped patterns were analysed with pair correlation and mark-connection functions. The population density of R. mucronata differed along the tidal gradient with the highest density in the central region, and the least near the shoreline. The study revealed that short distance propagule dispersal, resulting in the establishment of juveniles in closed distance to the mother trees, might not be the driving force for distribution of this species. The spatial structural pattern of R. mucronata population along tidal gradient showed a characteristic spatial aggregation at small scale, but randomly distributed as the distances become larger. There was a distinct spatial segregation between recruits and adult trees, and hence spatially independent. Though, adult-adult trees associations did not show a clear spatial segregation pattern; the recruit-recruit species associations exhibited significant clustering in space. Although habitat heterogeneity might be responsible for the local scale aggregation in this population, the effect of plant-plant conspecific interactions is more probable to inform the long-term structure and dynamics of the population of R. mucronata, and ditto for the entire forest.

  3. Multi-scale forest landscape pattern characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jialing

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine several important issues in landscape pattern analysis, including the identification of important landscape metrics, the impact of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) in landscape pattern analysis, the linkage between pattern and process, and the application of landscape pattern analysis. A theoretical framework of hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm and a technical framework of GIS and remote sensing integration are employed to address these questions. The Red Hills region of southwestern Georgia and northern Florida is chosen as the study area. Land use/cover (LULC) and longleaf pine distribution maps were generated through satellite image classification. Sub-watersheds were used as the main analysis units. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on 43 sub-watersheds at three hierarchical LULC levels to identify important landscape metrics. At both landscape- and class-levels, the measurement of fragmentation was identified as the most important landscape dimension. Other dimensions and important metrics varied with different scales. Hexagons were used as an alternative zoning system to examine the MAUP impact in landscape pattern analysis. The results indicated that landscape pattern analyses at class level and at broader scales were more sensitive to MAUP than at landscape level and at finer scales. Local-scale pattern analysis based on moving window analysis greatly reduced the impact of MAUP at class level, but had little effects at landscape level. An examination of the relationship between landscape pattern variables and biophysical/socio-economic variables was undertaken by using statistical analysis. The biophysical variables of soil drainage and mean slope and the socio-economic variables of road density, population density, distance to Tallahassee, Florida, and plantation amount were found to be closely correlated to the landscape patterns in this region. However, a large amount of variation

  4. Spatial patterns and climate drivers of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Zhu, Xian-Jin; Fu, Yu-Ling; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Wen, Xue-Fa; Li, Xuan-Ran; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics and underlying mechanism of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is one of the key issues in global change research. In this study, we quantified the carbon fluxes in different terrestrial ecosystems in China, and analyzed their spatial variation and environmental drivers based on the long-term observation data of ChinaFLUX sites and the published data from other flux sites in China. The results indicate that gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China showed a significantly latitudinal pattern, declining linearly with the increase of latitude. However, GEP, ER, and NEP did not present a clear longitudinal pattern. The carbon sink functional areas of terrestrial ecosystems in China were mainly located in the subtropical and temperate forests, coastal wetlands in eastern China, the temperate meadow steppe in the northeast China, and the alpine meadow in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The forest ecosystems had stronger carbon sink than grassland ecosystems. The spatial patterns of GEP and ER in China were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas the spatial variation in NEP was largely explained by MAT. The combined effects of MAT and MAP explained 79%, 62%, and 66% of the spatial variations in GEP, ER, and NEP, respectively. The GEP, ER, and NEP in different ecosystems in China exhibited 'positive coupling correlation' in their spatial patterns. Both ER and NEP were significantly correlated with GEP, with 68% of the per-unit GEP contributed to ER and 29% to NEP. MAT and MAP affected the spatial patterns of ER and NEP mainly by their direct effects on the spatial pattern of GEP.

  5. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION WITH CMAQ PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in reproducing the spatial patterns of aerosol concentrations over the country on timescales of months and years, the spatial patterns of model output are compared with those derived from observation...

  6. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION WITH CMAQ PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in reproducing the spatial patterns of aerosol concentrations over the country on timescales of months and years, the spatial patterns of model output are compared with those derived from observation...

  7. Do abundance distributions and species aggregation correctly predict macroecological biodiversity patterns in tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Thorsten; Lehmann, Sebastian; Huth, Andreas; Fortin, Marie‐Josée

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim It has been recently suggested that different ‘unified theories of biodiversity and biogeography’ can be characterized by three common ‘minimal sufficient rules’: (1) species abundance distributions follow a hollow curve, (2) species show intraspecific aggregation, and (3) species are independently placed with respect to other species. Here, we translate these qualitative rules into a quantitative framework and assess if these minimal rules are indeed sufficient to predict multiple macroecological biodiversity patterns simultaneously. Location Tropical forest plots in Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, and in Sinharaja, Sri Lanka. Methods We assess the predictive power of the three rules using dynamic and spatial simulation models in combination with census data from the two forest plots. We use two different versions of the model: (1) a neutral model and (2) an extended model that allowed for species differences in dispersal distances. In a first step we derive model parameterizations that correctly represent the three minimal rules (i.e. the model quantitatively matches the observed species abundance distribution and the distribution of intraspecific aggregation). In a second step we applied the parameterized models to predict four additional spatial biodiversity patterns. Results Species‐specific dispersal was needed to quantitatively fulfil the three minimal rules. The model with species‐specific dispersal correctly predicted the species–area relationship, but failed to predict the distance decay, the relationship between species abundances and aggregations, and the distribution of a spatial co‐occurrence index of all abundant species pairs. These results were consistent over the two forest plots. Main conclusions The three ‘minimal sufficient’ rules only provide an incomplete approximation of the stochastic spatial geometry of biodiversity in tropical forests. The assumption of independent interspecific placements is most

  8. Do abundance distributions and species aggregation correctly predict macroecological biodiversity patterns in tropical forests?

    PubMed

    May, Felix; Wiegand, Thorsten; Lehmann, Sebastian; Huth, Andreas; Fortin, Marie-Josée

    2016-05-01

    It has been recently suggested that different 'unified theories of biodiversity and biogeography' can be characterized by three common 'minimal sufficient rules': (1) species abundance distributions follow a hollow curve, (2) species show intraspecific aggregation, and (3) species are independently placed with respect to other species. Here, we translate these qualitative rules into a quantitative framework and assess if these minimal rules are indeed sufficient to predict multiple macroecological biodiversity patterns simultaneously. Tropical forest plots in Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, and in Sinharaja, Sri Lanka. We assess the predictive power of the three rules using dynamic and spatial simulation models in combination with census data from the two forest plots. We use two different versions of the model: (1) a neutral model and (2) an extended model that allowed for species differences in dispersal distances. In a first step we derive model parameterizations that correctly represent the three minimal rules (i.e. the model quantitatively matches the observed species abundance distribution and the distribution of intraspecific aggregation). In a second step we applied the parameterized models to predict four additional spatial biodiversity patterns. Species-specific dispersal was needed to quantitatively fulfil the three minimal rules. The model with species-specific dispersal correctly predicted the species-area relationship, but failed to predict the distance decay, the relationship between species abundances and aggregations, and the distribution of a spatial co-occurrence index of all abundant species pairs. These results were consistent over the two forest plots. The three 'minimal sufficient' rules only provide an incomplete approximation of the stochastic spatial geometry of biodiversity in tropical forests. The assumption of independent interspecific placements is most likely violated in many forests due to shared or distinct habitat preferences

  9. Spatial Distribution and Interspecific Associations of Tree Species in a Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest of China

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Guoyu; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hu, Yuehua; Xie, Guishui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern and interspecific associations of plant species may provide valuable insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain species coexistence. Point pattern analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of twenty dominant tree species, their interspecific spatial associations and changes across life stages in a 20-ha permanent plot of seasonal tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China, to test mechanisms maintaining species coexistence. Torus-translation tests were used to quantify positive or negative associations of the species to topographic habitats. The results showed: (1) fourteen of the twenty tree species were negatively (or positively) associated with one or two of the topographic variables, which evidences that the niche contributes to the spatial pattern of these species. (2) Most saplings of the study species showed a significantly clumped distribution at small scales (0–10 m) which was lost at larger scales (10–30 m). (3) The degree of spatial clumping deceases from saplings, to poles, to adults indicates that density-dependent mortality of the offspring is ubiquitous in species. (4) It is notable that a high number of positive small-scale interactions were found among the twenty species. For saplings, 42.6% of all combinations of species pairs showed positive associations at neighborhood scales up to five meters, but only 38.4% were negative. For poles and adults, positive associations at these distances still made up 45.5% and 29.5%, respectively. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence for the presence of positive interactions among the tree species, which suggests that species herd protection may occur in our plot. In addition, niche assembly and limited dispersal (likely) contribute to the spatial patterns of tree species in the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China. PMID:23029394

  10. Patterns of mortality in a montane mixed-conifer forest in San Diego County, California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mary Pyott; Stow, Douglas A; An, Li

    2017-07-17

    We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns. Mean mortality remained static from 1997 to 2002 (4, 2.2, and 4.2 trees ha(-1) for Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna) and then increased by 2005 to 10.3, 9.7 and 5.2 trees ha(-1) , respectively. The increase in mortality between 2002 and 2005 represents the temporal pattern of a discrete disturbance event, attributable to the 2002-2003 drought. Dead trees are significantly clustered for all dates, based on spatial cluster analysis, indicating that they form distinct groups, as opposed to spatially random single dead trees. Other tests indicate no directional shift or spread of mortality over time, but rather an increase in density. While general temporal and spatial mortality processes are uniform across all study areas, the plot-based species and quantity distribution of mortality, and diameter distributions of dead versus living trees, vary by study area. The results of this study improve our understanding of stand- to landscape-level forest structure and dynamics, particularly by examining them from the multiple perspectives of field and remotely sensed data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial Variation in Transpiration Within a Small Forest Patch in Hoa Binh, Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Nullet, M. A.; Dao, T. M.

    2001-12-01

    We conducted measurements of small-scale variations in microclimate and sapflow within and near a small forest patch in Ban Tat Hamlet, Hoa Binh, northern Vietnam. Our observations provide evidence of the influences of surrounding clearings on forest patch microclimate and transpiration. The effects of proximity to the forest edge can be seen in the gradients in temperature, humidity, wind, and soil moisture content. Sapflow measurements in sample trees strongly indicate that transpiration rates are higher near the edge of the patch (edge effect). This effect is seen in the averages for the whole study period, despite infrequent wind flow into the instrumented edge of the patch. Edge effect is observed during both dry and wet periods, but is most apparent on days when solar and net radiation are high, relative humidity is low, or wind direction is from the clearing into the forest edge. These conditions are conducive to high positive heat advection from the clearing to the forest edge. Transpiration in both edge and interior trees is highly correlated with conditions in the clearing. Our results suggest that greater land-cover fragmentation tends to increase regional evaporative flux, i.e. fragmentation of remaining forested areas partly reverses the reduction in regional evaporation due to deforestation. We can infer from the distance-to-edge dependency of transpiration that the magnitude of this regional effect depends on the size, shape, and spatial distribution of landscape patches. It is also likely that the replacement land cover and moisture status of the clearings affect this process. Although we found slightly greater edge effect during the dry period of our observations, it is possible that under more prolonged or severe dry conditions, the soil moisture storage at the forest edge would become depleted leading to a reversal the transpiration pattern. >http://webdata.soc.hawaii.edu/climate/Frags/Frags.html

  12. Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, H.L.

    1991-09-01

    Dynamical systems methods are being developed and used to characterize the formation and evolution of temporal and spatial patterns in systems maintained far from equilibrium. In particular, experiments and analyses are considering electrodeposition of fractal metallic clusters, pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems, and the primary instabilities of some fluid flows. Novel reactors have been developed to search for chemical patterns (spatial variations in the chemical composition), and sustained patterns have been found in several different one- and two-dimensional geometries. Bifurcations in these patterns are studied by varying control parameters, e.g., the concentrations of the feed chemicals or the temperature. The observed two-dimensional chemical patterns range from the stationary patterns, similar to those predicted by Turing in 1952 but not observed until 1990, to chemical turbulence, which is characterized by large numbers of defects and a rapid decay of spatial correlations. These provide general insights into the formation of spatiotemporal patterns in nonequilibrium systems.

  13. [Multiple-scale analysis on spatial distribution changes of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China based on local statistics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Zhen, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Taking 4163 permanent sample plots from Chinese National Forest Inventory (CNFI) and key ecological benefit forest monitoring plots in Heilongjiang Province as basic data, and by using local Moran I and local statistics (local mean and local standard deviation), the spatial pattern, spatial variation and spatial autocorrelation of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province with four bandwidths of 25, 50, 100 and 150 km were investigated, and the change in forest carbon storage across 2005 to 2010 was studied. The results showed that the spatial distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province had significantly positive spatial correlation, which indicated that the changes of carbon storage tended to be similar with their neighbors without a non-random manner. Forest carbon storage was affected by environmental factors, and the spatial heterogeneity strongly existed with a large variation in the study area. The spatial distribution of forest carbon storage was significantly different between 2005 and 2010 with an increasing trend. Local statistics are useful tools for characterizing forest carbon storage change across time and space, which are visualized by ArcGIS.

  14. Towards a better spatial quantification of nitrogen deposition: A case study for Czech forests.

    PubMed

    Hůnová, Iva; Kurfürst, Pavel; Vlček, Ondřej; Stráník, Vojtěch; Stoklasová, Petra; Schovánková, Jana; Srbová, Daša

    2016-06-01

    The quantification of atmospheric deposition flux is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. We present an advanced approach for the estimation of the spatial pattern of atmospheric nitrogen deposition flux over the Czech forests, collating all available measured data and model results. The aim of the presented study is to provide an improved, more complete, more reliable and more realistic estimate of the spatial pattern of nitrogen deposition flux over one country. This has so far usually been based on measurements of ambient NOx concentrations as dry deposition proxy, and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in precipitation as wet deposition proxy. For estimation of unmeasured species contributing to dry deposition, we used the CAMx Eulerian photochemical dispersion model, coupled with the Aladin regional numeric weather prediction model. The contribution of fog and dissolved organic nitrogen was estimated using a geostatistical data driven model. We prepared individual maps for particular components applying the most relevant approach and then merged all layers to obtain a final map representing the best estimate of nitrogen deposition over the Czech Republic. Final maps accounting for unmeasured species clearly indicate that the approach used so far may result in a substantial underestimation of nitrogen deposition flux. Our results showed that nitrogen deposition over the Czech forested area in 2008 was well above 2 g N m(-2) yr(-1), with almost 70% of forested area receiving 3-4 g N m(-2) yr(-1). NH3 and gaseous HNO3, contributing about 80%, dominated the dry nitrogen deposition. Estimating the unmeasured nitrogen species by modeled values provides realistic approximations of total nitrogen deposition that also result in more realistic spatial patterns that could be used as input for further studies of likely nitrogen impacts on ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting patterns of fine-scale herb layer species composition in temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudomelová, Markéta; Zelený, David; Li, Ching-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Although being well described at the landscape level, patterns in species composition of forest herb layer are rarely studied at smaller scales. Here, we examined fine-scale environmental determinants and spatial structures of herb layer communities in thermophilous oak- and hornbeam dominated forests of the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Species composition of herb layer vegetation and environmental variables were recorded within a fixed grid of 2 × 2 m subplots regularly distributed within 1-ha quadrate plots in three forest stands. For each site, environmental models best explaining species composition were constructed using constrained ordination analysis. Spatial eigenvector mapping was used to model and account for spatial structures in community variation. Mean Ellenberg indicator values calculated for each subplot were used for ecological interpretation of spatially structured residual variation. The amount of variation explained by environmental and spatial models as well as the selection of variables with the best explanatory power differed among sites. As an important environmental factor, relative elevation was common to all three sites, while pH and canopy openness were shared by two sites. Both environmental and community variation was mostly coarse-scaled, as was the spatially structured portion of residual variation. When corrected for bias due to spatial autocorrelation, those environmental factors with already weak explanatory power lost their significance. Only a weak evidence of possibly omitted environmental predictor was found for autocorrelated residuals of site models using mean Ellenberg indicator values. Community structure was determined by different factors at different sites. The relative importance of environmental filtering vs. spatial processes was also site specific, implying that results of fine-scale studies tend to be shaped by local conditions. Contrary to expectations based on other studies, overall dominance of

  16. Drought sensitivity shapes species distribution patterns in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Comita, Liza S; Condit, Richard; Kursar, Thomas A; Tyree, Melvin T; Turner, Benjamin L; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2007-05-03

    Although patterns of tree species distributions along environmental gradients have been amply documented in tropical forests, mechanisms causing these patterns are seldom known. Efforts to evaluate proposed mechanisms have been hampered by a lack of comparative data on species' reactions to relevant axes of environmental variation. Here we show that differential drought sensitivity shapes plant distributions in tropical forests at both regional and local scales. Our analyses are based on experimental field assessments of drought sensitivity of 48 species of trees and shrubs, and on their local and regional distributions within a network of 122 inventory sites spanning a rainfall gradient across the Isthmus of Panama. Our results suggest that niche differentiation with respect to soil water availability is a direct determinant of both local- and regional-scale distributions of tropical trees. Changes in soil moisture availability caused by global climate change and forest fragmentation are therefore likely to alter tropical species distributions, community composition and diversity.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity can resolve the nitrogen paradox of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Levin, Simon A

    2017-01-10

    Many tropical forests are characterized by large losses of plant-available forms of nitrogen (N), indicating that they are N-rich, and by an abundance of plants capable of symbiotic N fixation. These N-fixing plants can fix enough N to drive N-richness. However, biological N fixation (BNF) is more expensive than using plant-available N, so sustained BNF in N-rich soils appears to be a paradox. Here, we use spatially explicit ecosystem models to analyze the conditions under which spatial heterogeneity can induce simultaneous BNF and loss of plant-available N (hereafter, we call this combination "N-rich BNF"). Spatial movement of litter to neighboring plants' rooting zones can maintain N-rich BNF under a variety of conditions. For example, when N-fixers have higher N demand than non-fixers, N-fixers export N-rich litter to non-fixers, inducing large losses of plant-available N from the ecosystem, and receive N-poor litter from non-fixers, inducing BNF. BNF and N loss fluxes increase in proportion to the ratio of N-fixer litter N:P to non-fixer litter N:P, and also in proportion to the fraction of litter transferred out of a tree's rooting zone. Stoichiometric variability augments N-rich BNF, as does increasing the fraction of the landscape occupied by N-fixers, at least when they are rare. On the contrary, greater root overlap between neighbors and clumping of N-fixers diminish N-rich BNF. Finally, we examined how spatial litter transfer interacts with another mechanism that can sustain N-rich BNF, incomplete down-regulation of BNF. Spatial transfer and incomplete down-regulation can both sustain N-rich BNF, but they are compensatory rather than additive. These mechanisms can be distinguished by examining where N losses occur. Incomplete down-regulation of BNF leads to greater N loss under N-fixing trees, whereas spatial litter transfer leads to greater N loss under non-fixing trees. Along with time lags in regulating BNF, these results comprise a series of

  18. Geomorphic controls of soil spatial complexity in a primeval mountain forest in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daněk, Pavel; Šamonil, Pavel; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-11-01

    Soil diversity and complexity is influenced by a variety of factors, and much recent research has been focused on interpreting or modeling complexity based on soil-topography relationships, and effects of biogeomorphic processes. We aimed to (i) describe local soil diversity in one of the oldest forest reserves in Europe, (ii) employ existing graph theory concepts in pedocomplexity calculation and extend them by a novel approach based on hypothesis testing and an index measuring graph sequentiality (the extent to which soils have gradual vs. abrupt variations in underlying soil factors), and (iii) reveal the main sources of pedocomplexity, with a particular focus on geomorphic controls. A total of 954 soil profiles were described and classified to soil taxonomic units (STU) within a 46 ha area. We analyzed soil diversity using the Shannon index, and soil complexity using a novel graph theory approach. Pairwise tests of observed adjacencies, spectral radius and a newly proposed sequentiality index were used to describe and quantify the complexity of the spatial pattern of STUs. This was then decomposed into the contributions of three soil factor sequences (SFS), (i) degree of weathering and leaching processes, (ii) hydromorphology, and (iii) proportion of rock fragments. Six Reference Soil Groups and 37 second-level soil units were found. A significant portion of pedocomplexity occurred at distances shorter than the 22 m spacing of neighbouring soil profiles. The spectral radius (an index of complexity) of the pattern of soil spatial adjacency was 14.73, to which the individual SFS accounted for values of 2.0, 8.0 and 3.5, respectively. Significant sequentiality was found for degree of weathering and hydromorphology. Exceptional overall pedocomplexity was particularly caused by enormous spatial variability of soil wetness, representing a crucial soil factor sequence in the primeval forest. Moreover, the soil wetness gradient was partly spatially correlated with the

  19. Disease transmission promotes evolution of host spatial patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James C.; Keeling, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological dynamics can produce a variety of striking patterns. On ecological time scales, pattern formation has been hypothesized to be due to the interaction between a species and its local environment. On longer time scales, evolutionary factors must be taken into account. To examine the evolutionary robustness of spatial pattern formation, we construct a spatially explicit model of vegetation in the presence of a pathogen. Initially, we compare the dynamics for vegetation parameters that lead to competition induced spatial patterns and those that do not. Over ecological time scales, banded spatial patterns dramatically reduced the ability of the pathogen to spread, lowered its endemic density and hence increased the persistence of the vegetation. To gain an evolutionary understanding, each plant was given a heritable trait defining its resilience to competition; greater competition leads to lower vegetation density but stronger spatial patterns. When a disease is introduced, the selective pressure on the plant's resilience to the competition parameter is determined by the transmission of the disease. For high transmission, vegetation that has low resilience to competition and hence strong spatial patterning is an evolutionarily stable strategy. This demonstrates a novel mechanism by which striking spatial patterns can be maintained by disease-driven selection. PMID:27628172

  20. Beyond description: the active and effective way to infer processes from spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The ecological processes that create spatial patterns have been examined by direct measurement and through measurement of patterns resulting from experimental manipulations. But in many situations, creating experiments and direct measurement of spatial processes can be difficult or impossible. Here, we identify and define a rapidly emerging alternative approach, which we formalize as "space as a surrogate" for unmeasured processes, that is used to maximize inference about ecological processes through the analysis of spatial patterns or spatial residuals alone. This approach requires three elements to be successful: a priori hypotheses, ecological theory and/or knowledge, and precise spatial analysis. We offer new insights into a long-standing debate about process-pattern links in ecology and highlight six recent studies that have successfully examined spatial patterns to understand a diverse array of processes: competition in forest-stand dynamics, dispersal of freshwater fish, movement of American marten, invasion mechanisms of exotic trees, dynamics of natural disturbances, and tropical-plant diversity. Key benefits of using space as a surrogate can be found where experimental manipulation or direct measurements are difficult or expensive to obtain or not possible. We note that, even where experiments can be performed, this procedure may aid in measuring the in situ importance of the processes uncovered through experiments.

  1. Forest type mapping using incorporation of spatial models and ETM+ data.

    PubMed

    Joibary, Shaban Shataee; Darvishsefat, Ali A; Kellenberger, Tobias W

    2007-07-15

    Results of former researches have shown that spectrally based analysis alone could not satisfy forest type classification in mountainous mixed forests. Forest type based on composed different parameters such as topography elements like aspect, elevation and slop. These elements that are affected on occurrences of forest type can be stated as spatial distribution models. Using ancillary data integrated with spectral data could help to separate forest type. In order to find the abilities of using topographic spatial predictive models to improve forest type classification, an investigation was carried out to classify forest type using ETM+ data in a part of northern forests of Iran. The Tasseled Cap, Ratioing transformations and Principal Component Analysis were applied to the spectral bands. The best spectral and predictive data sets for classifying forest type using maximum likelihood classification were chosen using the Bhattacharya seperability index. Primary analysis between forest type and topographic parameters showed that elevation and aspect are most correlated with the occurrences of type. Probability occurrence rates of forest type were extracted in the aspect; elevation, integrated aspect and elevation as well as homogeneous units structured on elevation and aspect classes. Based on occurrence rates of forest type, spatial predictive distribution models were generated for each type individually. Classification of the best spectral data sets was accomplished by maximum likelihood classifier and using these spatial predictive models. Results were assessed using a sample ground truth of forest type. This study showed that spatial predictive models could considerably improve the results compared with spectral data alone from 49 to 60%. Among spatial models used, the spatial predictive models constructed based on the homogeneous units could improve results in comparison to other models. Applying other parameters related to forest type like soil maps would

  2. Does the precipitation redistribution of the canopy sense in the moisture pattern of the forest litter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Péter; Csáfordi, Péter; Kucsara, Mihály; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation is trapped and temporarily stored by the surfaces of forest crown (canopy interception) and forest litter (litter interception). The stemflow and throughfall reach the litter, thus theoretically the litter moisture content depends on these parts of precipitation. Nowadays the moisture pattern of the forest floor, both spatial and temporal scale, have growing respect for the forestry. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induce much higher variability compared to the even aged, more-less homogeneous, monocultural stands. The gap cutting is one of the key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among the forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain the optimal conditions for the seedlings. Among the open questions is how to modify surrounding trees the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we processed some available data, to estimate the spatial dependency between the water content of forest litter and the spatial pattern of the canopy represented by the tree trunk. The maximum water content depends on dry weight of litter, thus we also analysed that parameter. Data were measured in three different forest ecosystems: a middle age beech (Fagus sylvatica), a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and a spruce (Picea abies) stand. The study site (Hidegvíz Valley Research Cathcment) is located in Sopron Hills at the eastern border of the Alps. Litter samples were collected under each stand (occasionally 10-10 pieces from 40?40 cm area) and locations of the samples and neighbouring trees were mapped. We determined dry weight and the water content of litter in laboratory. The relationship between water content and the distance of tree trunks in case of spruce and oak stands were not significant and in case of the beech stand was weakly significant. Climate change effects can influence significantly forest floor moisture content, therefore this

  3. Using codispersion analysis to quantify and understand spatial patterns in species-environment relationships.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Hannah L; Case, Bradley S; Zimmerman, Jess K; Thompson, Jill; Myers, Jonathan A; Ellison, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of spatial patterns in species-environment relationships can provide new insights into the niche requirements and potential co-occurrence of species, but species abundance and environmental data are routinely collected at different spatial scales. Here, we investigate the use of codispersion analysis to measure and assess the scale, directionality and significance of complex relationships between plants and their environment in large forest plots. We applied codispersion analysis to both simulated and field data on spatially located tree species basal area and environmental variables. The significance of the observed bivariate spatial associations between the basal area of key species and underlying environmental variables was tested using three null models. Codispersion analysis reliably detected directionality (anisotropy) in bivariate species-environment relationships and identified relevant scales of effects. Null model-based significance tests applied to codispersion analyses of forest plot data enabled us to infer the extent to which environmental conditions, tree sizes and/or tree spatial positions underpinned the observed basal area-environment relationships, or whether relationships were a result of other unmeasured factors. Codispersion analysis, combined with appropriate null models, can be used to infer hypothesized ecological processes from spatial patterns, allowing us to start disentangling the possible drivers of plant species-environment relationships. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Spatial pulses of water inputs in deciduous and hemlock forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, A. J.; Mussehl, M.; Pecht, A.; Spence, C.

    2010-12-01

    Trees intercept and redistribute precipitation in time and space. While spatial patterns of throughfall are challenging to link to plant and canopy characteristics, many studies have shown that the spatial patterns persist through time. This persistence leads to wet and dry spots under the trees, creating spatial pulses of moisture that can affect infiltration, transpiration, and biogeochemical processes. In the northeast, the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid poses a significant threat to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and replacement of hemlock forests by other species, such as birch, maple, and oak, has the potential to alter throughfall patterns and hydrologic processes. During the summers of 2009 and 2010, we measured throughfall in both hemlock and deciduous plots to assess its spatial distribution and temporal persistence. From 3 June to 25 July 2009, we measured throughfall in one hemlock and one deciduous plot over fourteen events with rainfall totaling 311 mm. From 8 June through 28 July 2010, we measured throughfall in the same two plots plus an additional hemlock stand and a young black birch stand, and rainfall totaled 148 mm over eight events. Averaged over space and time, throughfall was 81% of open precipitation in the hemlock stands, 88% in the mixed deciduous stand, and 100% in the young black birch stand. On an event basis, spatial coefficients of variation are similar among the stands and range from 11% to 49% for rain events greater than 5 mm. With the exception of very light events, coefficients of variation are insensitive to precipitation amount. Spatial patterns of throughfall persist through time, and seasonal coefficients of variation range from 13% to 33%. All stands indicate localized concentrations of water inputs, and there were individual collectors in the deciduous stands that regularly received more than twice the stand-average throughfall.

  5. Spatial patterns and associations between species belonging to four genera of the Lauraceae family.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Ye, Wan Hui; Wei, Shi Guang; Lian, Ju Yu; Huang, Zhong Liang

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two levels. We first used DNA and cluster analysis to confirmed the relative relationship of eight species within a 20 ha subtropical forest in southern China. We compared Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, aggregation intensities and spatial patterns, associations, and distributions of four closely related species pairs to reveal similarities and differences at the species and genus levels. These comparisons provided insight into the mechanisms of coexistence of these congeners. O-ring statistics were used to measure spatial patterns of species. Ω0-10, the mean conspecific density within 10 m of a tree, was used as a measure of the intensity of aggregation of a species, and g-function was used to analyze spatial associations. Our results suggested that spatial aggregations were common, but the differences between spatial patterns were reduced at the genus level. Aggregation intensity clearly reduced at the genus level. Negative association frequencies decreased at the genus level, such that independent association was commonplace among all four genera. Relationships between more closely related species appeared to be more competitive at both the species and genus levels. The importance of competition on interactions is most likely influenced by similarity in lifestyle, and the habitat diversity within the species' distribution areas. Relatives with different lifestyles likely produce different distribution patterns through different interaction process. In order to fully understand the mechanisms generating spatial distributions of coexisting siblings, further research is required to determine the spatial

  6. Spatial Patterns and Associations between Species Belonging to Four Genera of the Lauraceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Ye, Wan Hui; Wei, Shi Guang; Lian, Ju Yu; Huang, Zhong Liang

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two levels. We first used DNA and cluster analysis to confirmed the relative relationship of eight species within a 20 ha subtropical forest in southern China. We compared Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, aggregation intensities and spatial patterns, associations, and distributions of four closely related species pairs to reveal similarities and differences at the species and genus levels. These comparisons provided insight into the mechanisms of coexistence of these congeners. O-ring statistics were used to measure spatial patterns of species. Ω0–10, the mean conspecific density within 10 m of a tree, was used as a measure of the intensity of aggregation of a species, and g-function was used to analyze spatial associations. Our results suggested that spatial aggregations were common, but the differences between spatial patterns were reduced at the genus level. Aggregation intensity clearly reduced at the genus level. Negative association frequencies decreased at the genus level, such that independent association was commonplace among all four genera. Relationships between more closely related species appeared to be more competitive at both the species and genus levels. The importance of competition on interactions is most likely influenced by similarity in lifestyle, and the habitat diversity within the species’ distribution areas. Relatives with different lifestyles likely produce different distribution patterns through different interaction process. In order to fully understand the mechanisms generating spatial distributions of coexisting siblings, further research is required to determine the

  7. Rainfall interception and spatial distribution of throughfall in a pine forest planted in an arid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachnovich, Yonit; Berliner, Pedro R.; Bar, Pua

    2008-01-01

    SummaryAfforestation in arid zones is of increasing importance as it is one of the favored approaches to combat desertification. Rainfall interception by the canopy plays an important role in determining the amount of rainfall reaching the forest floor. The throughfall patterns of coniferous forests planted in arid zones have hitherto not been well documented. The research site in which the measurements were carried out was located within a mature pine forest ( Pinus halepensis, Mill) planted in an arid zone (average annual precipitation: 280 mm and annual class-A evaporation pan: 2500 mm). Measurements of precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil water content and transpiration were recorded during three years. Canopy cover was estimated from the analysis of hemispherical photographs obtained during the winter. The spatially averaged throughfall, obtained for each event from 20 rainfall gauges installed below the canopy was linearly correlated with gross rainfall and independent of rainfall intensity. We found that the spatial distribution of the throughfall on the forest floor was highly heterogeneous. A fairly consistent distribution of throughfall was evident with some gauges steadily showing a higher percentage of throughfall than others. However, we could not find any relation between the degree of canopy openness (or any other quantifiable canopy characteristic) and the relative throughfall. The spatial pattern of throughfall was however found to be significant when assessed by means of the "K-means Clustering" analysis. The spatial distribution of water in the soil as measured 48 h after rainfall events with a neutron gauge was not correlated to the distribution of throughfall when each of the measuring points was assessed individually. The average throughfall was however well correlated to the average increase in the soil water content and indicates that there is some degree of horizontal water movement (overland or below ground) within the plot. The

  8. Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Edward Ta; Saatchi, Sassan S; Baccini, Alessandro; Asner, Gregory P; Goetz, Scott J; Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra

    2013-10-26

    reasonable stock estimates when aggregated over large regions. Therefore we believe the largest uncertainties for REDD+ activities relate to the spatial distribution of biomass and to the spatial pattern of forest cover change, rather than to total globally or nationally summed carbon density.

  9. Pattern transitions in spatial epidemics: Mechanisms and emergent properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Jusup, Marko; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Infectious diseases are a threat to human health and a hindrance to societal development. Consequently, the spread of diseases in both time and space has been widely studied, revealing the different types of spatial patterns. Transitions between patterns are an emergent property in spatial epidemics that can serve as a potential trend indicator of disease spread. Despite the usefulness of such an indicator, attempts to systematize the topic of pattern transitions have been few and far between. We present a mini-review on pattern transitions in spatial epidemics, describing the types of transitions and their underlying mechanisms. We show that pattern transitions relate to the complexity of spatial epidemics by, for example, being accompanied with phenomena such as coherence resonance and cyclic evolution. The results presented herein provide valuable insights into disease prevention and control, and may even be applicable outside epidemiology, including other branches of medical science, ecology, quantitative finance, and elsewhere.

  10. Biogeographical patterns of forest biomass allocation vary by climate, soil and forest characteristics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Song, Tongqing; Wang, Kelin; Wang, Genxuan; Liao, Jianxiong; Xu, Guanghua; Zeng, Fuping

    2015-04-01

    To explore whether the large-scale patterns of biomass allocation vary by climate, soil, and forest characteristics in terrestrial ecosystems, on the basis of the national forest inventory data (2004-2008) and our previous field measurements (2011-2012), we investigated the variation of four biomass allocation fractions (BAFs), and their relationship with environmental factors (e.g. climate and soil chemistry) and forest characteristics (e.g. stand age and stand density) across 11 of China’s forest types. Our results revealed that BAFs have significant latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal trends. Stepwise multiple regression models that involve the climate, soil and forest stand properties account for a part of the biogeographical variation in BAFs, and the stand age, stand density and mean growing season temperature mainly explain these variations. Reduced major axis regression models showed that BAFs differ in their sensitivity (slope of their response to environmental gradients) to climate, soil and forest characteristics among different forest types. The results of the current study do not support the isometric allocation hypothesis, which suggests that component biomass scales equivalently as total biomass across different plant species along environmental gradients.

  11. Spatial patterns of frequent floods in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Information about the spatial characteristics of high and extreme streamflow is often needed for an accurate analysis of flood risk and effective co-ordination of flood related activities, such as flood defence planning. In this study we analyse the spatial dependence of frequent floods in Switzerland across different scales. Firstly, we determine the average length of high and extreme flow events for 56 runoff time series of Swiss rivers. Secondly, a dependence measure expressing the probability that streamflow peaks are as high as peaks at a conditional site is used to describe and map the spatial extend of joint occurrence of frequent floods across Switzerland. Thirdly, we apply a cluster analysis to identify groups of sites that are likely to react similarly in terms of joint occurrence of high flow events. The results indicate that a time interval with a length of 3 days seems to be most appropriate to characterise the average length of high streamflow events across spatial scales. In the main Swiss basins, high and extreme streamflows were found to be asymptotically independent. In contrast, at the meso-scale distinct flood regions, which react similarly in terms of occurrence of frequent flood, were found. The knowledge about these regions can help to optimise flood defence planning or to estimate regional flood risk properly.

  12. Change in spatial characteristics of forest openings in the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California, USA

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Change in the spatial characteristics of forest openings was investigated in three forested watersheds in northwestern Siskiyou County, California totalling approximately 24,600 hectares. Watersheds with minimal human disturbance were chosen for study. However, fi;e suppression has been pervasive throughout. Characteristics of forest openings (area, perimeter, distance...

  13. Spatial Information Needs on the Fishlake National Forest: Can FIA Help?

    Treesearch

    Robert B., Jr. Campbell; Renee A. O' Brien

    2005-01-01

    National forest staff members are frequently challenged to make assessments with existing information. They rarely have the time or resources to go to the field to gather new data specific to the question at hand. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data have proved useful in the past, but there is an increasing need for spatial depictions of forest resources to...

  14. Spatial variability in forest growth—climate relationships in the Olympic Mountains, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Jill M. Nakawatase; David L. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    For many Pacific Northwest forests, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability in tree growth - climate relationships, yet it is this information that is needed to predict how forests will respond to future climatic change. We studied the effects of climatic variability on forest growth at 74 plots in the western and northeastern Olympic Mountains....

  15. Preliminary results of spatial modeling of selected forest health variables in Georgia

    Treesearch

    Brock Stewart; Chris J. Cieszewski; Eric L. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Variables relating to forest health monitoring, such as mortality, are difficult to predict and model. We present here the results of fitting various spatial regression models to these variables. We interpolate plot-level values compiled from the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Information Management System (FIA-NIMS) data that are related to forest health....

  16. Spatial configuration and distribution of forest patches in Champaign County, Illinois: 1940 to 1993

    Treesearch

    J. Danilo Chinea

    1997-01-01

    Spatial configuration and distribution of landscape elements have implications for the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and, therefore, for the management of these resources. The forest cover of Champaign County, in east-central Illinois, was mapped from 1940 and 1993 aerial photography and entered in a geographical information system database. In 1940, 208 forest...

  17. Spatial distribution of forest fires and controlling factors in Andhra Pradesh, India using SPOT satellite datasets.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna P; Eaturu, Anuradha; Badarinath, K V S

    2006-12-01

    Fires are one of the major causes of forest disturbance and destruction in several dry deciduous forests of southern India. In this study, we use remote sensing data sets in conjunction with topographic, vegetation, climate and socioeconomic factors for determining the potential causes of forest fires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Spatial patterns in fire characteristics were analyzed using SPOT satellite remote sensing datasets. We then used nineteen different metrics in concurrence with fire count datasets in a robust statistical framework to arrive at a predictive model that best explained the variation in fire counts across diverse geographical and climatic gradients. Results suggested that, of all the states in India, fires in Andhra Pradesh constituted nearly 13.53% of total fires. District wise estimates of fire counts for Andhra Pradesh suggested that, Adilabad, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Prakasham and Mehbubnagar had relatively highest number of fires compared to others. Results from statistical analysis suggested that of the nineteen parameters, population density, demand of metabolic energy (DME), compound topographic index, slope, aspect, average temperature of the warmest quarter (ATWQ) along with literacy rate explained 61.1% of total variation in fire datasets. Among these, DME and literacy rate were found to be negative predictors of forest fires. In overall, this study represents the first statewide effort that evaluated the causative factors of fire at district level using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets. Results from this study identify important biophysical and socioeconomic factors for assessing 'forest fire danger' in the study area. Our results also identify potential 'hotspots' of fire risk, where fire protection measures can be taken in advance. Further this study also demonstrate the usefulness of best-subset regression approach integrated with GIS, as an effective method to assess 'where and when' forest fires will most likely occur.

  18. Spatial patterning and floral synchrony among trillium populations with contrasting histories of herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael A.; Poznanovic, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial patterning and floral synchrony within and among populations of a non-clonal, forest understory herb, Trillium catesbaei. Two populations of T. catesbaei within Great Smoky Mountains National Park were monitored for five years: Cades Cove (high deer abundance) and Whiteoak Sink (low deer abundance). All individuals within each population were mapped during year one and five. Only flowering and single-leaf juveniles were mapped during intervening years. Greater distances between flowering plants (plants currently in flower) and substantially lower population densities and smaller patch sizes were observed at Cades Cove versus Whiteoak Sink. However, with the exception of flowering plants, contrasting histories of herbivory did not appear to fundamentally alter the spatial patterning of the T. catesbaei population at Cades Cove, an area with a long and well-documented history of deer overabundance. Regardless of browse history, non-flowering life stages were significantly clustered at all spatial scales examined. Flowering plants were clustered in all years at Whiteoak Sink, but more often randomly distributed at Cades Cove, possibly as a result of their lower abundance. Between years, however, there was a positive spatial association between the locations of flowering plants at both sites. Flowering rate was synchronous between sites, but lagged a year behind favorable spring growing conditions, which likely allowed plants to allocate photosynthate from a favorable year towards flowering the subsequent year. Collectively, our results suggest that chronically high levels of herbivory may be associated with spatial patterning of flowering within populations of a non-clonal plant. They also highlight the persistence of underlying spatial patterns, as evidenced by high levels of spatial clustering among non-flowering individuals, and the pervasive, although muted in a population subjected to chronic herbivory, influence of precipitation and

  19. Spatial patterning and floral synchrony among trillium populations with contrasting histories of herbivory.

    PubMed

    Webster, Christopher R; Jenkins, Michael A; Poznanovic, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial patterning and floral synchrony within and among populations of a non-clonal, forest understory herb, Trillium catesbaei. Two populations of T. catesbaei within Great Smoky Mountains National Park were monitored for five years: Cades Cove (high deer abundance) and Whiteoak Sink (low deer abundance). All individuals within each population were mapped during year one and five. Only flowering and single-leaf juveniles were mapped during intervening years. Greater distances between flowering plants (plants currently in flower) and substantially lower population densities and smaller patch sizes were observed at Cades Cove versus Whiteoak Sink. However, with the exception of flowering plants, contrasting histories of herbivory did not appear to fundamentally alter the spatial patterning of the T. catesbaei population at Cades Cove, an area with a long and well-documented history of deer overabundance. Regardless of browse history, non-flowering life stages were significantly clustered at all spatial scales examined. Flowering plants were clustered in all years at Whiteoak Sink, but more often randomly distributed at Cades Cove, possibly as a result of their lower abundance. Between years, however, there was a positive spatial association between the locations of flowering plants at both sites. Flowering rate was synchronous between sites, but lagged a year behind favorable spring growing conditions, which likely allowed plants to allocate photosynthate from a favorable year towards flowering the subsequent year. Collectively, our results suggest that chronically high levels of herbivory may be associated with spatial patterning of flowering within populations of a non-clonal plant. They also highlight the persistence of underlying spatial patterns, as evidenced by high levels of spatial clustering among non-flowering individuals, and the pervasive, although muted in a population subjected to chronic herbivory, influence of precipitation and

  20. More than just drought: complexity of recruitment patterns in Mediterranean forests.

    PubMed

    Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Understanding community dynamics during early life stages of trees is critical for the prediction of future species composition. In Mediterranean forests drought is a major constraint for regeneration, but likely not the only factor determining the observed spatial patterns. We carried out a sowing experiment aimed at identifying main filters during seed-seedling transition. Specifically, we studied seed fate (predation, fungi infection, emergence) and subsequent seedling performance (mortality during the first summer and overall recruitment after 2 years) of four co-occurring Mediterranean tree species (Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Juniperus thurifera, Pinus nigra). We related these processes to the dominant species composition, microhabitat heterogeneity, herb cover and seed mass. The identity of the dominant species in the forest canopy was more important for recruitment than the forest canopy being dominated by conspecific vs. heterospecific species. The patterns we found suggest that biotic interactions such as facilitation (lower mortality under the canopies) and herb competition (during emergence of J. thurifera) are relevant during recruitment. Moreover, our results pointed to ontogenetic conflicts regarding the seed mass of Q. faginea and to density-dependent seed mortality for Q. ilex, rarely described in Mediterranean ecosystems. We propose that our study species experience population growth in forests dominated by heterospecifics where the recruitment success depends on habitat heterogeneity and on moderated biotic and abiotic stresses created by each species. Our results reveal patterns and mechanisms involved in recruitment constraints that add complexity to the well-known drought-related processes in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  1. Patterns of Mineral Soil Nitrate Retention with Forest Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, C. B.; Lovett, G. M.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Lang, A.; Ouimette, A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) has been elevated in the northeastern U.S. for decades and many of the region's forests have reached mature biomass and no longer have net N demands, leading biogeochemical models to predict increasing nitrate (NO3-) losses from forested watersheds. However, long-term monitoring at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire shows an unexpected decline in stream NO3- concentrations in recent years, and suggests that poorly understood processes of retention in mineral soils may contribute to this pattern. The mineral soil is a large and heterogeneous pool of N, making changes with time difficult to quantify. We hypothesized that a reaccumulation of N in mineral soil organic matter in successional and recently matured forests is in part leading to current low NO3- losses. We used a chronosequence of four replicated forest age classes, ranging from young ( 25 y) to old growth (>200 y since disturbance) in the White Mountain region of New Hampshire to study how site age affects NO3- retention in mineral soil. We applied a 15NO3- tracer to the surface of the mineral soil beneath the forest floor and tracked the total recovery of 15N, as well as its distribution between particulate and mineral-associated (<53 mm) organic matter fractions, in the top 10 cm of mineral soil over the course of five weeks. We found the highest retention of 15N in the recently matured forests ( 100 y old), consistent with our hypothesis. Retention in the soil pool was lower in younger forests, likely due to greater root uptake to supply growth demands. The soils of the old growth forests retained low amounts of the tracer, suggesting that they are closer to N saturation. We found 15N in the mineral-associated fraction after 2 days, indicating that some NO3- is either abiotically incorporated into stabilized organic matter, or immobilized by microbes associated with mineral surfaces. We seek to combine these results with more detailed organic

  2. Documentation of procedures for textural/spatial pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Bryant, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A C-130 aircraft was flown over the Sam Houston National Forest on March 21, 1973 at 10,000 feet altitude to collect multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Existing textural and spatial automatic processing techniques were used to classify the MSS imagery into specified timber categories. Several classification experiments were performed on this data using features selected from the spectral bands and a textural transform band. The results indicate that (1) spatial post-processing a classified image can cut the classification error to 1/2 or 1/3 of its initial value, (2) spatial post-processing the classified image using combined spectral and textural features produces a resulting image with less error than post-processing a classified image using only spectral features and (3) classification without spatial post processing using the combined spectral textural features tends to produce about the same error rate as a classification without spatial post processing using only spectral features.

  3. Mining Co-Location Patterns from Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Xiao, W. D.; Tang, D. Q.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the widespread application of geographic information systems (GIS) and GPS technology and the increasingly mature infrastructure for data collection, sharing, and integration, more and more research domains have gained access to high-quality geographic data and created new ways to incorporate spatial information and analysis in various studies. There is an urgent need for effective and efficient methods to extract unknown and unexpected information, e.g., co-location patterns, from spatial datasets of high dimensionality and complexity. A co-location pattern is defined as a subset of spatial items whose instances are often located together in spatial proximity. Current co-location mining algorithms are unable to quantify the spatial proximity of a co-location pattern. We propose a co-location pattern miner aiming to discover co-location patterns in a multidimensional spatial data by measuring the cohesion of a pattern. We present a model to measure the cohesion in an attempt to improve the efficiency of existing methods. The usefulness of our method is demonstrated by applying them on the publicly available spatial data of the city of Antwerp in Belgium. The experimental results show that our method is more efficient than existing methods.

  4. Dopamine signaling tunes spatial pattern selectivity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bicheng; Dong, Yongming; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yan; Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Animals with complex brains can discriminate the spatial arrangement of physical features in the environment. It is unknown whether such sensitivity to spatial patterns can be accomplished in simpler nervous systems that lack long-range sensory modalities such as vision and hearing. Here we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can discriminate spatial patterns in its surroundings, despite having a nervous system of only 302 neurons. This spatial pattern selectivity requires touch-dependent dopamine signaling, including the mechanosensory TRP-4 channel in dopaminergic neurons and the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3. We find that spatial pattern selectivity varies significantly among C. elegans wild isolates. Electrophysiological recordings show that natural variations in TRP-4 reduce the mechanosensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. Polymorphic substitutions in either TRP-4 or DOP-3 alter the selectivity of spatial patterns. Together, these results demonstrate an ancestral role for dopamine signaling in tuning spatial pattern preferences in a simple nervous system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22896.001 PMID:28349862

  5. Throughfall patterns of a subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo Sá, J. H.; Chaffe, P. L. B.; de Oliveira, D. Y.; Giglio, J. N.; Kobiyama, M.

    2016-12-01

    Forests play a major role in spatial and temporal rainfall redistribution. In Brazil, only about 8% of the original Atlantic Forest cover remains. That is an important biome and little is known about the characteristics of rainfall interception of this forest. The total interception loss in forested areas is usually formulated as the gross precipitation (P) minus the sum of the throughfall (Tf) and the stemflow (Sf). The stems characteristics influence on Sf, meanwhile, the value of Tf strongly depends on the canopy and leaf structures. Because of the complex structure of the canopy, these characteristics are usually expressed by the simpler Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Canopy Cover Fraction (CCF). The Araponga river experimental catchment (ARA) with 5.3 ha is on the northern plateau of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. It is an area completely covered by secondary subtropical Atlantic Forest. The objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of canopy cover in a Subtropical Atlantic forest catchment in Brazil; and (ii) to explore the relation between canopy cover and throughfall. Inside the catchment, 9 Tf gages were installed 40 cm above the soil surface in order to include the interception by shrub. 28 hand-made gauges were installed on a circular area of 3 m radius to analyze the spatial variability of throughfall. During 3 year in 2012 to 2014, digital images were taken every month with a camera installed horizontally 25 cm above the soil surface at each Tf gage. The total incident rainfall was 4624 mm, the throughfall volume was 3538 mm or 76% of incident rainfall. CCF and LAI ranged from 70 to 90% and from 3 to 5.5 m²/m², respectively. The NDVI ranged between 0.25 to 0.55 and LAINDVI ranged between 0.5 to 3.5, both with clear seasonal variation. We could not find any satisfactory relationship between Tf and canopy parameters (CCF, LAI, NDVI and LAINDVI). The results indicate that the internal distribution of

  6. [Analysis of urban forest landscape pattern in Hefei].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zemin; Wu, Wenyou; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Shaojie

    2003-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of landscape ecology, the landscape pattern of the study area (17.6 km2) in the downtown of Hefei was analyzed by using the techniques of RS, GPS and GIS. The object was to provide a comprehensive method to study urban forest structure and its function in environmental improvement. The results showed that there were 5 major landscape elements, i.e., building and hard pavement surface, water, road, urban forest, and general green land in the area. The landscape matrix was building and pavement surface, occupied 73.13% of total land. Road was the typical corridor element in the city and occupied 6.89%. Green land occupied 11.44%, in which, urban forest patch occupied 9.18%. There were 408 urban forest patches, with an area of 161.16 hm2. The average area of the patch was 0.396 hm2, and the maximum area was 12 hm2. 48% of urban forest patch was identified as small scale patches with < 500 m2 of area, and only 8.6% of them was larger than 1 hm2. The number of general green land patch was 255, with an area of 39.74 hm2, which accounted for 2.26% of land area, and its average and maximum area was 0.1558 hm2 and 3.86 hm2, respectively. There were 147 water patches, with an area of 149.93 hm2, and occupied 8.54% of land, and the average and maximum area of the patch was 1.02 hm2 and 16 hm2, respectively. In the study area, both of the Shannon-Weiner landscape diversity index and evenness were low, only 0.928 and 0.576, respectively. In addition, the dominance of urban forest patch and general green land was 0.39 showing that the two landscape elements had a certain influence on the environment of the study area. The concept of interior habitat for forest was introduced in this paper, which was employed to make a scale class system of urban forest patch. The threshold area with interior habitat for urban forest patch was 9800 m2, and there was 31.69 hm2 of interior habitat of urban forest in total, which occupied 19.7% of the total area

  7. Potential for spatial management of hunted mammal populations in tropical forests

    Treesearch

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Kent H. Redford

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable hunting in tropical forests threatens biodiversity and rural livelihoods, yet managing these harvests in remote forests with low scientific capacity and funding is challenging. In response, some conservationists propose managing harvests through spatial management, a system of establishing notake zones where hunting is not allowed. Spatial management was...

  8. Is forest fragmentation driven by the spatial configuration of land quality? The case of western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; David J. Lewis; Jennifer J. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spatial configuration of economic returns, to enhance models of forest fragmentation for western Oregon and western Washington. Drawing from spatial land rent theory, economic drivers of forest fragmentation at the landscape level include land quality comprised of attributes such as soil fertility or the distance of urban plots to amenities. We included...

  9. Describing spatial pattern in stream networks: A practical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  10. A geostatistical approach for describing spatial pattern in stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  11. Spatial Tuning Studies of the Pattern Evoked Electroretinogram.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Dorothy Ann

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The locus of origin of the pattern evoked electroretinogram, (PERG), has been the subject of considerable discussion. A novel approach was adopted in this study to further elaborate the nature of the PERG evoked by pattern onset/offset presentation. The PERG was found to be linearly related to stimulus contrast and in particular was linearly related to the temporal contrast of the retinal image, when elicited by patterns of low spatial frequency. At high spatial frequencies the retinal image contrast is significantly reduced because of optical degradation. This is described by the eye's modulation transfer function (MTF). The retinal contrasts of square wave grating and chequerboard patterns of increasing spatial frequency were found by filtering their Fourier transforms by the MTF. The filtered pattern harmonics were then resynthesised to constitute a profile of retinal image illuminance from which the temporal and spatial contrast of the image could be calculated. A space-averaged temporal contrast attenuation factor was applied to PERGs evoked by low spatial frequency patterns to predict the retinal illuminance response elicited by a finer pattern. The predicted response was subtracted from the recorded signal and the residual waveform was proposed to represent pattern specific activity. An additional correction for the attenuation of spatial contrast was applied to the extracted pattern specific response. Pattern specific responses are the predicted result of iso-contrast retinal pattern stimulation. The pattern specific responses demonstrate a striking bandpass spatial selectivity which peaks at higher spatial frequencies in the more central retina. The variation of spatial sensitivity with eccentricity corresponds closely with estimated ganglion receptive field centre separation and psychophysical data. The variation of retinal structure with eccentricity in the form of the volumes of the nuclear

  12. Pattern and control of biomass allocation across global forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongtao; Wang, Limei

    2017-07-01

    The underground part of a tree is an important carbon sink in forest ecosystems. Understanding biomass allocation between the below- and aboveground parts (root:shoot ratios) is necessary for estimation of the underground biomass and carbon pool. Nevertheless, large-scale biomass allocation patterns and their control mechanisms are not well identified. In this study, a large database of global forests at the community level was compiled to investigate the root:shoot ratios and their responses to environmental factors. The results indicated that both the aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of the forests in China (medians 73.0 Mg/ha and 17.0 Mg/ha, respectively) were lower than those worldwide (medians 120.3 Mg/ha and 27.7 Mg/ha, respectively). The root:shoot ratios of the forests in China (median = 0.23), however, were not significantly different from other forests worldwide (median = 0.24). In general, the allocation of biomass between the belowground and aboveground parts was determined mainly by the inherent allometry of the plant but also by environmental factors. In this study, most correlations between root:shoot ratios and environmental factors (development parameter, climate, altitude, and soil) were weak but significant (p < .01). The allometric model agreed with the trends observed in this study and effectively estimated BGB based on AGB across the entire database.

  13. Dynamic analysis and pattern visualization of forest fires.

    PubMed

    Lopes, António M; Tenreiro Machado, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns.

  14. Dynamic Analysis and Pattern Visualization of Forest Fires

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

  15. [Spatial pattern of legionellosis in Spain, 2003-2007].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Nogareda, Francisco; Cano, Rosa; Pina, Maria Fátima; Del Barrio, José Luis; Simon, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the spatial pattern of legionellosis in Spain for men and women during the period 2003-2007 and to identify spatial clustering of risk. We identified the spatial pattern of the distribution of legionellosis rates based on calculation of rates by municipality through the direct method. Smoothing of these rates was performed by the Empirical Bayes method for studying the spatial pattern of disease for both sexes. We used Morańs index to analyze spatial autocorrelation rates globally. To calculate local rates, the Local Moran's Index [known as local indicators of spatial association (LISA)], was used to analyze the clusters of municipalities with the highest risk. After smoothing the risk, the highest rates (over 50 per 100,000 inhabitants) were grouped in the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the north of the mainland, as well as in the Mediterranean islands. Moran's index smoothed rates were 0.15 for men and 0.23 for women. The spatial clusters of statistically significant higher rates calculated by the LISA index were distributed in the north and east for both sexes. These methods of spatial analysis allow patterns of disease distribution to be identified. All the methods used yielded similar results. These techniques are a complementary tool for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  17. Forest disturbances, deforestation and timber harvest patterns in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Huo, L. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Current estimates of carbon-equivalent emissions report the contribution of deforestation as 12% of total anthropogenic carbon emissions (van der Werf et al., 2009), but accurate monitoring of forest carbon balance should discriminate between land use change related to forest natural disturbances, forest management and deforestation. The total change in forest cover (Gross Forest Cover Loss, GFCL) needs to be characterized based on the cause (natural/human) and on the outcome of the change (regeneration to forest/transition to non-forest)(Kurtz et al, 2010). We developed a multitemporal, object-oriented methodology to classify GFCL as either (a) deforestation, (b) fire and insect disturbances (c) forest management practices. The Landsat-derived University of Maryland Global Forest Change product (Hansen, 2013) is used to identify all the areas forest cover loss: those areas are subsequently converted to objects, and used to extract temporal profiles of spectral reflectances and spectral indices from the Landsat WELD dataset. Finally, the temporal profiles and descriptive parameters of shapes, textures, and spatial relationships of the objects are used in a rule-based classifier to identify the type of disturbance. To pathfind a global disturbance type classification, the methods are demonstrated by wall-to-wall classification of the forest cover loss in the conterminous United States for the 2002-2011 period. The results show that deforestation accounts for a small percentage (approximately 2%) of the GFCL in the CONUS, and are in agreement with the known patterns of logging activity, fire and insect damage. The time series of timber harvest clearcut is also in agreement with the national timber extraction statistics, showing reduced harvesting following the 2008 economic crisis. The results also highlight the different management practices on private and public lands: 36% of the US forests are publicly owned (federal, state and local institutions) but account only

  18. Pattern Formation in Spatially Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei; Horsthemke, Werner

    The preceding chapters have dealt with the spatiotemporal behavior of spatially continuous systems. We now turn our attention to the dynamical behavior and stability properties of spatially discrete systems. A wide variety of phenomena in chemistry, biology, physics, and other fields involve the coupling between nonlinear, discrete units. Examples include arrays of Josephson junctions, chains of coupled diode resonators, coupled chemical or biochemical reactors, myelinated nerve fibers, neuronal networks, and patchy ecosystems. Such networks of coupled nonlinear units often combine dynamical and structural complexity [422]. Cells in living tissues, for example, are arranged in a variety of geometries. One-dimensional rings of cells were already considered by Turing [440]. Other types of lattices, such as open-ended linear arrays, tubes, rectangular and hexagonal arrays, and irregular arrangements in two or three dimensions are also found, see for example [5]. Cells interact with adjacent cells in various distinct ways. For example, signaling between cells may occur via diffusion through gap junctions [352, 230] or by membrane-bound proteins, juxtacrine signaling [339, 340, 471].

  19. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Janus A. J.; Hansen, Susse K.; Christensen, Bjarke B.; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Confined spatial patterns of microbial distribution are prevalent in nature, such as in microbial mats, soil communities, and water stream biofilms. The symbiotic two-species consortium of Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter sp. strain C6, originally isolated from a creosote-polluted aquifer, has evolved a distinct spatial organization in the laboratory that is characterized by an increased fitness and productivity. In this consortium, P. putida is reliant on microcolonies formed by Acinetobacter sp. C6, to which it attaches. Here we describe the processes that lead to the microcolony pattern by Acinetobacter sp. C6. Ecological spatial pattern analyses revealed that the microcolonies were not entirely randomly distributed and instead were arranged in a uniform pattern. Detailed time-lapse confocal microscopy at the single-cell level demonstrated that the spatial pattern was the result of an intriguing self-organization: small multicellular clusters moved along the surface to fuse with one another to form microcolonies. This active distribution capability was dependent on environmental factors (carbon source and oxygen) and historical contingency (formation of phenotypic variants). The findings of this study are discussed in the context of species distribution patterns observed in macroecology, and we summarize observations about the processes involved in coadaptation between P. putida and Acinetobacter sp. C6. Our results contribute to an understanding of spatial species distribution patterns as they are observed in nature, as well as the ecology of engineered communities that have the potential for enhanced and sustainable bioprocessing capacity. PMID:26116674

  20. Mapping the spatial variability of plant diversity in a tropical forest: comparison of spatial interpolation methods.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Stefanoni, J Luis; Ponce-Hernandez, Raul

    2006-06-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is essential to conservation and forest managers in order to identify high priority areas such as vulnerable species and habitats, and designate areas for reserves, refuges and other protected areas. A reliable map of the diversity of plant species over the landscape is an invaluable tool for such purposes. In this study, the number of species, the exponent Shannon and the reciprocal Simpson indices, calculated from 141 quadrat sites sampled in a tropical forest were used to compare the performance of several spatial interpolation techniques used to prepare a map of plant diversity, starting from sample (point) data over the landscape. Means of mapped classes, inverse distance functions, kriging and co-kriging, both, applied over the entire studied landscape and also applied within vegetation classes, were the procedures compared. Significant differences in plant diversity indices between classes demonstrated the usefulness of boundaries between vegetation types, mapped through satellite image classification, in stratifying the variability of plant diversity over the landscape. These mapped classes, improved the accuracy of the interpolation methods when they were used as prior information for stratification of the area. Spatial interpolation by co-kriging performed among the poorest interpolators due to the poor correlation between the plant diversity variables and vegetation indices computed by remote sensing and used as covariables. This indicated that the latter are not suitable covariates of plant diversity indices. Finally, a within-class kriging interpolator yielded the most accurate estimates of plant diversity values. This interpolator not only provided the most accurate estimates by accounting for the indices' intra-class variability, but also provided additional useful interpretations of the structure of spatial variability of diversity values through the interpretation of their semi-variograms. This

  1. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  2. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Jachowski, David S; Rota, Christopher T; Dobony, Christopher A; Ford, W Mark; Edwards, John W

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural components

  3. The spatial pattern of nitrogen cycling in the Adirondack Park, New York.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Brenden E; Read, Jane M; Sullivan, Timothy J; McDonnell, Todd C; Fernandez, Ivan J; Driscoll, Charles T

    2008-03-01

    Maps of canopy nitrogen obtained through analysis of high-resolution, hyperspectral, remotely sensed images now offer a powerful means to make landscape-scale to regional-scale estimates of forest N cycling and net primary production (NPP). Moreover, recent research has suggested that the spatial variability within maps of canopy N may be driven by environmental gradients in such features as historic forest disturbance, temperature, species composition, moisture, geology, and atmospheric N deposition. Using the wide variation in these six features found within the diverse forest ecosystems of the 2.5 million ha Adirondack Park, New York, USA, we examined linkages among environmental gradients and three measures of N cycling collected during the 2003 growing season: (1) field survey of canopy N, (2) field survey of soil C:N, and (3) canopy N measured through analysis of two 185 x 7.5 km Hyperion hyperspectral images. These three measures of N cycling strongly related to forest type but related poorly to all other environmental gradients. Further analysis revealed that the spatial pattern in N cycling appears to have distinct inter- and intraspecific components of variability. The interspecific component, or the proportional contribution of species functional traits to canopy biomass, explained 93% of spatial variability within the field canopy N survey and 37% of variability within the soil C:N survey. Residual analysis revealed that N deposition accounted for an additional 2% of variability in soil C:N, and N deposition and historical forest disturbance accounted for an additional 2.8% of variability in canopy N. Given our finding that 95.8% of the variability in the field canopy N survey could be attributed to variation in the physical environment, our research suggests that remotely sensed maps of canopy N may be useful not only to assess the spatial variability in N cycling and NPP, but also to unravel the relative importance of their multiple controlling

  4. Assessment of the line transect method: an examination of the spatial patterns of down and standing dead wood

    Treesearch

    Duncan C. Lutes

    2002-01-01

    The line transect method, its underlying assumptions, and the spatial patterning of down and standing pieces of dead wood were examined at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana. The accuracy of the line transect method was not determined due to conflicting results of t-tests and ordinary least squares regression. In most instances down pieces were...

  5. A spatial analysis of Phytophthora ramorum symptom spread using second-order point pattern and GIS-based analyses

    Treesearch

    Mark Spencer; Kevin O' Hara

    2006-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is a major source of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) mortality in the tanoak/redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests of central California. This study presents a spatial analysis of the spread of the disease using second-order point pattern and GIS analyses. Our data set includes four plots...

  6. Narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance detection and mapping from high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhong; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xuling; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2009-12-01

    Widespread disturbance has brought a large amount of narrow-linear and small-area disturbance features (e.g., trails, seismic lines, forest roads, well sites, and cut blocks) to forest areas throughout the past decade. This issue has prompted research into finding the appropriate data and methods for mapping these narrow-linear and small-area disturbance features in order to examine their impacts on wildlife habitat. In this paper, we first described the characteristics of small forest disturbances and presented the nature of problem. We then presented a framework for detecting and extracting narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance features. Using a SPOT 5 high spatial detail image and existing GIS databases, we applied the framework to map narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance features in a Bear Management area (BMA) in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, Canada. The results indicated that the proposed framework produced accurate disturbance maps for cut blocks, and forest roads & trails. The high errors of omission in the cut lines map were attributed to inconsistent geometric and radiometric patterns in the 'rarely-used' or 'old' cut lines. The study confirmed the feasibility of rapidly updating incomplete GIS data with linear and small-area disturbance features extracted from high spatial detail SPOT imagery. Future work will be directed towards improvement of the framework and the extraction strategy to remove a large amount of spurious features and to increase accuracy for cut lines mapping.

  7. Within and Among Patch Variability in Patterns of Insect Herbivory Across a Fragmented Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Dorothy Y.; Buddle, Christopher M.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation changes the spatial patterns of landscapes in ways that can alter the flow of materials and species; however, our understanding of the consequences of this fragmentation and flow alteration for ecosystem processes and ecosystem services remains limited. As an ecological process that affects many ecosystem services and is sensitive to fragmentation, insect herbivory is a good model system for exploring the role of fragmentation, and the resulting spatial patterns of landscapes, in the provision of ecosystem services. To refine our knowledge of how changes in landscape pattern affect insect herbivory, we quantified the combined influence of among patch (patch area and patch connectivity) and within patch (location within patch; canopy, edge, interior) factors on amounts of insect herbivory in a fragmented forest landscape. We measured herbivory in 20 forest patches of differing size and connectivity in southern Quebec (Canada). Within each patch, herbivory was quantified at the interior, edge, and canopy of sugar maple trees during the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012. Results show that connectivity affects herbivory differently depending on the location within the patch (edge, interior, canopy), an effect that would have gone unnoticed if samples were pooled across locations. These results suggest considering structure at both the patch and within patch scales may help to elucidate patterns when studying the effects of fragmentation on ecosystem processes, with implications for the services they support. PMID:26938457

  8. Within and Among Patch Variability in Patterns of Insect Herbivory Across a Fragmented Forest Landscape.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Buddle, Christopher M; Bennett, Elena M

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation changes the spatial patterns of landscapes in ways that can alter the flow of materials and species; however, our understanding of the consequences of this fragmentation and flow alteration for ecosystem processes and ecosystem services remains limited. As an ecological process that affects many ecosystem services and is sensitive to fragmentation, insect herbivory is a good model system for exploring the role of fragmentation, and the resulting spatial patterns of landscapes, in the provision of ecosystem services. To refine our knowledge of how changes in landscape pattern affect insect herbivory, we quantified the combined influence of among patch (patch area and patch connectivity) and within patch (location within patch; canopy, edge, interior) factors on amounts of insect herbivory in a fragmented forest landscape. We measured herbivory in 20 forest patches of differing size and connectivity in southern Quebec (Canada). Within each patch, herbivory was quantified at the interior, edge, and canopy of sugar maple trees during the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012. Results show that connectivity affects herbivory differently depending on the location within the patch (edge, interior, canopy), an effect that would have gone unnoticed if samples were pooled across locations. These results suggest considering structure at both the patch and within patch scales may help to elucidate patterns when studying the effects of fragmentation on ecosystem processes, with implications for the services they support.

  9. Isoscapes: Spatial Pattern in Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-05-01

    Isotope ratios of actively cycled elements vary as a function of the biogeochemical processes in which they participate and the conditions under which those processes occur. The resultant spatiotemporal distribution of isotopes in environmental materials can be predicted using models of isotope-fractionating processes and data describing environmental conditions across space and time, and it has been termed an isoscape, or isotopic landscape. Analysis of isoscapes and comparison of isoscape predictions with observational data have been used to test biogeochemical models, calculate aerially integrated biogeochemical fluxes based on isotope mass balance, and determine spatial connectivity in biogeochemical, ecological, and anthropological systems. Isoscape models of varying quality are available for stable H, C, N, and O isotopes in a range of Earth surface systems, but significant opportunities exist to refine our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and our ability to predict isoscapes through the development of more mechanistic and more comprehensive isoscape models.

  10. Does livestock grazing influence spatial patterns of woody plant proliferation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patterns of woody plant proliferation in grasslands and savannas influence rates of erosion, spread of disturbance, and nutrient pools.  Spatial pattern is the outcome of plant dispersal, recruitment, competition/facilitation, and disturbance. We quantified effects of livestock grazing, a widely cit...

  11. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhao, Yuluan

    2012-12-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development. Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics, rules, and spatial patterns is, therefore, important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy. In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level, based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data. The results show that: 1) during 1985-2000, the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area. The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation ( p < 0.05). Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage I to 0.3024 at the time stage II; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Moran's I value decreases from the time stage I to time stage II, which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change, which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant. The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area. However, the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area. Therefore, protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  12. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in nitrogen-saturated soils of a central Appalachian hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Frank S. Gilliam; Bradley M. Yurish; Mary Beth Adams

    2001-01-01

    We studied temporal and spatial patterns of soil nitrogen (N) dynamics from 1993 to 1995 in three watersheds of Fernow Experimental Forest, W.V.: WS7 (24-year-old, untreated); WS4 (mature, untreated); and WS3 (24- year-old, treated with (NH4)2SO4 since 1989 at the rate of 35 kg N·ha–1...

  13. Latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical modeling of spatial uncertainty in a spatially explicit forest landscape model simulation

    Treesearch

    Chonggang Xu; Hong S. He; Yuanman Hu; Yu Chang; Xiuzhen Li; Rencang Bu

    2005-01-01

    Geostatistical stochastic simulation is always combined with Monte Carlo method to quantify the uncertainty in spatial model simulations. However, due to the relatively long running time of spatially explicit forest models as a result of their complexity, it is always infeasible to generate hundreds or thousands of Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, it is of great...

  14. Modeling and spatially distributing forest net primary production at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Mickler, Robert A; Earnhardt, Todd S; Moore, Jennifer A

    2002-04-01

    Forest, agricultural, rangeland, wetland, and urban landscapes have different rates of carbon sequestration and total carbon sequestration potential under alternative management options. Changes in the proportion and spatial distribution of land use could enhance or degrade that area's ability to sequester carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. As the ecosystems within a landscape change due to natural or anthropogenic processes, they may go from being a carbon sink to a carbon source or vice versa. Satellite image analysis has been tested for timely and accurate measurement of spatially explicit land use change and is well suited for use in inventory and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. The coupling of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data with a physiologically based forest productivity model (PnET-II) and historic climatic data provides an opportunity to enhance field plot-based forest inventory and monitoring methodologies. We use periodic forest inventory data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program to obtain estimates of forest area and type and to generate estimates of carbon storage for evergreen, deciduous, and mixed-forest classes. The area information is used in an accuracy assessment of remotely sensed forest cover at the regional scale. The map display of modeled net primary production (NPP) shows a range of forest carbon storage potentials and their spatial relationship to other landscape features across the southern United States. This methodology addresses the potential for measuring and projecting forest carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere of the southern United States.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Carbonate Biomineralization in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobao; Chopp, David L.; Russin, William A.; Brannon, Paul T.; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed precipitation of carbonate minerals is an important process in diverse biological, geological, and engineered systems. However, the processes that regulate carbonate biomineralization and their impacts on biofilms are largely unexplored, mainly because of the inability of current methods to directly observe biomineralization within biofilms. Here, we present a method for in situ, real-time imaging of biomineralization in biofilms and use it to show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms produce morphologically distinct carbonate deposits that substantially modify biofilm structures. The patterns of carbonate biomineralization produced in situ were substantially different from those caused by accumulation of particles produced by abiotic precipitation. Contrary to the common expectation that mineral precipitation should occur at the biofilm surface, we found that biomineralization started at the base of the biofilm. The carbonate deposits grew over time, detaching biofilm-resident cells and deforming the biofilm morphology. These findings indicate that biomineralization is a general regulator of biofilm architecture and properties. PMID:26276112

  16. Spatially Explicit Forest Characteristics of Europe Integrating NFI and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. L. S.; Neumann, M.; Hasenauer, H.

    2015-12-01

    Seeing the forest through the trees in Europe is easier said than done. European forest data is nationally collected using different methodologies and sampling techniques. This data can be difficult to obtain, and if made available often lacks spatial information and might only be provided in the local language. This makes analyzing forests in Europe difficult. The reporting systems of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the European Forestry Institute (EFI) permit several acquisition and calculation methodologies which lead to difficulties in comparing country level data. We have collected spatially explicit national forest inventory (NFI) data from 13 countries in Europe and harmonized these datasets. Using this data along with remote sensing data products we have derived spatially explicit forest characteristics maps of Europe on a 0.017o resolution representing the time period 2000-2010. We have created maps for every NFI variable in our dataset including carbon stock, forest age, forest height, volume, basal area, etc. Cross-validating this data shows that this method produces accurate results for most variables while variables pertaining to forest cover type have lower accuracy. This data is in line with data from FAO and EFI in most cases. However, our dataset allows us to identify large incongruities quickly in FAO and EFI data. Our spatially explicit data is also accurate at predicting forest characteristics in areas where we have no NFI data. This data set provides a consistent harmonized view of the state of European forests in a way hitherto not possible, giving researchers the ability to analyze forests spatially across the entire continent. This method can also be useful for those researching areas that have little or no NFI data or areas where data acquisition is difficult or impossible. This data can also quickly give policy makers a greater view of how forest management practices have shaped our current European forests.

  17. Characterization of spatial networklike patterns from junction geometry.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Kuntz, Pascale; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for quantitative characterization of spatial networklike patterns with loops, such as surface fracture patterns, leaf vein networks, and patterns of urban streets. Such patterns are not well characterized by purely topological estimators: also patterns that both look different and result from different morphogenetic processes can have similar topology. A local geometric cue--the angles formed by the different branches at junctions--can complement topological information and allow the quantification of the large scale spatial coherence of the pattern. For patterns that grow over time, such as fracture lines on the surface of ceramics, the rank assigned by our method to each individual segment of the pattern approximates the order of appearance of that segment. We apply the method to various networklike patterns and find a continuous but sharp dichotomy between two classes of spatial networks: hierarchical and homogeneous. The former class results from a sequential growth process and presents large scale organization, and the latter presents local, but not global, organization.

  18. [Three-dimensional spatial distribution patterns of Monochamus alternatus and its natural enemy Dastarcus helophoroides].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyang; Zou, Yunding; Ding, Yuzhou; Wu, Houzhang; Li, Zhengzhi; Lin, Xuefei; Wang, Wenjun; Tian, Fangxin

    2006-08-01

    In 2003 to approximately 2005, the Monochamus alternatus-infected Pinus thunbergii, P. massoniana and P. elliotii in pure and mixed forests were selected as attractants and dissected with one meter section manner, and five aggregation indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of M. alternatus and its natural enemy Dastarcus helophoroides. The results showed that M. alternatus and D. helophoroides had the horizontal distribution indices of diffused coefficient C > 1, diffused index I delta > 1, Kuno index C(A) > 0, clump intensity index I > 1, and swarm index Iw > 1 in the two stands, suggesting their aggregated horizontal distribution patterns, and except D. helophoroides on the P. massoniana in mixed forest appeared assemble vertical distribution, these two insects all had an even vertical distribution, with their C < 1, I delta < 1, C(A) < 0, Iw < 1, and I < 0. The spatial distribution patterns of M. alternatus and D. helophoroides were consistent, and the latter was spatially following the former.

  19. Aging affects spatial reconstruction more than spatial pattern separation performance even after extended practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rachel; Tahan, Asli C; Watson, Patrick D; Severson, Joan; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Michelle

    2017-03-21

    Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes. Spatial pattern separation supports spatial memory by preserving unique representations for distinct locations. Spatial relational processing forms relational representations of objects to locations or between objects and other objects in space. To test our primary objective, 30 young (18-30 years; 21F) and 30 older participants (60-80 years; 21F) all completed a spatial pattern separation task and a task designed to require spatial relational processing through spatial reconstruction. To ensure aging effects were not due to inadequate time to develop optimal strategies or become comfortable with the testing devices, a subset of participants had extended practice across three sessions on each task. Results showed that older adults performed more poorly than young on the spatial reconstruction task that emphasized the use of spatial relational processing, and that age effects persisted even after controlling for pattern separation performance. Further, older adults performed more poorly on spatial reconstruction than young adults even after three testing sessions each separated by 7-10 days, suggesting effects of aging are resistant to extended practice and likely reflect genuine decline in hippocampal memory abilities.

  20. Dynamics and pattern of a managed coniferous forest landscape in Oregon.

    Treesearch

    T.A. Spies; W.J. Ripple; G.A. Bradshaw

    1994-01-01

    We examined the process of fragmentation in a managed forest landscape by comparing rates and patterns of disturbance (primarily clear-cutting) and regrowth between 1972 and 1988 using Landsat imagery. A 2589-km2 managed forest landscape in western Oregon was classified into two forest types, closed-canopy conifer forest (CF) (typically, > 60% conifer cover) and...

  1. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  2. Environmental drivers of spatial variation in whole-tree transpiration in an aspen-dominated upland-to-wetland forest gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, Michael M.; Mackay, D. Scott; Ewers, Brent E.; Adelman, Jonathan D.; Kruger, Eric L.

    2008-02-01

    Assumed representative center-of-stand measurements are typical inputs to models that scale forest transpiration to stand and regional extents. These inputs do not consider gradients in transpiration at stand boundaries or along moisture gradients and therefore potentially bias the large-scale estimates. We measured half-hourly sap flux (JS) for 173 trees in a spatially explicit cyclic sampling design across a topographically controlled gradient between a forested wetland and upland forest in northern Wisconsin. Our analyses focused on three dominant species in the site: quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), speckled alder (Alnus incana (DuRoi) Spreng), and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.). Sapwood area (AS) was used to scale JS to whole tree transpiration (EC). Because spatial patterns imply underlying processes, geostatistical analyses were employed to quantify patterns of spatial autocorrelation across the site. A simple Jarvis type model parameterized using a Monte Carlo sampling approach was used to simulate EC (EC-SIM). EC-SIM was compared with observed EC(EC-OBS) and found to reproduce both the temporal trends and spatial variance of canopy transpiration. EC-SIM was then used to examine spatial autocorrelation as a function of environmental drivers. We found no spatial autocorrelation in JS across the gradient from forested wetland to forested upland. EC was spatially autocorrelated and this was attributed to spatial variation in AS which suggests species spatial patterns are important for understanding spatial estimates of transpiration. However, the range of autocorrelation in EC-SIM decreased linearly with increasing vapor pressure deficit, implying that consideration of spatial variation in the sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to D is also key to accurately scaling up transpiration in space.

  3. Mixing Carrots and Sticks to Conserve Forests in the Brazilian Amazon: A Spatial Probabilistic Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix. PMID:25650966

  4. Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix.

  5. Spatial variability and temporal trends in water-use efficiency of European forests.

    PubMed

    Saurer, Matthias; Spahni, Renato; Frank, David C; Joos, Fortunat; Leuenberger, Markus; Loader, Neil J; McCarroll, Danny; Gagen, Mary; Poulter, Ben; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Boettger, Tatjana; Dorado Liñán, Isabel; Fairchild, Ian J; Friedrich, Michael; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haupt, Marika; Hilasvuori, Emmi; Heinrich, Ingo; Helle, Gerd; Grudd, Håkan; Jalkanen, Risto; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans W; Robertson, Iain; Sonninen, Eloni; Treydte, Kerstin; Waterhouse, John S; Woodley, Ewan J; Wynn, Peter M; Young, Giles H F

    2014-12-01

    The increasing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration in the atmosphere in combination with climatic changes throughout the last century are likely to have had a profound effect on the physiology of trees: altering the carbon and water fluxes passing through the stomatal pores. However, the magnitude and spatial patterns of such changes in natural forests remain highly uncertain. Here, stable carbon isotope ratios from a network of 35 tree-ring sites located across Europe are investigated to determine the intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), the ratio of photosynthesis to stomatal conductance from 1901 to 2000. The results were compared with simulations of a dynamic vegetation model (LPX-Bern 1.0) that integrates numerous ecosystem and land-atmosphere exchange processes in a theoretical framework. The spatial pattern of tree-ring derived iWUE of the investigated coniferous and deciduous species and the model results agreed significantly with a clear south-to-north gradient, as well as a general increase in iWUE over the 20th century. The magnitude of the iWUE increase was not spatially uniform, with the strongest increase observed and modelled for temperate forests in Central Europe, a region where summer soil-water availability decreased over the last century. We were able to demonstrate that the combined effects of increasing CO2 and climate change leading to soil drying have resulted in an accelerated increase in iWUE. These findings will help to reduce uncertainties in the land surface schemes of global climate models, where vegetation-climate feedbacks are currently still poorly constrained by observational data.

  6. Modelling the Spatial Variability of Fuel Moisture Across a Heterogeneous Forested Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kamp, D.; Moore, D.; McKendry, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Fuel moisture pays an important role in determining the intensity, behaviour and spatial patterns of forest fires and can vary significantly across a forested landscape. We present a set of models designed to quantify the spatial patterns of near surface drying potential across a landscape with significant variability in above canopy radiation load and canopy coverage. We examined the degree to which these two factors drive drying potential and whether relatively wet and non-burnable areas persist in the landscape during the fire season. Specifically, we measured near-surface temperature and humidity at sites across the landscape, as well as precipitation, solar radiation, and wind speed at a subset of these sites. These observations were then used to evaluate, train, and drive a fuel moisture model that includes sub-components for canopy interception of both precipitation and radiation. The precipitation interception is modelled using a Rutter model approach that accounts for evaporation from the canopy. Radiation interception was modelled using hemispherical photos of the canopy combined with modelled sun locations and ratios of direct to diffuse radiation. A novel model was developed to simulate the moisture of standardized fuel sticks at four different size classes and was evaluated using an independent dataset. Finally, the modelled fuel moisture was used to estimate potential fire-line intensity and ignition probability. Preliminary results indicate that downwelling longwave radiation from the canopy is counteracted by less radiation during the day. This balance leads to smaller spatial variability of daytime minimum fuel moisture which is influenced by both night time and daytime conditions due to moisture storage.

  7. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H. S.; Dattaraja, H. S.; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3−-N nor NH4+-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief. PMID:27100088

  8. Patterns and predictors of β-diversity in the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest: a multiscale analysis of forest specialist and generalist birds.

    PubMed

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Faria, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity maintenance in human-altered landscapes (HALs) depends on the species turnover among localities, but the patterns and determinants of β-diversity in HALs are poorly known. In fact, declines, increases and neutral shifts in β-diversity have all been documented, depending on the landscape, ecological group and spatial scale of analysis. We shed some light on this controversy by assessing the patterns and predictors of bird β-diversity across multiple spatial scales considering forest specialist and habitat generalist bird assemblages. We surveyed birds from 144 point counts in 36 different forest sites across two landscapes with different amount of forest cover in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We analysed β-diversity among points, among sites and between landscapes with multiplicative diversity partitioning of Hill numbers. We tested whether β-diversity among points was related to within-site variations in vegetation structure, and whether β-diversity among sites was related to site location and/or to differences among sites in vegetation structure and landscape composition (i.e. per cent forest and pasture cover surrounding each site). β-diversity between landscapes was lower than among sites and among points in both bird assemblages. In forest specialist birds, the landscape with less forest cover showed the highest β-diversity among sites (bird differentiation among sites), but generalist birds showed the opposite pattern. At the local scale, however, the less forested landscape showed the lowest β-diversity among points (bird homogenization within sites), independently of the bird assemblage. β-diversity among points was weakly related to vegetation structure, but higher β-diversity values were recorded among sites that were more isolated from each other, and among sites with higher differences in landscape composition, particularly in the less forested landscape. Our findings indicate that patterns of bird β-diversity vary across scales

  9. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. A spatially explicit decision support model for restoration of forest bird habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B.; Elliott, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The historical area of bottomland hardwood forest in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has been reduced by >75%. Agricultural production was the primary motivator for deforestation; hence, clearing deliberately targeted higher and drier sites. Remaining forests are highly fragmented and hydrologically altered, with larger forest fragments subject to greater inundation, which has negatively affected many forest bird populations. We developed a spatially explicit decision support model, based on a Partners in Flight plan for forest bird conservation, that prioritizes forest restoration to reduce forest fragmentation and increase the area of forest core (interior forest >1 km from 'hostile' edge). Our primary objective was to increase the number of forest patches that harbor >2000 ha of forest core, but we also sought to increase the number and area of forest cores >5000 ha. Concurrently, we targeted restoration within local (320 km2) landscapes to achieve >60% forest cover. Finally, we emphasized restoration of higher-elevation bottomland hardwood forests in areas where restoration would not increase forest fragmentation. Reforestation of 10% of restorable land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (approximately 880,000 ha) targeted at priorities established by this decision support model resulted in approximately 824,000 ha of new forest core. This is more than 32 times the amount of core forest added through reforestation of randomly located fields (approximately 25,000 ha). The total area of forest core (1.6 million ha) that resulted from targeted restoration exceeded habitat objectives identified in the Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan and approached the area of forest core present in the 1950s.

  11. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  12. Spatial distribution pattern of vanadium in hydric landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Breuer, Jörn; Palmer, Iris; Berger, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    landscapes. Independent from the parent material, we found a distinct spatial pattern of V, which reflected that of the local redox environment: Horizons/pedons with oxic conditions revealed a positive correlation between V content and Fe content. In this case, iron oxides act as an important sink for dissolved V which originated from other locations of the catena. Poorly drained soils, such as Stagnosols for example, promote both Fe and V reduction, which is coupled to their removal from the pedons by leaching. It can be demonstrated that the element-specific Eh window for differential reduction is very narrow. The spatial distribution of both elements shows that high V contents are often associated with low Fe contents. It is therefore assumed that a reducing environment promotes Fe3+ reduction, while maintaining while maintaining V stable.

  13. Multitrophic diversity in a biodiverse forest is highly nonlinear across spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Andreas; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Staab, Michael; Assmann, Thorsten; Böhnke-Kammerlander, Martin; Both, Sabine; Erfmeier, Alexandra; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Ma, Keping; Pietsch, Katherina; Schultze, Sabrina; Wirth, Christian; Zhang, Jiayong; Zumstein, Pascale; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical and tropical forests are biodiversity hotspots, and untangling the spatial scaling of their diversity is fundamental for understanding global species richness and conserving biodiversity essential to human well-being. However, scale-dependent diversity distributions among coexisting taxa remain poorly understood for heterogeneous environments in biodiverse regions. We show that diversity relations among 43 taxa—including plants, arthropods and microorganisms—in a mountainous subtropical forest are highly nonlinear across spatial scales. Taxon-specific differences in β-diversity cause under- or overestimation of overall diversity by up to 50% when using surrogate taxa such as plants. Similar relationships may apply to half of all (sub)tropical forests—including major biodiversity hotspots—where high environmental heterogeneity causes high biodiversity and species turnover. Our study highlights that our general understanding of biodiversity patterns has to be improved—and that much larger areas will be required than in better-studied lowland forests—to reliably estimate biodiversity distributions and devise conservation strategies for the world's biodiverse regions. PMID:26658136

  14. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function.

  15. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Robert M; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Jocqué, Rudy; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-25

    The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity). Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity): insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced). This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of forest fires: a comprehensive application of the K-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Conedera, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The spatial distribution of uncontrolled hazardous events, such as forest fires, is largely investigated from the scientific community with the purpose of finding out the more vulnerable areas. Mapping the location of spatio-temporal sequences for a given environmental dataset is of great impact; however, the majority of the studies miss the analysis of the aggregation over time. Nonetheless discovering unusual temporal pattern for a given time sequence is fundamental to understand the phenomena and underlying processes. The present study aims investigating both the spatial and the temporal cluster behaviour of forest fires occurrences registered in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) over a period of about 40 years and testing if space and time interact in generate clusters. To do this, the purely spatial, the time and the space-time extensions of the Ripley's K-function were applied. The Ripley's K-function is a statistic exploratory method which enables detecting whether or not a point process (e.g. the location of the ignition points) is randomly distributed. The purely spatial K-function K(r) is defined as the expected number of further events within an area of radius r around an arbitrary point of the pattern, divided by the intensity of the phenomenon. Under completely spatial randomness, the value of the K(r) is equal to the area around the point (=πr2), while observations above this theoretical value imply a clustering behaviour at the corresponding distance r. For the purely time analysis, the Ripley's K-function K(t) can be taught as a reformulation of the spatial version to detect unexpected aggregation of events over the temporal scale. For its computation, the value of the intensity used in K(r) is replaced by the total duration of the time sequence divided by the total number of observed events, and the distance r is replaced by the time interval t. Under time-regularity, K(t) equals 2t, whereas, observed measures above this theoretical value indicate a

  17. How large is large enough for insects? Forest fragmentation effects at three spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, C. R.; Sobrinho, T. G.; Schoereder, J. H.; Sperber, C. F.; Lopes-Andrade, C.; Soares, S. M.

    2005-02-01

    Several mechanisms may lead to species loss in fragmented habitats, such as edge and shape effects, loss of habitat and heterogeneity. Ants and crickets were sampled in 18 forest remnants in south-eastern Brazil, to test whether a group of small remnants maintains the same insect species richness as similar sized large remnants, at three spatial scales. We tested hypotheses about alpha and gamma diversity to explain the results. Groups of remnants conserve as many species of ants as a single one. Crickets, however, showed a scale-dependent pattern: at small scales there was no significant or important difference between groups of remnants and a single one, while at the larger scale the group of remnants maintained more species. Alpha diversity (local species richness) was similar in a group of remnants and in a single one, at the three spatial scales, both for ants and crickets. Gamma diversity, however, varied both with taxa (ants and crickets) and spatial scale, which may be linked to insect mobility, remnant isolation, and habitat heterogeneity. Biological characteristics of the organisms involved have to be considered when studying fragmentation effects, as well as spatial scale at which it operates. Mobility of the organisms influences fragmentation effects, and consequently conservation strategies.

  18. Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest landscape fire disturbance and succession

    Treesearch

    Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff

    1999-01-01

    Understanding disturbance and recovery of forest landscapes is a challenge because of complex interactions over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Landscape simulation models offer an approach to studying such systems at broad scales. Fire can be simulated spatially using mechanistic or stochastic approaches. We describe the fire module in a spatially explicit,...

  19. Impact of spatial resolution on correlation between segmentation evaluation metrics and forest classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švab Lenarčič, Andreja; Ritlop, Klemen; Äńurić, Nataša.; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-10-01

    Slovenia is one of the most forested countries in Europe. Its forest management authorities need information about the forest extent and state, as their responsibility lies in forest observation and preservation. Together with appropriate geographic information system mapping methods the remotely sensed data represent essential tool for an effective and sustainable forest management. Despite the large data availability, suitable mapping methods still present big challenge in terms of their speed which is often affected by the huge amount of data. The speed of the classification method could be maximised, if each of the steps in object-based classification was automated. However, automation is hard to achieve, since segmentation requires choosing optimum parameter values for optimal classification results. This paper focuses on the analysis of segmentation and classification performance and their correlation in a range of segmentation parameter values applied in the segmentation step. In order to find out which spatial resolution is still suitable for forest classification, forest classification accuracies obtained by using four images with different spatial resolutions were compared. Results of this study indicate that all high or very high spatial resolutions are suitable for optimal forest segmentation and classification, as long as appropriate scale and merge parameters combinations are used in the object-based classification. If computation interval includes all segmentation parameter combinations, all segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution independent and are generally high. If computation interval includes over- or optimal-segmentation parameter combinations, most segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution dependent.

  20. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N L; Hartz, Sandra M

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  1. Metacommunity Composition of Web-Spiders in a Fragmented Neotropical Forest: Relative Importance of Environmental and Spatial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N. L.; Hartz, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover and fog inundation in coastal California: Ecological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rastogi, Bharat; Williams, A. Park; Fischer, Douglas T.; Iacobellis, Sam F.; McEachern, Kathryn; Carvalho, Leila; Jones, Charles Leslie; Baguskas, Sara A.; Still, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog has been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in coastal California where forests are frequently shaded by low-lying clouds or immersed in fog during otherwise warm and dry summer months. Summer fog and stratus can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, and often have different spatial and temporal patterns. Here we use remote sensing datasets to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover over California’s northern Channel Islands. We found marine stratus to be persistent from May through September across the years 2001-2012. Stratus clouds were both most frequent and had the greatest spatial extent in July. Clouds typically formed in the evening, and dissipated by the following early afternoon. We present a novel method to downscale satellite imagery using atmospheric observations and discriminate patterns of fog from those of stratus and help explain patterns of fog deposition previously studied on the islands. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to our ability to quantify the occurrence of coastal fog at biologically meaningful spatial and temporal scales that can improve our understanding of cloud-ecosystem interactions, species distributions and coastal ecohydrology.

  3. Control of spatially patterned synchrony with multisite delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, C.; Omel‘Chenko, O.; Popovych, O. V.; Maistrenko, Y.; Tass, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present an analytical study describing a method for the control of spatiotemporal patterns of synchrony in networks of coupled oscillators. Delayed feedback applied through a small number of electrodes effectively induces spatiotemporal dynamics at minimal stimulation intensities. Different arrangements of the delays cause different spatial patterns of synchrony, comparable to central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e., interacting clusters of oscillatory neurons producing patterned output, e.g., for motor control. Multisite delayed feedback stimulation might be used to restore CPG activity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury or gait ignition disorders.

  4. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  5. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  6. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-01-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010–2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710–6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance. PMID:24198936

  7. Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  8. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  9. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  10. Landscape-Level Spatial Patterns of West Nile Virus Risk in the Northern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Hockett, Christine W.; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the landscape-level determinants of West Nile virus (WNV) can aid in mapping high-risk areas and enhance disease control and prevention efforts. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of human WNV cases in three areas in South Dakota during 2003–2007 and investigated the influences of land cover, hydrology, soils, irrigation, and elevation by using case–control models. Land cover, hydrology, soils, and elevation all influenced WNV risk, although the main drivers were different in each study area. Risk for WNV was generally higher in areas with rural land cover than in developed areas, and higher close to wetlands or soils with a high ponding frequency. In western South Dakota, WNV risk also decreased with increasing elevation and was higher in forested areas. Our results showed that the spatial patterns of human WNV risk were associated with landscape-level features that likely reflect variability in mosquito ecology, avian host communities, and human activity. PMID:22492161

  11. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heavy Metals in Beijing Agricultural Soils Based on Spatial Autocorrelation Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the spatial pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran’s I statistic of spatial autocorrelation. The global Moran’s I result showed that the spatial dependence of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different spatial weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global spatial correlations based on distance weight. The spatial dependence of the four metals was scale-dependent on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal spatial positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and spatial outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high spatial clusters, Low-high, or even High-low spatial outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had strongly changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase. PMID:21776217

  12. Spatial pattern analysis of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils based on spatial autocorrelation statistics.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatial pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran's I statistic of spatial autocorrelation. The global Moran's I result showed that the spatial dependence of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different spatial weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global spatial correlations based on distance weight. The spatial dependence of the four metals was scale-dependent on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal spatial positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and spatial outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high spatial clusters, Low-high, or even High-low spatial outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had strongly changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase.

  13. Evaluation of hydrologic equilibrium in a mountainous watershed: incorporating forest canopy spatial adjustment to soil biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. Scott

    Hydrologic equilibrium theory has been used to describe both short-term regulation of gas exchange and long-term adjustment of forest canopy density. However, by focusing on water and atmospheric conditions alone a hydrologic equilibrium may impose an oversimplification of the growth of forests adjusted to hydrology. In this study nitrogen is incorporated as a third regulation of catchment level forest dynamics and gas exchange. This was examined with an integrated distributed hydrology and forest growth model in a central Sierra Nevada watershed covered primarily by old-growth coniferous forest. Water and atmospheric conditions reasonably reproduced daily latent heat flux, and predicted the expected catenary trend of leaf area index (LAI). However, it was not until the model was provided a spatially detailed description of initial soil carbon and nitrogen pools that spatial patterns of LAI were generated. This latter problem was attributed to a lack of soil history or memory in the initialization of the simulations. Finally, by reducing stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) the canopy density increased when water and nitrogen limitations were not present. The results support a three-control hydrologic equilibrium in the Sierra Nevada watershed. This has implications for modeling catchment level soil-vegetation-atmospheric interactions over interannual, decade, and century time-scales.

  14. Spatial pattern formation induced by Gaussian white noise.

    PubMed

    Scarsoglio, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; D'Odorico, Paolo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2011-02-01

    The ability of Gaussian noise to induce ordered states in dynamical systems is here presented in an overview of the main stochastic mechanisms able to generate spatial patterns. These mechanisms involve: (i) a deterministic local dynamics term, accounting for the local rate of variation of the field variable, (ii) a noise component (additive or multiplicative) accounting for the unavoidable environmental disturbances, and (iii) a linear spatial coupling component, which provides spatial coherence and takes into account diffusion mechanisms. We investigate these dynamics using analytical tools, such as mean-field theory, linear stability analysis and structure function analysis, and use numerical simulations to confirm these analytical results.

  15. Spatial distribution pattern of termite in Endau Rompin Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaludin, Nur-Atiqah; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    We censused 18 field blocks approximately 190 ha with total of 28,604 palms in a grid of 2×4 palms from July 2011 to March 2013. The field blocks comprise of rows of palm trees, harvesting paths, field drains and stacking rows with maximum of 30 palms per row, planted about 9 m apart, alternately in maximum of 80 rows. SADIE analysis generating index of aggregation, Ia, local clustering value, Vi and local gap value, Vj is adopted to estimate spatial pattern. The patterns were then presented in contour map using Surfer 12 software. The patterns produced associated with factors i.e. habitat disturbance, habitat fragmentation and resources affecting nesting and foraging activities. Result shows that field blocks with great habitat disturbance recorded highest dead palms and termites hits. Blocks located far from the main access road recorded less than 2% palms with termite hits. This research may provide ecological data on termite spatial pattern in oil palm ecosystem.

  16. The MODIS (Collection V005) BRDF/albedo product: Assessment of spatial representativeness over forested landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, Miguel O.; Schaaf, Crystal; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Braswell, Rob H.; Curtis, Peter; Davis, Kenneth J.; Dragoni, Danilo; Goulden, Michael L.; Gu, Lianhong; Hollinger, David Y; Meyers, Tilden P.; Wilson, Tim B.; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steve; Privette, Jeffrey L.; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2009-11-01

    A new methodology for establishing the spatial representativeness of tower albedo measurements that are routinely used in validation of satellite retrievals from global land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy products is presented. This method brings together knowledge of the intrinsic biophysical properties of a measurement site, and the surrounding landscape to produce a number of geostatistical attributes that describe the overall variability, spatial extent, strength of the spatial correlation, and spatial structure of surface albedo patterns at separate seasonal periods throughout the year. Variogram functions extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) retrievals of surface albedo using multiple spatial and temporal thresholds were used to assess the degree to which a given point (tower) measurement is able to capture the intrinsic variability of the immediate landscape extending to a satellite pixel. A validation scheme was implemented over a wide range of forested landscapes, looking at both deciduous and coniferous sites, from tropical to boreal ecosystems. The experiment focused on comparisons between tower measurements of surface albedo acquired at local solar noon and matching retrievals from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection V005) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo algorithm. Assessments over a select group of field stations with comparable landscape features and daily retrieval scenarios further demonstrate the ability of this technique to identify measurement sites that contain the intrinsic spatial and seasonal features of surface albedo over sufficiently large enough footprints for use in modeling and remote sensing studies. This approach, therefore, improves our understanding of product uncertainty both in terms of the representativeness of the field data and its relationship to the larger satellite pixel.

  17. Diurnal Patterns of Direct Light Extinction in Two Tropical Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, K.; Silva, C. E.; Kellner, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which net ecosystem production is light-limited in Neotropical forests is poorly understood. This is due in part to our limited knowledge of how light moves through complex canopies to different layers of leaves, and the extent to which structural changes in canopies modify the amount of light absorbed by the landscape to drive photosynthesis. Systematic diurnal changes in solar angle, leaf angle, and wind speed suggest that patterns of light attenuation change over the course of the day in tropical forests. In this study, we characterize the extinction of direct light through the canopies of two forests in Panama using high-resolution, three-dimensional measurements from a small footprint, discrete return airborne laser scanner mounted on the gondola of a canopy crane. We hypothesized that light penetrates deeper into canopies during the middle of the day because changes in leaf angle by light-saturated leaves temporarily reduce effective canopy leaf area, and because greater wind speeds increase sunflecks. Also, we hypothesized that rates of light extinction are greater in the wetter forest that receives less direct sunlight because light saturation in upper leaves is less prevalent. We collected laser measurements with resolution of approximately 5,000 points per square meter of ground every 90 minutes over the course of one day each at Parque Natural Metropolitano (1740 mm annual rainfall) and Parque Nacional San Lorenzo (3300 mm annual rainfall) during the dry season in April, 2016. Using a voxel-based approach, we compared the actual versus potential distance traveled by laser beams through each volume of the canopy. We fit an exponential model to quantify the rate of light extinction. We found that rates of light extinction vary spatially, temporally, and by site. These results indicate that variation in forest structure changes patterns of light attenuation through the canopy over multiple scales.

  18. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Laurance, W. F.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Almeida, S.; Arroyo, L.; Difiore, A.; Erwin, T.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, S. G.; Nascimento, H.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Silva, J. N. M.; Malhi, Y.; López Gonzalez, G.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. In this study, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and above-ground, coarse wood production of trees ≥10 cm diameter (CWP) for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Average species maximum height and wood density are lower in Western than Eastern Amazonia and are negatively correlated with CWP. To test the hypothesis that variation in these traits causes the variation in CWP, we generate plot-level estimates of CWP by resampling the full distribution of tree biomass growth rates whilst maintaining the appropriate tree-diameter and functional-trait distributions for each plot. These estimates are then compared with the observed values. Overall, the estimates do not predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of CWP, suggesting that the variation in community-level trait values does not determine variation in coarse wood productivity in Amazonian forests. Instead, the regional gradient in CWP is caused by higher biomass growth rates across all tree types in Western Amazonia. Therefore, the regional gradient in CWP is driven primarily by environmental factors, rather than the particular functional composition of each stand. These results contrast with previous findings for forest biomass, where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns in above-ground biomass. Therefore, in tropical forests, above-ground wood productivity may be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  19. Uncoupling the complexity of forest soil variation: influence of terrain attributes, spectral indices, and spatial variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing concern over climate and management induced changes to soil nutrient status has prompted interest in understanding the spatial distribution of forest soil properties. Recent advancements in remotely sensed geospatial technologies are providing an increasing array of data...

  20. Uncoupling the complexity of forest soil variation: influence of terrain attributes, spectral indices, and spatial variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing concern over climate and management induced changes to soil nutrient status has prompted interest in understanding the spatial distribution of forest soil properties. Recent advancements in remotely sensed geospatial technologies are providing an increasing array of data...

  1. [Spatial heterogeneity of natural regeneration in a spruce-fir mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Li; Yang, Hua; Kang, Xin-Gang; Wang, Yan; Yue, Gang; Shen, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Based on fieldwork on a plot of 60 m x 60 m in the Changbai Mountain area of Northeast China in August 2012, the spatial distribution pattern and heterogeneity of natural regeneration in the spruce-fir mixed broadleaf-conifer forest were analyzed using semi-variograms, fractal dimensions and Kriging interpolation methods. The results showed that Abies nephrolepis and Acer mono were the most common regeneration species, accounting for 87.4% of the total. The regeneration seedlings and saplings presented an aggregate distribution pattern with the biggest radius of 9.93 m. Distinct spatial autocorrelation existed among regeneration seedlings and saplings, with 88.7% of variation coming from structure factors (biological and ecological properties and environmental heterogeneity) and 11.3% from random factors. The spatial distribution of the regeneration seedlings and saplings presented anisotropy, with the smallest fractal dimension and strongest spatial heterogeneity from north to south, and the highest fractal dimension and weakest spatial heterogeneity from northeast to southwest. The spatial heterogeneity of heights of seedlings and saplings was greater than that of root collar diameters. The distance of spatial autocorrelation for tree root collar diameters was 29.97 m, and that for heights was 31.86 m. Random factors and structure factors were found to contribute equally to the spatial heterogeneity.

  2. Patterns of snow, deposition, and soil nutrients at multiple spatial scales at a Rocky Mountain tree line ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, Daniel; Seastedt, Timothy R.

    2009-12-01

    The forest-alpine tundra ecotone in the Front Range of Colorado typically occurs as a gradual transition from the treeless tundra to the closed canopy coniferous subalpine forest. We evaluated the patterns of snow, deposition inputs, and soil properties at three spatial scales: across the entire ecotone, with distance from tree limit in the transitional krummholz zone, and around individual trees. Snow depth was deepest in the krummholz zone and lowest in the alpine tundra and upwind of trees near tree limit, but was not predictive of most soil properties except for surface litter decomposition. Inorganic deposition ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 g m-2 yr-1 across the ecotone and tended to be higher downwind than upwind of trees. The exchangeable acid cation concentrations were significantly higher in the forest and increased gradually toward the tundra. The exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were only predictable at the scale of individual trees with greater concentrations downwind of trees. Resin bag available N was rarely predictable at any spatial scale, but was correlated among seasons. While the ecotone is in many ways a gradual transition from alpine tundra to subalpine forest, patterns observed across this vegetation gradient were often replicated on the scale of individual trees: downwind of trees was more similar to the forest, and upwind of trees was more similar to the tundra. No single spatial scale or gradient can provide uniform generalities about the amounts or fluxes of materials that determine the soil properties of this ecotone.

  3. Spatial P heterogeneity in forest soil: Influence on microbial P uptake and community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilla, Thomas; Angulo-Schipper, Bridith; Méndez, Juan Carlos; Dippold, Michaela A.; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Spielvogel, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Other than nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is the most important growth limiting nutrient in soils. Yet, little information is available concerning the spatial heterogeneity of P content in forest soils. More so, the effects of a homogeneous vs. heterogeneous soil P distribution on microbial P acquisition and community structure have yet to be determined. Thus, a rhizotron experiment based on a P-deficient forest soil was conducted to investigate competitive P uptake strategies of microbes. F. sylvatica-bearing rhizotrons were labeled with Fe33PO4, a relatively immobile P source native to the study soil. Homogeneous and heterogeneous P patterns were created to study the effects of spatial P heterogeneity on plant and microbial P acquisition. P mobilization by microorganisms was tracked by an improved 33P-PLFA method, linking 33P incorporation in microbes with changes in microbial community structure in soils in situ. The microbial P uptake was enhanced in rhizotrons with high P availability and in those with a patchy P distribution. Characteristic PLFAs indicate a congregation of beech-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi in P-rich patches. These ectomycorrhizal fungi are likely to strongly increase P mobilization from the used Fe33PO4 in high P habitats. In contrast, habitats with low P availability require a more complex microbial community structure without a dominant group to mobilize this inaccessible P source. Therefore, hotspots of P are likely to promote the efforts of fungal hyphae for P mobilization - an effect which decreases with lower P content. Additionally, gram positive and negative bacteria exhibit a vastly higher P uptake under increasingly patchy P distributions. However, they form a smaller portion of the microbial community than in homogeneously P enriched rhizotrons, suggesting that filamentous organisms benefit from the patchy P distribution. Thus, only a heterogeneous P distribution promotes P acquisition of forest microbial communities from mineral P

  4. Integrating Spatial Components into FIA Models of Forest Resources: Some Technical Aspects

    Treesearch

    Pat Terletzky; Tracey Frescino

    2005-01-01

    We examined two software packages to determine their feasibility of implementing spatially explicit, forest resource models that integrate Forest Inventory and Analysis data (FIA). ARCINFO and Interactive Data Language (IDL) were examined for their input requirements, speed of processing, storage requirements, and flexibility of implementing. Implementations of two...

  5. Spatial analysis of fuel treatment options for chaparral on the Angeles national forest

    Treesearch

    G. Jones; J. Chew; R. Silverstein; C. Stalling; J. Sullivan; J. Troutwine; D. Weise; D. Garwood

    2008-01-01

    Spatial fuel treatment schedules were developed for the chaparral vegetation type on the Angeles National Forest using the Multi-resource Analysis and Geographic Information System (MAGIS). Schedules varied by the priority given to various wildland urban interface areas and the general forest, as well as by the number of acres treated per decade. The effectiveness of...

  6. Spatial characteristics of topography, energy exchange, and forest cover in a central Appalachian watershed

    Treesearch

    Stanislaw J. Tajchman; Hailiang Fu; James N. Kochenderfer; Pan Chunshen

    1995-01-01

    Spatial variation of topography, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and forest stand in the central Appalachian watershed is described. The study area is the control watershed 4 (39"20'N, 79"49"W) located in the Fernow Experimental Forest at Parsons, West Virginia. The watershed encompasses an area of 39.2 ha, it has a southeast orientation, and the...

  7. Ownership and ecosystem as sources of spatial heterogeneity in a forested landscape, Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow; George E. Host; David J. Mladenoff

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between physical environment and land ownership in creating spatial heterogeneity was studied in largely forested landscapes of northern Wisconsin, USA. A stratified random approach was used in which 2500-ha plots representing two ownerships (National Forest and private non-industrial) were located within two regional ecosystems (extremely well-drained...

  8. Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems.

    PubMed

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-08-01

    Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  10. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  11. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  12. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  13. Throughfall patterns of a Subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo Sá, João Henrique; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Yuimi de Oliveira, Debora; Nery Giglio, Joana; Kobiyama, Masato

    2017-04-01

    The interception process is responsible for the spatial and temporal redistribution of the precipitation that reaches the ground. This process is important especially in forested areas since it influences recycling of moisture from the air and also the amount of water that effectively reaches the ground. The contact of the precipitation with the canopy influences on the water quality, increasing the concentration of various nutrients in the throughfall (Tf) and stemflow (Sf). Brazil, only about 8% of the original Atlantic Forest cover remains. That is an important biome and little is known about the characteristics of rainfall interception of this forest. The total interception loss in forested areas is usually formulated as the gross precipitation (P) minus the sum of the throughfall (Tf) and the stemflow (Sf). The stems characteristics influence on Sf, meanwhile, the value of Tf strongly depends on the canopy and leaf structures. Because of the complex structure of the canopy, these characteristics are usually expressed by the simpler Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Canopy Cover Fraction (CCF). The Araponga river experimental catchment (ARA) with 5.3 ha is on the northern plateau of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. It is an area completely covered by secondary subtropical Atlantic Forest, the regional climate is the Köppen Cfb type, i.e., temperate climate without dry season and with warm summer (the mean temperature of the hottest month is always under 22°C). The objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of canopy cover; (ii) to influence of the interception process on the precipitation quality; and (iii) to explore the relation between canopy cover and throughfall. Inside the catchment, 9 Tf gauges were installed 40 cm above the soil surface in order to include the interception by shrub. 28 hand-made gauges were installed on a circular area of 3 m radius to analyze the spatial variability of throughfall. During

  14. On the spatial organization of the ridge slough patterned landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, S. T.; Cohen, M. J.; Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    A century of hydrologic modification has altered the physical and biological drivers of landscape processes in the Everglades (southern Florida, USA). Restoring the ridge-slough patterned landscape, a dominant feature of the historical system, is a priority, but requires an understanding of pattern genesis mechanisms. Physical experiments to evaluate alternative pattern formation mechanisms are limited by the time scales of peat accumulation and loss, necessitating model-based comparisons, where support for a particular mechanism is based on model replication of extant patterning and trajectories of degradation. However, multiple mechanisms yield a central feature of ridge-slough patterning (patch elongation in the direction of historical flow), limiting the utility of that characteristic for discriminating among alternatives. Using data from vegetation maps we investigated the statistical features of ridge-slough spatial patterning (ridge density, patch perimeter, elongation, patch-area scaling, and spatial periodicity) to establish rigorous criteria for evaluating model performance, and to inform controls on pattern variation across the contemporary system. Mean water depth explained significant variation in ridge density, total perimeter, and length : width ratios, illustrating significant pattern response to existing hydrologic gradients. Two independent analyses (2-D periodograms and patch size distributions) provide strong evidence against regular patterning, with the landscape exhibiting neither a characteristic wavelength nor a characteristic patch size, both of which are expected under conditions that produce regular patterns. Rather, landscape properties suggest robust scale-free patterning, indicating genesis from the coupled effects of local facilitation and a global negative feedback operating uniformly at the landscape-scale. Critically, this challenges widespread invocation of meso-scale negative feedbacks for explaining ridge-slough pattern origins

  15. Forest cover of insular Southeast Asia mapped from recent satellite images of coarse spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Malingreau, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-01

    The study provides an example of mapping tropical forest cover from SPOT-Vegetation satellite images of coarse spatial resolution (1 km) for the subregion of insular Southeast Asia. A satellite image mosaic has been generated from satellite images acquired for the period 1998 to 2000. Forest cover has been mapped by unsupervised digital classification. The mapping result has then been compared to selected forest maps from the subregion, demonstrating the potential to provide basic information on forest area extent and distribution, but also on massive forest cover change in the subregional context. Forest area estimates derived from the map for the subregion have been found comparable to those compiled by FAO. The results indicate that many of the remaining tropical forests in Southeast Asia, rich in timber resources and biodiversity, may be lost in the near future if deforestation continues at present or previous rates.

  16. [Alpha diversity patterns in three fragmented forests of Northern Andes, Colombia].

    PubMed

    López, Wilson; Duque, Alvaro

    2010-03-01

    Diversity studies in forests are useful for conservation management. We analyzed the patterns of alpha diversity in three protected forests along an altitudinal gradient in the Northern part of the Central Mountain Range, Colombia. The study was based on six permanent plots of 1 ha (two per area). According to plant size, two main categories were used: canopy (diameter at breast height > or = 10 cm) and understory (1 cm < or = diameter at breast height < 10 cm). Species-area curves showed differences in species richness by size category in all regions. Instead, species-individual curves were independent of the size in Anorí and Angelópolis, but not in Belmira. Diversity patterns, as measured by Fisher's alpha index, showed a strong tendency to reach a plateau for sample sizes larger than 1000 individuals. Neither species-area curves nor species-individual curves showed an asymptote; however, the species accumulation rate in Belmira was very low (0.05) when compared to Anorí and Angelópolis (0.25). Fisher's alpha index is a very useful tool to understand the extent of relative differences in diversity among regions or forest types along altitudinal gradients, even when sample size is relatively small. Our results support dispersal limitation as the main mechanism structuring species assemblages at very fine scales, and the monotonic increment of density-dependence processes determining the tree community structure at larger spatial scales. Likewise, we found that density-dependence tends to increase with altitude.

  17. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M

    2015-06-16

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation.

  18. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P.; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A.; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation. PMID:26082547

  19. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g–1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g–1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ–1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities. PMID:27341474

  20. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    PubMed

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities.

  1. Forest stand development patterns in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Copenheaver, C.A.; Matthews, J.M.; Showalter, J.M.; Auch, W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Composition of southern Appalachian forests are influenced by disturbance and topography. This study examined six stands in southwestern Virginia. Within each stand, a 0.3-ha plot was established, and all trees and saplings were measured and aged. Burned stands had lower densities of saplings and small trees, but appeared to have greater Quercus regeneration. Ice damage from the 1994 ice storm was most evident in Pinus strobus saplings. A stand on old coal-mine slag appeared to be experiencing a slower rate of succession than other sites. A variety of stand development patterns were observed, but one common pattern was that oak-hickory overstories had different species in their understory, which may indicate future changes in species composition.

  2. Spatial patterns of large natural fires in Sierra Nevada wilderness areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.M.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fire on vegetation vary based on the properties and amount of existing biomass (or fuel) in a forest stand, weather conditions, and topography. Identifying controls over the spatial patterning of fire-induced vegetation change, or fire severity, is critical in understanding fire as a landscape scale process. We use gridded estimates of fire severity, derived from Landsat ETM+ imagery, to identify the biotic and abiotic factors contributing to the observed spatial patterns of fire severity in two large natural fires. Regression tree analysis indicates the importance of weather, topography, and vegetation variables in explaining fire severity patterns between the two fires. Relative humidity explained the highest proportion of total sum of squares throughout the Hoover fire (Yosemite National Park, 2001). The lowest fire severity corresponded with increased relative humidity. For the Williams fire (Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks, 2003) dominant vegetation type explains the highest proportion of sum of squares. Dominant vegetation was also important in determining fire severity throughout the Hoover fire. In both fires, forest stands that were dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) burned at highest severity, while red fir (Abies magnifica) stands corresponded with the lowest fire severities. There was evidence in both fires that lower wind speed corresponded with higher fire severity, although the highest fire severity in the Williams fire occurred during increased wind speed. Additionally, in the vegetation types that were associated with lower severity, burn severity was lowest when the time since last fire was fewer than 11 and 17 years for the Williams and Hoover fires, respectively. Based on the factors and patterns identified, managers can anticipate the effects of management ignited and naturally ignited fires at the forest stand and the landscape levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Density dependence, spatial scale and patterning in sessile biota.

    PubMed

    Gascoigne, Joanna C; Beadman, Helen A; Saurel, Camille; Kaiser, Michel J

    2005-09-01

    Sessile biota can compete with or facilitate each other, and the interaction of facilitation and competition at different spatial scales is key to developing spatial patchiness and patterning. We examined density and scale dependence in a patterned, soft sediment mussel bed. We followed mussel growth and density at two spatial scales separated by four orders of magnitude. In summer, competition was important at both scales. In winter, there was net facilitation at the small scale with no evidence of density dependence at the large scale. The mechanism for facilitation is probably density dependent protection from wave dislodgement. Intraspecific interactions in soft sediment mussel beds thus vary both temporally and spatially. Our data support the idea that pattern formation in ecological systems arises from competition at large scales and facilitation at smaller scales, so far only shown in vegetation systems. The data, and a simple, heuristic model, also suggest that facilitative interactions in sessile biota are mediated by physical stress, and that interactions change in strength and sign along a spatial or temporal gradient of physical stress.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  5. A Choice of Terminals: Spatial Patterning in Computer Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spennemann, Dirk; Cornforth, David; Atkinson, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the spatial patterns of student use of machines in each laboratory to whether there are underlying commonalities. Design/methodology/approach: The research was carried out by assessing the user behaviour in 16 computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia. Findings: The study found that computers…

  6. Children's Spatial Analysis of Hierarchical Patterns: Construction and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Annie; Puspitawati, Ira; Witt, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were reported that aimed at investigating the development of spatial analysis of hierarchical patterns in children between 3 and 9 years of age. A total of 108 children participated in the drawing experiment, and 224 children were tested in a force-choice similarity judgment task. In both tasks, participants were exposed to…

  7. A Choice of Terminals: Spatial Patterning in Computer Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spennemann, Dirk; Cornforth, David; Atkinson, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the spatial patterns of student use of machines in each laboratory to whether there are underlying commonalities. Design/methodology/approach: The research was carried out by assessing the user behaviour in 16 computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia. Findings: The study found that computers…

  8. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Treesearch

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  9. Spatial simulation of forest succession and timber harvesting using LANDIS

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Stephen R. Shifley; David J. Mladenoff; Kevin K. Nimerfro; Hong S. He

    2000-01-01

    The LANDIS model simulates ecological dynamics, including forest succession, disturbance, seed dispersal and establishment, fire and wind disturbance, and their interactions. We describe the addition to LANDIS of capabilities to simulate forest vegetation management, including harvest. Stands (groups of cells) are prioritized for harvest using one of four ranking...

  10. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters

    2003-01-01

    Forest health analysts seek to define the location, extent, and magnitude of changes in forest ecosystems, to explain the observed changes when possible, and to draw attention to the unexplained changes for further investigation. The data come from a variety of sources including satellite images, field plot measurements, and low-altitude aerial surveys. Indicators...

  11. Local forest environment largely affects below-ground growth, clonal diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the temperate deciduous forest herb Paris quadrifolia.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

    2005-12-01

    Paris quadrifolia (herb Paris) is a long-lived, clonal woodland herb that shows strong differences in local population size and shoot density along an environmental gradient of soil and light conditions. This environmentally based structuring may be mediated by differences in clonal growth and seedling recruitment through sexual reproduction. To study the interrelationship between environmental conditions and spatial patterns of clonal growth, the spatial genetic structure of four P. quadrifolia populations growing in strongly contrasting sites was determined. In the first place, plant excavations were performed in order to (i) determine differences in below-ground growth of genets, (ii) investigate connectedness of ramets and (iii) determine total genet size. Although no differences in internode length were found among sites, clones in moist sites were much smaller (genets usually consisted of 1-3 interconnected shoots, most of them flowering) than genets in dry sites, which consisted of up to 15 interconnected shoots, the majority of which were vegetative. Further, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used. Clonal diversity was higher in populations located in moist and productive ash-poplar forests compared to those found in drier and less productive mixed forest sites (G/N: 0.27 and 0.14 and Simpson's D: 0.84 and 0.75, respectively). Patterns of spatial population genetic structure under dry conditions revealed several large clones dominating the entire population, whereas in moist sites many small genets were observed. Nevertheless, strong spatial genetic structure of the genet population was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate that patterns of clonal diversity and growth form of P. quadrifolia differ among environments. Limited seedling recruitment and large clone sizes due to higher connectedness of ramets explain the low clonal diversity in dry sites. In moist sites, higher levels of clonal diversity and small clone sizes

  12. Temporal patterns in capture rate and sex ratio of forest bats in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; S. Andrew Carter; Ronald E. Thill

    2010-01-01

    We quantified changes in capture rates and sex ratios from May to Sept. for eight species of bats, derived from 8 y of extensive mist netting in forests of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Our primary goal was to determine patterns of relative abundance for each species of bat captured over forest streams and to determine if these patterns were similar to patterns of...

  13. Modeling forest harvesting effects on landscape pattern in the Northwest Wisconsin Pine Barrens

    Treesearch

    Volker C. Radeloff; David J. Mladenoff; Eric J. Gustafson; Robert M. Scheller; Patrick A. Zollner; Hong S. Heilman; H. Resit Akcakaya

    2006-01-01

    Forest management shapes landscape patterns, and these patterns often differ significantly from those typical for natural disturbance regimes. This may affect wildlife habitat and other aspects of ecosystem function. Our objective was to examine the effects of different forest management decisions on landscape pattern in a fire adapted ecosystem. We used a factorial...

  14. GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling for conservation of stone forest landscape in Lunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanrong

    The Lunan Stone Forest is the World's premier pinnacle karst landscape, with considerable scientific and cultural importance. Because of its inherent ecological fragility and ongoing human disruption, especially recently burgeoning tourism development, the landscape is stressed and is in danger of being destroyed. Conservation policies have been implemented by the local and national governments, but many problems remain in the national park. For example, there is no accurate detailed map and no computer system to help authorities manage the natural resources. By integrating GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling this dissertation investigates the issue of landscape conservation and develops some methodologies to assist in management of the natural resources in the national park. Four elements are involved: (1) To help decision-makers and residents understand the scope of resource exploitation and develop appropriate protective strategies, the dissertation documents how the landscape has been changed by human activities over the past 3 decades; (2) To help authorities scientifically designate different levels of protection in the park and to let the public actively participate in conservation decision making, a web-based Spatial Decision Support System for the conservation of the landscape was developed; (3) To make data sharing and integration easy in the future, a GML-based interoperable database for the park was implemented; and (4) To acquire more information and provide the uncertainty information to landscape conservation decision-makers, spatial land use patterns were modeled and the distributional uncertainty of land cover categories was assessed using a triplex Markov chain (TMC) model approach.

  15. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (p<0.01) during the study, with site averages of 33.1 and 32.8% at the Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Semi-variogram analyses indicate the presence of strong (<25%) horizontal and vertical spatial correlation of VWC at the Ag site, and a relatively short-range (25 cm) vertical spatial correlation at the BHF, but only indicate horizontal VWC spatial correlation in the top 30 cm of the BHF profile. Likely mechanisms contributing to patterns of observed differences are contrasting rates and depths of plant water use, and the presence of preferential flow paths in the below ground BHF. Results suggest historic forest removal and cultivation of the Ag site lead to an effective homogenization of the upper soil profile, and facilitated the development of strong VWC spatial dependency. Conversely, higher hydraulic conductivity of the more heterogeneous BHF subsurface likely results in a wetting of the deeper profile (75 cm) during climatically wet periods, and thus a more effective processing of hydrologic inputs. Collective results highlight the greater extent and degree to which forest vegetation impacts subsurface hydrology, relative to grassland/agricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds. Copyright

  16. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    PubMed

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  18. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Characterization of Forested Landscapes From Remotely Sensed Data Using Fractals and Spatial Autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Cruise, James F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of forested areas is frequently required in resource management practice. Passive remotely sensed data, which are much more accessible and cost effective than are active data, have rarely, if ever, been used to characterize forest structure directly, but rather they usually focus on the estimation of indirect measurement of biomass or canopy coverage. In this study, some spatial analysis techniques are presented that might be employed with Landsat TM data to analyze forest structure characteristics. A case study is presented wherein fractal dimensions, along with a simple spatial autocorrelation technique (Moran s I), were related to stand density parameters of the Oakmulgee National Forest located in the southeastern United States (Alabama). The results of the case study presented herein have shown that as the percentage of smaller diameter trees becomes greater, and particularly if it exceeds 50%, then the canopy image obtained from Landsat TM data becomes sufficiently homogeneous so that the spatial indices reach their lower limits and thus are no longer determinative. It also appears, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, that the relationships between the spatial indices and forest class percentages within the boundaries can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is much more pronounced in the sawtimber and saplings cases than in samples dominated by medium sized trees (poletimber). In addition, it also appears that, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, the relationships between the spatial indices and forest species groups (Hardwood and Softwood) percentages can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is more pronounced in the forest species groups cases than in the forest classes cases. These results appear to indicate that both fractal dimensions and spatial autocorrelation indices hold promise as means of estimating forest stand characteristics from remotely sensed images. However, additional work is

  1. Characterization of Forested Landscapes From Remotely Sensed Data Using Fractals and Spatial Autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Cruise, James F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of forested areas is frequently required in resource management practice. Passive remotely sensed data, which are much more accessible and cost effective than are active data, have rarely, if ever, been used to characterize forest structure directly, but rather they usually focus on the estimation of indirect measurement of biomass or canopy coverage. In this study, some spatial analysis techniques are presented that might be employed with Landsat TM data to analyze forest structure characteristics. A case study is presented wherein fractal dimensions, along with a simple spatial autocorrelation technique (Moran s I), were related to stand density parameters of the Oakmulgee National Forest located in the southeastern United States (Alabama). The results of the case study presented herein have shown that as the percentage of smaller diameter trees becomes greater, and particularly if it exceeds 50%, then the canopy image obtained from Landsat TM data becomes sufficiently homogeneous so that the spatial indices reach their lower limits and thus are no longer determinative. It also appears, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, that the relationships between the spatial indices and forest class percentages within the boundaries can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is much more pronounced in the sawtimber and saplings cases than in samples dominated by medium sized trees (poletimber). In addition, it also appears that, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, the relationships between the spatial indices and forest species groups (Hardwood and Softwood) percentages can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is more pronounced in the forest species groups cases than in the forest classes cases. These results appear to indicate that both fractal dimensions and spatial autocorrelation indices hold promise as means of estimating forest stand characteristics from remotely sensed images. However, additional work is

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns in conterminous United States streamflow characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in annual and seasonal minimum, mean, and maximum daily streamflow values were examined for a set of 516 reference stream gauges located throughout the conterminous United States for the period 1951–2009. Cluster analysis was used to classify the stream gauges into 14 groups based on similarity in their temporal patterns of streamflow. The results indicated that the temporal patterns in flow metrics (1) have strong spatial coherence within each region, (2) are similar among the three annual flow metrics and the four seasonal flow metrics within each region, (3) indicate some small magnitude trends over time, and (4) are only weakly associated with well-known climate indices. We conclude that most of the temporal variability in flow is unpredictable in terms of relations to climate indices and infer that, for the most part, future changes in flow characteristics cannot be predicted by these indices.

  3. Applying fuzzy clustering optimization algorithm to extracting traffic spatial pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunchun; Shi, Wenzhong; Meng, Lingkui; Liu, Min

    2009-10-01

    Traditional analytical methods for traffic information can't meet to need of intelligent traffic system. Mining value-add information can deal with more traffic problems. The paper exploits a new clustering optimization algorithm to extract useful spatial clustered pattern for predicting long-term traffic flow from macroscopic view. Considering the sensitivity of initial parameters and easy falling into local extreme in FCM algorithm, the new algorithm applies Particle Swarm Optimization method, which can discovery the globe optimal result, to the FCM algorithm. And the algorithm exploits the union of the clustering validity index and objective function of the FCM algorithm as the fitness function of the PSO algorithm. The experimental result indicates that it is effective and efficient. For fuzzy clustering of road traffic data, it can produce useful spatial clustered pattern. And the clustered centers represent the locations which have heavy traffic flow. Moreover, the parameters of the patterns can provide intelligent traffic system with assistant decision support.

  4. Development and Validation of Spatially Explicit Habitat Models for Cavity-nesting Birds in Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Treesearch

    Randall A., Jr. Schultz; Thomas C., Jr. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracey S. Frescino

    2005-01-01

    The ability of USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) generated spatial products to increase the predictive accuracy of spatially explicit, macroscale habitat models was examined for nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in Fishlake National Forest, Utah. One FIA-derived variable (percent basal area of aspen trees) was significant in the habitat...

  5. Spatial pattern of diarrhea based on regional economic and environment by spatial autoregressive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekti, Rokhana Dwi; Nurhadiyanti, Gita; Irwansyah, Edy

    2014-10-01

    The diarrhea case pattern information, especially for toddler, is very important. It is used to show the distribution of diarrhea in every region, relationship among that locations, and regional economic characteristic or environmental behavior. So, this research uses spatial pattern to perform them. This method includes: Moran's I, Spatial Autoregressive Models (SAR), and Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA). It uses sample from 23 sub districts of Bekasi Regency, West Java, Indonesia. Diarrhea case, regional economic, and environmental behavior of households have a spatial relationship among sub district. SAR shows that the percentage of Regional Gross Domestic Product is significantly effect on diarrhea at α = 10%. Therefore illiteracy and health center facilities are significant at α = 5%. With LISA test, sub districts in southern Bekasi have high dependencies with Cikarang Selatan, Serang Baru, and Setu. This research also builds development application that is based on java and R to support data analysis.

  6. Spatial modelling of evapotranspiration in the Luquillo experimental forest of Puerto Rico using remotely-sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Hall, Charles A. S.; Scatena, Frederick N.; Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryActual evapotranspiration (aET) and related processes in tropical forests can explain 70% of the lateral global energy transport through latent heat, and therefore are very important in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface [Mauser, M., Schädlich, S., 1998. Modelling the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration on different scales using remote sensing data. J. Hydrol. 212-213, 250-267]. Unfortunately, there are few spatial studies of these processes in tropical forests. This research integrates one Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image and three Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with a hydrological model [Granger, R.J., Gray, D.M., 1989. Evaporation from natural nonsaturated surfaces. J. Hydrol. 111, 21-29] to estimate the spatial pattern of aET over the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) - a tropical forest in northeastern Puerto Rico - for the month of January, the only month that these remotely sensed images were acquired. The derived aETs ranged from 0 to 7.22 mm/day with a mean of 3.08 ± 1.35 mm/day which were comparable to other estimates. Simulated aET was highest in the low elevation forest and decreased progressively toward higher elevations. Because of differences in solar radiation at different elevations, aspects and topographic positions, aET tended to be higher on south slopes and along ridges than on north slopes and in valleys. In addition, the Bowen ratio (the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat) varied across different vegetation types and increased with elevation, thus reflecting differences in the distribution of net solar radiation incident on the earth's surface. Over a day, the highest simulated aET occurred at around noon. We also applied this model to simulate the average monthly aET over an entire year based on the cloud patterns derived from at least two MODIS images for each month. The highest simulated aET occurred in February and March and the lowest in May. These observations are

  7. Phase demodulation from a spatial carrier fringe pattern by spatial-temporal fringes method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Bin; Feng, Guoying; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2016-12-01

    Phase extraction from a single fringe pattern is a valuable but challenging task. In this paper, a spatial carrier phase-shifting algorithm based on spatial-temporal fringes method is proposed to demodulate the phase from a single carrier interfergram. Firstly, two phase-shifted fringe patterns are composed from the original interferogram shifting by several pixels their starting position. Secondly, these two phase shift fringes are fused into one spatial-temporal fringes (STF) image. Then, the modulating phase is calculated from the frequency spectrum of the STF image. Meanwhile, the main factors, such as the level of random noise, the carrier frequency values and angle of fringe pattern are analyzed and discussed in the simulations, and experimental results are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The proposed method is effective, accurate and immune to external disturbance and vibration, which greatly promotes the application in the on-line detection fields.

  8. Transformation of the oak forest spatial structure in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA over 7 years

    Treesearch

    Kathleen Ward; Kathryn Kromroy; Jennifer Juzwik

    2007-01-01

    The Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) oak (Quercus spp.) forest area decreased by 5.6% between 1991 and 1998. Accompanying spatial transformation of the forest can have great impacts on forest health, water flow and quality, wildlife habitat, potential for the spread of invasive transformation that occurred along with the loss of oak forest in the...

  9. Exploring the spatial pattern of mental health expenditure.

    PubMed

    Moscone, Francesco; Knapp, Martin

    2005-12-01

    coefficients could be explained by the evident spatial pattern of the phenomenon, since the omission of the lagged dependent variable induces bias in the OLS estimates. These results help central and local decision makers understand the factors that influence local spending levels, including variations between municipalities in their achievement of expenditure-related and