Science.gov

Sample records for special weapons retrofit

  1. Fitness characteristics of a suburban special weapons and tactics team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Colburn, Deanna; Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David P; Suyama, J

    2012-03-01

    Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) operators are specialized law enforcement officers who traditionally perform their duties with higher anticipated workloads because of additional body armor, weapons, and equipment used for enhanced operations and protection. This elevated workload increases the need for SWAT operators to improve or maintain their physical fitness to consistently perform routine operations. Typical tasks require trunk rotation, overhead upper extremity use, upper and lower body strength use, and long waiting periods followed by explosive movements while wearing additional equipment. Eleven male SWAT operators from 1 SWAT team performed flexibility, strength, power, and aerobic capacity tests and a variety of job-related tasks. Data were compared with age- and gender-based normative data. Fitness testing revealed that officers ranked high on tests of muscular strength (leg strength, 90th percentile; bench press, 85th percentile); however, body composition (55th percentile), core body strength, and flexibility ranked lower. Furthermore, aerobic capacity and muscular power had a wide range of scores and were also not ideal to support maximal performance during routine operations. These data can assist exercise specialists choose fitness programs specifically for job-related tasks of SWAT operators when creating fitness programs. Fitness programming for law enforcement should focus on improving aerobic fitness, flexibility, core strength, and muscular power while maintaining muscular strength to meet the needs of these specialized officers.

  2. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  3. Experimental Tests of a Real Building Seismically Retrofitted by Special Buckling-Restrained Braces

    SciTech Connect

    D'Aniello, Mario; Della Corte, Gaetano; Mazzolani, Federico M.

    2008-07-08

    Buckling Restrained Braces (BRBs), differently from conventional braces, do not exhibit appreciable difference between the tensile and compression capacity and no strength degradation of brace capacity under compressive and cyclic loading. Since lateral and local buckling behaviour modes are restrained, large inelastic capacities are attainable. Hence, BRBs may represent an efficient and reliable solution for reducing the seismic vulnerability of buildings. Results of experimental tests on the response of a real two-story reinforced concrete (RC) building equipped with BRBs are presented and discussed. The considered BRBs are a special 'only-steel' version of the more common 'unbonded braces'. In particular, two different BRBs have been tested. Both of them are detachable 'only-steel' devices, consisting in a rectangular steel plate and a restraining steel sleeve. The latter is composed by two omega shapes which are bolted together. The main characteristic of the braces consists in the possibility to hide them within the space between the facing and the backing of masonry infill walls commonly used for RC buildings.

  4. Sexual violence against women is a weapon of war. Special feature -- mothers as refugees.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Rape is recognized as a crime of war. During armed conflict in Bosnia, it was deliberate policy to rape young women to force them to bear the enemy's child. During conflicts in Rwanda, rape was systematically used as a weapon of ethnic cleansing aimed at destroying communities. The national population office in Rwanda estimates that 2000-5000 infants were born as a result of such rape. The general decline in women's health, and in their reproductive health in particular, were two consequences of the wars in Bosnia and Rwanda. Women and girls suffered most from the violence. Systematic rape also has a terrible effect upon women's physical and mental health, including pregnancy-related complications, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and death as a result of induced abortion. Fear of social stigma associated with being raped discourages women who have been raped from seeking help or treatment. Moreover, most women who have been raped have difficulty re-establishing intimate relations, while others desire to bear many more children in order to compensate for children lost during the war. Finally, even women who are not raped during times of conflict may find it necessary to have sex with men in order to secure food, shelter, safe conduct, and/or refugee status for themselves and their children. Health services available to people with injuries or STDs need to be better equipped to provide medical care and counseling.

  5. Sexual violence against women is a weapon of war. Special feature -- mothers as refugees.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Rape is recognized as a crime of war. During armed conflict in Bosnia, it was deliberate policy to rape young women to force them to bear the enemy's child. During conflicts in Rwanda, rape was systematically used as a weapon of ethnic cleansing aimed at destroying communities. The national population office in Rwanda estimates that 2000-5000 infants were born as a result of such rape. The general decline in women's health, and in their reproductive health in particular, were two consequences of the wars in Bosnia and Rwanda. Women and girls suffered most from the violence. Systematic rape also has a terrible effect upon women's physical and mental health, including pregnancy-related complications, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and death as a result of induced abortion. Fear of social stigma associated with being raped discourages women who have been raped from seeking help or treatment. Moreover, most women who have been raped have difficulty re-establishing intimate relations, while others desire to bear many more children in order to compensate for children lost during the war. Finally, even women who are not raped during times of conflict may find it necessary to have sex with men in order to secure food, shelter, safe conduct, and/or refugee status for themselves and their children. Health services available to people with injuries or STDs need to be better equipped to provide medical care and counseling. PMID:12321081

  6. Arkansas solar retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

  7. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  8. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    PubMed

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  9. Control system retrofit guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, L.E.; Gil, L.F. )

    1992-07-01

    This report has been prepared by Black Veatch for the Electric Power Research Institute under Contract RP2710-16. This project has been a part of an EPRI program to enhance computer and control technology applications for the utility industry. It is estimated that the utility industry will spend 500 million dollars in the next two years for control system enhancement projects. The need for such enhancement results from a combination of the age and obsolescence of the control systems in existing fossil-fired plants, the decision by utilities to extend the lifetime of those plants, the changes in operating strategies, and the continued development of control systems with expanded capabilities. Opportunities for control system retrofits are myriad; therefore, utilities are faced with complex decisions as to how best to use the limited financial resources available for such projects. To assist utilities in making these decisions, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has retained Black Veatch and Sargent Lundy to develop a set of control system retrofit guideline documents. The guidelines are in a three-volume format. Volume I--Control System Retrofit Project Methodology; Volume II--Control System Technical Assessment; and Volume III--Utility Case Studies. Volume II (this document) gives guidance in the technical assessment for a retrofit, and has been prepared by Black Veatch under EPRI RP2710-16. The combination of these guideline documents gives utilities the necessary guidance to perform a retrofit project in a straightforward, cost-effective manner.

  10. Steel bridge retrofit evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prine, David W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of a retrofit design aimed at retarding or eliminating fatigue crack growth in a large bridge can be a very difficult and expensive procedure. Analytical techniques frequently do not provide sufficient accuracy when applied to complex structural details. The Infrastructure Technology Institute (ITI) of Northwestern University, under contract to the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), recently applied experimental state-of-the-art NDE technology to the Interstate 80 bridge over the Sacramento River near Sacramento, California (Bryte Bend). Acoustic emission monitoring was applied in conjunction with strain gage monitoring to aid in characterizing the retrofits' effect on existing active fatigue cracks. The combined test results clearly showed that one retrofit design was superior to the other.

  11. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  12. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  13. HWIL testing of smart weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamp, Michael; Havlicsek, Howard

    2005-05-01

    The increase in sophistication of shoulder and gun launched smart weapon systems have increased the demands placed on the flight motion simulator. The high spin rate and accelerations seen during launch drastically exceed the capability of the roll axes on today"s motion simulators. Improvements are necessary to the bearing and drive system to support these requirements. This paper documents the requirements, design, and testing of a flight motion simulator produced to meet these challenges. This design can be incorporated into a new flight motion simulator, or as this paper describes, can be retrofitted into an existing flight motion simulator to improve its capability.

  14. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  15. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  16. Arkansas solar-retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Skiles, A.

    1981-06-01

    How solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. Retrofits examined are solar greenhouses, solar air heaters, and solar batch water heaters. A composite of successful construction and operation methods is presented in a format to help individuals build solar retrofits for themselves. Appended are a glossary, listings of references and information sources, and solar radiation data for Arkansas. (LEW)

  17. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  18. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  19. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  20. Blinding laser weapons.

    PubMed

    Peters, A

    1996-01-01

    At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed.

  1. Retrofitting tunnel kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Lukacs, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Significant benefits can be achieved by retrofitting tunnel kilns. The decision-making process to do so starts with evaluating short- and long-term goals. Plant goals can influence tradeoffs in burner sizing, burner choice and control scheme. The evaluation includes consideration of increased production, reduced breakage during heating and cooling, improved quality, ability to quickly change products, reduced fuel use, reduced energy consumption and/or improved control. The efforts in one area affect performance in other areas. For example, reduced fuel use implies reduced energy consumption. Regardless of the priority of the goals, the first step is an evaluation of the existing burners.

  2. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  3. Identification of nuclear weapons

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

    1987-04-10

    A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

  4. Toxins as Weapons: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Romero, A

    2014-07-01

    This review article summarizes the use of toxins as weapons dating from the First World War until today, when there is a high concern of possible terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction. All through modern history, military programs and terrorist groups have favored toxins because of their high toxicity. However, difficulties of extraction or synthesis, as well as effective dissemination to cause a large number of casualties, have been the most important drawbacks. Special emphasis is focused on ricin and botulinum toxin, the most important toxins that have attracted the attention of military programs and terrorist groups. Other toxins like trichothecenes, saxitoxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are also discussed. A short section about anthrax is also included: Although Bacillus anthracis is considered a biological weapon rather than a toxin weapon, it produces a toxin that is finally responsible for the anthrax disease. PMID:26227025

  5. Toxins as Weapons: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Romero, A

    2014-07-01

    This review article summarizes the use of toxins as weapons dating from the First World War until today, when there is a high concern of possible terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction. All through modern history, military programs and terrorist groups have favored toxins because of their high toxicity. However, difficulties of extraction or synthesis, as well as effective dissemination to cause a large number of casualties, have been the most important drawbacks. Special emphasis is focused on ricin and botulinum toxin, the most important toxins that have attracted the attention of military programs and terrorist groups. Other toxins like trichothecenes, saxitoxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are also discussed. A short section about anthrax is also included: Although Bacillus anthracis is considered a biological weapon rather than a toxin weapon, it produces a toxin that is finally responsible for the anthrax disease.

  6. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney; Stephenson, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  7. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Hendrick, Timothy P; Christian, Jeffrey E; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  8. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  9. DC CICC retrofit magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.L.; Marston, P.G.

    1992-10-30

    The coil system presented here for the MHD retrofit magnet incorporates many features of the latest in superconducting magnet technology and finite element modeling to create an efficient and viable design concept. At the core of the design is the niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). Engineered to create moderately high magnetic fields (up to 8 T) with essentially no power loss, this specific CICC design provides good load carrying capacity, operating margin from a perturbation such as a local heat input, and coil protection in the event of a quench transient. The CICC is wound on a mandrel into long, tapered, saddle shaped single conductor thickness pancakes. By defining the appropriate number of conductor turns in each pancake, the saddle coils can be stacked to form a semi-elliptical winding pack cross section. Extruded aluminum filler blocks are fitted into the steps, at the edge of the pancake and present a smooth surface to the supporting structure. The semi-elliptical conductor array is supported by an identically shaped strap at all locations except where the end turns sweep over the MHD channel. The strap resists the electromagnetic forces tending to separate the coils on each side of the channel. Low friction surfaces are placed between conductor pancakes, and between the inside skin of the support straps and the outside surface of the conductor winding pack. This allows relative movement between pancakes, and between the strap and coil, thereby reducing shear stresses and coulombic friction heating which would otherwise tend to crack insulation, load joints, and initiate a quench in the superconducting cable.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  11. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  12. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  13. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  14. Neurotoxic Weapons and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) banned biological and chemical weapons. However, several countries are probably still engaged in their development. Hence, there is risk of these weapons being used in the future. This chapter will focus on neurotoxic weapons (e.g. nerve agents, chemical and biological neurotoxins, psychostimulants), which act specifically or preeminently on the central nervous system and/or the neuromuscular junction. Deeply affecting the function of the nervous system, these agents either have incapacitating effects or cause clusters of casualties who manifest primary symptoms of encephalopathy, seizures, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. The neurologist should be prepared both to notice patterns of symptoms and signs that are sufficiently consistent to raise the alarm of neurotoxic attacks and to define specific therapeutic interventions. Additionally, extensive knowledge on neurotoxic syndromes should stimulate scientific research to produce more effective antidotes and antibodies (which are still lacking for most neurotoxic weapons) for rapid administration in aerosolized forms in the case of terrorist or warfare scenarios.

  15. Neurotoxic Weapons and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) banned biological and chemical weapons. However, several countries are probably still engaged in their development. Hence, there is risk of these weapons being used in the future. This chapter will focus on neurotoxic weapons (e.g. nerve agents, chemical and biological neurotoxins, psychostimulants), which act specifically or preeminently on the central nervous system and/or the neuromuscular junction. Deeply affecting the function of the nervous system, these agents either have incapacitating effects or cause clusters of casualties who manifest primary symptoms of encephalopathy, seizures, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. The neurologist should be prepared both to notice patterns of symptoms and signs that are sufficiently consistent to raise the alarm of neurotoxic attacks and to define specific therapeutic interventions. Additionally, extensive knowledge on neurotoxic syndromes should stimulate scientific research to produce more effective antidotes and antibodies (which are still lacking for most neurotoxic weapons) for rapid administration in aerosolized forms in the case of terrorist or warfare scenarios. PMID:27035576

  16. Energy Retrofit--Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) provides energy modeling analyses of school buildings. SRDAS has three subprograms that consider first, roof, windows, walls, floors, and infiltration sites; second, costs per student, compliance with national energy consumption norms, and electricity costs projections; and third, financial savings…

  17. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  18. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  19. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant's names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  20. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  1. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  2. Weapons and hope

    SciTech Connect

    Dyson, F.

    1984-01-01

    The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

  3. Assessment of the feasibility of the widespread photovoltaic retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. L.

    Some of the economic implications of retrofits and retrofit designs which might be employed are considered. Residential and commercial retrofits may represent a significant national market for photovoltaic (PV) systems. Techniques for estimating the photovoltaic retrofits market and present preliminary conclusions about physical market size are discussed. Possible institutional barriers to widespread retrofits are reviewed.

  4. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  5. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  6. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  7. Names and Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  8. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  9. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  10. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  11. Weapons bay acoustic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L. L.; Shimovetz, R. M.

    1994-09-01

    An aircraft weapons bay exposed to freestream flow experiences an intense aeroacoustic environment in and around the bay. Experience has taught that the intensity of this environment can be severe enough to result in damage to a store, its internal equipment, or the structure of the weapons bay itself. To ensure that stores and sensitive internal equipment can withstand this hazardous environment and successfully complete the mission, they must be qualified to the most severe sound pressure levels anticipated for the mission. If the qualification test levels are too high, the store and its internal equipment will be over designed, resulting in unnecessary costs and possible performance penalties. If the qualification levels are below those experienced in flight, the store or its internal equipment may catastrophically fail during performance of the mission. Thus, it is desirable that the expected levels in weapons bays be accurately predicted. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and the future of weapons bay acoustic environments. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and

  12. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  13. Canadian retrofit meets stiffer sulfur recovery regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nasato, E. ); Goar, B.G. ); Borsboom, J. )

    1992-02-10

    Retrofitting Mobil Oil Canada's Lone Pine Creek gas plant with the Superclaus-99 process has led to SO{sub 2} emissions being reduced by 30-45%. Commissioning of the retrofit occurred in late 1990. The process was chosen because of its relatively low capital investment requirements and its operational simplicity and flexibility. Retrofit requirements included minor equipment and piping modifications and a new catalyst for the third converter. This paper reports that operationally, Superclaus-99 is a straight-through, continuous process with a more flexible air-to-acid-gas control than the conventional Claus process. This retrofit was the first of its kind in North America.

  14. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  15. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  16. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  17. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern. PMID:23011963

  18. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  19. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  20. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  1. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  2. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  3. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  4. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    D. Philbrick; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy-efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community.

  5. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  6. Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

  7. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  8. Physical security technologies for weapons complex reconfiguration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was a member of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration. The physical security systems in the new and upgraded facilities being considered for the WCR had to meet DOE orders and other requirements set forth in the WCR Programmatic Design Criteria (PDC), incorporate the latest physical security technologies using proven state-of-the-art systems and meet fundamental security principles. The outcome was to avoid costly retrofits and provide effective and comprehensive protection against current and projected threats with minimal impact on operations, costs and schedule. Physical security requirements for WCR facilities include: (1) reducing S&S life-cycle costs, (2) where feasible automating S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, (3) increasing the amount of delay to outsider adversary attack, (4) compartmentalizing the facility to minimize the number of personnel requiring access to critical areas and (5) having reliable and maintainable systems. To be most effective against threats physical security must be integrated with facility operations, safety and other S&S activities, such as material control and accountability, nuclear measurements and computer and information security. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical security technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

  9. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  10. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  11. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  12. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  13. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  14. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  15. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  16. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  17. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  18. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  19. Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)

  20. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  1. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2016-07-12

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  2. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  3. [Biological agents turning into weapons].

    PubMed

    Rotman, Eran; Cohen, Amir; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    The use of biological agents as weapons is a well-known and established fact in the modern world. Biological warfare can be used both in terrorist events and in war and they pose a real threat and a formidable challenge to the defender. Biological weapons, in their various forms such as germs, viruses or toxins, can harm both living creatures and their surroundings. The relative simplicity of their production and use, compared to other non-conventional weapons, renders them to be a highly accessible system that can cause numerous casualties. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the threat and learn its characteristics, so as to be appropriately prepared in order to minimize potential damage. This review summarizes the characteristics of biological weapons (physical and biological), the means of use in bioterrorism and war, the advantages and disadvantages, comparisons to other non-conventional weapons and both tactical and strategical uses. PMID:12170547

  4. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  5. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  6. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  7. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  8. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  9. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  10. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  11. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-14

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  12. Nuclear weapons are legal tools

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, H.H. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by customary international law, attempts by opposing states to establish illegality through declarations fall short of an effectively shared strategy. The author concludes that we must use the time that deterrence permits to forcefully promote policies optimizing the claims of people for human dignity rather than focusing on the fruitless search to make nuclear weapons illegal.

  13. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  14. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  15. Weapon-Carrying and Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Hammermeister, Jon

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence of weapon-carrying among adolescents, focusing on the reasons why they carry weapons, ways that firearms are obtained, firearms and violence, and the controlling of weapons in schools. Details weapon-security measures and argues for cooperative action among schools, communities, and government. (RJM)

  16. Study of photovoltaic residential retrofits. Volume 2: Main report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahone, D. E.; Temple, P. L.; Adams, J. A.; Chalmers, B. B.; Motter, A. D.; Millner, A. E.

    1982-04-01

    The problems an potentials for widespread residential retrofits of PV power systems are analyzed. Included are data on the existing housing stock, designs for array mounting and system electrical wiring, and economic analyses for retrofits.

  17. Study of photovoltaic residential retrofits. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahone, D. E.; Temple, P. I.; Adams, J. A.; Chalmers, B. B.; Motter, A. E.; Millner, A. E.

    1982-04-01

    The problems and potentials are analyzed for widespread residential retrofits of PV power systems. Included are data on the existing housing stock, designs for array mounting and system electrical wiring, and economic analyses for retrofits.

  18. Final Report: Retrofit Aeration System (RAS) for Francis Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Sullivan; DOE Project Officer Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Osage Plant and Bagnell Dam impounds the Osage River forming the Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri. Since it is nearly 100 feet deep, the lake stratifies during the summer months causing low DO water to be discharged into the Osage river below the dam. To supplement DO, the turbines are vented during the low DO season. AmerenUE is continually researching new methods of DO enhancement. New turbines, manufactured by American Hydro Corporation, were installed in Units 3 & 5 during the spring of 2002. Additional vent capacity and new nosecones were included in the new turbine design. The retrofit aeration system is an attempt to further enhance the DO in the tailrace by installation of additional venting capability on Unit 6 (not upgraded with new turbine) and refining design on special nosecones which will be mounted on both Unit 3 (upgraded turbine) and Unit 6. Baseline DO testing for Units 3 & 6 was conducted mid August, 2002. This data wascompared to further tests planned for the summer of 2003 and 2004 after installation of the retrofit aeration system.

  19. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  20. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  1. Major Energy Conservation Retrofits: A Planning Guide for Northern Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quivik, Fredric

    Energy-efficient retrofits are suggested as alternatives to conventional weatherization practices in this three-chapter report. Chapter 1 provides information necessary to help readers decide if a major energy retrofit is the right approach to a particular housing situation. Chapter 2 examines various aspects of retrofit designing, considering…

  2. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  3. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  4. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  5. Retrofit Gloveport Cover and Security Device

    DOE PAGES

    Hinckley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The world of glovebox work in the areas of science and manufacturing is in a consistent state of flux due to the inherent nature of changing missions. These rapidly changing work environments result in almost continuous regulatory changes within the codes and standards in order to maintain worker and environmental safety. Gloveboxes designed and manufactured prior to these regulations are not easy to update or retrofit to accommodate new requirements. In order to meet the challenge of retrofitting gloveboxes to the meet the requirements, the following solutions have been developed.

  6. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0

  7. Energy Retrofit Creates an Efficient Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    After 20 years of inadequate heating and cooling, an Indiana school district took advantage of a 1994 state law that allows school districts to bypass the "low-bidder wins" restriction. The district established a guaranteed energy-saving contract for a climate-control-improvements package to retrofit the junior-senior high school. (MLF)

  8. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

  9. Retrofitting: The Thermal Upgrading of Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This publication is a compilation of talks delivered during the spring of 1977 by Charles Wing. Contents of the booklet include retrofitting old houses, condensation and vapor barriers, solutions to the vapor barrier problem, and how much of which insulation to use. The publication includes charts, drawings, and equations to illustrate the topics…

  10. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  11. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  12. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-04-15

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  13. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  14. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  15. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant`s names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  16. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  17. Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HV AC system, the local

  18. Uncrackable code for nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Mark

    2014-11-20

    Mark Hart, a scientist and engineer in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Defense Technologies Division, has developed a new approach for ensuring nuclear weapons and their components can't fall prey to unauthorized use. The beauty of his approach: Let the weapon protect itself. "Using the random process of nuclear radioactive decay is the gold standard of random number generators," said Mark Hart. "You’d have a better chance of winning both Mega Millions and Powerball on the same day than getting control of IUC-protected components."

  19. Endless generations of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.B.

    1986-11-01

    The author feels that pursuit of Star Wars and continued US nuclear testing is blocking progress toward the eventual worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons. It is also bound to reveal new ways to attack military or civilian targets that will, in turn, stimulate further searches for new types of offensive and defensive nuclear weapons. Some of these developments could intensify the belief that limited nuclear wars can be fought and won. In short, development of new generations of nuclear weapons will provide the kind of positive feedback to the nuclear arms race that will greatly expand its dangers and its costs. Further proliferation of new types of nuclear weapons will increase the already extreme complexity of military planning and response, and the attendant dangers of nuclear war occurring by accident or through misinterpretation of information. Assessments of possible new military threats will become more uncertain as the complexities increase. Uncertainty can lead to catastrophic mistakes. Real or mistakenly perceived gaps in nuclear preparedness are likely to be used as further arguments for vast new military expenditures. We may all come to long for the relative simplicity of military nuclear issues during the first decade or so following the end of World War II. For these reasons, the author is convinced that there should be a halt to all nuclear tests, worldwide, as soon as possible. 2 references.

  20. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  1. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  2. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  3. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  4. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  5. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  6. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  7. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  8. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  9. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  10. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  11. Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

  12. Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

    More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

  13. [The forensic medical assessment of injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking. PMID:23272558

  14. [Hygienic aspects of elimination of chemical weapons in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Shkodich, P E; Klauchek, V V

    2003-01-01

    A specialized and unified package of measures has been developed for hygienic provision of work on the elimination of chemical weapons. The optimum algorithms of hygienic studies have been defined at all stages of the elimination of chemical weapons from the start of design of operations to conversion and transition for national economic needs. Guidelines for safe work at the objects of elimination of chemical weapons and for the protection of the environment and human health in the areas where they are located--have been developed.

  15. [The forensic medical assessment of injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking.

  16. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  17. Retrofitting gear couplings with diaphragm couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, J.R. )

    1988-10-01

    Retrofitting a coupling should not be an afterthought when upgrading a system. Couplings are an integral part of a drive train and should be a major consideration. This article discusses guidelines that should be used when replacing gear couplings with diaphragm couplings. Reviewed are the coupling selection process: how and to what extent the desired diaphragm couplings should be matched to the gear coupling. Also discussed are the details of coupling modification that can be made to accommodate system performance. Included are how changes in materials, configuration and design can help tune a diaphragm coupling to meet the characteristics of the previous gear couplings. The article also discusses the retrofit process for a specific syngas train at International Minerals and Chemical Corp., Sterlington, La.

  18. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  19. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  20. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  1. Evaluation of Eco-Efficiency and Performance of Retrofit Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Smitha; Rama Chandra Murthy, A.; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Kokila, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work three materials namely Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), ferrocement and Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) have been evaluated towards their performance efficiency and eco-effectiveness for sustainable retrofitting applications. Investigations have been carried out for flexural strengthening of RC beams with FRP, ferrocement and TRC. It is observed that in the case of FRP, it is not possible to tailor the material according to design requirements and most of the time strengthened structure becomes over stiff. Eco-effectiveness of these retrofitting materials has been evaluated by computing the embodied energy. It is observed that the amount of CO2 emitted by TRC is less compared to other retrofit materials. Further, the performance point of retrofitted RC frames has been evaluated and damage index has been calculated to find out the effective retrofit material. It is concluded that, if RC frame is retrofitted with FRP and TRC, it undergoes less damage compared to ferrocement.

  2. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  3. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Kerrie; Hannigan, Eileen

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  4. Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsham, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but requires a substantial amount of time to inflict damage. The fire control computer apparatus utilizes the weapon's status, dwell time, slow time and fuel limits to yield a weapon pointing sequence and weapon on-off times.

  5. Plant-pathogenic bacteria as biological weapons - real threats?

    PubMed

    Young, J M; Allen, C; Coutinho, T; Denny, T; Elphinstone, J; Fegan, M; Gillings, M; Gottwald, T R; Graham, J H; Iacobellis, N S; Janse, J D; Jacques, M-A; Lopez, M M; Morris, C E; Parkinson, N; Prior, P; Pruvost, O; Neto, J Rodrigues; Scortichini, M; Takikawa, Y; Upper, C D

    2008-10-01

    At present, much attention is being given to the potential of plant pathogens, including plant-pathogenic bacteria, as biological weapons/bioterror weapons. These two terms are sometimes used interchangeably and there is need for care in their application. It has been claimed that clandestine introduction of certain plant-pathogenic bacteria could cause such crop losses as to impact so significantly on a national economy and thus constitute a threat to national security. As a separate outcome, it is suggested that they could cause serious public alarm, perhaps constituting a source of terror. Legislation is now in place to regulate selected plant-pathogenic bacteria as potential weapons. However, we consider it highly doubtful that any plant-pathogenic bacterium has the requisite capabilities to justify such a classification. Even if they were so capable, the differentiation of pathogens into a special category with regulations that are even more restrictive than those currently applied in quarantine legislation of most jurisdictions offers no obvious benefit. Moreover, we believe that such regulations are disadvantageous insofar as they limit research on precisely those pathogens most in need of study. Whereas some human and animal pathogens may have potential as biological or bioterror weapons, we conclude that it is unlikely that any plant-pathogenic bacterium realistically falls into this category.

  6. Biological weapons and US law.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J R

    1997-08-01

    During the past 8 years, the US Congress has developed a comprehensive legal framework to prevent the illegitimate use of toxins and infectious agents. As part of this framework, Congress has defined as a federal crime virtually every step in the process of developing or acquiring a biological agent for use as a weapon. At the same time, Congress has vested federal law enforcement agencies with broad civil and investigative powers to enable the government to intervene before such weapons are used or even developed. Finally, Congress has directed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish a regulatory regime to monitor the location and transfer of hazardous biological agents and to insure that any use of such agents complies with appropriate biosafety requirements. PMID:9244312

  7. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design.

  8. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design. PMID:27475833

  9. Hotel Cedes 7 months' savings for total lighting retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-07-11

    In an unusual shared-savings agreement, the Hilton Florida Center at Orlando, where a retrofit program was begun two years ago, will give up all savings from a lighting retrofit program for seven months, avoiding upfront costs of equipment purchase, and will then become sole owner of the equipment and beneficiary of the savings. The four-month-old program has improved the lighting and cut electricity costs $2000 to $2500 per month, which would have been a six-month payback. Contracts for two other hotels are expected where retrofitting has begun. Retrofit details are given.

  10. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  11. Hospital planning for weapons of mass destruction incidents.

    PubMed

    Perry, R W; Lindell, M K

    2006-01-01

    As terrorists attacks increase in frequency, hospital disaster plans need to be scrutinized to ensure that they take into account issues unique to weapons of mass destruction. This paper reports a review of the literature addressing hospital experiences with such incidents and the planning lessons thus learned. Construction of hospital disaster plans is examined as an ongoing process guided by the disaster planning committee. Hospitals are conceived as one of the components of a larger community disaster planning efforts, with specific attention devoted to defining important linkages among response organizations. This includes the public health authorities, political authorities, prehospital care agencies, and emergency management agencies. A review is completed of six special elements of weapons of mass destruction incidents that should be addressed in hospital disaster plans: incident command, hospital security, patient surge, decontamination, mental health consequences, and communications. The paper closes with a discussion of the importance of training and exercises in maintaining and improving the disaster plan.

  12. Youths carrying a weapon or using a weapon in a fight: what makes the difference?

    PubMed

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-André; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were divided into those who had used it in a fight and those who had not. Individual, family, school and social factors were analyzed using bivariate and stepwise multivariate analysis. For both genders, delinquent behavior and being victim of physical violence were associated with weapon carrying. For males, quarreling while intoxicated, being an apprentice, being sensation seekers, having a tattoo, having a poor relationship with parents and practicing unsafe sex were also related to weapon carrying. Compared with weapon carriers, female weapon users were more likely to be regular smokers. Male weapon users were foreign born, urban and apprentices; had poor school connectedness; practiced unsafe sex and quarreled while intoxicated. Carrying a weapon is a relatively frequent behavior among youths in Switzerland and a sizeable proportion of weapon carriers have used it in a fight. Weapon carrying should be part of the clinical assessment and preventive counseling of adolescents. Preventive programs specific for at-risk youth groups need to be developed.

  13. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  14. Practical solutions to turbine control system retrofit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, M.; Lovejoy, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the use of microprocessors in retrofitting turbine control systems. The topics of the paper include modern control system architecture, human machine interface, steam flow linearization and automatic valve calibration, retrofit hydraulic interfacing, reliability considerations, and advanced valve positioning technique (quarter cycle damping).

  15. Damage monitoring of CFRP retrofit using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kunal; Breaux Frketic, Jolie; Olawale, David; Dickens, Tarik

    2015-04-01

    With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures.

  16. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  17. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  18. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  19. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  20. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  1. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  2. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  3. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., 2011, HUD published a notice at 76 FR 17936 that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program) known as FHA PowerSaver, which is...

  4. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  5. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  6. [Myocardial infarction after conduction electrical weapon shock].

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, H; Bouzouita, K; Selmi, K; Chelli, M; Mokaddem, A; Ben Ameur, Y; Boujnah, M R

    2013-04-01

    Controversy persists over the safety of conducted electrical weapons, which are increasingly used by law enforcement agencies around the world. We report a case of 33-year-old man who had an acute inferior myocardial infarction after he was shot in the chest with an electrical weapon.

  7. How nuclear weapons decisions are made

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Topics considered include the weapons development process in the Soviet Union, the Soviet military,the US intelligence community, Britain's role in NATO, military research in France, nuclear disarmament and proliferation in China, the structure of NATO, and the Warsaw Treaty Organization.

  8. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  9. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered. PMID:26630100

  10. Nuclear weapons are illegal threats

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, E.L.

    1985-05-01

    Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

  11. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  12. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  13. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    PubMed

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  14. Nuclear weapons, a continuing threat to health.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, D; Waterston, L

    2000-04-29

    32,000 nuclear weapons, with a destructive force equivalent to several thousand megatons of conventional explosive, are still deployed. The risk of nuclear war by accident may have increased and new threats include war between newly declared nuclear-weapon-states and the construction by terrorist groups of crude but effective devices. Health workers have drawn attention in the past to the likely major health consequences of the use of nuclear weapons. An opportunity for their global elimination under a nuclear weapons convention arises with the current review conference in New York of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty--a crucial event for efforts to bring about a world free of nuclear weapons.

  15. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  16. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  17. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  18. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  19. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection,more » where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.« less

  20. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  1. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  2. Argumentation in the Canadian House of Commons on the Issue of Nuclear Weapons for Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John Alfred

    The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 forced the Canadian House of Commons to consider whether Canadian forces in NORAD and NATO were effective without nuclear warheads on special weapons systems. This paper provides an overview of the debates and their milieu, identifies the issues involved, and analyzes the effects of the argumentation. The…

  3. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  4. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  5. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

  6. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  7. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

  8. RETROFIT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: NAVIGATING MULTIDISCIPLINARY HURDLES AT THE WATERSHED SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from extensive impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and stream ecosystem impairment, triggering an interest in watershed-scale retrofit stormwater management. Such stormwater management is of multidisciplinary relevance, ...

  9. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  10. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  11. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    PubMed

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  12. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  13. 32 CFR 154.17 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, July 30, 1980. (e) Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability... personnel performing duties associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The investigative... and prior Orders. Title 32 CFR part 159 governs the establishment of Departmental Special...

  14. 32 CFR 154.17 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, July 30, 1980. (e) Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability... personnel performing duties associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The investigative... and prior Orders. Title 32 CFR part 159 governs the establishment of Departmental Special...

  15. 32 CFR 154.17 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, July 30, 1980. (e) Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability... personnel performing duties associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The investigative... and prior Orders. Title 32 CFR part 159 governs the establishment of Departmental Special...

  16. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  17. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  18. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  19. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  20. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  1. Molten salt reactors for burning dismantled weapons fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Engel, J.R. ); Dodds, H.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    In this paper, the molten salt reactor (MSR) option for burning fissile fuel form dismantled weapons is examined. It is concluded that MSRs are potentially suitable for beneficial utilization of the dismantled fuel. the MSRs have the flexibility to utilize any fissile fuel in continuous operation with no special modifications, as demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, while maintaining their economy. The MSRs further require a minimum of special fuel preparation and can tolerate denaturing and dilution of the fuel. Fuel shipments can be arbitrarily small, which may reduce the risk of diversion. The MSRs have inherent safety features that make them acceptable and attractive. They can burn a fuel type completely and convert it to other fuels. The MSRs also have the potential for burning the actinides and delivering the waste in an optimal form, thus contributing to the solution of one of the major remaining problems for deployment o nuclear power.

  2. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  3. The physic and employment of neutron weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Peter D.

    1983-10-01

    Well known physical relationships make it possible to estimate the military effects of low yield nuclear weapons. Since weapons effects tables already exist for fission explosives, it is possible to calculate approximately the impact of thermonuclear and enhanced radiation weapons (ERWs) on a tactical situation. The principal physical problem is the calculation of the ratio of neutron production in an ERW explosion to that in a fission explosion. Our calculation indicate that the ERW is less effective against tanks than is widely believed. The collateral damage for an ERW with a reasonable ratio of fission to fusion yield is shown to extend to a distance of about 75% of that of a fission weapon with the same energy release.

  4. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, N.R.; Kirk, E.J.

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  5. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  6. Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    The author discusses what is being done to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. He says that two mechanisms need to be strengthened: international safeguards to ensure that civilian nuclear materials and technology are not diverted to military purposes, and controls on the export of such materials and technology. While 135 nations signed the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it is not enough. Detecting diversion of nuclear materials to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or explosives is not easy. It is also difficult to enforce safeguard systems when countries are exporting nuclear technology and materials. The author says nuclear-weapon states need to agree to a complete test ban to convince other nations to give up trying to acquire nuclear weapons.

  7. Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

  8. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  9. Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

  10. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture.

  11. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented.

  12. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new

  13. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  14. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    PubMed Central

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  15. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  16. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  17. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  1. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  2. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  3. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  5. 48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... weapon systems. 217.173 Section 217.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Mulityear Contracting 217.173 Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. As authorized by 10 U.S.C. 2306b(h... contract for— (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon...

  6. Managing a large lighting retrofit project

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    The Berkeley Campus of the University of California has more than 100 buildings of varying age and function, comprising nearly 9 million square feet. The campus electrical bill has been continually climbing and is approximately $1 million/month. In 1986 funding was obtained from a State of California bond issue to embark upon a 6-year program to improve the energy efficiency of the lighting in around 60 state-supported buildings. The author completed the $6 million project using a novel project management system, which has resulted in the successful installation of over 87,000 high-frequency ballasts, 16,000 optical reflectors in delamped luminaires, and many other energy-saving devices. This has resulted in a 25% to 40% decrease in lighting energy use. In order to maximize lighting energy efficiency, survey results must be used to individually analyze spaces and specify retrofits tailored to the requirements of the different spaces. This article describes the approach and methods.

  7. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house is a 1980's era house in the Sacramento area that was a prominent part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Program. The house underwent an extensive remodel, aimed at improving overall energy efficiency with a goal of reducing the home's energy use by 50%. NREL researchers performed a number of tests on the major systems touched by the retrofit to ensure they were working as planned. Additionally, SMUD rented the house from Greenbuilt Construction for a year to allow NREL to perform a number of tests on the cooling system and the water heating system. The goal of the space conditioning tests was to find the best ways to cut cooling loads and shift the summer peak. The water heating system, comprised of an add-on heat pump water heater and an integrated collector-storage solar water heater, was operated with a number of different draw profiles to see how varying hot water draw volume and schedule affected the performance of the system as a whole. All the experiments were performed with the house empty, with a simulated occupancy schedule running in the house to mimic the load imposed by real occupants.

  8. Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W; Levy, Barry S

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. "Vertical" proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation--and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons--involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

  9. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  10. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  11. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  12. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  13. Control system retrofit guidelines. Volume 2: Technical assessment, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, L.E.; Gil, L.F.

    1992-07-01

    This report has been prepared by Black & Veatch for the Electric Power Research Institute under Contract RP2710-16. This project has been a part of an EPRI program to enhance computer and control technology applications for the utility industry. It is estimated that the utility industry will spend 500 million dollars in the next two years for control system enhancement projects. The need for such enhancement results from a combination of the age and obsolescence of the control systems in existing fossil-fired plants, the decision by utilities to extend the lifetime of those plants, the changes in operating strategies, and the continued development of control systems with expanded capabilities. Opportunities for control system retrofits are myriad; therefore, utilities are faced with complex decisions as to how best to use the limited financial resources available for such projects. To assist utilities in making these decisions, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has retained Black & Veatch and Sargent & Lundy to develop a set of control system retrofit guideline documents. The guidelines are in a three-volume format. Volume I--Control System Retrofit Project Methodology; Volume II--Control System Technical Assessment; and Volume III--Utility Case Studies. Volume II (this document) gives guidance in the technical assessment for a retrofit, and has been prepared by Black & Veatch under EPRI RP2710-16. The combination of these guideline documents gives utilities the necessary guidance to perform a retrofit project in a straightforward, cost-effective manner.

  14. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  15. Modular industrial solar retrofit project (MISR)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to describe a major Department of Energy (DOE) thrust to bring line-focus solar thermal technology to commercial readiness. This effort is referred to as the MISR Project. The project is based upon the premise that thermal energy is the basic solar thermal system output and that low-temperature, fossil fuel applications are technically the first that should be retrofitted. Experience has shown that modularity in system design and construction offers potential for reducing engineering design costs, reduces manufacturing costs, reduces installation time and expense, and improves system operational reliability. The modular design effort will be sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories with industry doing the final designs. The operational credibility of the systems will be established by allowing selected industrial thermal energy users to purchase MISR systems from suppliers and operate them for two years. Industries will be solicited by DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office to conduct these experiments on a cost sharing basis. The MISR system allowed in the experiments will have been previously qualified for the application. The project is divided into three development phases which represent three design and experiment cycles. The first cycle will use commercially available trough-type solar collectors and will incorporate 5 to 10 experiments of up to 5000 m/sup 2/ of collectors each. The project effort began in March 1980, and the first cycle is to be completed in 1985. Subsequent cycles will begin at 3-year intervals. The project is success oriented, and if the first cycle reaches commercial readiness, the project will be terminated. If not, a second, and possibly a third, development cycle will be conducted.

  16. Cooperative passive-solar commercial retrofit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. T.

    1982-12-01

    The primary objectives of this project were: the conversion of an existing south-facing storefront into a trombe'-wall passive solar collector, the sharing of information on simple low-cost energy alternatives with the local community, and the reduction of the store building's dependence on non-renewable fossil fuel for space heating. Six 6' wide pre-assembled collector glazing panels were mounted on a 12' high by 36' long portion of the south-facing masonry wall. Vent-holes were cut through the wall at each panel to provide air inlets and outlets for the collector and monitoring equipment was installed to record performance. A series of hands-on construction workshops were attended by Co-op and community members. During these sessions, collector components were assembled. The panels were installed on April 22, 1981 in celebration of Earth Day. Additional sessions were held to complete the project, make necessary modifications and install sensors. Project personnel participated in several energy-education activities, including workshops, seminars and alternative energy home tours. A community-based energy resource council was founded with the assistance of several key Co-op project members and a fully-illustrated How-To manual, entitled Passive Solar Collector: A Trombe'-Wall Retrofit Guide was published. Finally, a variety of energy conservation measures were undertaken. These included a new airlock store entry, insulated store ceiling, destratification ceiling fans and wood-burning furnaces have combined with the passive solar collector to substantially reduce the use of fuel oil for heat.

  17. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  18. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  19. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  20. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  1. Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-24

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  2. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition

    PubMed Central

    Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

  4. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  5. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  6. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for... comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings... property from hazards and their effects. One such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit...

  7. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  8. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapons detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1993-04-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration/signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two- dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed. Signal/image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far- field and narrow-bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a Ka-band system.

  9. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada. PMID:24563393

  10. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  11. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  12. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  13. Laser weapons come down to earth

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C.

    1985-05-01

    The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of development. The Stingray, a low-energy, tank-mounted laser that targets enemy electro-optical systems and crazes the inside of the tank cockpit, uses an innovative slab design instead of the conventional rod. The slab neutralizes the heating effect, improving beam quality tenfold. The author discusses the possibility that the psychological impact of battlefield lasers could match or exceed the physiological effects because of eye damage.

  14. Weapons in the Lives of Battered Women

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed weapon use in intimate partner violence and perspectives on hypothetical firearm policies. Methods. We conducted structured in-person interviews with 417 women in 67 battered women’s shelters. Results. Words, hands/fists, and feet were the most common weapons used against and by battered women. About one third of the battered women had a firearm in the home. In two thirds of these households, the intimate partner used the gun(s) against the woman, usually threatening to shoot/kill her (71.4%) or to shoot at her (5.1%). Most battered women thought spousal notification/consultation regarding gun purchase would be useful and that a personalized firearm (“smart gun”) in the home would make things worse. Conclusions. A wide range of objects are used as weapons against intimate partners. Firearms, especially handguns, are more common in the homes of battered women than in households in the general population. PMID:15284052

  15. Assessing the potential of retrofitting boilers with fluidized bed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.L.; Carroll, M.R.

    1983-06-01

    General considerations to be evaluated in considering boiler conversion and determining the expected boiler performance under the desired operating conditions are discussed. Three firing options are potentially feasible: solid fuel, close coupling, or gasifying. A procedure to evaluate the possibility of retrofitting an existing boiler to solid fuel bed firing has been developed. Mechanical and thermal analyses are made. This procedure is illustrated by an example of Northern States Power Company plant in LaCrosse, Wisconsin. On the basis of the analysis, the decision to proceed with the retrofit was made.

  16. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  17. Pilot Retrofit Test of Refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-04-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chloro fluorocarbons (CFCs), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phaseout of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-134a would be a workable means to comply with the R- 12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  18. Pilot retrofit test of refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phase out of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-13a would be a workable means to comply with the R-12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  19. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  20. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  1. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K H

    2005-08-15

    Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile as well as the nuclear-weapons enterprise needs to continue to change to reflect this evolving role. Stockpile reductions in the early 1990s and the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), established after the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992, began this process of change. Further evolution is needed to address changing security environments, to enable further reductions in the number of stockpiled weapons, and to create a nuclear enterprise that is cost effective and sustainable for the long term. The SSP has successfully maintained the U.S. nuclear stockpile for more than a decade, since the end of nuclear testing. Current plans foresee maintaining warheads produced in the 1980s until about 2040. These warheads continue to age and they are expensive to refurbish. The current Life Extension Program plans for these legacy warheads are straining both the nuclear-weapons production and certification infrastructure making it difficult to respond rapidly to problems or changes in requirements. Furthermore, refurbishing and preserving Cold-War-era nuclear weapons requires refurbishing and preserving an infrastructure geared to support old technology. Stockpile Stewardship could continue this refurbishment approach, but an alternative approach could be considered that is more focused on sustainable technologies, and developing a more responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure. Guided by what we have learned from SSP during the last decade, the stewardship program can be evolved to address this increasing challenge using its computational and experimental tools and capabilities. This approach must start

  2. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  3. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  4. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  5. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depletingrental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  6. Design considerations for the beam-waveguide retrofit of a ground antenna station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veruttipong, T.; Withington, J.; Galindo-Israel, V.; Imbriale, W.; Bathker, D.

    1986-01-01

    Retrofitting an antenna that was originally designed without a beam waveguide introduces special difficulties because it is desirable to minimize alteration of the original mechanical truss work and to image the actual feed without distortion at the focal point of the dual-shaped reflector. To obtain an acceptable image, certain Geometrical Optics (GO) design criteria are followed as closely as possible. The problems associated with applying these design criteria to a 34-meter dual-shaped DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna are discussed. The use of various diffraction analysis techniques in the design process is also discussed. GTD and FFT algorithms are particularly necessary at the higher frequencies, while Physical Optics and Spherical Wave Expansions proved necessary at the lower frequencies.

  7. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  8. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  9. Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

  10. Impulse noise trauma during army weapon firing.

    PubMed

    Munjal, K R; Singh, V P

    1997-04-01

    A 100 infanty personnel firing modern weapons such as the Anti Tank Guided Missile, 106mm Recoiless Gun (RCL), 84mm Rocket Launcher (RL) and 81mm Mortar were studied for the effect of impulse noise on the ear and the evolution of the Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS), Recovery Time (RT) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) was traced. PMID:23119288

  11. The next strategic weapon: continuous replenishment planning.

    PubMed

    Crapser, S

    1994-08-01

    In this age of rapid technology change, we are searching for that strategic weapon to have in our arsenal that will help us maintain our competitiveness. This article will show how continuous replenishment planning, with the recent developments in communication technology, has enabled two companies to concentrate on the strategic issues of business partnering. PMID:10135472

  12. Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

  13. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  14. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-05-09

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

  15. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  16. What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

  17. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  18. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  19. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  20. Rotor retrofit boosts turbine output and efficiency by 1. 67%

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, J.; Heim, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    In service since 1973, Commonwealth Edison Co.'s 2-unit Zion station is one of the earlier 1,000-MWe-range nuclear generating power plants. In the mid-1980s, both turbines were treated to a multi-million-dollar steam path component retrofit after stress corrosion-induced turbine blade failures caused lengthy forced outages. ABB's Utility Steam Turbine Division completed the work, and at 1,040 MW each, Zion's steam turbines are believed to be the largest ever to be retrofitted with non-original equipment manufacturer (OEM) rotors and related components. As a result of the retrofit, two-unit generating capacity increased by approximately 1.6% (17 MWe). Furthermore, the retrofit allowed Zion to extend the frequency of normal turbine inspection and overhaul intervals. This article reports that, after 7-1/2 years of service, a recent inspection revealed that the steam path components were still in mint condition with no signs of stress corrosion cracking.

  1. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Dianne

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  3. General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the twentieth century, this building dates from very early in the Lazaretto's history and is believed to have once functioned as a summer kitchen or bake house. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Kitchen/Bake House, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  4. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Delp, William W.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion; Singer, Brett C.; Spears, Michael; Vermeer, Kimberly; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  5. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  6. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  7. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  8. Insulation and coatings bind together for durable retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Structurally sound but energy-inefficient buildings need not be destroyed and rebuilt at expensive rates. By combining a hard coating and highly nonabsorbent insulation, energy dollars are conserved and new construction becomes unnecessary. Exteerior wall finishing systems, using Styrofoam brand insulation and either of two polymer modified cementitious coatings, are available for both new and retrofit commercial applications.

  9. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities -- one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  10. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities—one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  11. An actuarial approach to retrofit savings in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Reddy, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    An actuarial method has been developed for determining energy savings from retrofits from energy use data for a number of buildings. This method should be contrasted with the traditional method of using pre- and post-retrofit data on the same building. This method supports the U.S. Department of Energy Building Performance Database of real building performance data and related tools that enable engineering and financial practitioners to evaluate retrofits. The actuarial approach derives, from the database, probability density functions (PDFs) for energy savings from retrofits by creating peer groups for the user’s pre post buildings. From the energy use distribution of the two groups, the savings PDF is derived. This provides the basis for engineering analysis as well as financial risk analysis leading to investment decisions. Several technical issues are addressed: The savings PDF is obtained from the pre- and post-PDF through a convolution. Smoothing using kernel density estimation is applied to make the PDF more realistic. The low data density problem can be mitigated through a neighborhood methodology. Correlations between pre and post buildings are addressed to improve the savings PDF. Sample size effects are addressed through the Kolmogorov--Smirnov tests and quantile-quantile plots.

  12. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  13. Infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit: a design guide.

    PubMed

    Bagg, W K

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater management is continually evolving with the development and implementation of new, more efficient technologies. One of these is the Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). Although a relatively new technology in Australia, MBR wastewater treatment has been widely used elsewhere for over 20 years, with thousands of MBRs now in operation worldwide. Over the past 5 years, MBR technology has been enthusiastically embraced in Australia as a potential treatment upgrade option, and via retrofit typically offers two major benefits: (1) more capacity using mostly existing facilities, and (2) very high quality treated effluent. However, infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit is not a simple or low-cost solution and there are many factors which should be carefully evaluated before deciding on this method of plant upgrade. The paper reviews a range of design parameters which should be carefully evaluated when considering an MBR retrofit solution. Several actual and conceptual case studies are considered to demonstrate both advantages and disadvantages. Whilst optimising existing facilities and production of high quality water for reuse are powerful drivers, it is suggested that MBRs are perhaps not always the most sustainable Whole-of-Life solution for a wastewater treatment plant upgrade, especially by way of a retrofit.

  14. Stream Responses to a Watershed-Scale Stormwater Retrofit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure can reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate many of the problems associated with impervious surfaces; however, the effectiveness of retrofit stormwater management for improving aquatic health is largely untested. In the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchmen...

  15. 72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) LOOKING NORTH. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  16. 76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY..., academia, military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  19. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  20. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  1. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  2. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13 Section... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  3. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  4. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  5. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  6. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  7. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  8. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  9. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  10. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  11. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 504.14... SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

  12. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  13. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  14. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  15. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  16. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  17. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  18. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13 Section... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  19. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  20. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  1. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  2. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  3. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  4. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  5. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  6. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  7. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  8. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11... FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or...

  9. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  10. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  11. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  12. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  13. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  14. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 520.15... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  15. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  16. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section... ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  17. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  18. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13 Section... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  19. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section... ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  20. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  1. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  2. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  3. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  4. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  5. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  6. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  7. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section... ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  8. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  9. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  10. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  11. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives,...

  12. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  13. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  14. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section... ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  15. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  16. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  17. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  18. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  19. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  20. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  2. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  3. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  4. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  5. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  6. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73.... H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing. Table H-1—Minimum Day Firing Criteria 1...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73.... H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing. Table H-1—Minimum Day Firing Criteria 1...

  10. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  11. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  13. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  14. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  15. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73.... H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing. Table H-1—Minimum Day Firing Criteria 1...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73.... H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing. Table H-1—Minimum Day Firing Criteria 1...

  18. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  19. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  20. [Gas weapons as a variation on gas-propelled firearms].

    PubMed

    Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Kuznetsov, Iu D; Katkov, I D; Dolinskiĭ, V E

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the motion of gas weapons as defence weapons, including the group of gas barrel guns. Characterizes its design and ammunition. Presents arguments in favor of referring gas barrel guns to firearm devices. Shows the place of gas barrel guns in the general classification of ejecting devices and offers a classification of civil chemical weapons.

  1. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  2. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73.... H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing. Table H-1—Minimum Day Firing Criteria 1...

  5. Adolescents Who Carry Weapons to School: A Review of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkenbine, Ryan D.; Dwyer, R. Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school…

  6. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  7. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on... implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA), and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial...

  9. Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W.R.

    1993-08-01

    The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other organizations includes performing special tests on weapon components, subassemblies, and systems for purposes such as basic development and specific problem investigation. The WETL staff also sends equipment to other laboratories for specific tests that cannot be performed at Pantex. For example, we modified and sent equipment to Brookhaven National Laboratory for testing with their Neutral Particle Beam. WETL supplied the engineering expertise to accomplish the needed modifications to the equipment and the technicians to help perform many special tests at Brookhaven. A variety of testing is possible within the WETL, including: Accelerometer, decelerometer, and G-switch g-level/closure testing; Neutron generator performance testing; weapon systems developmental tests; weapon system component testing; weapon system failure-mode-duplication tests; simultaneity measurements; environmental extreme testing; parachute deployment testing; permissive action link (PAL) testing and trajectory-sensing signal generator (TSSG) testing. WETL`s existing equipment configurations do not restrict the testing performed at the WETL. Equipment and facilities are adapted to specific requirements. The WETL`s facilities can often eliminate the need to build or acquire new test equipment, thereby saving time and expense.

  10. Weapon identification using hierarchical classification of acoustic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saad; Divakaran, Ajay; Sawhney, Harpreet S.

    2009-05-01

    We apply a unique hierarchical audio classification technique to weapon identification using gunshot analysis. The Audio Classification classifies each audio segment as one of ten weapon classes (e.g., 9mm, 22, shotgun etc.) using lowcomplexity Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). The first level of hierarchy consists of classification into broad weapons categories such as Rifle, Hand-Gun etc. and the second consists of classification into specific weapons such as 9mm, 357 etc. Our experiments have yielded over 90% classification accuracy at the coarse (rifle-handgun) level of the classification hierarchy and over 85% accuracy at the finer level (weapon category such as 9mm).

  11. Defense programs: A Sandia weapon review bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia`s mission to explore technology that enhances US nuclear weapons capabilities has been the primary impetus for the development of a class of inertial measurement units not available commercially. The newest member of the family is the Ring Laser Gyro Assembly. The product of a five-year joint effort by Sandia and Honeywell`s Space and Strategic Systems Operation, the RLGA is a small, one-nautical-mile-per-hour-class inertial measurement unit that consumes only 16 watts - attributes that are important to a guidance and control capability for new or existing weapons. These same attributes led the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman Air Force Base to select the RLGA for their newest test instrumentation pod. The RLGA sensor assembly is composed of three Honeywell ring laser gyroscopes and three Sundstrand Data Control accelerometers that are selected from three types according to the user`s acceleration range and accuracy needs.

  12. Vaccine development: the biological weapon imperative.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A G

    2002-01-01

    The biological warfare capabilities of state and non-state actors continue to grow worldwide, both in sophistication and breadth. More than a dozen nations, including Iraq, Iran, Libya, Syria and North Korea, are either actively pursuing or possess biological weapons for use against their enemies. There is also a heightened awareness of the use of such agents by terrorist groups, a possibly deleterious side-effect of an increased awareness by the general public. This paper looks at the growing threat of the use of biological agents by both national programmes and non-state actors, the possible agents which might be considered for use, and the potential role that vaccine development may have in protecting both military and civilian populations against biological weapons attacks in the future.

  13. Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston UK site overview

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.A.

    1990-11-01

    The UK Nuclear Weapons Industry has at its core the Atomic Weapons Establishments at Aldermaston, Burghfield, Cardiff and Foulness all of which are part of the Ministry of Defense (MOD). The paper illustrates the upper echelons of the MOD and shows the structure within Aldermaston. The Superintendent Quality Management has three sections: Inspection, Quality Assurance and Development, the latter of which contains the Robotics Section. The locations of the establishments are shown. Remote handling and automation of production procedures distance the operator from hazardous materials in the following areas: (1) The glovebox environment where radioactive and hygroscopic materials are machined and measured; (2) The remote cell environment for machining and assembly of explosive and radioactive materials; and (3) decommissioning activities in the waste management group at Aldermaston. The robotics section provides an advisory service to all sites but may also be tasked internally by other sections within the Superintendency.

  14. Weapons of mass destruction. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.W.

    1997-04-01

    The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat in the 1990`s. The US has policies and strategies to stem WMD proliferation and to counter the effects of their use. This paper will identify ways to deter threats of WMD against the United States through counterproliferation strategies of counterforce, active defense, and passive defense. Discussion includes aspects which challenge US interests and place greater burden on policymakers. These include politics, economics, technology and the global mindset.

  15. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  16. The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq's nuclear weapons potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zifferero, M.

    1993-04-01

    With support from UNSCOM and staff members from several countries, the IAEA has succeeded in identifying and destroying most of Iraq's nuclear weapons potential. IAEA activities in Iraq have also established a sound basis for long-term monitoring of Iraq. This will involve several procedures and techniques, including the periodic monitoring of Iraq's main bodies of water and unannounced visits of resident inspectors to plants, factories, and research centers.

  17. Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

  18. Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1992-09-01

    Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

  19. Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Glen I

    2010-12-01

    During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties.

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  2. Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Glen I

    2010-12-01

    During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

  3. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  4. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    SciTech Connect

    Immele, John D; Wagner, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the

  5. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  6. High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L.; Wendt, R.

    1999-04-19

    The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.

  7. Experiences in retrofitting sacrificial anodes in offshore Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J.H.; Thomason, W.H.; Alansari, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    An analysis was made of the cathodic protection systems of fifteen (15) fixed offshore platforms. These steel template structures are located in the warm waters off the coast of the United Arab Emirates with water depth varying between 125 and 185 feet. The operator employs a systematic survey program to monitor the corrosion protection systems including the assessment of sacrificial anode depletion, and measurement of the anode and platform potentials. These data are used to design new anode retrofits for the older structures to extend the life of the CP systems. This paper presents an analysis of the field survey measurements, the method used to evaluate when new anodes are required, how many are needed, and where to locate retrofit anodes.

  8. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  9. Boston solar retrofits: Studies of solar access and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M.; Doyle, S.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area.

  10. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  11. Dealing with the increased radon concentration in thermally retrofitted buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M; Kačmaříková, V

    2014-07-01

    The influence of energy-saving measures on indoor radon concentration has been studied on the basis of a family house made of clinker concrete wall panels containing from 1000 up to 4000 Bq kg(-1) of 226Ra. Thermal retrofitting based on installing external thermal insulation composite system on the building envelope and replacing existing windows by new ones decreased the annual energy need for heating 2.8 times, but also reduced the ventilation rate to values<0.1 h(-1). As a consequence, the 1-y average indoor radon concentration values increased 3.4 times from 337 to 1117 Bq m(-3). The additional risk of lung cancer in the thermally retrofitted house increased to a value that is 125 % higher than before conversion. Methods for dealing with this enhanced risk by increasing the ventilation rate are discussed. Recovery of investments and the energy consequences of increased ventilation are studied in a long-term perspective.

  12. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  13. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

  14. Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, D.; Imm, C.

    2013-06-01

    Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

  15. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  16. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit.

  17. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-06-01

    Energy bills for the Pittsburgh Zoo typically total $280,000 a year, of which about $220,000 are spent on electricity. Until recently, lighting accounted for 20 percent of this electricity use. This translated into an annual cost of $44,000. Recent advances in lighting technology have made it possible to perform lighting retrofits in Zoo facilities that reduce energy costs while also providing improved light quality and better lit and more natural looking exhibits and animal holding areas. Through an investment of $127,690 in these projects from mid-1992 through mid-1994, the Zoo expects to realize an annual savings in electricity costs of $24,500 and further savings from a reduction in maintenance and plant replacement costs. Retrofits to the lighting systems in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aquarium, and the Niches of the World Building were the most interesting and are described in detail. Providing a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light to maintain the health of reptiles was a particular challenge in the Niches of the World Building. Lack of separate meters and additions to the Zoo have made the determination of the actual performance of these retrofit projects impossible. A similar retrofit project at the Pittsburgh Aviary (now the National Aviary) in 1989 through 1990 provides savings figures that should be comparable to those expected at the Zoo, however. This project cost $100,000 and saved $21,008 in electricity costs during the first year of operation. Maintenance costs were reduced by approximately $5000 a year.

  18. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  19. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Martin, E.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  20. Complex lighting retrofits: Don`t forget about maintenance!

    SciTech Connect

    Woodroof, E.A.

    1997-05-01

    Maintenance costs can significantly influence the economic feasibility of lighting retrofits in certain types of facilities. If a lighting system is too complex, (or expensive to repair) it will not be maintained and will fail. Energy will not be saved, and the company could be reluctant to engage in future lighting retrofits. With the increasing number of complex lighting systems on the market today, a reality check is appropriate. What may seem simple to a lighting designer might be complicated for a maintenance person, who may not have time to focus solely on learning about lighting systems. This article will identify which types of facilities are prone to long-term maintenance problems and discuss some of the maintenance cost factors that can make or break the feasibility of lighting retrofits. Factors affecting costs can be divided into three groups: (1) Installation Costs, (2) Operating Maintenance Costs and (3) Disposal Costs. Armed with the information presented in this article, the energy manager can specify energy saving lighting products that won`t increase the burden on the maintenance department.

  1. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  2. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Fisher, Jeremy; Less, Brennan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  3. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  4. Experiment study on RC frame retrofitted by the external structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Junji; Hiroshi, Kuramoto; Taguchi, Takashi; Kamiya, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    A new retrofitting method is proposed herein for reinforced concrete (RC) structures through attachment of an external structure. The external structure consists of a fiber concrete encased steel frame, connection slab and transverse beams. The external structure is connected to the existing structure through a connection slab and transverse beams. Pseudostatic experiments were carried out on one unretrofitted specimen and three retrofitted frame specimens. The characteristics, including failure mode, crack pattern, hysteresis loops behavior, relationship of strain and displacement of the concrete slab, are demonstrated. The results show that the load carrying capacity is obviously increased, and the extension length of the slab and the number of columns within the external frame are important influence factors on the working performance of the existing structure. In addition, the displacement difference between the existing structure and the outer structure was caused mainly by three factors: shear deformation of the slab, extraction of transverse beams, and drift of the conjunction part between the slab and the existing frame. Furthermore, the total deformation determined by the first two factors accounted for approximately 80% of the damage, therefore these factors should be carefully considered in engineering practice to enhance the effects of this new retrofitting method.

  5. Solar energy related applications, education, and building retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yunhua

    Solar energy technologies have been well development for a wide range of applications. However, research on solar photovoltaics is still being conducted to improve performance and lower installation costs. For example, the power generation potential is not only determined by the intensity or location of solar radiation, but also related to the incident angle of the light. Chapter one explores the effect of angle-dependent characteristic on overall power output for different fixed orientations and configurations by hourly modeling, and the results show substantial improvements are possible. Michigan State University (MSU) has been promoting building retrofits combining renewable energy, and the Students Planning Advanced Retrofit Technology Applications (SPARTA) is a group that helps MSU address energy initiatives on campus. Chapter two summarizes the overall successes of building retrofit projects including solar rooftop, LED lighting, and window film conducted by the SPARTA group. The last chapter describes the development of paintable luminescent solar concentrator modules for renewable energy education. The activity is designed for middle school students to understand how energy is generated from solar energy in an inexpensive alternative, which also generates both excitement in solar energy and motivates students to become creative participants in the energy problems.

  6. Centrifugal chillers - CFC retrofit versus replacement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, P.

    1997-09-01

    As of January 1, 1996, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants CFC-11 and CFC-12 can no longer be produced in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 60,000 or 74% of CFC chillers in service today in industrial, commercial, and institutional buildings still use the `banned` refrigerants. In addition, most of the Navy`s centrifugal chillers also use these refrigerants. In May 1994, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command dictated (NAVFAC Notice 5090) that all shore-based Navy Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) equipment containing Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) be replaced or converted by December 41,2000. Equipment conversions must utilize an approved refrigerant - one with an Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) of 0.05 or less. The decision to eliminate CFC refrigerants at Navy facilities must begin with a CFC management plan. The plan should address items such as, reducing leakage in existing CFC systems, HVAC maintenance personnel training standards, and retrofitting or replacing CFC refrigerant-using equipment. The decision to retrofit or replace CFC refrigerant chiller must involve the chiller manufacturer. Manufacturers will (often at no cost) evaluate your existing cooling system, determine the most appropriate retrofit method, and determine which option is the most economical choice.

  7. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.L.; Johnson, J.O.

    1994-05-01

    The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

  8. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  9. High-Efficiency Retrofit Lessons for Retail from a SuperTarget: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, R.; Deru, M.; Hirsch, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Target under the Commercial Building Program to design and implement a retrofit of a SuperTarget in Thornton, CO. The result was a retrofit design that predicted 37% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 29% compared to existing (pre-retrofit) store consumption. The largest savings came from energy efficient lighting, energy efficient cooling systems, improved refrigeration, and better control of plug loads.

  10. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  11. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  12. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  13. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  14. The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: A Quasi–Randomized Controlled Trial of Tractor Retrofitting Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paul L.; Emmelin, Maria; Stenlund, Hans; Weinehall, Lars; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B.; May, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures. Methods. From 2006 to 2007, we conducted a quasi–randomized controlled trial with 391 farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations. These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control. Results. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, postintervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors. Conclusions. Our results showed that a social marketing approach (financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion) had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors. PMID:21330581

  15. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry

    SciTech Connect

    David Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures.

  16. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, K.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  17. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  18. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofiting Apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  19. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  20. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  1. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  2. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  3. [Neurological effects of chemical and biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohide

    2003-11-01

    Neurological manifestations of chemical and biological weapons are reviewed. Nerve agents in current use, storage, or production include tabun, sarin, soman and VX. The initial effects of exposure to a nerve agent depend on the dose and on the route of exposure. Sarin, the agent studied most thoroughly in man in Matumoto and Tokyo attacked by Aum shinrikyo will cause miosis, rhinorrehea and shortness of breath are initial complaints immediately after inhalation exposure of the vapor. The severe cases showed loss of consciousness and convulsions. Respiratory arrest may occur. The most toxic of the nerve agents is VX. It is thought to be 100 times as toxic as sarin for humans by the percutaneous rout. The similar findings to sarin exposure are also observed in cases exposured to VX. Atropin and PAM will be effective in the early stage. BZ (benzilate) is a delayed onset incapacitation agent. It causes severe hallucination. The cyanide compounds are among the most rapidly acting of war gases, resulting in death. Anthrax has been the most attractive biological weapon for a long time. Anthrax is an acute bacterial infection of the skin and lungs in man and animals. Meningoencephalitis has been reported in the terminal stage in anthrax infection. In autopsy, it is really confirmed in the characteristic findings of the meningeal abnormality. The potential weaponization of variola virus continues to pose a military threat because the aerosol infectivity of the virus and the development of susceptible populations. A high rate of lethality, a staunch resistance to treatments and a rapid onset of severe generalised muscle weakness make botulinum toxin a suitable agent for biological warfare particularly by oral administration.

  4. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons.

  5. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  6. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  7. Need the U.S. resume nuclear weapons testing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2005-04-01

    The United States has not tested a nuclear weapon since 1992. Nuclear weapons are very complicated devices and have many possible failure modes. The U.S. has invested many hundreds of millions of dollars and many thousands of man-years in ensuring the safety and security of the stockpile. Are these efforts sufficient? Do we understand how nuclear weapons work---and decay---sufficiently well to preclude the need for further testing? This presentation will examine how nuclear weapons work, describe possible failure modes, and explore various technologies and techniques used for certifying nuclear weapons. The presentation will also explore what, if any, useful information would likely be gained from a nuclear weapon test. Finally, the presentation will examine the statistics of small numbers to determine how many tests would likely be needed to reveal complicated problems with the arsenal.

  8. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  9. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  10. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  11. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  12. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  13. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  14. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  15. INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D; Wiehagen, Joseph; Drumheller, S Craig; Siegel, John; Stratmoen, Todd

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed

  17. [The variola virus as a biological weapon].

    PubMed

    Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Turković, Branko; Brudnjak, Zvonimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2003-01-01

    In view of the threat of use of the variola virus as a biological weapon, the interest of medical and other public in this causative agent that was eradicated in the wild at the end of the 1970s has increased. The paper gives an outline of the current knowledge on biological properties of the variola virus, and on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture and prophylaxis of the disease caused by this virus. Descriptions of two sudden smallpox epidemics (Germany in 1970 and former Yugoslavia in 1972) could illustrate the potential of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon in bioterrorism and biological warfare. In fact, this virus can spread very readily through aerosol, which may lead to explosive epidemics. Not having been immunised, our population aged less than 25 years totally lacks the immunity. Older individuals are likely to have a low residual specific immunity to the agent. The only way to prevent a smallpox epidemic is by vaccination and patient isolation. A rapid smallpox diagnostics and prompt vaccination of all contacts is of utmost importance in stopping the outbreak.

  18. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  19. Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

  20. Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President... chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28,...

  2. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  3. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  4. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  5. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  6. 32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Possession or retention of prohibited weapons... prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known... and/or explosives. (c) Any weapons not legally obtained. (d) Any instrument commonly used in...

  7. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit, Stockton, California

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team conducted a deep retrofit project within Stockton’s Large-Scale Retrofit Program that expanded on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Post-retrofit site energy savings were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case.

  8. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  9. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX...

  10. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX...

  11. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX...

  12. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX...

  13. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX...

  14. Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

  15. EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Combining preventative operations and maintenance (O&M) with strategic retrofitting of building systems improves a school's energy performance. For schools with limited resources and experience, "quick wins" in O&M and retrofitting provide a valuable starting point to energy management. As a next step, strategically prioritizing long- and…

  16. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-07-01

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made.

  17. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  18. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  20. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  1. 75 FR 21016 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... and the Owner. The Green Retrofit Program is detailed in HUD Notice H 09-02 issued on May 13, 2009... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the American Recovery and Revitalization Act of 2009 AGENCY: Office of Affordable...

  2. School Retrofit Design Analysis System. A Microcomputer Model for School Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen Lee

    The School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) developed in this study provides a non-technical method for the school administrator to use in evaluating alternative energy saving retrofit and new construction design possibilities. By providing a high degree of flexibility, SRDAS is applicable to a wide range of school building and retrofit…

  3. Glove port retrofit assembly and method of replacing components

    DOEpatents

    Giesen, Isaac M; Cournoyer, Michael E; Rael, David G

    2014-11-18

    What is disclosed is a system for retrofitting a sealed enclosure for performing work therein having an outer enclosure assembly configured to be clamped to the outer annular face of a port ring and form a sealed engagement with the outer annular surface of the port ring, a change assembly having an inner ring and an access element wherein the inner ring has a first annular cylinder body that is sized to be slidably received by the port ring and the access element is configured to be sealably and slidably positioned within the first annular cylinder body of the inner ring.

  4. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation.

  5. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  6. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  7. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  8. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Andrew; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Lubliner, Michael; Auer, Dan; Clegg, Zach

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  9. Construction manager steers school`s HVAC retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, W.; Teyema, B.R.

    1995-11-01

    This article reports on an air conditioning retrofit for 300,000 sq ft school that will include 900 tons of cooling using custom-built mechanical penthouses with DX cooling. New Trier High School located near Lake Michigan in the Chicago Northshore suburb of Winnetka, IL, is a 75-year-old landmark building. The school has long had a reputation for academic excellence. A two-year renovation project is currently underway to install a modern HVAC system and new lighting that will improve the indoor environment, thereby enhancing the overall learning environment.

  10. Solar energy retrofit for Clarksville Middle School, Clarksville, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar energy retrofit heating system installed to provide heating for two gymnasiums at the Clarksville Middle School located in Clarksville, Indiana is described in detail. The system type is hot water using existing chilled water piping and chilled water coils in an air handler system. Flat plate, single-glazed selectively coated solar collectors were installed on the roof of each gymnasium. Total collector area covers 6,520 square feet. The liquid is stored in a 10,000 gallon steel tank installed below grade.

  11. Passive solar retrofit for the Broadmoor sanctuary barn

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, G.; Saunders, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A large barn is to be converted to an energy efficient Audubon headquarters by a combination of direct gain, direct to store, and thermosiphon solar systems. The resulting combination looks very promising for general purpose retrofit since the costs appear low, the performance seems good, and the design is likely to be adaptable to many structures as a simple addition to the south face. Inputs of sun, air, and water are carefully integrated with storage. Two separate collection-storage-distribution loops are incorporated; one within the other. North wall heat collection is possible. Funds for construction are now being sought.

  12. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation. PMID:12420968

  13. 75 FR 69112 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Notice of FHA PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...This notice announces HUD's proposal to conduct an FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program or Pilot Program) known as FHA PowerSaver. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 directs HUD to conduct an Energy Efficient Mortgage Innovation pilot program targeted to the single family housing market. The Retrofit Pilot Program is designed by HUD to meet this statutory......

  14. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  15. 75 FR 78730 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Notice of FHA PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... promise of replicability and help create a standardized home energy efficient retrofit market. Of the $50... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Notice of FHA PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit..., 2010, HUD published a notice that announced its proposal to conduct an FHA Home Energy Retrofit...

  16. Retrofitting Las Vegas. Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly $40 million in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In order to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is used in retrofitting homes, the CARB team provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the BARA team and its local partners—Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada—for two retrofit test homes. One home demonstrated a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. This report describes the retrofit packages, which were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public.

  17. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section... explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of official business on the site, no person other than... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the...

  18. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section... explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of official business on the site, no person other than... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the...

  19. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... explosives within the Preserve is prohibited....

  20. 43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons, firearms, explosives, and... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess... with applicable Federal, State, and local law. (c) You must not use or possess explosives, or...