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Sample records for species aspergillus calidoustus

  1. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  2. Invasive aspergillosis caused by cryptic Aspergillus species: a report of two consecutive episodes in a patient with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Teresa; Alvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Mellado, Emilia; Serrano, David; Valerio, Maricela; Blanco, José L; Garcia, Marta E; Muñoz, Patricia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Bouza, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of two consecutive episodes of invasive aspergillosis caused by cryptic Aspergillus species in a patient with leukaemia. A first episode of pulmonary infection was caused by Aspergillus calidoustus and Aspergillus novofumigatus, and the second episode by A. novofumigatus and Aspergillus viridinutans. Fungal isolates were identified to species level using traditional and sequencing-based molecular methods.

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  4. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  5. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  6. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  7. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)).

  8. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies.

  9. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  10. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  11. Allergens/Antigens, toxins and polyketides of important Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P

    2011-04-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important species relevant to human, agricultural and biotechnological applications. The potential of Aspergillus species to produce highly diversified complex biomolecules such as multifunctional proteins (allergens, antigens, enzymes) and polyketides is fascinating and demands greater insight into the understanding of these fungal species for application to human health. Recently a regulator gene for secondary metabolites, LaeA has been identified. Gene mining based on LaeA has facilitated new metabolites with antimicrobial activity such as emericellamides and antitumor activity such as terrequinone A from A. nidulans. Immunoproteomic approach was reported for identification of few novel allergens for A. fumigatus. In this context, the review is focused on recent developments in allergens, antigens, structural and functional diversity of the polyketide synthases that produce polyketides of pharmaceutical and biological importance. Possible antifungal drug targets for development of effective antifungal drugs and new strategies for development of molecular diagnostics are considered.

  12. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is a large economically important genus of fungi. In agriculture, some of the 250 species in this genus cause disease in plants and animals and some also produce poisons (mycotoxins) in foods and feeds. Aspergillus is a major killer of immunosuppressed people, such as diabeti...

  13. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis.

  14. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  15. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri.

    PubMed

    Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Kocsubé, S; Brankovics, B; Tóth, B; Szigeti, G; Samson, R A

    2011-06-30

    Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either β-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-γ-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods

  16. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Kocsubé, S.; Brankovics, B.; Tóth, B.; Szigeti, G.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either β-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-γ-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods

  17. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non

  18. Time-Kill Kinetics and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Non-fumigatus Aspergillus Species Isolated from Patients with Ocular Mycoses.

    PubMed

    Öz, Yasemin; Özdemir, Havva Gül; Gökbolat, Egemen; Kiraz, Nuri; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus species can cause ocular morbidity and blindness, and thus, appropriate antifungal therapy is needed. We investigated the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and amphotericin B against 14 Aspergillus isolates obtained from patients with ocular mycoses, using the CLSI reference broth microdilution methodology. In addition, time-kill assays were performed, exposing each isolate separately to 1-, 4-, and 16-fold concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antifungal agent. A sigmoid maximum-effect (E max) model was used to fit the time-kill curve data. The drug effect was further evaluated by measuring an increase/decrease in the killing rate of the tested isolates. The MICs of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 0.5-1.0, 1.0, 0.5-1.0, and 0.25 µg/ml for A. brasiliensis, A. niger, and A. tubingensis isolates, respectively, and 2.0-4.0, 0.5, 1.0 for A. flavus, and 0.12-0.25 µg/ml for A. nomius isolates, respectively. A. calidoustus had the highest MIC range for the azoles (4.0-16.0 µg/ml) among all isolates tested. The minimum effective concentrations of caspofungin and anidulafungin were ≤0.03-0.5 µg/ml and ≤0.03 µg/ml for all isolates, respectively. Posaconazole demonstrated maximal killing rates (E(max) = 0.63 h(-1), r(2) = 0.71) against 14 ocular Aspergillus isolates, followed by amphotericin B (E(max) = 0.39 h(-1), r(2) = 0.87), voriconazole (E(max) = 0.35 h(-1), r(2) = 0.098), and itraconazole (E(max) = 0.01 h(-1), r(2) = 0.98). Overall, the antifungal susceptibility of the non-fumigatus Aspergillus isolates tested was species and antifungal agent dependent. Analysis of the kinetic growth assays, along with consideration of the killing rates, revealed that posaconazole was the most effective antifungal against all of the isolates.

  19. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  20. Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2012-11-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa.

  1. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  2. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  3. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans conidial antigens and their prevalence in other Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Puente, P; Ovejero, M C; Fernández, N; Leal, F

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is an ascomycetous fungus that reproduces asexually by forming multicellular conidiophores and uninucleate spores called conidia. These elements constitute the main vehicle for the transmission of this and other pathogenic Aspergillus species and are the starting point of the different forms of aspergillosis. In order to use A. nidulans as a potential source of useful antigens for the immunodiagnosis of these diseases, we have examined the total protein composition of conidial extracts of this fungus by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in gels of different percent T. Injection of SDS-extracted conidial proteins into rabbits allowed us to raise a battery of polyclonal antibodies which have defined some important immunogenic polypeptides. Several of these immunogens were both present in mycelial extracts and recognized by antimycelium antibodies. Four of them, designated cdA, cdB, cdC, and cdE, were also found in conidial extracts of other pathogenic Aspergillus species. Only cdE was undetectable in cell extracts of the nonrelated species Fusarium culmorum and Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Images PMID:1937806

  4. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species.

    PubMed

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Sadatsharifi, Arman; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  5. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of Aspergillus species in pediatric tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, John K; Mauger, Joanne; McGowan, Karin L

    2004-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis often requires tissue samples for histologic evidence of fungal infection and culture confirmation of Aspergillus species. However, the culture frequently fails to isolate Aspergillus species. Alternative approaches to confirm Aspergillus infection use polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical analysis on paraffin-embedded sections. These approaches are well characterized in animals and adult patients but not pediatric patients. We studied the immunoreactivity of a commercially available monoclonal antibody, Mab-WF-AF-1 (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA), on paraffin-embedded sections from 16 pediatric cases with invasive aspergillosis, of which 12 were proven by culture. Optimal immunoreactivity required microwave antigen retrieval using high pH; 5 other antigen retrieval approaches were unsuccessful. With optimization, the monoclonal antibody was strongly immunoreactive in all cases with staining of the Aspergillus cell wall, septa, and cytoplasm. Background was minimal with no cross-reactivity to Candida albicans. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the Mab-WF-AF-1 antibody in pediatric tissues suspected of invasive aspergillosis.

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases. PMID:27242710

  8. Species Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Species Belonging to Aspergillus Section Nigri▿

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Mellado, Emilia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2009-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis was performed for 34 Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri. Molecular methods allowed for the correct classification into three different clades (A. niger, A. tubingensis, and A. foetidus). Correlation with in vitro itraconazole susceptibility distinguished the following three profiles: susceptible, resistant, and showing a paradoxical effect. A number of different species whose morphological features resemble those of A. niger showed unusual MICs to itraconazole that have never been described for the Aspergillus genus. PMID:19635955

  9. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  10. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus Species: An Emerging Problem.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus species are ubiquitous fungal saprophytes found in diverse ecological niches worldwide. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis with high mortality rates in some immunocompromised hosts. Azoles are the first-line drugs in treating diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. However, increasing reports in A. fumigatus azole resistance, both in the clinical setting and in the environment, are threatening the effectiveness of clinical and agricultural azole drugs. The azole target is the 14-α sterol demethylase encoded by cyp51A gene and the main mechanisms of resistance involve the integration of tandem repeats in its promoter and/or single point mutations in this gene. In A. fumigatus, azole resistance can emerge in two different scenarios: a medical route in which azole resistance is generated during long periods of azole treatment in the clinical setting and a route of resistance derived from environmental origin due to extended use of demethylation inhibitors in agriculture. The understanding of A. fumigatus azole resistance development and its evolution is needed in order to prevent or minimize its impact. In this article, we review the current situation of azole resistance epidemiology and the predominant molecular mechanisms described based on the resistance acquisition routes. In addition, the clinical implications of A. fumigatus azole resistance and future research are discussed.

  11. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  12. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic

  13. DOPA and DHN pathway orchestrate melanin synthesis in Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anuradha K; Gajjar, Devarshi U; Vasavada, Abhay R

    2014-01-01

    Melanins are high molecular weight hydrophobic pigments that have been studied for their role in the virulence of fungal pathogens. We investigated the amount and type of melanin in 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp.; A. niger (n = 3), A. flavus (n = 5), A. tamarii (n = 3), A. terreus (n = 3), A. tubingensis (n = 3), A. sydowii (n = 3). Aspergillus spp. were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Extraction of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was done and followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of melanin pigment. Ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analyses confirmed the presence of melanin. The melanin pathway was studied by analyzing the effects of inhibitors; kojic acid, tropolone, phthalide, and tricyclazole. The results indicate that in A. niger and A. tubingensis melanin was found in both culture filtrate and fungal biomass. For A. tamarii and A. flavus melanin was extracted from biomass only, whereas melanin was found only in culture filtrate for A. terreus. A negligible amount of melanin was found in A. sydowii. The maximum amount of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was found in A. niger and A. tamarrii, respectively. The DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) pathway produces melanin in A. niger, A. tamarii and A. flavus, whereas the DHN (1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene) pathway produces melanin in A. tubingensis and A. terreus. It can be concluded that the amount and type of melanin in aspergilli largely differ from species to species.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of an Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species, A. bombycis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Geromy G.; Mack, Brian M.; Beltz, Shannon B.; Gilbert, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus bombycis was first isolated from silkworm frass in Japan. It has been reportedly misidentified as A. nomius due to their macro-morphological and chemotype similarities. We sequenced the genome of the A. bombycis Type strain and found it to be comparable in size (37 Mb), as well as in numbers of predicted genes (12,266), to other sequenced Aspergilli. The aflatoxin gene cluster in this strain is similar in size and the genes are oriented the same as other B- + G-aflatoxin producing species, and this strain contains a complete but nonfunctional gene cluster for the production of cyclopiazonic acid. Our findings also showed that the A. bombycis Type strain contains a single MAT1-2 gene indicating that this species is likely heterothallic (self-infertile). This draft genome will contribute to our understanding of the genes and pathways necessary for aflatoxin synthesis as well as the evolutionary relationships of aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:27664179

  15. Population dynamics of Aspergillus section Nigri species on vineyard samples of grapes and raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using...

  16. Efficient degradation of tannic acid by black Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Varga, Janos; van der Gaag, Marijn; Swart, Klaas; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2004-08-01

    A set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. The 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, A. aculeatus, A foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. brasiliensis haplotypes. Even higher concentrations of tannic acid can be utilized by the black aspergilli suggesting a very efficient tannic acid-degrading system. Colour mutants show that the characteristic ability to grow on high tannic acid concentrations is not causally linked to the other typical feature of these aspergilli, i.e. the formation of brown-black pigments. Sequence analysis of the A. niger genome using the A. oryzae tannase gene yielded eleven tannase-like genes, far more than in related species. Therefore, a unique ecological niche in the degradation of tannic acid and connected nitrogen release seems to be reserved for these black-spored cosmopolitans.

  17. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species that are distributed world-wide in soil and rhizosphere, indoor and cave environments, plant endophytes, food contaminants, and occasionally causing human infections. They are producers of many bioactive and extensively studied secondary metabolites an...

  18. Genetic relatedness versus biological compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Fumigati contains twelve clinically relevant species. Among them, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phyl...

  19. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Denning, David W

    2010-09-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic patients' houses living in Sari City, Iran. Plates were incubated at room temperature for 7-14 days. Cultured Aspergillus spp. were identified by standard mycological techniques. All culture plates grew fungi, a testament to the ubiquitous nature of fungal exposure. Cladosporium spp. (29.2%), Aspergillus spp. (19.0%), and Penicillium spp. (18.3%) were most common inside the houses while Cladosporium spp. (44.5%), Aspergillus spp. (12.4%), and Alternaria spp. (11.1%) were most common outside the houses. Aspergillus flavus (30.1%) and A. fumigatus (23.1%) are the most commonly isolated species in indoor air. Aspergillus flavus (44.5%) and A. fumigatus (42.6%) were the most prevalent Aspergillus spp. outside. The most colony numbers of Aspergillus were isolated from kitchens (30.4%) and the least from bedrooms (21.1%). Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species in all sampled rooms except in the kitchen where A. fumigatus was the most common. Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent species among the Aspergillus spp. in the indoor and outdoor of a warm climate area. In these areas, A. flavus can be a major source of allergen in the air. Therefore, minimizing indoor fungal exposure could play an important role in reducing allergic symptoms in susceptible persons.

  20. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  1. Accuracy of the high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-12-01

    This study characterized the accuracy of high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus. To this end, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), β-tubulin (BenA), and calmodulin (CaM) gene encoding sequences as DNA markers from eight reference Aspergillus strains with known identities using 300-bp sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and compared them with the BLASTn outputs. The identifications with the sequences longer than 250 bp were accurate at the section rank, with some ambiguities observed at the species rank due to mostly cross detection of sibling species. Additionally, in silico analysis was performed to predict the identification accuracy for all species in the genus Aspergillus, where 107, 210, and 187 species were predicted to be identifiable down to the species rank based on ITS1, BenA, and CaM, respectively. Finally, air filter samples were analysed to quantify the relative abundances of Aspergillus species in outdoor air. The results were reproducible across biological duplicates both at the species and section ranks, but not strongly correlated between ITS1 and BenA, suggesting the Aspergillus detection can be taxonomically biased depending on the selection of the DNA markers and/or primers.

  2. Characterization of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri from corn field isolates co-infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus species and the potential for ochratoxin A production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri, known as black-spored aspergilli, can contaminate several substrates including maize. Although some species within the group can produce plant disease symptoms such as black mold in onions and maize ear rot, the main concern with A. niger aggregate contamina...

  3. Identification of Aspergillus Species Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Travis; Iwen, Peter C.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various clinically relevant Aspergillus species may have diagnostic value, as certain species are associated with higher mortality and increased virulence and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy. A method to identify Aspergillus at the species level and differentiate it from other true pathogenic and opportunistic molds was developed using the 18S and 28S rRNA genes for primer binding sites. The contiguous internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ITS 1–5.8S–ITS 2, from referenced strains and clinical isolates of aspergilli and other fungi were amplified, sequenced, and compared with non-reference strain sequences in GenBank. ITS amplicons from Aspergillus species ranged in size from 565 to 613 bp. Comparison of reference strains and GenBank sequences demonstrated that both ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions were needed for accurate identification of Aspergillus at the species level. Intraspecies variation among clinical isolates and reference strains was minimal. Sixteen other pathogenic molds demonstrated less than 89% similarity with Aspergillus ITS 1 and 2 sequences. A blind study of 11 clinical isolates was performed, and each was correctly identified. Clinical application of this approach may allow for earlier diagnosis and selection of effective antifungal agents for patients with IA. PMID:10747135

  4. Dissimilation of Methionine by a Demethiolase of Aspergillus Species1

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrera, José; Starkey, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    Enzyme preparations obtained from the mycelium of Aspergillus species broke down methionine by co-dissimilation. The deaminase and demethiolase activities of crude extracts were increased 100-fold by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose. The enzyme acted on d-methionine but not on l-methionine. The enzyme was labile: it was inactivated by oxygen and ascorbic acid but ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and mercaptoethanol preserved its activity. Enzyme activity decreased even at 4 and −30 C and was lost rapidly above 45 C. It was most rapid at 35 C and at pH 8.0 to 9.0. For the following reasons, it was concluded that deamination and demethiolation of methionine were effected by the same enzyme: both activities increased equally at each stage of purification; ammonia, methanethiol, and α-keto butyric acid were formed in amounts equivalent to the amount of methionine dissimilated; the Km and optimal pH for formation of both keto acid and methanethiol were the same; both activities remained in the same fractions that were separated by electrophoresis and the activities were equivalent. The purified enzyme demethiolated α-keto methionine and α-hydroxy methionine and split the sulfur linkage of ethionine but did not cleave cystathionine. Few amino acids were deaminated. The enzyme was sensitive to some carbonyl and sulfhydryl reagents and was relatively insensitive to heavy metals other than Hg++. The Km was 1.3 × 10−3 to 1.5 × 10−3m at pH 7.0. No requirement for cofactors was noted, and attempts to dissociate the enzyme, including dialysis with hydroxylamine, were unsuccessful. PMID:5370277

  5. Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin Production by Aspergillus Species Under Ex Vivo Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus species are increasingly important human pathogens. It is not known whether toxic metabolites of many of these pathogenic species can act as virulence factors in aspergillosis. We examined isolates of aflatoxin and ochratoxin-producing species for toxin production in ‘near human’ condit...

  6. Malic acid production from thin stillage by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Aspergillus strains to utilize thin stillage to produce malic acid was compared. The highest malic acid was produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 at 17 g l(-1). Biomass production from thin stillage was similar with all strains but ATCC 10577 was the highest at 19 g l(-1). The highest malic acid yield (0.8 g g(-1)) was with A. niger ATCC 9142 and ATCC 10577 on the stillage. Thus, thin stillage has the potential to act as a substrate for the commercial production of food-grade malic acid by the A. niger strains.

  7. Epidemiological and Genomic Landscape of Azole Resistance Mechanisms in Aspergillus Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis caused by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus. The predominant causal species is Aspergillus fumigatus, and azole drugs are the treatment of choice. Azole drugs approved for clinical use include itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the recently added isavuconazole. However, epidemiological research has indicated that the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates has increased significantly over the last decade. What is worse is that azole-resistant strains are likely to have emerged not only in response to long-term drug treatment but also because of exposure to azole fungicides in the environment. Resistance mechanisms include amino acid substitutions in the target Cyp51A protein, tandem repeat sequence insertions at the cyp51A promoter, and overexpression of the ABC transporter Cdr1B. Environmental azole-resistant strains harboring the association of a tandem repeat sequence and punctual mutation of the Cyp51A gene (TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A) have become widely disseminated across the world within a short time period. The epidemiological data also suggests that the number of Aspergillus spp. other than A. fumigatus isolated has risen. Some non-fumigatus species intrinsically show low susceptibility to azole drugs, imposing the need for accurate identification, and drug susceptibility testing in most clinical cases. Currently, our knowledge of azole resistance mechanisms in non-fumigatus Aspergillus species such as A. flavus, A. niger, A. tubingensis, A. terreus, A. fischeri, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. calidoustus is limited. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of azole resistance mechanisms particularly in A. fumigatus. We then provide an overview of the genome sequences of non-fumigatus species, focusing on the proteins related to azole resistance mechanisms. PMID:27708619

  8. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  9. Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Mitchell, Trevor R; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Gold, Scott; Hinton, Dorothy M; Riley, Ronald T; Bacon, Charles W

    2014-05-01

    The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins, ochratoxins and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of an added concern because it is also a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black aspergilli could develop asymptomatic infections with maize and peanuts plants. Symptomless infections are potential problems, because under favorable conditions, there is a potential for accumulation of ochratoxins and the fumonisins in contaminated postharvest crops. In the present report, the ability of black aspergilli from peanuts and maize to produce ochratoxin A and FB1 on maize kernels was assessed. One hundred fifty strains from peanuts and maize were isolated from several southeastern and midwestern states. Aspergillus nigri (A. nigri var. nigri) was the dominant species (87%), while Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus carbonarius were infrequently isolated. None of the wild isolates produced detectable amounts of ochratoxins. However, we do report the occurrence of the fumonisins B1, B2, and B3. Of 54 field isolates, 30% (n = 16) produced FB1, 61% (n = 33) produced FB2, and 44% (n = 24) produced FB3. The amounts of fumonisins produced during the test period of 30 days suggest that these strains might be weak to moderate producers of fumonisin on maize. To our knowledge, this is a first report of FB1 and FB3 production by isolates of black aspergilli from an American cereal and legume.

  10. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin producing species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis. DN...

  11. What Can Comparative Genomics Tell Us About Species Concepts in the Genus Aspergillus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the nature of species’ boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four ca...

  12. Detection and discrimination of four aspergillus section nigri species by pcr

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between A. niger, A. awamori, A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis, based on species-conserved...

  13. Antifungal Activity of Eugenol against Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-06-01

    The antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Emericella nidulans), penicilli (Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum), and fusaria (Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. Minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. The effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter represented a critical value for P. expansum, P. glabrum, P. italicum, A. niger, and E. nidulans because a further increase of eugenol resulted in fungistatic activity. The radial growth of A. terreus and F. avenaceum was inhibited at 140 mg/liter, and growth of F. oxysporum was completely inhibited at 150 mg/liter.

  14. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we found a novel synergistic interaction between albumin and caspofungin, with albumin acting as a potential carrier molecule to facilitate antifungal drug delivery to Aspergillus hyphae.

  15. Biology and ecology of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species as related to economic and health concerns.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David M; Mubatanhema, Wellington; Jurjevic, Zeljko

    2002-01-01

    The fungal genus Aspergillus was established in 1729, and includes species that are adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Many aspergilli produce mycotoxins in foods that may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic in animals. Most of the Aspergillus species are soil fungi or saprophytes but some are capable of causing decay in storage, disease in plants or invasive disease in humans and animals. Major agricultural commodities affected before or after harvest by fungal growth and mycotoxins include corn, peanuts, cottonseed, rice, tree nuts, cereal grains, and fruits. Animal products (meat, milk and eggs) can become contaminated because of diet. Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and other aspergilli produce mycotoxins of concern. These include the aflatoxins and ochratoxins, as well as cyclopiazonic acid, patulin, sterigmatocystin, gliotoxin, citrinin and other potentially toxic metabolites.

  16. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  17. Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins ochratoxins, and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 is of particular concern, since it also is a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black ...

  18. What can comparative genomics tell us about species concepts in the genus Aspergillus?

    SciTech Connect

    Rokas, Antonis; payne, gary; Federova, Natalie D.; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa; yu, Jiujiang; georgianna, D. R.; Dean, Ralph A.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, T. E.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Maiti, R.; Joardar, V.; Amedeo, Paolo; Denning, David W.; Nierman, William C.

    2007-12-15

    Understanding the nature of species" boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four case studies, two of which involve intraspecific comparisons, whereas the other two deal with interspecific genomic comparisons between closely related species. These four comparisons reveal significant variation in the nature of species boundaries across Aspergillus. For example, comparisons between A. fumigatus and Neosartorya fischeri (the teleomorph of A. fischerianus) and between A. oryzae and A. flavus suggest that measures of sequence similarity and species-specific genes are significantly higher for the A. fumigatus - N. fischeri pair. Importantly, the values obtained from the comparison between A. oryzae and A. flavus are remarkably similar to those obtained from an intra-specific comparison of A. fumigatus strains, giving support to the proposal that A. oryzae represents a distinct ecotype of A. flavus and not a distinct species. We argue that genomic data can aid Aspergillus taxonomy by serving as a source of novel and unprecedented amounts of comparative data, as a resource for the development of additional diagnostic tools, and finally as a knowledge database about the biological differences between strains and species.

  19. LAMP-PCR detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species collected from peanut kernel.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheikh, H M

    2015-01-30

    Over the last decade, ochratoxin A (OTA) has been widely described and is ubiquitous in several agricultural products. Ochratoxins represent the second-most important mycotoxin group after aflatoxins. A total of 34 samples were surveyed from 3 locations, including Mecca, Madina, and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2012. Fungal contamination frequency was determined for surface-sterilized peanut seeds, which were seeded onto malt extract agar media. Aspergillus niger (35%), Aspergillus ochraceus (30%), and Aspergillus carbonarius (25%) were the most frequently observed Aspergillius species, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus phoenicis isolates were only infrequently recovered and in small numbers (10%). OTA production was evaluated on yeast extract sucrose medium, which revealed that 57% of the isolates were A. niger and 60% of A. carbonarius isolates were OTA producers; 100% belonged to A. ochraceus. Only one isolate, morphologically identified as A. carbonarius, and 3 A. niger isolates unstably produced OTA. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and detection assay was used to identify A. ochraceus isolates. Using the primer sets OCRA1/OCRA2, 400-base pair PCR fragments were produced only when genomic DNA from A. ochraceus isolates was used. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay using recombinase polymerase amplification chemistry was used for A. carbonarius and A. niger DNA identification. As a non-gel-based technique, the amplification product was directly visualized in the reaction tube after adding calcein for naked-eye examination.

  20. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P≤0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  1. Distribution and Toxigenicity of Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize Kernels from Three Agro-ecological Zones in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted > 90% of the species identi...

  2. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

  3. In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Aspergillus species to Melaleuca alternafolia (tea tree) oil.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J A; Arganoza, M T; Boikov, D; Akins, R A; Vaishampayan, J K

    2000-06-01

    Candida species are an important cause of opportunistic infection in the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, especially HIV infected patients. Melaleuca oil obtained commercially was investigated since it is known to have broad antifungal properties. The in-vitro susceptibilities of Aspergillus and susceptible and resistant Candida species were performed utilizing serial dilutions in microtiter plates with Sabouraud dextrose agar and the commercial preparation of Melaleuca. As a comparator, in vitro susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole were also determined using the broth microdilution technique. The results demonstrate that Melaleuca inhibited the Candida species. However, the growth of Aspergillus was not inhibited at the concentrations tested. Thus, preparations containing Melaleuca alternafolia may be a useful alternative for superficial candidal infections. In fact, it may be a useful alternative regimen for advanced HIV-positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to fluconazole. However, controlled clinical studies to evaluate its efficacy are still needed.

  4. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Petersen, Lene M.; Lyhne, E. Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time. PMID:24736731

  5. Formation of sclerotia and production of indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and other species in section Nigri.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Petersen, Lene M; Lyhne, E Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time.

  6. Substrate specificities of glycosidases from Aspergillus species pectinase preparations on elderberry anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Pricelius, Sina; Murkovic, Michael; Souter, Philip; Guebitz, Georg M

    2009-02-11

    Attractive color is one of the most important sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products, and elderberry juice is widely used as natural colorant. When pectinase preparations were used in the production of elderberry juice for clarification, a concomitant decrease of anthocyanins and thus a color loss were observed. This paper demonstrates that this is due to side glycosidase activities contained in commercial pectinase preparations from Aspergillus sp. Using LC-MS, sequential deglycosylation of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cy-3-glucoside, cy-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, and cy-3,5-diglucoside was found to be catalyzed by specific glycosidases contained in the pectinase preparations. There was no big difference in the deglycosylation rate between monoglucosidic or diglucosidic anthocyanins. However, the degradation rate was decreased when rutinose was attached to cyanidin, whereas the structure of the aglycone itself had almost no influence. Pure beta-glucosidases from Agrobacterium species and Aspergillus niger and the beta-glucosidase N188 from A. niger did not show any conversion of anthocyanins, indicating the presence of specific glycosidases. Thus, an activity gel based assay was developed to detect anthocyanin-specific glycosidase activity in enzyme preparations, and according to LC-MS peptide mass mapping of digested bands, homologies to a beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus kawachii were found.

  7. Identifying and characterizing the most significant β-glucosidase of the novel species Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Anette; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Lubeck, Mette; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Culley, David E.; Lubeck, Peter S.

    2012-08-20

    A newly discovered fungal species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus, was found to produce a culture broth rich in beta-glucosidase activity. In this present work, the main beta-glucosidase of A. saccharolyticus responsible for the efficient hydrolytic activity was identified, isolated, and characterized. Ion exchange chromatography was used to fractionate the culture broth, yielding fractions with high beta-glucosidase activity and only one visible band on an SDS-PAGE gel. Mass spectrometry analysis of this band gave peptide matches to beta-glucosidases from aspergilli. Through a PCR approach using degenerate primers and genome walking, a 2919 base pair sequence encoding the 860 amino acid BGL1 polypeptide was determined. BGL1 of A. saccharolyticus has 91% and 82% identity with BGL1 from Aspergillus aculeatus and BGL1 from Aspergillus niger, respectively, both belonging to Glycoside hydrolase family 3. Homology modeling studies suggested beta-glucosidase activity with preserved retaining mechanism and a wider catalytic pocket compared to other beta-glucosidases. The bgl1 gene was heterologously expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, purified, and characterized by enzyme kinetics studies. The enzyme can hydrolyze cellobiose, pNPG, and cellodextrins. The enzyme showed good thermostability, was stable at 50°C, and at 60°C it had a half-life of approximately 6 hours.

  8. Cryptic Species and Azole Resistance in the Aspergillus niger Complex▿†

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Susan J.; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as “A. niger complex” by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

  9. Comparison of species composition and fumonisin production in Aspergillus section Nigri populations in maize kernels from USA and Italy.

    PubMed

    Susca, Antonia; Moretti, Antonio; Stea, Gaetano; Villani, Alessandra; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisin contamination of maize is considered a serious problem in most maize-growing regions of the world, due to the widespread occurrence of these mycotoxins and their association with toxicosis in livestock and humans. Fumonisins are produced primarily by species of Fusarium that are common in maize grain, but also by some species of Aspergillus sect. Nigri, which can also occur on maize kernels as opportunistic pathogens. Understanding the origin of fumonisin contamination in maize is a key component in developing effective management strategies. Although some fungi in Aspergillus sect. Nigri are known to produce fumonisins, little is known about the species which are common in maize and whether they make a measurable contribution to fumonisin contamination of maize grain. In this work, we evaluated populations of Aspergillus sect. Nigri isolated from maize in USA and Italy, focusing on analysis of housekeeping genes, the fum8 gene and in vitro capability of producing fumonisins. DNA sequencing was used to identify Aspergillus strains belonging to sect. Nigri, in order to compare species composition between the two populations, which might influence specific mycotoxicological risks. Combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences were used to genetically characterize 300 strains (199 from Italy and 101 from USA) which grouped into 4 clades: Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. Aspergillus awamori, 14.7%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.0%) and Aspergillus niger group 1 (6.7%) and group 2 (41.3%). Only one strain was identified as Aspergillus carbonarius. Species composition differed between the two populations; A. niger predominated among the USA isolates (69%), but comprised a smaller percentage (38%) of Italian isolates. Conversely, A. tubingensis and A. welwitschiae occurred at higher frequencies in the Italian population (42% and 20%, respectively) than in the USA population (27% and 5%). The evaluation of FB2 production on CY20S agar revealed 118 FB2 producing and 84

  10. Effect of NaCl on the accumulation of glycerol by three Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Zidan, M A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of glycerol was investigated in three Aspergillus species, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. tamarii after being grown in media containing different NaCl concentrations. Intra-extracellular as well as total glycerol were markedly accumulated by the three organisms in response to increased salinity. However, at salinity levels of 10-14% NaCl, extracellular glycerol was somewhat lowered. In addition, it was found that the maximum accumulation of glycerol in A. niger and A. tamarii was reached within the first 10 hours after salinization. However, after desalinization, the extracellular glycerol was continuously increased within the first 6 hours at the expense of intracellular glycerol.

  11. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Klich, Maren A; Glenn, Anthony E; Bacon, Charles W

    2009-10-01

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri is a group of black-spored aspergilli of great agro-economic importance whose well defined taxonomy has been elusive. Rep-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automated rep-PCR barcoding system to distinguish morphotypic species and compare the results with the data obtained from ITS and partial calmodulin regions. For this purpose, 20 morphotyped black-spored Aspergillus species were used to create the A. section Nigri library in this barcoding system that served to identify 34 field isolates. A pair-wise similarity matrix was calculated using the cone-based Pearson correlation method and the dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), illustrating four different clustered groups: the uniseriate cluster (I), the Aspergillus carbonarius cluster (II), and. the two A. niger aggregate clusters (named III.A and III.B). Rep-PCR showed higher resolution than the ITS and the partial calmodulin gene analytical procedures. The data of the 34 unknown field isolates, collected from different locations in the United States, indicated that only 12% of the field isolates were >95% similar to one of the genotypes included in the A. section Nigri library. However, 64% of the field isolates matched genotypes with the reference library (similarity values >90%). Based on these results, this barcoding procedure has the potential for use as a reproducible tool for identifying the black-spored aspergilli.

  12. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  13. Elucidation of primary metabolic pathways in Aspergillus species: orphaned research in characterizing orphan genes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2014-11-01

    Primary metabolism affects all phenotypical traits of filamentous fungi. Particular examples include reacting to extracellular stimuli, producing precursor molecules required for cell division and morphological changes as well as providing monomer building blocks for production of secondary metabolites and extracellular enzymes. In this review, all annotated genes from four Aspergillus species have been examined. In this process, it becomes evident that 80-96% of the genes (depending on the species) are still without verified function. A significant proportion of the genes with verified metabolic functions are assigned to secondary or extracellular metabolism, leaving only 2-4% of the annotated genes within primary metabolism. It is clear that primary metabolism has not received the same attention in the post-genomic area as many other research areas--despite its role at the very centre of cellular function. However, several methods can be employed to use the metabolic networks in tandem with comparative genomics to accelerate functional assignment of genes in primary metabolism. In particular, gaps in metabolic pathways can be used to assign functions to orphan genes. In this review, applications of this from the Aspergillus genes will be examined, and it is proposed that, where feasible, this should be a standard part of functional annotation of fungal genomes.

  14. Species Distribution and In Vitro Azole Susceptibility of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    Iatta, Roberta; Nuccio, Federica; Immediato, Davide; Mosca, Adriana; De Carlo, Carmela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Parisi, Antonio; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri includes species of interest for animal and human health, although studies on species distribution are limited to human cases. Data on the antifungal susceptibilities and the molecular mechanism of triazole resistance in strains belonging to this section are scant. Forty-two black Aspergillus strains from human patients (16 isolates), animals (14 isolates), and the environment (12 isolates) were molecularly characterized and their in vitro triazole susceptibilities investigated. Aspergillus tubingensis was isolated from humans, animals, and environmental settings, whereas Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus niger were isolated exclusively from humans. Phylogenetic analyses of β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences were concordant in differentiating A. tubingensis from A. awamori and A. niger. Voriconazole and posaconazole (PSZ) were the most active triazoles. One A. tubingensis strain was resistant to itraconazole and PSZ and one A. niger strain to PSZ. Sequence analysis of the cyp51A gene revealed different sequence types within a species, and A. tubingensis strains were also phylogenetically distinct from A. awamori/A. niger strains according to the strain origin and susceptibility profile. Genetic analysis of the cyp51A sequences suggests that two nonsynonymous mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions in the CYP51A protein (changes of L to R at position 21 [L21R] and of Q to R at position 228 [Q228R]) might be involved in azole resistance. Though azole resistance in black Aspergillus isolates from animals and rural environments does not represent a threat to public health in Southern Italy, the use of triazoles in the clinical setting needs to better monitored. The cyp51A sequence is useful for the molecular identification of black Aspergillus, and point mutations in protein sequences could be responsible for azole resistance phenomena. PMID:27413191

  15. Bioleaching of spent Zn-Mn or Ni-Cd batteries by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Seo, Ja-Yeon; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2016-05-01

    This research explores the recovery of metals from spent Zn-Mn or Ni-Cd batteries by a bioleaching using six Aspergillus species. Two different nutrients, malt extract and sucrose, were used to produce different types of organic acids. Oxalic acid and citric acid were shown to be the dominant organic acid in malt extract and sucrose media, respectively. In the bioleaching, the metal removal was higher in sucrose media than malt extract. All species, except A. niger KUC5254, showed more than 90% removal of metals from Zn-Mn battery. For Ni-Cd battery, more than 95% of metals was extracted by A. niger KUC5254 and A. tubingensis KUC5037. As a result, A. tubingensis KUC5037 which is a non-ochratoxigenic fungus was considered to have the greatest potential for improving the safety and efficiency of the bioleaching.

  16. Aflatoxin Production of Species and Strains of the Aspergillus flavus Group Isolated from Field Crops

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Boller, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Peanuts, cottonseed, rice, and sorghum from Texas were sampled over a 3-year period. To insure adequate isolation of alfatoxin-producing species of fungi, low-quality lots were sampled at a rate greater than their respective proportional representation. Aflatoxins were found each year in peanut and cottonseed and were found in 2 of 3 years in rice and sorghum. Aflatoxins were detected in all four crops. The Aspergillus flavus group was much more prevalent in peanut and rice than in cottonseed and sorghum. Of the isolates of the A. flavus group, 96% from peanuts, 79% from cottonseed, 49% from sorghum, and 35% from rice produced aflatoxins. The average toxin production of isolates from rice was much less than that from peanuts, cottonseed, or sorghum. More than 90% of all isolates of the A. flavus group were identified as the species A. flavus. A. parasiticus was isolated from all four crops. Only A. parasiticus produced aflatoxin G. PMID:4197766

  17. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  18. Specificity of antigens from pathogenic Aspergillus species. I. Studies with ELISA and immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    De Magaldi, S W; Mackenzie, D W

    1984-01-01

    Studies were made by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests on the reactivities and specificities of 13 antigens prepared from four species of Aspergillus against antisera from immunized rabbits and 64 sera from patients with aspergillosis, other systemic mycoses and nocardiosis. Although reactions in both serological tests were invariably strongest with homologous antigen: antibody systems, antisera from rabbits immunized with A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida albicans and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reacted in the ELISA test with all of the Aspergillus antigens. In contrast, cross-reactivity was virtually non-existent with antiserum to Histoplasma capsulatum. Of five antigens prepared from A fumigatus tested by ELISA against human sera from patients with aspergillosis and other nocardial and systemic fungal infections, sensitivities varied from 81 to 100% for sera from 32 patients with aspergillosis, and specificities from 20 to 97% for sera from 30 patients with nocardiosis and other systemic mycoses. Purified A. fumigatus C antigen reacted weakly with sera from eight of these 30 patients, but the reactions were readily distinguishable from those obtained with sera from patients with aspergillosis. At optimal serum dilutions, cross-reactivities of A. fumigatus in the IFA studies were non-existent in the sera from 28 patients with candidosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and nocardiosis. Sensitivities of IFA were 94% for patients with aspergilloma and 83% for patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

  19. The impact of culture isolation of Aspergillus species: a hospital-based survey of aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Perfect, J R; Cox, G M; Lee, J Y; Kauffman, C A; de Repentigny, L; Chapman, S W; Morrison, V A; Pappas, P; Hiemenz, J W; Stevens, D A

    2001-12-01

    The term "aspergillosis" comprises several categories of infection: invasive aspergillosis; chronic necrotizing aspergillosis; aspergilloma, or fungus ball; and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In 24 medical centers, we examined the impact of a culture positive for Aspergillus species on the diagnosis, risk factors, management, and outcome associated with these diseases. Most Aspergillus culture isolates from nonsterile body sites do not represent disease. However, for high-risk patients, such as allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients (60%), persons with hematologic cancer (50%), and those with signs of neutropenia (60%) or malnutrition (30%), a positive culture result is associated with invasive disease. When such risk factors as human immunodeficiency virus infection (20%), solid-organ transplantation (20%), corticosteroid use (20%), or an underlying pulmonary disease (10%) are associated with a positive culture result, clinical judgment and better diagnostic tests are necessary. The management of invasive aspergillosis remains suboptimal: only 38% of patients are alive 3 months after diagnosis. Chronic necrotizing aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis have variable management strategies and better short-term outcomes.

  20. In vitro activity of terbinafine and itraconazole against Aspergillus species isolated from otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, A; Arikan, S; Ozcan, M; Ozcan, K M

    2004-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, microg ml-1) of itraconazole and terbinafine against overall 34 Aspergillus isolates from the external ear canals with otomycosis have been determined with M38-P microdilution method suggested by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). MIC intervals in 48 h determined by taking MIC-2 value of itraconazole (the lowest drug concentration causing 50% inhibition of visible fungal growth) and MIC-0 value of terbinafine (the lowest drug concentration causing 100% inhibition of visible fungal growth) as a basis have been found as follows: 0.125-1 and 0.06-0.5 microg ml-1 for A. niger (22 strains), 0.06-0.25 and 0.06-0.125 microg ml-1 for A. flavus (10 strains), 0.125 and 0.125-0.5 microg ml-1 for A. terreus (two strains). It has been observed that both of the antifungal agents showed an in vitro activity against all Aspergillus species tested.

  1. Development of RFLP-PCR method for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme MwoI

    PubMed Central

    Diba, K.; Mirhendi, H.; Kordbacheh, P.; Rezaie, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species. PMID:25242934

  2. Molecular differentiation of species within the Aspergillus section Nigri by using an automated repetitive-PCR method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some species in the Aspergillus section Nigri, are known for their production of mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A, a chlorinated cyclic polyketide compound. Ochratoxin A has been classified as possible carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the evidence sugg...

  3. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  4. In-vitro antifungal activities of sulfa drugs against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Ahmed; Uno, Jun; Mitani, Hiroki; Kang, Yingqian; Mikami, Yuzuru

    2007-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of ten clinical isolates, including five strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and five strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, were determined against nine sulfa drugs using a microdilution method. Among the five tested media, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were observed only in YNB medium: no detectable level MIC value of less than 125 microg/ml was observed in the four remaining media against Cryptococcus species. Of the nine sulfa drugs, of which sulfaphenazole showed the highest antifungal activity, the MIC values for A. fumigatus and C. neoformans var. grubii were, respectively, 64 microg/ml and 4-8 microg/ml, suggesting high susceptibility of C. neoformans to sulfa drugs.

  5. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  6. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

    2010-04-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards.

  7. Monitoring Aspergillus species by quantitative PCR during construction of a multi-storey hospital building.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J; Yang, C; Lin, K-T; Haugland, R A; Neely, A N; Vesper, S J

    2004-05-01

    During the enlargement of an existing hospital, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor Aspergillus spp. populations within the construction site. The rapid availability of results meant that the construction schedule was largely uninterrupted, while assuring that the new construction was free from contamination by the targeted Aspergillus spp.

  8. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past.

  9. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Chandrasekaran, Dileep; Nambisan, Bala; Anto, Ruby John

    2014-01-01

    The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs) [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr), cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp)]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO)] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  10. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in Argentinean wine grapes cultivated under organic and non-organic systems.

    PubMed

    Ponsone, Ma Lorena; Combina, Mariana; Dalcero, Ana; Chulze, Sofía

    2007-03-10

    The evolution of contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri and ochratoxin A occurrence was evaluated in four vineyards located at Mendoza province, Argentina during 2003-2004. The survey included two grape varieties, one of late maturation (Bonarda) and the other of early maturation (Tempranillo). The vineyards were set under non-organic and organic cropping systems. Bunches of grapes at different growth stages were collected, and berries (50 by sample) were plated on Petri dishes containing Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18) and Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. After an incubation period of 7 days at 25 degrees C+/-1 degrees C, the mycoflora belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri was identified. The ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) by the potential ochratoxigenic species was evaluated on YES (2% yeast extract, 15% sucrose) medium. The cultures were incubated at 30 degrees C+/-1 degrees C for 10 days in darkness. The OTA content of the grapes was determined by HPLC. Through the different growth stages, from setting to harvest, grape contamination by the Aspergillus species, section Nigri increased. The main species isolated belonged to the A. niger aggregate. From 246 strains evaluated 24% was ochratoxigenic. OTA was not detected in grapes during the survey.

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast and accurate identification of clinically relevant Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Alanio, A; Beretti, J-L; Dauphin, B; Mellado, E; Quesne, G; Lacroix, C; Amara, A; Berche, P; Nassif, X; Bougnoux, M-E

    2011-05-01

    New Aspergillus species have recently been described with the use of multilocus sequencing in refractory cases of invasive aspergillosis. The classical phenotypic identification methods routinely used in clinical laboratories failed to identify them adequately. Some of these Aspergillus species have specific patterns of susceptibility to antifungal agents, and misidentification may lead to inappropriate therapy. We developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy to adequately identify Aspergillus species to the species level. A database including the reference spectra of 28 clinically relevant species from seven Aspergillus sections (five common and 23 unusual species) was engineered. The profiles of young and mature colonies were analysed for each reference strain, and species-specific spectral fingerprints were identified. The performance of the database was then tested on 124 clinical and 16 environmental isolates previously characterized by partial sequencing of the β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. One hundred and thirty-eight isolates of 140 (98.6%) were correctly identified. Two atypical isolates could not be identified, but no isolate was misidentified (specificity: 100%). The database, including species-specific spectral fingerprints of young and mature colonies of the reference strains, allowed identification regardless of the maturity of the clinical isolate. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for rapid and accurate identification of both common and unusual species of Aspergillus. It can give better results than morphological identification in clinical laboratories.

  12. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma.

  13. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. PMID:27413188

  14. Molecular characterization of black Aspergillus species from onion and their potential for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production.

    PubMed

    Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bahobial, Abdulaziz; Deeb, Bahig El; Altalhi, Abdulla; Varga, János; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Onion bulbs can become contaminated with various molds during the storage period, the most important causal agents being black aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri). Taxonomic studies have revealed that this group of Aspergillus contains many species that cannot be reliably identified using standard morphological methods. Therefore, it is necessary to define the fungus causing this problem in the onion exactly, especially since some species assigned to section Nigri are well known as ochratoxin and/or fumonisin producers. Sixty fungal isolates belonging to 10 fungal genera were isolated from 40 onion samples originated from the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. Black aspergilli were detected in 37 onion samples. Using primer pairs (awaspec and Cmd6) designed based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data, 37 isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. The ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 contents of the onion samples were examined. No ochratoxins were detected in the collected samples, while fumonisin B2 was detected in 37.5% of the onion samples. Eighteen of 37 isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae were recognized as potential producers for fumonisin B2. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions designed to detect biosynthetic genes of fumonisins confirmed these results.

  15. Biodiversity of complexes of mycotoxigenic fungal species associated with Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape.

    PubMed

    Logrieco, A; Moretti, A; Perrone, G; Mulè, G

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape are two examples of important plant diseases caused by complexes of species of mycotoxigenic fungi. These complexes of species tend to be closely related, produce different classes of mycotoxins, and can induce disease under different environmental conditions. The infection of maize and grape with multiple fungal species and the resulting production of large classes of mycotoxins is an example of mutual aggressiveness of microorganisms toward host species as well as to humans and animals that eat feed or food derived from the infected and contaminated plants. Infection of crop plant with a complex of microbial species certainly represents a greater threat to a crop plant and to human and animal health than infection of the plant with a single fungal species.

  16. Pyrolysis-gas-liquid chromatography of fungi: differentiation of species and strains of several members of the Aspergillus flavus group.

    PubMed

    Vincent, P G; Kulik, M M

    1970-12-01

    Four fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group were differentiated to the species level and strain level by pyrolysis-gas-liquid chromotography. Comparisons of pyrochromatograms revealed more similarities than dissimilarities among both species and strains in the pyrolytic elution patterns. Quantitative analysis was made by comparing the number of peaks in which two strains or reference species agreed or disagreed, the degree of superimposability between the pyrolytic elution patterns of strains and reference species, and the presence or absence of peaks for strain pairs within each species. The accuracy and precision of these techniques suggest that pyrolysis-gas-liquid chromatography may have wide application in the detection, enumeration, and identification of fungi by nonmycologically trained personnel.

  17. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 μL/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 μL/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 μL/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 μL/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  18. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  19. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

  20. Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

  1. Biocontrol of Aspergillus Species on Peanut Kernels by Antifungal Diketopiperazine Producing Bacillus cereus Associated with Entomopathogenic Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Chandrasekaran, Dileep; Nambisan, Bala; Anto, Ruby John

    2014-01-01

    The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs) [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr), cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp)]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO)] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species. PMID:25157831

  2. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  3. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein.

  4. Binding mode of dihydroquinazolinones with lysozyme and its antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, K; Madhumitha, G; Ravi, Lokesh; Khanna, V Gopiesh; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the infectious fungal diseases affecting mainly the immunocompromised patients. The scarcity of the antifungal targets has identified the importance of N-myristoyl transferase (NMT) in the regulation of fungal pathway. The dihydroquinazolinone molecules were designed on the basis of fragments responsible for binding with the target enzyme. The aryl halide, 1(a-g), aryl boronic acid and potassium carbonate were heated together in water and dioxane mixture to yield new CC bond formation in dihydroquinazolinone. The bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride was used as catalyst for the CC bond formation. The synthesized series were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. The binding interactions of the active compound with lysozyme were explored using multiple spectroscopic studies. Molecular docking study of dihydroquinazolinones with the enzyme revealed the information regarding various binding forces involved in the interaction.

  5. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.

  6. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  7. Distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels from three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, Joseph; Ojiambo, Peter S; Donner, Matthias; Ikotun, T; Sikora, Richard A; Cotty, Peter J; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2008-02-29

    Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. The three agro-ecological zones were, Derived Savannah (DS) and Southern Guinea Savannah (SGS) in the humid south and North Guinea Savannah (NGS) in the drier north. Across agro-ecological zones, Aspergillus was the most predominant fungal genera identified followed by Fusarium with mean incidences of 70 and 24%, respectively. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted >90% of the species identified, while the frequency of the unnamed taxon S(BG) was <3%. The incidence of atoxigenic strains of A. flavus was higher in all the districts surveyed except in the Ogbomosho and Mokwa districts in DS and SGS zones, respectively, where frequency of toxigenic strains were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of atoxigenic strains. The highest and lowest incidence of aflatoxin positive samples was recorded in the SGS (72%) and NGS (20%), respectively. Aflatoxin contamination in grain also followed a similar trend and the highest mean levels of B-aflatoxins were detected in maize samples obtained from Bida (612 ng g(-1)) and Mokwa (169 ng g(-1)) districts, respectively, in the SGS. Similarly, the highest concentrations of G-aflatoxins were detected in samples from Akwanga district in the SGS with a mean of 193 and 60 ng g(-1), respectively. When agro-ecological zones were compared, B-aflatoxins were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SGS than in NGS, and intermediate in maize samples from the DS agro-ecological zone.

  8. Identification and Susceptibility of Aspergillus Section Nigri in China: Prevalence of Species and Paradoxical Growth in Response to Echinocandins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests of 43 Aspergillus section Nigri isolates from China were performed. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis were present in almost equal numbers. All of the isolates had low MIC/MECs (minimum effective concentrations) for the 7 common antifungals, and a paradoxical effect was observed for the first time in response to caspofungin and micafungin. PMID:25502526

  9. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) screening method for the identification of Aspergillus section Nigri species by the detection of calmodulin nucleotide variations.

    PubMed

    Susca, A; Stea, G; Perrone, G

    2007-10-01

    Single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for genetic diversity studies has been widely applied to detect indirectly sequence differences up to a single base in amplified DNA fragments of the same length, representing an alternative to gene sequencing. In this study SSCP analysis was used to detect sequence variations contained in an about 180-bp region of the calmodulin gene in order to identify Aspergillus section Nigri species. The method described shows that fluorescence-based SSCP analysis by capillary electrophoresis is cheaper and faster than direct sequencing, and suitable for computer-assisted analyses allowing discrimination between the Aspergillus species belonging to the Nigri section: A. aculeatus, Aspergillus 'atypic uniseriate', A. brasiliensis, A. carbonarius, A. ellipticus, A. foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. ibericus, A. japonicus, A. niger, and A. tubingensis.

  10. Direct visual detection of aflatoxin synthesis by minicolonies of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, P A; Davis, N D; Creech, G W

    1989-01-01

    Single-spore colonies of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, grown for 4 to 5 days at 25 degrees C on a coconut extract agar containing sodium desoxycholate as a growth inhibitor, produced aflatoxin, readily detectable as blue fluorescent zones under long-wave (365 nm) UV light. Over 100 colonies per standard petri dish were scored for aflatoxin production by this procedure. Progeny from some strains remained consistently stable for toxin production after repeated subculture, whereas instability for toxin synthesis was revealed among progeny from other strains. Spore color markers were used to rule out cross-contamination in monitoring strains. A yellow-spored and nontoxigenic strain of A. flavus, reported previously to produce aflatoxin in response to cycloheximide treatment, proved to be toxin negative even after repeated exposure to cycloheximide. Extended series of progeny from another strain of A. flavus and from a strain of A. parasiticus were each compared by this plating procedure and by fluorometric analysis for aflatoxin when grown in a coconut extract broth. Both of these strains showed variation for toxin synthesis among their respective progeny, and specific progeny showed a good correlation for aflatoxin synthesis when examined by the two procedures. Images PMID:2504116

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Hyptis Suaveolens (L.) Poit leaves essential oil against Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana Carolina Pessoa; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from Hyptis suaveolens (L.) leaves using a Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometer and assess its inhibitory effect on some potentially pathogenic Aspergilli (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). Eucaliptol (47.64 %) was the most abundant component in the oil, followed for gama-ellemene (8.15 %), beta-pynene (6.55 %), (+)-3-carene (5.16 %), trans-beta-cariophyllene (4.69 %) and germacrene (4.86 %). The essential oil revealed an interesting anti-Aspergillus property characterized by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration of 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. The oil at 80 and 40 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of A. fumigatus and A. parasiticus along 14 days. In addition, at 10 and 20 µL/mL the oil was able to cause morphological changes in A. flavus as decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure suggesting fungal wall degeneration. These findings showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus property of H. suaveolens leaves essential oil supporting its possible rational use as alternative source of new antifungal compounds to be applied in the aspergillosis treatment. PMID:24031459

  12. Effect of water activity and temperature on growth of three Penicillium species and Aspergillus flavus on a sponge cake analogue.

    PubMed

    Abellana, M; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2001-12-30

    This study compared the effect of temperature and water activity and their interactions on the rate of mycelial growth of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. chrysogenum, P. corylophilum and Aspergillus flavus on a sponge cake analogue. As expected, growth rates showed dependence on a(w), and temperature. However, no significant differences were observed in the growth rates of different isolates. The minimum a(w) values for growth of the Penicillium spp. was 0.85-0.90. A. flavus was able to grow at 0.90 a(w) when the temperature was above 15 degrees C. This study has shown that fungal growth by these species on a sponge cake analogue, with a composition similar to usual bakery products, is prevented if the a(w) is kept at < 0.85.

  13. Differentiation of four Aspergillus species and one Zygosaccharomyces with two electronic tongues based on different measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Söderström, C; Rudnitskaya, A; Legin, A; Krantz-Rülcker, C

    2005-09-29

    Two electronic tongues based on different measurement techniques were applied to the discrimination of four molds and one yeast. Chosen microorganisms were different species of Aspergillus and yeast specie Zygosaccharomyces bailii, which are known as food contaminants. The electronic tongue developed in Linköping University was based on voltammetry. Four working electrodes made of noble metals were used in a standard three-electrode configuration in this case. The St. Petersburg electronic tongue consisted of 27 potentiometric chemical sensors with enhanced cross-sensitivity. Sensors with chalcogenide glass and plasticized PVC membranes were used. Two sets of samples were measured using both electronic tongues. Firstly, broths were measured in which either one of the molds or the yeast grew until late logarithmic phase or border of the stationary phase. Broths inoculated by either one of molds or the yeast was measured at five different times during microorganism growth. Data were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square regression (PLS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was found that both measurement techniques could differentiate between fungi species. Merged data from both electronic tongues improved differentiation of the samples in selected cases.

  14. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

    PubMed Central

    ten Bosch, Lars; Pfohl, Katharina; Avramidis, Georg; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang; Karlovsky, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains. PMID:28287436

  15. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  16. Fungicidal activities of commonly used disinfectants and antifungal pharmaceutical spray preparations against clinical strains of Aspergillus and Candida species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Summerbell, R C

    2002-04-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commercial chemical disinfectants and pharmaceutical antifungal agents against medically important moulds and yeast species was investigated. Chlorine, phenol, sodium dodecyl sulfate and quaternary ammonium salts were the chemical disinfectants, and bifonazole and terbinafine were the antifungal pharmaceutical products tested against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Candida species. Fungal inocula were obtained from conidial preparations of two A. ochraceus strains and yeast cells of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activities were evaluated either by determining the kill rate in a cell suspension media at different contact periods, or by examining the viability and growth on plates sprayed with the active ingredient. Chlorine (1%) was the only disinfectant with the ability to cause a rapid inactivation of all five strains. Phenol (5%) was equally effective against Candida species; however, a number of A. ochraceus conidia were able to survive this treatment for up to 1 h. Benzalkonium chloride (0.5%) and cetrimide (0.5%) were also able to disinfect the three Candida species rapidly; however, these two quaternary ammonium compounds were relatively ineffective against A. ochraceus. In spray experiments, quaternary ammonium compounds had a fungicidal activity against Candida species and were fungistatic against A. ochraceus conidia. All five fungal strains were able to resist 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, present either in the suspension solution or on the sprayed plate. Of the two pharmaceutical antifungal products tested, bifonazole (1%) were essentially ineffective against all five strains. Terbinafine (1%) had a fungicidal activity against A. ochraceus and C. parapsilosis. In suspension experiments, an exposure to 0.01% terbinafine required a contact period of 1 h for a complete inactivation of A. ochraceus conidia and an onset of fungicidal effect on C. parapsilosis yeast cells. Terbinafine was only

  17. Comparative sequence analyses of multiple loci reveal rare Aspergillus species in transplant recipients (transnet study)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the leading cause of mortality in blood and marrow transplant recipients. Although A. fumigatus accounts for the majority of IA, non-fumigatus species are emerging as an uncommon, yet devastating cause of IA. The Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (...

  18. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Nielsen, Kristian F; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2008-12-10

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from the South were 98-100% contaminated with predominantly A. carbonarius and A. niger. A. westerdijkiae was only found in one sample. The diversity of the fungal population was probably correlated with the geographical origin of the coffee, coffee cultivar, and processing method. Representative isolates of section Circumdati (52) and Nigri (82) were examined for their OTA production using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Aspergillus westerdijkiae (42 isolates out of 42), A. steynii (13/13), and A. carbonarius (35/35) in general produced large amounts of OTA, while one isolate of A. sclerotiorum produced intermediate amounts of OTA. 13% of the A. niger isolates produced OTA in intermediate amounts. OTA levels in coffee bean samples were analyzed using the Ridascreen OTA ELISA kits. Of the 64 coffee bean samples analyzed, 98% were contaminated with OTA in levels of <0.6-5.5 microg/kg (Arabica) and 1-27 microg/kg (Robusta). Presence of OTA in representative coffee samples was also confirmed by LC-MS/MS after ion-exchange purification.

  19. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Gonçalves, Maria-José; Hrimpeng, Karnjana; Pinto, Jéssica; Pinto, Eugénia

    2015-04-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil (EO) of Angelica major and its main components α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene against clinically relevant yeasts and moulds were evaluated. EO from the plant's aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil showed high contents of α-pinene (21.8 %) and cis-β-ocimene (30.4 %). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The EO, α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene displayed low MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with α-pinene being the most active. Regarding Candida species, the EO susceptibility profiles seem to be diverse and not correlated with fluconazole susceptibility patterns. Moreover, an inhibition of yeast-mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO, α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene in C. albicans. In addition, their haemolytic activity was low. The activity displayed by A. major EO and its main components associated with low cytotoxic activity confirms their potential as an antifungal agent against fungal species frequently implicated in human mycoses, particularly cryptococcosis and dermatophytosis. The association with commercial antifungal compounds could bring benefits, by the effect on germ tube formation, and be used in mucocutaneous candidiasis treatment.

  20. Cross-reactivity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus species in the commercial Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Melissa O; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C; Cardoso, Isabel Cristina E; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cross-reactivity in the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay was evaluated using 120 sera from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis. At a cutoff value of 0.5, positivity rates were 50%, 67%, and 50%, respectively. The implications for these findings are discussed.

  1. Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus species occurring on maize kernels from two agro-ecological zones in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okoth, Sheila; Nyongesa, Beatrice; Ayugi, Vincent; Kang'ethe, Erastus; Korhonen, Hannu; Joutsjoki, Vesa

    2012-10-25

    Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the l-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur.

  2. Identification and structural elucidation of ergotryptamine, a new ergot alkaloid produced by genetically modified aspergillus nidulans and natural isolates of Epichloë species.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Katy L; Akhmedov, Novruz G; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2015-01-14

    Ergot alkaloid pathway reconstruction in Aspergillus nidulans is an approach used to better understand the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. An engineered strain named A. nidulans WFC (expressing ergot alkaloid synthesis genes dmaW, easF, and easC) produced the established intermediate N-methyl-4-dimethylallyltryptophan, as well as an uncharacterized ergot alkaloid. We investigated the chemical structure of the new metabolite and its role in the ergot alkaloid pathway. Mass spectrometry, labeling, and NMR studies showed that the unknown ergot alkaloid, designated here as ergotryptamine, differed from N-methyl-4-dimethylallyltryptophan by the loss of the carboxyl group, addition of a hydroxyl group, and shift in position of a carbon–carbon double bond. Feeding studies with Aspergillus mutants did not show ergotryptamine turnover, suggesting it is a pathway byproduct as opposed to an authentic intermediate. Several Epichloë species also produced this metabolite, and further investigations revealed the equivalency of ergotryptamine with an Epichloë-derived ergot alkaloid provisionally described as 6,7-secolysergine.

  3. Pathogenic molds (including Aspergillus species) in hospital water distribution systems: a 3-year prospective study and clinical implications for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Anaissie, Elias J; Stratton, Shawna L; Dignani, M Cecilia; Lee, Choon-kee; Summerbell, Richard C; Rex, John H; Monson, Thomas P; Walsh, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    The incidence of mold infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase despite the widespread use of air filtration systems, suggesting the presence of other hospital sources for these molds. Water sources are known to harbor pathogenic molds. We examined samples from water, water surfaces, air, and other environment sources from a bone marrow transplantation unit with optimal air precautions. Molds (Aspergillus species, others) were recovered in 70% of 398 water samples, in 22% of 1311 swabs from plumbing structures and environmental surfaces, and in 83% of 274 indoor air samples. Microscopic examination of the water plumbing lines revealed hyphal forms compatible with molds. Four findings suggest that indoor airborne molds were aerosolized from the water: (1) higher mean airborne concentrations of molds in bathrooms (16.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/m(3)) than in patient rooms (7 CFU/m(3)) and hallways (8.6 CFU/m(3); P =.00005); (2) a strong type and rank correlation between molds isolated from hospital water and those recovered from indoor hospital; (3) lack of seasonal correlation between the airborne mold concentration in outdoor and indoor air; and (4) molecular relatedness between a clinical strain and a water-related strain (previously reported). Hospital water distribution systems may serve as a potential indoor reservoir of Aspergillus and other molds leading to aerosolization of fungal spores and potential exposure for patients.

  4. The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Mororó, Raimundo C; Pereira, José L; Frisvad, Jens C; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-04-16

    The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these metabolites can be produced according to the fermentation practices adopted in the farms, which could affect the growth and ochratoxin A production by fungi. This work presents two independent experiments carried out to investigate the effect of some fermentation practices on ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius in cocoa, and the effect of weak organic acids such as acetic, lactic and citric at different pH values on growth and ochratoxin A production by A. carbonarius and Aspergillus niger in culture media. A statistical difference (ρ<0.05) in the ochratoxin A level in the cured cocoa beans was observed in some fermentation practices adopted. The laboratorial studies demonstrate the influence of organic acids on fungal growth and ochratoxin A production, with differences according to the media pH and the organic acid present. Acetic acid was the most inhibitory acid against A. carbonarius and A. niger. From the point of view of food safety, considering the amount of ochratoxin A produced, fermentation practices should be conducted towards the enhancement of acetic acid, although lactic and citric acids also have an important role in lowering the pH to improve the toxicity of acetic acid.

  5. Chitinase but N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase production correlates to the biomass decline in Penicillium and Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2014-06-01

    Hydrolytic enzyme production is typical of the autolysis in filamentous fungi; however, less attention has been given to the physiological role of the enzymes. Here, the aim was to investigate the possible relation of the chitinolytic enzymes to the changes in the biomass in some filamentous fungi of high importance for pharmaceutical or food industry. In Penicillium and Aspergillus filamentous fungi, which showed different characteristics in submerged cultures, the growth and biomass decline rates were calculated and correlated to the chitinase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase enzyme productions. Correlation was found between the biomass decrease rate and the chitinase level at the stationary growth phase; while chitinase production covariates negatively with N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activities. The chitinase production and the intensive autolysis hindered the production of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and, therefore, could hinder the cell death in the cultures.

  6. Antifungal Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesized by Bacillus species Msh-1 Against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Salari Mohazab, Naser; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fungal infections affect various parts of the body and can be difficult to treat. Aspergillus infection causes a spectrum of diverse diseases particularly in lung according to host immunity. The two major entities are invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs. Objectives: In the present study, the antifungal activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans was investigated. Materials and Methods: Se-reducing bacteria previously identified as Bacillus sp. MSh-1 were used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental Se NPs. The shape, size, and purity of the extracted NPs were determined with various instrumental techniques. The nanoparticles antifungal characterization mainly derives from the following pathways: (i) to generate sustained flux of nano-ions from the compounds that deposited on special substrates or imbedded in colloidal or semisolid matrices. (ii) To transport active those ions to sensitive targets on plasma membrane of fungi. Results: The results of energy-dispersive X-ray demonstrated that the purified NPs consisted of only Se. In addition, transmission electron micrographs showed that 120- to 140-nm spherical Se NPs were the most common. An antifungal assay was performed with a standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements of the antifungal activity of the Se NPs against C. albicans (70 μg/mL) and A. fumigatus (100

  7. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Ensinger, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ebel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Detection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. For diagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic structure of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we provide evidence that Fusarium produces at least two distinct galactofuranose antigens: Smaller amounts of galactomannan and larger quantities of a novel antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody AB135-8. In A. fumigatus, only minor amounts of the AB135-8 antigen are found in supernatants and in the apical regions of hyphae. A galactofuranose-deficient A. fumigatus mutant lacks the AB135-8 antigen, which strongly suggests that galactofuranose is an essential constituent of this antigen. Using a combination of AB135-8 and a galactomannan-specific antibody, we were able to unambiguously differentiate A. fumigatus and Fusarium hyphae in immunohistology. Moreover, since Fusarium releases the AB135-8 antigen, it appears to be a promising target antigen for a serological detection of Fusarium infections.

  8. Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are two of the most important aflatoxin-producing species that contaminate agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here, we examine the possibility of interspecific matings betwe...

  9. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  10. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L(-1) air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L(-1) air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L(-1) air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB1 and AFG1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB1.

  11. Gene transfer between different Trichoderma species and Aspergillus niger through intergeneric protoplast fusion to convert ground rice straw to citric acid and cellulases.

    PubMed

    El-Bondkly, Ahmed M

    2006-11-01

    Single-stage direct bioconversion of cellulosic materials to citric acid using intergeneric hybrids obtained from three different Trichoderma species and Aspergillus niger was carried out. The recent results were obtained on the basis of either resistance or sensitivity to one or more of five metal ions, two catabolite repressors, and five antifungal agents, which were used in this study at different concentrations. Sixty-six fusants were isolated after using the three intergeneric protoplast fusion experiments, belonging to two types of intergeneric fusants. Fusants of the first type are heterokaryons (35 fusants). On the other hand, those of the second type are haploids (31 fusants), i.e., they were stable. The present study can be successfully applied in the construction of 14 new genetic fusants, which produced at least 100% more citric acid than the citric acid producer strain A. niger. Out of the fusants, three (1/18, 2/13 and 2/15) showed about a threefold increase of citric acid production in comparison with the parent A. niger strain. Furthermore, studies on DNA content showed that this finding may be submitted on the evidence that citric acid and cellulases production was not correlated with DNA content; however, the productivity depends on specific DNA content.

  12. Comparison of In Vitro Activity of Liposomal Nystatin against Aspergillus Species with Those of Nystatin, Amphotericin B (AB) Deoxycholate, AB Colloidal Dispersion, Liposomal AB, AB Lipid Complex, and Itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Karen L.; Moore, Caroline B.; Denning, David W.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of liposomal nystatin (Nyotran) with those of other antifungal agents against 60 Aspergillus isolates. Twelve isolates were itraconazole resistant. For all isolates, geometric mean (GM) MICs (micrograms per milliliter) were 2.30 for liposomal nystatin, 0.58 for itraconazole, 0.86 for amphotericin B (AB) deoxycholate, 9.51 for nystatin, 2.07 for liposomal AB, 2.57 for AB lipid complex, and 0.86 for AB colloidal dispersion. Aspergillus terreus (GM, 8.72 μg/ml; range, 8 to 16 μg/ml) was significantly less susceptible to all of the polyene drugs than all other species (P = 0.0001). PMID:10223948

  13. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  14. Ecology, development and gene regulation in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most widely known species of Aspergillus. It was described as a species in 1809 and first reported as a plant pathogen in 1920. More recently, A. flavus has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen and is now rec¬ognized as the second leading cause of aspergill...

  15. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species.

  16. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  17. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole.

  18. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 μg/ml). Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23374883

  19. Genomic Islands in Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...

  20. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of lucknomycin, a new polyenic derivative, for Candida and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Quesada, J; Torres-Rodriguez, J M; Rosés-Codinachs, M; Amaral-Olivera, M

    1983-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of lucknomycin, a new polyenic derivative, were determined for 101 clinical isolates of Candida, 38 clinical or environmental strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, and 30 isolates of A. niger. The most susceptible species were Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (mean MIC, 0.4 micrograms/ml). Aspergillus spp. were less susceptible, with mean MICs of 0.60 micrograms/ml for Aspergillus niger and 9.2 micrograms/ml for Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:6625552

  1. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  2. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  3. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-02

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  4. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Kshitij; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140) from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR) technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole) demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of molecular

  5. Molecular Epidemiology and In-Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus Species Complex Isolates in Delhi, India: Evidence of Genetic Diversity by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Microsatellite Typing

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Kshitij; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140) from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR) technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole) demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of molecular

  6. The impact of water and temperature interactions on lag phase, growth and potential ochratoxin A production by two new species, Aspergillus aculeatinus and A. sclerotiicarbonarius, on a green coffee-based medium.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Asya; Magan, Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Two new species of Aspergillus (A. aculeatinus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius) were previously isolated from coffee in Thailand. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of interacting environmental factors of water availability (water activity, aw) and temperature on lag phases prior to growth, growth and potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) production by three strains of each species on a green coffee-based medium for the first time. This showed that overall the growth of the three strains of each species was similar over the 20-37°C and 0.85-0.99 aw ranges. The lag phase prior to growth was <1day at 0.95-0.98 aw and 25-37°C and increased to 2-3 days at marginal temperatures and aw levels. The growth of strains of the uniseriate species A. aculeatinus was optimum at 0.98 aw and 30-35°C. For the biseriate A. sclerotiicarbonarius strains this was 0.99 aw and 30°C. This species was not able to grow at 37°C. None of the strains of the two species grew at 0.85 aw, regardless of temperature. Integrated profiles based on the data from three strains of each species have been developed to show the optimum, maximum and marginal conditions of interacting aw and temperature conditions for growth. None of the strains produced OTA on a green coffee-based medium. This information is important as these species are part of the mycobiota of coffee and may influence OTA contamination by other ochratoxigenic species during coffee processing.

  7. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

  8. In vitro susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. causing otomycosis to amphotericin B, voriconazole and itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ayse Demet; Kiraz, Nuri

    2007-11-01

    Otomycosis is worldwide in distribution and most commonly caused by Aspergillus species. Amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole are used for the treatment of aspergillosis, but recently an increase in resistance to these agents has been reported. We aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amphotericin B, voriconazole and itraconazole against Aspergillus isolates causing otomycosis. Mycological analysis of samples from the ear canals of patients was performed by culturing onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and by evaluating microscopically. Aspergillus species were identified with colony morphology and microscopic appearance, and tested for susceptibilities to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method (M38-A document). A total of 120 isolates from 120 patients, comprising 57 Aspergillus niger, 42 Aspergillus fumigatus, nine Aspergillus flavus, six Aspergillus nidulans and six Aspergillus terreus strains were tested. No resistance was determined against amphotericin B and voriconazole, while six A. fumigatus and three A. niger isolates were resistant to itraconazole. In vitro data obtained in this study showed the resistance to itraconazole, while all of the isolates were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. Voriconazole seemed to be an alternative in the treatment of infections related to Aspergillus spp. but further studies are needed to learn more about the antifungal resistance of different species of Aspergillus to different agents.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples.

  10. Population genetics as a tool for understanding toxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which is aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populations...

  11. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  12. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    PubMed

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  13. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  14. Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov., from rice straw and air for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2014-03-28

    A new species named Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov. is described in Aspergillus section Aspergillus (Eurotium state). The type strain (KACC 47316(T)) of this species was isolated from rice straw used in meju fermentations in Korea, and other strains were isolated from the air in a meju fermentation room. The species is characterized by growth at a wide range of water activities and the formation of aerial hyphae on malt extract 60% sucrose agar (ME60S) that resemble a cumulus cloud. Furthermore, A. cumulatus produces yellow ascomata containing small lenticular ascospores (5.1-5.7 μm) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests, and tuberculate convex surface. The species is phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus section Aspergillus species based on multilocus sequence typing using rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin, and RNA polymerase II genes.

  15. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  16. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains in Hungarian maize fields.

    PubMed

    Sebők, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Zágoni, Dóra; Risa, Anita; Krifaton, Csilla; Hartman, Mátyás; Cserháti, Mátyás; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus. About half of the A. flavus strains and all the A. parasiticus strains were able to synthesize aflatoxins. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus strains were isolated from all the seven regions of Hungary. A. parasiticus strains were found in the soil of the regions Southern Great Plain and Southern Transdanubia and in a maize sample of the region Western Transdanubia. In spite of the fact that aflatoxins have rarely been detected in feeds and foods in Hungary, aflatoxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains are present in the maize culture throughout Hungary posing a potential threat to food safety.

  17. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  18. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228).

  19. [Isolation of Aspergillus section Nigri strains in yerba mate in Posadas (Misiones, Argentina) and evaluation of their ochratoxigenic potential].

    PubMed

    Castrillo, María L; Horianski, Marta A; Jerke, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to investigate the isolation frequency of genus Aspergillus in canchada yerba mate (YMCH) and elaborated yerba mate (YME) (Ilex paraguariensis) and the proportion of section Nigri isolates, as well as to determine ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species section Nigri. Three hundred twenty eight Aspergillus strains from 20 samples of YMCH and 1306 Aspergillus strains from 36 samples of YME were isolated; of the total, 279 from the first group of strains and 1215 from the latter group, belonged to section Nigri. For the detection of ochratoxin A production, the strains were cultivated on Czapeck yeast extract agar and the toxin was detected by thin layer chromatography under UV light. Uniserate species predominance was observed in the 1494 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri obtained (Aspergillus japonicus var. japonicus and Aspergillus japonicus var. aculeatus), whereas none of the strains analysed showed ochratoxin A production in vitro at the detection level of the methodology employed.

  20. Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in patients infected with Aspergillus species and other filamentous fungi: maximum tolerated dose study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T J; Goodman, J L; Pappas, P; Bekersky, I; Buell, D N; Roden, M; Barrett, J; Anaissie, E J

    2001-12-01

    We conducted a phase I-II study of the safety, tolerance, and plasma pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB; AmBisome) in order to determine its maximally tolerated dosage (MTD) in patients with infections due to Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi. Dosage cohorts consisted of 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 mg/kg of body weight/day; a total of 44 patients were enrolled, of which 21 had a proven or probable infection (13 aspergillosis, 5 zygomycosis, 3 fusariosis). The MTD of L-AMB was at least 15 mg/kg/day. Infusion-related reactions of fever occurred in 8 (19%) and chills and/or rigors occurred in 5 (12%) of 43 patients. Three patients developed a syndrome of substernal chest tightness, dyspnea, and flank pain, which was relieved by diphenhydramine. Serum creatinine increased two times above baseline in 32% of the patients, but this was not dose related. Hepatotoxicity developed in one patient. Steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics were achieved by day 7. The maximum concentration of drug in plasma (C(max)) of L-AMB in the dosage cohorts of 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 mg/kg/day changed to 76, 120, 116, and 105 microg/ml, respectively, and the mean area under the concentration-time curve at 24 h (AUC(24)) changed to 692, 1,062, 860, and 554 microg x h/ml, respectively, while mean CL changed to 23, 18, 16, and 25 ml/h/kg, respectively. These data indicate that L-AMB follows dose-related changes in disposition processing (e.g., clearance) at dosages of >or=7.5 mg/kg/day. Because several extremely ill patients had early death, success was determined for both the modified intent-to-treat and evaluable (7 days of therapy) populations. Response rates (defined as complete response and partial response) were similar for proven and probable infections. Response and stabilization, respectively, were achieved in 36 and 16% of the patients in the modified intent-to-treat population (n = 43) and in 52 and 13% of the patients in the 7-day evaluable population (n

  1. Safety, Tolerance, and Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome) in Patients Infected with Aspergillus Species and Other Filamentous Fungi: Maximum Tolerated Dose Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas J.; Goodman, Jesse L.; Pappas, Peter; Bekersky, Ihor; Buell, Donald N.; Roden, Maureen; Barrett, John; Anaissie, Elias J.

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a phase I-II study of the safety, tolerance, and plasma pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB; AmBisome) in order to determine its maximally tolerated dosage (MTD) in patients with infections due to Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi. Dosage cohorts consisted of 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 mg/kg of body weight/day; a total of 44 patients were enrolled, of which 21 had a proven or probable infection (13 aspergillosis, 5 zygomycosis, 3 fusariosis). The MTD of L-AMB was at least 15 mg/kg/day. Infusion-related reactions of fever occurred in 8 (19%) and chills and/or rigors occurred in 5 (12%) of 43 patients. Three patients developed a syndrome of substernal chest tightness, dyspnea, and flank pain, which was relieved by diphenhydramine. Serum creatinine increased two times above baseline in 32% of the patients, but this was not dose related. Hepatotoxicity developed in one patient. Steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics were achieved by day 7. The maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of L-AMB in the dosage cohorts of 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 mg/kg/day changed to 76, 120, 116, and 105 μg/ml, respectively, and the mean area under the concentration-time curve at 24 h (AUC24) changed to 692, 1,062, 860, and 554 μg · h/ml, respectively, while mean CL changed to 23, 18, 16, and 25 ml/h/kg, respectively. These data indicate that L-AMB follows dose-related changes in disposition processing (e.g., clearance) at dosages of ≥7.5 mg/kg/day. Because several extremely ill patients had early death, success was determined for both the modified intent-to-treat and evaluable (7 days of therapy) populations. Response rates (defined as complete response and partial response) were similar for proven and probable infections. Response and stabilization, respectively, were achieved in 36 and 16% of the patients in the modified intent-to-treat population (n = 43) and in 52 and 13% of the patients in the 7-day evaluable population (n = 31). These

  2. Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 μm) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the β-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes.

  3. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression.

  4. Relationship between Fungal Colonisation of the Respiratory Tract in Lung Transplant Recipients and Fungal Contamination of the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Brugière, Olivier; Chochillon, Christian; Porcher, Raphael; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Menotti, Jean; Houze, Sandrine; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspergillus colonisation is frequently reported after lung transplantation. The question of whether aspergillus colonisation is related to the hospital environment is crucial to prevention. Method To elucidate this question, a prospective study of aspergillus colonisation after lung transplantation, along with a mycological survey of the patient environment, was performed. Results Forty-four consecutive patients were included from the day of lung transplantation and then examined weekly for aspergillus colonisation until hospital discharge. Environmental fungal contamination of each patient was followed weekly via air and surface sampling. Twelve patients (27%) had transient aspergillus colonisation, occurring 1–13 weeks after lung transplantation, without associated manifestation of aspergillosis. Responsible Aspergillus species were A. fumigatus (6), A. niger (3), A. sydowii (1), A. calidoustus (1) and Aspergillus sp. (1). In the environment, contamination by Penicillium and Aspergillus was predominant. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between occurrence of aspergillus colonisation and fungal contamination of the patient’s room, either by Aspergillus spp. in the air or by A.fumigatus on the floor. Related clinical and environmental isolates were genotyped in 9 cases of aspergillus colonisation. For A. fumigatus (4 cases), two identical microsatellite profiles were found between clinical and environmental isolates collected on distant dates or locations. For other Aspergillus species, isolates were different in 2 cases; in 3 cases of aspergillus colonisation by A. sydowii, A. niger and A. calidoustus, similarity between clinical and environmental internal transcribed spacer and tubulin sequences was >99%. Conclusion Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of environmental risk of hospital acquisition of aspergillus colonisation in lung transplant recipients. PMID:26629994

  5. Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

    2013-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward.

  6. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  7. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  8. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  9. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus

  10. Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

  11. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  12. Aflatoxin production and oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of crops by Aspergillus flavus results in the production of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin production is also exacerbated by abiotic stresses in the field. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which accumulate in plant tissues in response to drought and heat stres...

  13. Aspergillus and Penicillium identification using DNA sequences: barcode or MLST?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Stephen W

    2012-07-01

    Current methods in DNA technology can detect single nucleotide polymorphisms with measurable accuracy using several different approaches appropriate for different uses. If there are even single nucleotide differences that are invariant markers of the species, we can accomplish identification through rapid DNA-based tests. The question of whether we can reliably detect and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium turns mainly upon the completeness of our alpha taxonomy, our species concepts, and how well the available DNA data coincide with the taxonomic diversity in the family Trichocomaceae. No single gene is yet known that is invariant within species and variable between species as would be optimal for the barcode approach. Data are published that would make an MLST approach to isolate identification possible in the most well-studied clades of Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  14. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  15. Air-borne fungi in the air of Barcelona (Spain). III. The genus Aspergillus Link.

    PubMed

    Calvo, A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramirez, C

    1980-05-01

    During a survey on the presence of species of the genus Aspergillus in the air of the city of Barcelona (Spain), the following species were identified: Aspergillus flavus Link, A. niger van Tieghem, A. fumigatus Fresenius, A. clavatus Desmazières, A. terreus Thom, A. chevalieri (Mang.) Thom et Church, A. niveus Bloch, emend. Thom et Church, A. ochraceus Wilhelm, A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, and A. amstelodami (Mang.) Church et Thom.

  16. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-05-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  18. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... After 48 to 72 hours the site of injection is evaluated by a physician. If a positive reaction occurs (the test site is inflamed), the person has been exposed to the aspergillus mold and is at risk for developing aspergillosis.

  19. Diversity of Marine-Derived Aspergillus from Tidal Mudflats and Sea Sand in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seobihn; Park, Myung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus (Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, and Ascomycota) is a genus of well-defined asexual spore-forming fungi that produce valuable compounds such as secondary metabolites and enzymes; however, some species are also responsible for diseases in plants and animals, including humans. To date, 26 Aspergillus species have been reported in Korea, with most species located in terrestrial environments. In our study, Aspergillus species were isolated from mudflats and sea sand along the western and southern coasts of Korea. A total of 84 strains were isolated and identified as 17 Aspergillus species in 11 sections on the basis of both morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the calmodulin gene (CaM) locus. Commonly isolated species were A. fumigatus (26 strains), A. sydowii (14 strains), and A. terreus (10 strains). The diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from mudflats (13 species) was higher than the diversity of those from sea sand (five species). Four identified species—A. caesiellus, A. montenegroi, A. rhizopodus, and A. tabacinus—are in the first records in Korea. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics of these four species. PMID:28154481

  20. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-04

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing.

  1. The Aspergillus Genome Database: multispecies curation and incorporation of RNA-Seq data to improve structural gene annotations

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Arnaud, Martha B.; Inglis, Diane O.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Binkley, Jonathan; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Wymore, Farrell; Sherlock, Gavin; Wortman, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; http://www.aspgd.org) is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for Aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. In addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, AspGD hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available Aspergillus genomes. AspGD curators perform gene product annotation based on review of the literature for four key Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. We have iteratively improved the structural annotation of Aspergillus genomes through the analysis of publicly available transcription data, mostly expressed sequenced tags, as described in a previous NAR Database article (Arnaud et al. 2012). In this update, we report substantive structural annotation improvements for A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus genomes based on recently available RNA-Seq data. Over 26 000 loci were updated across these species; although those primarily comprise the addition and extension of untranslated regions (UTRs), the new analysis also enabled over 1000 modifications affecting the coding sequence of genes in each target genome. PMID:24194595

  2. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  4. Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

    2011-01-01

    Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

  5. Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:24123732

  6. Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.

    PubMed

    Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-07-15

    Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach.

  7. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  8. Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus in a Chinese hospital.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Zhen-feng; Zhu, He; Wen, Liang; Yang, Rong-ya

    2014-02-01

    Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in China. Air, surface, and tap water sampling was performed twice monthly at the bone marrow transplant (BMT) department, intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU), and outdoors. Nose, pharynx, and sputum samples were collected from high-risk patients. Isolates of Aspergillus from the environment and patients were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to investigate the origin of infection. Mean total Aspergillus count was 7.73, 8.94, 13.19, and 17.32 cfu/m(3) in the BMT department, ICU, NICU, and outdoors, respectively. RAPD analysis by R108 primer demonstrated that strains isolated from patients in NICU were identical to the environmental strain. Strains isolated from patients in ICU differed from the environmental strain. Aspergillus contamination was found in the BTM department, NICU, and ICU. Clinical and environmental strains from NICU had identical genotypes. These findings suggest that Aspergillus is found in the hospital environment including the air, surface, and tap water. The genotypes of Aspergillus were identical from patients and the environment, suggesting that clinical infection may originate from the hospital environment.

  9. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  10. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

  11. Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri (Black Aspergilli) is closely related to A. niger and is used extensively in the industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. We recently discovered sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis and in this study, demonstrate that the progeny are products o...

  12. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P < .0001). Of these specimens, 94 were negative for IgE to both species, 10 were positive for A fumigatus and negative for A niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  13. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization.

  14. Aspergillus ustus Infections among Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Panackal, Anil A.; Imhof, Alexander; Hanley, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is a mold that rarely infects humans; only 15 systemic cases have been reported. We report the first outbreak of invasive infection caused by A. ustus among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Six patients with infections were identified; 3 infections each occurred in both 2001 and 2003. Molecular typing by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and antifungal drug susceptibility testing were performed on clinical and environmental isolates recovered from our hospital from 1999 to 2003. The highest overall attack rate in HSCT patients was 1.6%. The overall death rate was 50%, and death occurred within 8 days after diagnostic culture collection. Clinical isolates exhibited decreased susceptibility to antifungal drugs, especially azoles. RAPD and phylogenetic analysis showed genetic similarity between isolates from different patients. Based on the clustering of cases in space and time and molecular data, common-source acquisition of this unusual drug-resistant species is possible. PMID:16704776

  15. Outbreak of invasive Aspergillus infection in surgical patients, associated with a contaminated air-handling system.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Brock D; Jin, Jiankang; Rinaldi, Michael G; Wickes, Brian L; Huycke, Mark M

    2003-09-15

    An outbreak of Aspergillus infection at a tertiary care hospital was identified among inpatients who had amputation wounds, peritonitis, allograft nephritis, or mediastinitis. During a 2-year period, 6 patients were identified, all of whom had Aspergillus species recovered from samples from normally sterile sites. All cases clustered in the operating theater during a single 12-day period. To assess operating theater air quality, particle counts were measured as surrogate markers for Aspergillus conidia. A substantial increase in the proportion of airborne particles > or =3 microm in size (range, 3-fold to 1000-fold) was observed in many operating rooms. A confined space video camera identified moisture and contamination of insulating material in ductwork and variable airflow volume units downstream of final filters. No additional invasive Aspergillus wound infections were identified after the operating theater air-handling systems were remediated, suggesting that this unusual outbreak was due to the deterioration of insulating material in variable airflow volume units.

  16. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles.

  17. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidation with cavitation in the right upper lobe of the lung. Induced bacterial sputum cultures, and acid-fast smears and cultures were negative. Fungal sputum cultures grew A. niger. The patient clinically improved on a combination therapy of empiric antibacterials and voriconazole, followed by voriconazole monotherapy. After 4 weeks of voriconazole therapy, however, repeat chest computed tomography scanning showed a significant progression of the infection and near-complete necrosis of the right upper lobe of the lung. Serum voriconazole levels were low–normal (1.0 μg ml−1, normal range for the assay 0.5–6.0 μg ml−1). A. niger was again recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. A right upper lobectomy was performed, and lung tissue cultures grew A. niger. Furthermore, the lung histopathology showed acute and organizing pneumonia, fungal hyphae and oxalate crystallosis, confirming the diagnosis of invasive A. niger infection. A. niger, unlike A. fumigatus and A. flavus, is less commonly considered a cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The finding of calcium oxalate crystals in histopathology specimens is classic for A. niger infection and can be helpful in making a diagnosis even in the absence of conidia. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in optimizing the treatment of IA given the wide variations in the oral bioavailability of voriconazole. PMID:20299503

  18. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n = 21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n = 25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n = 84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n = 5), A. flavus (n = 1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n = 12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n = 1), Aspergillus lentulus (n = 1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n = 1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P = 0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA.

  19. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  20. [Aspergillus and nosocomial aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Pontón, J; Cabañes, F J

    2000-09-01

    The current importance of nosocomial aspergillosis has prompted this symposium to review the most important issues in the field: taxonomy and identification of species involved, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and molecular epidemiology applied to the detection of outbreaks of nosocomial aspergillosis.

  1. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  2. High sequence variations in the region containing genes encoding a cellular morphogenesis protein and the repressor of sexual development help to reveal origins of Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus are closely related fungal species. The A. flavus population that produces numerous small sclerotia (S strain) and aflatoxin has a unique 1.5 kb deletion in the norB-cypA region of the aflatoxin gene cluster (the S genotype). Phylogenetic studies have indica...

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus: contours of an opportunistic human pathogen.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Allison; Loeffler, Jürgen; Ebel, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is currently the major air-borne fungal pathogen. It is able to cause several forms of disease in humans of which invasive aspergillosis is the most severe. The high mortality rate of this disease prompts increased efforts to disclose the basic principles of A. fumigatus pathogenicity. According to our current knowledge, A. fumigatus lacks sophisticated virulence traits; it is nevertheless able to establish infection due to its robustness and ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. This review focuses on two crucial aspects of invasive aspergillosis: (i) properties of A. fumigatus that are relevant during infection and may distinguish it from non-pathogenic Aspergillus species and (ii) interactions of the pathogen with the innate and adaptive immune systems.

  4. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  5. The entomopathogenic potential of Aspergillus spp. in mosquitoes vectors of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, A M; da Costa, G L; Barcellos, M Z; de Oliveira, R L; de Oliveira, P C

    2001-01-01

    Eleven strains of the most frequent Aspergillus species found in a survey of Brazilian mosquitoes collected in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used for bioassays in second-stage larvae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Aspergillus ochraceus, A. kanagawaensis and one strain of A. sulphureus were most effective, causing mortality in at least 80% of the larvae of the two mosquito species tested. Variations in entomopathogenic capacity were observed in the experiments with strains of A. sulphureus, A. flavus and A. ochraceus.

  6. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions.

  7. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri.

  8. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500μg/kg B and 341,000μg/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention.

  9. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines.

  10. A retrospective study of the prevalence of calcium oxalate crystals in veterinary Aspergillus cases.

    PubMed

    Payne, Courtney L; Dark, Michael J; Conway, Julia A; Farina, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report. Calcium oxalate deposition was detected in 14 of 38 cases examined, including A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. niger, and unspecified Aspergillus sp. infections. Calcium oxalate crystals were identified in 11 of 16 avian cases, as well as in 1 of 1 bovine, 1 of 15 equine, and 1 of 5 canine cases. Crystals were described in only 3 of the 14 original pathology reports of these cases, indicating that identification and reporting of crystals in histologic specimens could be improved. All the tissues with crystals were respiratory tissues with air interfaces, including nasal sinus, trachea, syrinx, lung, and air sac. In cases with crystals identified on H&E-stained sections, crystals were frequently not present or were fewer in number in tissue sections stained with Gomori methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff. Routine polarization of slides of fungal infections, especially in the respiratory tract, should be considered to check for calcium oxalate crystals.

  11. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a New Pathogen That Causes Invasive Disease Refractory to Antifungal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Peterson, Stephen W.; Clark, Lily P.; Nardone, Glenn; Folio, Les; Riedlinger, Gregory; Zerbe, Christa S.; Shea, Yvonne; Henderson, Christina M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is Aspergillus fumigatus followed by A. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. Here we review two clinical cases of fatal IA in CGD patients and describe a new etiologic agent of IA refractory to antifungal therapy. Unlike typical IA caused by A. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. Mycological characteristics and the phylogenetic relationship with other aspergilli based on the sequence analysis of Mcm7, RPB2, and Tsr1 indicated that the new species, which we named as A. tanneri, belongs to Aspergillus section Circumdati. The species has a higher amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole MIC and causes more chronic infection in CGD mice than A. fumigatus. This is the first report documenting IA in CGD patients caused by a species belonging to the Aspergillus section Circumdati that is inherently resistant to azoles and amphotericin B. Unlike the results seen with many members of Aspergillus section Circumdati, ochratoxin was not detected in filtrates of cultures grown in various media. Our phenotypic and genetic characterization of the new species and the case reports will assist future diagnosis of infection caused by A. tanneri and lead to more appropriate patient management. PMID:22855513

  12. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  13. Determining the analytical specificity of PCR-based assays for the diagnosis of IA: What is Aspergillus?

    PubMed

    Morton, C Oliver; White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem; Mengoli, Carlo; Caliendo, Angela M; Cogliati, Massimo; Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette; Gorton, Rebecca; Hagen, Ferry; Halliday, Catriona; Hamal, Petr; Harvey-Wood, Kathleen; Jaton, Katia; Johnson, Gemma; Kidd, Sarah; Lengerova, Martina; Lass-Florl, Cornelia; Linton, Chris; Millon, Laurence; Morrissey, C Orla; Paholcsek, Melinda; Talento, Alida Fe; Ruhnke, Markus; Willinger, Birgit; Donnelly, J Peter; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-10-07

    A wide array of PCR tests has been developed to aid the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), providing technical diversity but limiting standardisation and acceptance. Methodological recommendations for testing blood samples using PCR exist, based on achieving optimal assay sensitivity to help exclude IA. Conversely, when testing more invasive samples (BAL, biopsy, CSF) emphasis is placed on confirming disease, so analytical specificity is paramount. This multicenter study examined the analytical specificity of PCR methods for detecting IA by blind testing a panel of DNA extracted from a various fungal species to explore the range of Aspergillus species that could be detected, but also potential cross reactivity with other fungal species. Positivity rates were calculated and regression analysis was performed to determine any associations between technical specifications and performance. The accuracy of Aspergillus genus specific assays was 71.8%, significantly greater (P < .0001) than assays specific for individual Aspergillus species (47.2%). For genus specific assays the most often missed species were A. lentulus (25.0%), A. versicolor (24.1%), A. terreus (16.1%), A. flavus (15.2%), A. niger (13.4%), and A. fumigatus (6.2%). There was a significant positive association between accuracy and using an Aspergillus genus PCR assay targeting the rRNA genes (P = .0011). Conversely, there was a significant association between rRNA PCR targets and false positivity (P = .0032). To conclude current Aspergillus PCR assays are better suited for detecting A. fumigatus, with inferior detection of most other Aspergillus species. The use of an Aspergillus genus specific PCR assay targeting the rRNA genes is preferential.

  14. Molecular screening of 246 Portuguese Aspergillus isolates among different clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Parada, Helena; Brandão, João; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and environmental samples from Portugal were screened for the presence of Aspergillus and the distributions of the species complexes were determined in order to understand how their distributions differ based on their source. Fifty-seven Aspergillus isolates from clinical samples were collected from 10 health institutions. Six species complexes were detected by internal transcribed spacer sequencing; Fumigati, Flavi, and Nigri were found most frequently (50.9%, 21.0%, and 15.8%, respectively). β-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing resulted in seven cryptic species (A. awamorii, A. brasiliensis, A. fructus, A. lentulus, A. sydowii, A. tubingensis, Emericella echinulata) being identified among the 57 isolates. Thirty-nine isolates of Aspergillus were recovered from beach sand and poultry farms, 31 from swine farms, and 80 from hospital environments, for a total 189 isolates. Eleven species complexes were found in these 189 isolates, and those belonging to the Versicolores species complex were found most frequently (23.8%). There was a significant association between the different environmental sources and distribution of the species complexes; the hospital environment had greater variability of species complexes than other environmental locations. A high prevalence of cryptic species within the Circumdati complex was detected in several environments; from the isolates analyzed, at least four cryptic species were identified, most of them growing at 37ºC. Because Aspergillus species complexes have different susceptibilities to antifungals, knowing the species-complex epidemiology for each setting, as well as the identification of cryptic species among the collected clinical isolates, is important. This may allow preventive and corrective measures to be taken, which may result in decreased exposure to those organisms and a better prognosis.

  15. Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include A. niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in grapes and grape products. As...

  16. RAPID MONITORING BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polumerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventio...

  17. RAPID MONITORING BY QPCR FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventi...

  18. Potential roles of environmental oxidative stress in aflatoxin production revealed in the Aspergillus flavus transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus infection in crops is known to be exacerbated primarily by abiotic stresses such as drought stress, and biotic stresses such as arthropod infestation. These stresses result in the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the...

  19. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveal diverse responses to environmental oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress predisposes oilseed crops such as maize and peanut to infection by Aspergillus flavus resulting in their contamination with aflatoxins. Drought stress in plants results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in their tissues, and these ROS have been shown to stimulate af...

  1. Aspergillus coronary embolization causing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R

    1988-05-01

    An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.

  2. Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

  3. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  4. Spotlight on Aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Fischer, Reinhard; Rodriguez-Romero, Julio

    2010-11-01

    Aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. Growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. The production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. Here we focus on light as important parameter for the mycelium to discriminate between different habitats. The fungal 'eye' includes several light sensors which react to a broad plethora of wavelengths. Aspergillus nidulans light receptors comprise a phytochrome for red-light sensing, white collar-like blue-light signaling proteins, a putative green-light sensing opsin and a cryptochrome/photolyase as distinct sensory systems. Red- and blue-light receptors are assembled into a light-sensing protein complex. Light receptors transmit their signal to a number of other regulatory proteins including a bridging protein, VeA, as part of a trimeric complex. VeA plays a central role in the balance of asexual and sexual development and in the coordination of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  5. Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Algerian wheat and derived products.

    PubMed

    Riba, Amar; Bouras, Noureddine; Mokrane, Salim; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2010-10-01

    Wheat and its derivatives are a very important staple food for North African populations. The aim of this study was to analyze populations of Aspergillus section Flavi from local wheat based on aflatoxins (AFs), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and sclerotia production, and also to evaluate AFs-contaminated wheat collected from two different climatic regions in Algeria. A total of 108 samples of wheat were collected during the following phases: pre-harvest, storage in silos and after processing. The results revealed that among the Aspergillus species isolated, those belonging to section Flavi were predominant. Of the 150 strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated, 144 were identified as Aspergillus flavus and 6 as Aspergillus tamarii. We showed that 72% and 10% of the A. flavus strains produced AFs and CPA, respectively. Among the 150 strains tested, 60 produced amounts of AFB1 ranging from 12.1 to 234.6 microg/g of CYA medium. Also, we showed that most strains produced large sclerotia. AFB1was detected by HPLC in 56.6% of the wheat samples and derived products (flour, semolina and bran) with contamination levels ranging from 0.13 to 37.42 microg/kg.

  6. Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis: favourable outcome with a medical approach.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, E; Parize, P; Lefevre, A; Vironneau, P; Bougnoux, M E; Poiree, S; Coignard-Biehler, H; DeWolf, S E; Amazzough, K; Barchiesi, F; Jullien, V; Alanio, A; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Wassef, M; Kania, R; Lortholary, O; Lanternier, F

    2016-05-01

    Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis (IEO) is a rare infection. We performed a seven-year, single-centre retrospective study from 2007 to 2014 including all patients with proven Aspergillus spp. IEO. Twelve patients were identified. All patients had a poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and one underwent solid organ transplant. The most frequently isolated species was Aspergillus flavus (n = 10) and voriconazole was the first-line therapy in all cases, with a median length of treatment of 338.5 days (158-804 days). None of the patients underwent extensive surgery. The clinical outcome was excellent. However, otological sequelae were reported, including hearing impairment (n = 7) and facial palsy (n = 3).

  7. Discovery of a novel superfamily of type III polyketide synthases in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Seshime, Yasuyo; Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Fujii, Isao; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-05-27

    Identification of genes encoding type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. Among other Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus), A. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (csyA, csyB, csyC, and csyD). Expression of csyA, csyB, and csyD genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Comparative genome analyses revealed single putative type III PKS in Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, two each in Magnaporthe grisea and Podospora anserina, and three in Phenarocheate chrysosporium, with a phylogenic distinction from bacteria and plants. Conservation of catalytic residues in the CHSs across species implicated enzymatically active nature of these newly discovered homologs.

  8. Aspergillus Infections in Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Paterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are occurring with an increasing frequency in transplant recipients. Notable changes in the epidemiologic characteristics of this infection have occurred; these include a change in risk factors and later onset of infection. Management of invasive aspergillosis continues to be challenging, and the mortality rate, despite the use of newer antifungal agents, remains unacceptably high. Performing molecular studies to discern new targets for antifungal activity, identifying signaling pathways that may be amenable to immunologic interventions, assessing combination regimens of antifungal agents or combining antifungal agents with modulation of the host defense mechanisms, and devising diagnostic assays that can rapidly and reliably diagnose infections represent areas for future investigations that may lead to further improvement in outcomes. PMID:15653818

  9. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: from rainforest to consumer.

    PubMed

    Calderari, Thaiane O; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Sartori, Daniele; Pereira, Jose Luiz; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and presence of aflatoxins. Aspergillus nomius was the most common species found (1235 isolates) which amounted to 30% of the total species with potential to produce aflatoxins. This species is of concern since 100% of all isolates produced aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Aspergillus flavus was almost equally common (1212 isolates) although only 46% produced aflatoxins under laboratory conditions, and only aflatoxins B(1) and B(2). Low number of other species with the potential to produce aflatoxins was isolated: Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus bombycis produced B and G aflatoxins whilst Aspergillus pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B(1). The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7 μg/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1 μg/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3 μg/kg and from supermarkets in São Paulo State 0.2 μg/kg. Processing, which included manual or mechanical sorting and drying at 60°C for 30 to 36 h, eliminated on average more than 98% of total aflatoxins. These results showed that sorting is a very effective way to decrease aflatoxin content in brazil nuts.

  10. Characterization of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from organic Brazil nuts using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Baquião, A C; Atayde, D D; Grabarz, F; Corrêa, B

    2014-09-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an important non-timber forest product from Amazonia, is commercialized in worldwide markets. The main importers of this nut are North America and European countries, where the demand for organic products has grown to meet consumers concerned about food safety. Thus, the precise identification of toxigenic fungi is important because the Brazil nut is susceptible to colonization by these microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterize by polyphasic approach strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from organic Brazil nuts. The results showed Aspergillus flavus as the main species found (74.4%), followed by Aspergillus nomius (12.7%). The potential mycotoxigenic revealed that 80.0% of A. flavus were toxin producers, 14.3% of which produced only aflatoxin B (AFB), 22.85% of which produced only cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and 42.85% produced both them. All strains of A. nomius were AFB and AFG producers and did not produce CPA. There is no consensus about what Aspergillus species predominates on Brazil nuts. Apparently, the origin, processing, transport and storage conditions of this commodity influence the species that are found. The understanding about population of fungi is essential for the development of viable strategies to control aflatoxins in organic Brazil nuts.

  11. Beyond aflatoxin: four distinct expression patterns and functional roles associated with Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism gene clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Aspergillus produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, and recent genomic analysis has predicted that these species have the capacity to synthesize many more compounds. It has been possible to infer the presence of 55 gene clusters associated with secondary metabolism in Aspergill...

  12. A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chushu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Yang, Qingli; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus. YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g−1, 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g−1, 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g−1, 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g−1, 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB1 contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB1 producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB1 contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts. PMID:28117685

  13. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis * #

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lie-dao; Feng, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xuan-wei; Ling, Zhi-heng; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients’ information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs. PMID:27819134

  14. Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species.

  15. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  16. Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H.

    1991-12-31

    Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility of 175 Aspergillus isolates from various clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Raquel; Carolino, Elisabete; Veríssimo, Cristina; Martinez, Marife; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2016-10-01

    Some environmental Aspergillus spp. isolates have been described as resistant to antifungals, potentially causing an emerging medical problem. In the present work, the antifungal susceptibility profile of 41 clinical and 134 environmental isolates of Aspergillus was determined using the CLSI microdilution method. The aim of this study was to compare environmental and clinical isolates with respect to their susceptibility, and assess the potential implications for therapy of isolates encountered in different environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing antifungal susceptibility profiles of Aspergillus collected from different environmental sources (poultries, swineries, beach sand, and hospital environment). Significant differences were found in the distribution of the different species sections for the different sources. Significant differences were also found in the susceptibility profile of the different Aspergillus sections recovered from the various sources. Clear differences were found between the susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates for caspofungin, amphotericin B and posaconazole, with clinical isolates showing overall greater susceptibility, except for caspofungin. In comparison to clinical isolates, hospital environmental isolates showed significantly less susceptibility to amphotericin B and posaconazole. These data indicate that species section identity and the site from which the isolate was recovered influence the antifungal susceptibility profile, which may affect initial antifungal choices.

  18. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were α-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as α-bergamotene and β-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

  19. Growth and hydrolase profiles can be used as characteristics to distinguish Aspergillus niger and other black aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Meijer, M; Houbraken, J A M P; Dalhuijsen, S; Samson, R A; de Vries, R P

    2011-06-30

    Wild type Aspergillus niger isolates from different biotopes from all over the world were compared to each other and to the type strains of other black Aspergillus species with respect to growth and extracellular enzyme profiles. The origin of the A. niger isolate did not result in differences in growth profile with respect to monomeric or polymeric carbon sources. Differences were observed in the growth rate of the A. niger isolates, but these were observed on all carbon sources and not specific for a particular carbon source. In contrast, carbon source specific differences were observed between the different species. Aspergillus brasiliensis is the only species able to grow on D-galactose, and A. aculeatus had significantly better growth on Locus Bean gum than the other species. Only small differences were found in the extracellular enzyme profile of the A. niger isolates during growth on wheat bran, while large differences were observed in the profiles of the different black aspergilli. In addition, differences were observed in temperature profiles between the black Aspergillus species, but not between the A. niger isolates, demonstrating no isolate-specific adaptations to the environment.These data indicate that the local environment does not result in stable adaptations of A. niger with respect to growth profile or enzyme production, but that the potential is maintained irrespective of the environmental parameters. It also demonstrates that growth, extracellular protein and temperature profiles can be used for species identification within the group of black aspergilli.

  20. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    PubMed

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  1. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibilities of black Aspergillus isolates from otomycosis cases in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Dóczi, Ilona; Bereczki, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Varga, János

    2012-08-01

    Otomycosis, also known as fungal otitis externa, has been used to describe a fungal infection of the external auditory canal, but sometimes involving the middle ear. Many fungal species have been identified as infectious agents in otomycosis, with Aspergillus and Candida species being the most common. Among aspergilli, Aspergillus niger is the most commonly described species in the literature. In this study, 14 black Aspergillus strains were analyzed, which were isolated from otomycosis cases in Hungary between 2010 and 2011. These strains were identified as A. niger according to conventional morphological methods. Species identification was based on sequencing of part of the calmodulin gene. Our results indicate that instead of A. niger, A. awamori and A. tubingensis are the predominant species that cause ear infections in Southern Hungary. Antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out against four antifungal drugs: amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine. All isolates were found to exhibit low in vitro MIC values to amphotericin B, terbinafine and itraconazole. However, the examined isolates exhibited high in vitro MIC values to ketoconazole.

  2. Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

    2010-01-31

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  3. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  4. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: characterization by internal transcribed spacer, β-Tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, metabolic fingerprinting, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W T; Chen, Jonathan H K; Lau, Eunice C L; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. β-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability.

  5. Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins.

  6. Mycoflora and ochratoxin A producing strains of Aspergillus in Algerian wheat.

    PubMed

    Riba, A; Mokrane, S; Mathieu, F; Lebrihi, A; Sabaou, N

    2008-02-29

    Wheat is a basic staple food for very large segments of the population of Algeria. The aim of this study is to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing mould and OTA-contaminated wheat. To evaluate the mycoflora and the potential for OTA production by Aspergillus strains, a total of 85 samples of wheat destined for human consumption were collected from two regions in Algeria (Tizi Ouzou and Setif) during the following phases: preharvest, storage in silos, and after processing. The mean value counts of fungi ranged from 275 to 1277 CFU g(-1). The dominant genus was Aspergillus, predominantly A. flavus, A. niger and A. versicolor. The other isolated species were A. ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. carbonarius, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. candidus and Aspergillus spp. The occurrence and the levels of the genus Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Mucor were substantially lower than those of Aspergillus. The storage in silos shows high levels of Aspergillus (66 to 84%), especially A. flavus, but A. niger and other fungi were isolated at relatively low percentages. Equal distribution of the fungal contamination into the bran, flour and semolina fractions was observed from Flour Mill and Semolina Mill. The genus Aspergillus remained present at high levels at several phases of the production process. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by 135 isolates belonging to eleven species of Aspergillus and 23 isolates of Penicillium spp. was analyzed using fluorescent detection-based HPLC. Thus, it was found that 51 isolates (32.3%) were ochratoxigenic. All isolated strains of A. ochraceus (12) and A. alliaceus (6) produced OTA at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 11.50 microg g(-1). Most of the A. carbonarius strains (80%) were OTA producers (0.01 to 9.35 microg g(-1)), whereas A. terreus (50%), A. niger (28%), A. fumigatus (40%), A. versicolor (18%) and Penicillium spp. (21.7%) were low level producers (0.01 to 0.07 microg g(-1)). The concentration of OTA was determined in 30

  7. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of 5 species of triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Junqueira, A C; Costa, G L; Celano, V; Oliveira, P C; Coura, J R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the mycobiota in the digestive tract of 5 important species of triatomines, Triatoma brasiliensis, T infestans, T. sordida, T. pseudomaculata and T. vitticeps, was made. The digestive tracts of 164 adults and 535 nymphs of those triatomines were studied and 393 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (19 species), Aspergillus (17 species) and Acremonium (5 species) and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium felluttanum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium waksmanii, Aspergillus awamori and Paecilomyces variotii. Among the isolated fungi, we found species that are recognized as entomopathogenic and pathogenic for humans and animals.

  8. Assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Noman, Efaq Ali; Al-Gheethi, A A; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Nagao, H; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media. Among all fungal isolates, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri 10.2 %, Aspergillus niger 9.5 %, Aspergillus fumigatus 8.8 %, Penicillium. simplicissium 8 %, Aspergillus tubingensis 7.3 %, Aspergillus terreus var. terreus 6.6 %, Penicillium waksmanii 5.9 % and Curvularia lunata 6.5 % were the most frequent. Among five sections of the Wellness Centre, the clinical wastes collected from the diagnostic labs of haematology section had the highest numbers of fungal species (29 species). Glove wastes had the highest numbers of fungal species (19 species) among 17 types of clinical wastes screened. Among all fungal species, Aspergillus spp. exhibited higher growth at 37 °C than at 28 °C, indicating the potential of these opportunistic fungi to cause diseases in human. These results indicated the potential of hospital wastes as reservoirs for fungal species.

  9. Multicenter Study of Isavuconazole MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 Broth Microdilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.; Peláez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 μg/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 μg/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 μg/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 μg/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 μg/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 μg/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations. PMID:23716059

  10. Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous are the most common fungal species causing keratitis in tropical countries. Herein we report a prospective study on fungal keratitis caused by these three fungal species. Methodology. A prospective investigation was undertaken to evaluate eyes with presumed fungal keratitis. All the fungal isolates (n = 73) obtained from keratitis infections were identified using morphological and microscopic characters. Molecular identification using sequencing of the ITS region and antifungal susceptibility tests using microdilution method were done. The final clinical outcome was evaluated in terms of the time taken for resolution of keratitis and the final visual outcome. The results were analyzed after segregating the cases into three groups, namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous keratitis. Results. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established in 73 (35.9%) cases out of 208 cases. The spectra of fungi isolated were Fusarium spp. (26.6%), Aspergillus spp. (21.6%), and Dematiaceous fungi (11.6%). The sequence of the ITS region could identify the Fusarium and Aspergillus species at the species complex level, and the Dematiaceous isolates were accurately identified. Using antifungal agents such as fluconazole, natamycin, amphotericin B, and itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Fusarium spp. were >32 μg/mL, 4–8 μg/mL, 0.5–1 μg/mL, and >32 μg/mL, respectively. Antifungal susceptibility data showed that Curvularia spp. was highly resistant to all the antifungal agents. Overall, natamycin and amphotericin B were found to be the most effective antifungal agents. The comparative clinical outcomes in all cases showed that the healing response in terms of visual acuity of the Dematiaceous group was significantly good when compared with the Fusarium and Aspergillus groups (P < 0.05). The time required for healing in the Fusarium group was statistically significantly less when compared with

  11. The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus, a potent aflatoxin-producing fungus within section Flavi, is described. The production of nonostiolate ascocarps surrounded by a separate peridium within the stroma places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Petromyces parasiticus differs from P. a...

  12. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  13. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide and can also cause human and animal diseases. A. flavus is the major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic secondary metabolites. In the United States, mycotoxins have been estimated to cause agricultur...

  14. Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Goto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Futagami, Taiki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Koike, Hideaki; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Arita, Masanori; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Kazuro; Higa, Ken-ichi; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takeaki; Jinno, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Mizutani, Osamu; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sano, Motoaki; Shiraishi, Yohei; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. An alternative oxidase and acid-stable α-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation. PMID:27651094

  15. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  16. Aspergillus flavus: The Major Producer of Aflatoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin i...

  17. Production of mycotoxins by members of the Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from peanuts and maize in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are pathogenic to maize, grapes, onions, garlic, apples, mangoes, and peanuts. Although some black aspergilli are reported as opportunistic pathogens, other species are able to colonize maize seedlings as symptomless endophytes, which under ...

  18. Potential production of ochratoxins and fumonisins by members of the Aspergillus section Nigri isolated as endophytes from maize and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli), are pathogenic to several plant hosts including maize, peanuts, grapes, onions, garlic, apples, and mangoes. Although some black aspergilli are reported as opportunistic pathogens, we have documented that some species within this section ...

  19. Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and other fungi of public health concern in food and organic matter in southwest Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six Aspergillus flavus isolates out of 17 fungal isolates were sampled from diverse food and organic matter in southwest Nigeria. All the A. flavus samples produced aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid. These six isolates constitute a ready mycobank of toxigenic species for analytical research involving...

  20. Multilocus phylogeny and antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus section Circumdati from clinical samples and description of A. pseudosclerotiorum sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multilocus phylogenetic study was carried out to assess the species distribution in a set of 34 clinical isolates of Aspergillus section Circumdati from the USA and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility were determined against eight antifungal drugs. The genetic markers used were ITS, BenA, CaM...

  1. Unravelling the diversity of the cyclopiazonic acid family of mycotoxins in Aspergillus flavus by UHPLC Triple-TOF HRMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (a-cyclopiazonic acid, a-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures, approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the...

  2. Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-03-16

    Aspergillus niger "aggregate" is an informal taxonomic rank that represents a group of species from the section Nigri. Among A. niger "aggregate" species Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and its cryptic species Aspergillus welwitschiae (=Aspergillus awamori sensu Perrone) are proven as ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 producing species. A. niger has been frequently found in tropical and subtropical foods. A. welwitschiae is a new species, which was recently dismembered from the A. niger taxon. These species are morphologically very similar and molecular data are indispensable for their identification. A total of 175 Brazilian isolates previously identified as A. niger collected from dried fruits, Brazil nuts, coffee beans, grapes, cocoa and onions were investigated in this study. Based on partial calmodulin gene sequences about one-half of our isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. This new species was the predominant species in onions analyzed in Brazil. A. niger and A. welwitschiae differ in their ability to produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2. Among A. niger isolates, approximately 32% were OTA producers, but in contrast only 1% of the A. welwitschiae isolates revealed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. Regarding fumonisin B2 production, there was a higher frequency of FB2 producing isolates in A. niger (74%) compared to A. welwitschiae (34%). Because not all A. niger and A. welwitschiae strains produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, in this study a multiplex PCR was developed for detecting the presence of essential genes involved in ochratoxin (polyketide synthase and radHflavin-dependent halogenase) and fumonisin (α-oxoamine synthase) biosynthesis in the genome of A. niger and A. welwitschiae isolates. The frequency of strains harboring the mycotoxin genes was markedly different between A. niger and A. welwitschiae. All OTA producing isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae showed in their genome the pks and radH genes, and 95.2% of the nonproducing

  3. Invasive Aspergillus niger complex infections in a Belgian tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases.

  4. Physiological and molecular aspects of degradation of plant polysaccharides by fungi: what have we learned from Aspergillus?

    PubMed

    Culleton, Helena; McKie, Vincent; de Vries, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Plant biomass is the most abundant and usable carbon source for many fungal species. Due to its diverse and complex structure, fungi need to produce a large range of enzymes to degrade these polysaccharides into monomeric components. The fine-tuned production of such diverse enzyme sets requires control through a set of transcriptional regulators. Aspergillus has a strong potential for degrading biomass, thus this genus has become the most widely studied group of filamentous fungi in this area. This review examines Aspergillus as a successful degrader of plant polysaccharides, and reviews its potential in many industries such as biofuel and as a production host of homologous and heterologous proteins.

  5. Entomopathogenic effect of Aspergillus giganteus and Penicillium corylophilum on two triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Gisela Lara; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Galvão, Cleber

    2003-01-01

    Two strains, Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus giganteus, of the most frequent species found in a survey of triatomines, were used for bioassays in the second and fourth nymphs stage of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus. Two procedures, bite and pulverization, were used and compared. A. giganteus was most effective, causing mortality in at least 50% of the nymphs of the two species tested with exception of the nymphs of the fourth stage of P. megistus. Variation in entomopathogenic capacity of the fungal species were observed in the experiments. The two procedures used proved effective.

  6. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Carneiro; Sartori, Daniele; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; de Freitas Munhoz, Carla; Ferreira, Josué Maldonado; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Frisvad, Jens C; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2014-09-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigated a collection of Aspergillus nomius strains isolated from Brazil nuts using different approaches, including morphological characters, RAPD and AFLP profiles, partial β-tubulin and calmodulin nucleotide sequences, aflatoxin patterns, as well as tolerance to low water activity in cultured media. Results showed that most of the isolates do belong to A. nomius species, but a few were re-identified as Aspergillus pseudonomius, a very recently described species. The results of the analyses of molecular variance, as well as the high pairwise FST values between A. nomius and A. pseudonomius suggested the isolation between these two species and the inexistence of gene flow. Fixed interspecific nucleotide polymorphisms at β-tubulin and calmodulin loci are presented. All A. pseudonomius strains analyzed produced aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. This study contains the first-ever report on the occurrence in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius.

  7. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gong, An-Dong; Li, He-Ping; Shen, Lu; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; He, Jing-De; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these microbes is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production during storage and possibly in the field. PMID:26500631

  8. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  9. Draft genome sequence of an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. bombycis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the A. bombycis Type strain was sequenced using a Personal Genome Machine, followed by annotation of its predicted genes. The genome size for A. bombycis was found to be approximately 37 Mb and contained 12,266 genes. This announcement introduces a sequenced genome for an aflatoxigenic...

  10. Effect of ultraviolet radiation A and B on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus in grape and pistachio media.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, Esther; Marin, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Ramos, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two exposure times per day (6 and 16 h) of UV-A or UV-B radiation, combined with dark and dark plus light incubation periods during 7-21 d on fungal growth and mycotoxins production of Aspergillus species were studied. Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus were inoculated on grape and pistachio media under diurnal and nocturnal temperatures choosing light photoperiod according to harvest conditions of these crops in Spain. Ultraviolet irradiation had a significant effect on A. carbonarius and A. parasiticus colony size (diameter, biomass dry weight, and colony density) and mycotoxin accumulation, although intraspecies differences were observed. Inhibition of A. carbonarius fungal growth decreased when exposure time was reduced from 16 h to 6 h, but this was not always true for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. OTA reduction was higher under UV-A than UV-B radiation and the reduction increased along time conversely to the aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the main toxin produced by A. parasiticus except in the UV-B light irradiated colonies which showed a higher percentage of AFG than AFB. Morphological changes were observed in colonies grown under UV-B light.

  11. Variation in fumonisin and ochratoxin production associated with differences in biosynthetic gene content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae isolates from multiple crop and geographic origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungi Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae are morphologically indistinguishable species used for industrial fermentation and for food and beverage production. The fungi also occur widely on food crops. Concerns about their safety have arisen with the discovery that some isolates of both specie...

  12. Persistence versus Escape: Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus fumigatus Employ Different Strategies during Interactions with Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Slesiona, Silvia; Gressler, Markus; Mihlan, Michael; Zaehle, Christoph; Schaller, Martin; Barz, Dagmar; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Brock, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Although Aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, A. fumigatus is by far the main cause of IBPA. However, once A. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as A. fumigatus infections. Thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. Since alveolar macrophages represent one of the first phagocytes facing inhaled conidia, we compared the interaction of A. terreus and A. fumigatus conidia with alveolar macrophages. A. terreus conidia were phagocytosed more rapidly than A. fumigatus conidia, possibly due to higher exposure of β-1,3-glucan and galactomannan on the surface. In agreement, blocking of dectin-1 and mannose receptors significantly reduced phagocytosis of A. terreus, but had only a moderate effect on phagocytosis of A. fumigatus. Once phagocytosed, and in contrast to A. fumigatus, A. terreus did not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, but remained viable without signs of germination both in vitro and in immunocompetent mice. The inability of A. terreus to germinate and pierce macrophages resulted in significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to A. fumigatus. Blocking phagolysosome acidification by the v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin increased A. terreus germination rates and cytotoxicity. Recombinant expression of the A. nidulans wA naphthopyrone synthase, a homologue of A. fumigatus PksP, inhibited phagolysosome acidification and resulted in increased germination, macrophage damage and virulence in corticosteroid-treated mice. In summary, we show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus have evolved significantly different strategies to survive the attack of host immune cells. While A. fumigatus prevents phagocytosis and phagolysosome acidification and escapes from macrophages by germination, A. terreus is rapidly phagocytosed, but

  13. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals.

  14. Aspergillus pacemaker endocarditis presenting as pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Colino, A; Golpe, R; González-Rodríguez, A; González-Juanatey, C; Legarra, J J; Blanco, M

    2005-06-01

    Pacemaker endocarditis (PME) is a rare but severe complication of endocardial pacemaker implantation. Fungal PME is extremely uncommon. The case of a 66-year-old female patient who was diagnosed as having a pulmonary embolus based upon the patient's clinical presentation and computed tomography angiography findings is presented. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a huge vegetation attached to the pacemaker wire. The pacemaker system was removed surgically during cardiovascular bypass. The vegetation was cultured, the results of which were positive for Aspergillus spp. No risk factors for Aspergillus infection were found in the patient. She was treated with liposomal amphotericin B for 3 weeks, followed by itraconazole for 40 weeks. At 1 year later, the patient remains asymptomatic.

  15. Chronic bilateral otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G S; Mehta, Niral; Pal, M

    2004-02-01

    Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic bilateral otomycosis in a 46-year-old female patient who was unresponsive to different drugs. The patient showed signs of erythema, otalgia, itching, otorrhoea and presence of greyish black coloured mass in both the ear canals. The direct microscopical examination of the ear debris in potassium hydroxide preparations, Giemsa, phase contrast and Gram revealed many thin, branched septate hyphae, condia and conidiophores morphologically indistinguishable from Aspergillus spp. The histopathological section of the ear wax mass by haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff techniques also showed similar fungal elements. The patient responded to 1% solution of mercurochrome. The use of mercurochrome in developing countries like India may be recommended to treat the fungal otitis in patients. We also emphasize that 'Narayan' stain should be routinely employed by microbiology and public health laboratories to study the morphology of pathogenic fungi.

  16. Aspergillus deflectus infection in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Jang, S S; Dorr, T E; Biberstein, E L; Wong, A

    1986-04-01

    Four cases of disseminated aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus deflectus in German Shepherds are presented. Three of the cases, which involved multiple organs, terminated in euthanasia. One case, with bony involvement of the limbs and skull, lived. The unique morphological characteristic of the conidial head resembling a briar pipe led to the identification of A. deflectus. To the authors' knowledge these are the first reported cases of infections caused by A. deflectus in man or animal.

  17. Rare Case of Aspergillus ochraceus Osteomyelitis of Calcaneus Bone in a Patient with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Shokohi, Tahereh; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Nabili, Mojtaba; Afzalian Ashkezari, Elham; Alinezhad, Sosan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease in humans. One of the major complications of the disease is foot ulcer that is prone to infection. The most common causes of infection which have been reported in these patients are bacteria and fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus species. We report one such rare case with calcaneal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus ochraceus in a patient with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The case was a 68-year-old male with a history of type II diabetes for 2 years. The patient had two ulcers on the right heel bones for the past 6 months with no significant improvement. One of the most important predisposing factors to infectious diseases, especially opportunistic fungal infection, is diabetes mellitus. Aspergillus species can involve bony tissue through vascular system, direct infection, and trauma. Proper and early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infection can reduce or prevent complications, such as osteomyelitis and amputation. The annual examination of feet for skin and nail lesion, sensation, anatomical changes, and vascular circulation can be useful for prevention and control of infection. PMID:26064128

  18. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  19. A polyphasic approach to the identification of ochratoxin A-producing black Aspergillus isolates from vineyards in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, C; Torta, L; Catara, V

    2008-09-30

    Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri isolated during a two year survey in eight Sicilian vineyards located on the slopes of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy) were analysed analyzed in order to characterize species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes. The polyphasic approach permitted analysis of biodiversity of Aspergillus isolates in relation to their morphology, ochratoxigenicity and genetic variability. We assessed OTA production by A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. japonicus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A. carbonarius isolates were the strongest OTA producers. A subset of 66 representative strains was selected for further DNA-based characterization. PCR assays using species-specific primers discriminated between A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. japonicus on the basis of the target sequences for each species. The PCR-based methods matched morphological characterization in identifying all the black aspergilli (BA) isolates tested, whereas RFLP analysis with RsaI of isolates positive to PCRs with A. niger specific primers identified three A. tubingensis isolates. The identification of thirteen isolates was further confirmed by ITS analysis. By this method, each of the isolates was identified and assigned to an Aspergillus species. The fAFLP analysis of 40 isolates highlighted the power of this technique to discriminate different species and single strains, to verify the presence of mixed populations in the same vineyard, through homogeneous species clusters. No correlation was observed between the clusters and OTA production level or origin.

  20. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, α-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food.

  1. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  2. Surgical management of Aspergillus colonization associated with lung hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Delarosa, Jacob; Leon, Juan J

    2008-04-01

    Colonization with Aspergillus sp. usually occurs in previously formed lung cavities. Cystectomy is a widely used surgical technique for hydatid lung disease that can also leave residual cavities and potentially result in aspergilloma. We present two cases of this rare entity and a case with Aspergillus sp. colonization of an existing ruptured hydatid cyst.

  3. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  4. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uekötter, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  5. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sclerotium-forming member of Aspergillus section Nigri was sampled from a population in a single field in North Carolina, USA, and identified as A. tubingensis based on genealogical concordance analysis. Aspergillus tubingensis was shown to be heterothallic, with individual strains containing ei...

  6. Aflatoxin production by entomopathogenic isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J; Pinnock, D E

    1990-05-01

    Fourteen isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and 2 isolates of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in liquid culture over a 20-day period. Twelve Aspergillus isolates including 11 A. parasiticus and 1 A. flavus produced aflatoxins which were extracted from both the mycelium and culture filtrate. Aflatoxin production was detected at day 3 and was detected continually for up to day 20. Aflatoxin B1 production was greatest between 7 and 10 days and significantly higher quantities were produced by A. flavus compared to A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was not a stable trait in 1 A. parasiticus isolate passaged 50 times on agar. In addition to loss of aflatoxin production, an associated loss in sporulation ability was also observed in this passaged isolate, although it did maintain pathogenicity against S. sacchari. An aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.16 micrograms/mealybug (14.2 micrograms/g wet wt) was detected within the tissues of infected mealybugs 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the ability of Aspergillus isolates to produce aflatoxins was not essential to the entomopathogenic activity of this fungus against its host S. sacchari.

  7. Comments on "Screening and Identification of Novel Ochratoxin A-Producing Fungi from Grapes. Toxins 2016, 8, 333"-In Reporting Ochratoxin A Production from Strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Logrieco, Antonio F; Frisvad, Jens C

    2017-02-14

    Recently a species in the genus Talaromyces, a uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri and an isolate each of two widespread species, Penicillium rubens and P. commune, were reported to produce ochratoxin A. This claim was based on insufficient biological and chemical data. We propose a list of criteria that need to be met before an unexpected mycotoxin producer is reported. There have only been convincing data on ochratoxin A production for Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum, P. thymicola, all from Penicillium series Verrucosa, and from species in three sections of Aspergillus: section Circumdati, section Nigri and section Flavi.

  8. Comments on “Screening and Identification of Novel Ochratoxin A-Producing Fungi from Grapes. Toxins 2016, 8, 333”—In Reporting Ochratoxin A Production from Strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently a species in the genus Talaromyces, a uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri and an isolate each of two widespread species, Penicillium rubens and P. commune, were reported to produce ochratoxin A. This claim was based on insufficient biological and chemical data. We propose a list of criteria that need to be met before an unexpected mycotoxin producer is reported. There have only been convincing data on ochratoxin A production for Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum, P. thymicola, all from Penicillium series Verrucosa, and from species in three sections of Aspergillus: section Circumdati, section Nigri and section Flavi. PMID:28216564

  9. Species assignment and antifungal susceptibilities of black aspergilli recovered from otomycosis cases in Iran.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Sedaghati, Ebrahim; Mahmoudabadi, Ali Zarei; Naseri, Ali; Kocsubé, Sándor; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Varga, János

    2012-07-01

    Black aspergilli are among the main causative agents of otomycosis worldwide. In this study, the species assignment of black aspergilli isolated from otomycosis cases in Iran was carried out using sequence analysis of part of the calmodulin gene. The results indicate that Aspergillus niger is not the only black Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis cases in Iran: Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus tubingensis are also able to cause ear infections. Antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out against five antifungal drugs including amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine. All isolates were highly susceptible to terbinafine, while they exhibited moderate susceptibilities against amphotericin B, fluconazole and ketoconazole. Aspergillus niger and A. awamori were found to have higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for azoles than A. tubingensis, in accordance with previous findings.

  10. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Natalie C; Snarr, Brendan D; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Little, Dustin J; Lee, Mark J; Zacharias, Caitlin A; Chabot, Josée C; Geller, Alexander M; Baptista, Stefanie D; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-11-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135.

  11. Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruoka, Nozomu; Sadakane, Takuya; Hayashi, Rika; Tsujimura, Seiya

    2017-01-01

    The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus. At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k2 values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones. PMID:28287419

  12. Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Lange, Lene; Lacey, Alastair E; Vuong, Daniel; Midgley, David J; Greenfield, Paul; Bradbury, Mark I; Lacey, Ernest; Busk, Peter K; Pilgaard, Bo; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Piggott, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A. hancockii produced an extensive array of 69 secondary metabolites. Eleven of the 15 most abundant secondary metabolites, constituting 90% of the total area under the curve of the HPLC trace of the crude extract, were novel. The genome of A. hancockii, approximately 40 Mbp, was sequenced and mined for genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes identified the presence of more than 370 genes in 114 gene clusters, demonstrating that A. hancockii has the capacity to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, chitin, cutin and fructan as nutrient sources. Like most Aspergillus species, A. hancockii exhibited a diverse secondary metabolite gene profile, encoding 26 polyketide synthase, 16 nonribosomal peptide synthase and 15 nonribosomal peptide synthase-like enzymes.

  13. Partial Reconstruction of the Ergot Alkaloid Pathway by Heterologous Gene Expression in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Katy L.; Moore, Christopher T.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are pharmaceutically and agriculturally important secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi. Ergot alkaloid pathways vary among different fungal lineages, but the pathway intermediate chanoclavine-I is evolutionarily conserved among ergot alkaloid producers. At least four genes, dmaW, easF, easE, and easC, are necessary for pathway steps prior to chanoclavine-I; however, the sufficiency of these genes for chanoclavine-I synthesis has not been established. A fragment of genomic DNA containing dmaW, easF, easE, and easC was amplified from the human-pathogenic, ergot alkaloid-producing fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and transformed into Aspergillus nidulans, a model fungus that does not contain any of the ergot alkaloid synthesis genes. HPLC and LC-MS analyses demonstrated that transformed A. nidulans strains produced chanoclavine-I and an earlier pathway intermediate. Aspergillus nidulans transformants containing dmaW, easF, and either easE or easC did not produce chanoclavine-I but did produce an early pathway intermediate and, in the case of the easC transformant, an additional ergot alkaloid-like compound. We conclude that dmaW, easF, easE, and easC are sufficient for the synthesis of chanoclavine-I in A. nidulans and expressing ergot alkaloid pathway genes in A. nidulans provides a novel approach to understanding the early steps in ergot alkaloid synthesis. PMID:23435153

  14. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ΔveA strain. The latter implies a fourfold reduced surface area to develop chains of spores. Over and above this, the conidial chain length was approximately fivefold reduced. The calculated 20-fold reduction in formation of conidia by ΔveA fits the 8- to 17-fold decrease in counted spore numbers. Notably, morphology of the ΔveA conidiophores of A. niger was very similar to that of wild-type Aspergillus sydowii. This suggests that VeA is key in conidiophore architecture diversity in the fungal kingdom. The finding that biomass formation of the A. niger ΔveA strain was reduced twofold shows that VeA not only impacts dispersion capacity but also colonization capacity of A. niger.

  15. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Results: Aflatoxins were detected in 32.6% of the food-grain workers and 9.1% of non food grain workers (P<0.01). A significant difference was also found in BAL culture for Aspergillus (P<0.01) between the two groups. About 47.8% of the food-grain workers and 11.4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms. PMID:25000106

  16. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  17. ADOPTING SELECTED HYDROGEN BONDING AND IONIC INTERACTIONS FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS PHYTASE STRUCTURE IMPROVES THE THERMOSTABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been widely used as a feed supplement to reduce manure phosphorus pollution of swine and poultry, Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase is unable to withstand heat inactivation during feed pelleting. Crystal structure comparisons with its close homolog, the thermostable Aspergillus fumigatu...

  18. Fumitoxins, new mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus Fres.

    PubMed Central

    Debeaupuis, J P; Lafont, P

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from silage were lethal to chicken embryos. Using this test and thin-layer chromatography, four UV-absorbing toxins, designated as fumitoxins A, B, C and D, were isolated. Analysis and mass spectrometry of crystallized fumitoxin A, the most abundant in the extract, established its molecular formula to be C31H42O8. Infrared, UV spectroscopy, and chemical reactions suggested that fumitoxin A is a steroid. Fumitoxins appear to be clearly different from the previously described toxins recognized in A. fumigatus. PMID:358921

  19. Aspergillus otomycosis in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Rutt, Amy L; Sataloff, Robert T

    2008-11-01

    Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic unilateral otomycosis in a 55-year old, immunocompromised man who had been unresponsive to a variety of treatment regimens. The patient presented with intermittent otalgia and otorrhea and with a perforation of his left tympanic membrane. A niger was identified in a culture specimen obtained from the patient's left ear canal. In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be prompt and vigorous, to minimize the likelihood of hearing loss and invasive temporal bone infection.

  20. Effect of plant extracts on book deteriorated fungal species.

    PubMed

    Kalbende, Swapna P; Dalal, Lalchand P

    2016-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of four plants against some isolated fungal species from deteriorated books. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of selected plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against some book deteriorating fungal species. Fifteen species belonging to 09 genera were isolated and identified from infested books in library. Aqueous and solvent extracts of leaves of Azadiracta indica, Callistemon citrinus, Eucalyptus lanceolatus and Pongamia pinnata were tested against some dominant fungal species viz. Chaetomium spiralis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus stolonifer. Solvent extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity than aqueous extracts. However, these plant extracts exhibited moderate activity against A. flavus, C. spiralis, R. stolonifer and A. alternata.

  1. An alternative host model of a mixed fungal infection by azole susceptible and resistant Aspergillus spp strains

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Fuoli, L; Buitrago, Mj; Gomez-Lopez, A; Mellado, E

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common mold involved in human infections. However, the number of non-fumigatus species able to cause disease is continuously increasing. Among them, Aspergillus lentulus is reported in hematological and cystic fibrosis patients and in those treated with corticosteroids. A. lentulus differs from A. fumigatus in some clinically relevant aspects such as virulence and antifungal susceptibility, showing high MICs to most antifungals. Previous studies proved that A. lentulus was pathogenic in immunocompromised mice, although the course of the infection was delayed compared to A. fumigatus. These differences could explain why A. lentulus is mostly found in mixed infections with A. fumigatus challenging the diagnosis and treatment. We used the alternative model host Galleria mellonella to compare virulence, host interaction, fungal burden and antifungal response when larvae were infected with A. fumigatus or A. lentulus alone, and with a mixture of both species. A. lentulus was pathogenic in G. mellonella but infected larvae did not respond to therapeutic doses of voriconazole. We were able to simultaneously detect A. fumigatus and A. lentulus by a multiplex Nested Real Time PCR (MN-PCR). Comparative analysis of larvae histological sections showed melanization of both species but presented a different pattern of immune response by haemocytes. Analysis of fungal burden and histology showed that A. lentulus survived in the G. mellonella despite the antifungal treatment in single and mixed infections. We conclude that the simultaneous presence of antifungal susceptible and resistant Aspergillus species would likely complicate the management of these infections. PMID:26065322

  2. New Insight into the Ochratoxin A Biosynthetic Pathway through Deletion of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene in Aspergillus carbonarius

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, A.; Bruno, K. S.; Solfrizzo, M.; Perrone, G.; Mule, G.; Visconti, A.; Baker, S. E.

    2012-09-14

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine and its biosynthetic pathway has not yet been completely elucidated. Most of the knowledge regarding the genetic and enzymatic aspects of OTA biosynthesis has been obtained in Penicillium species. In Aspergillus species only pks genes involved in the initial steps of the pathway have been partially characterized. In our study, the inactivation of a gene encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase in OTA producing A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 has removed the ability of the fungus to produce OTA. This is the first report on the involvement of an nrps gene product in OTA biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus species. The absence of OTA and ochratoxin α-the isocoumaric derivative of OTA, and the concomitant increase of ochratoxin β- the dechloro analog of ochratoxin α- were observed in the liquid culture of transformed strain. The data provide the first evidence that the enzymatic step adding phenylalanine to polyketide dihydroisocoumarin precedes the chlorination step to form OTA in A. carbonarius, and that ochratoxin α is a product of hydrolysis of OTA, giving an interesting new insight in the biosynthetic pathway of the toxin.

  3. Food-grade antioxidants and antimicrobials to control growth and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus section Nigri on peanut kernels.

    PubMed

    Barberis, C L; Astoreca, A L; Dalcero, A M; Magnoli, C E

    2010-08-01

    Each year, a significant portion of the peanuts produced cannot be marketed because of fungal disease at the postharvest stage and mycotoxin contamination. Antioxidants could be used as an alternative to fungicides to control ochratoxigenic fungi in peanuts during storage. This study was carried out to determine the effect of the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and the antimicrobial propyl paraben (PP) on the lag phase before growth, growth rate, and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus section Nigri strains in peanut kernels under different conditions of water activity (aw) and temperature. At 20 mM/g BHA, 18 degrees C, and 0.93 aw, complete inhibition of growth occurred. For PP, there was no growth at 20 mM/g, 18 degrees C, and 0.93, 0.95, and 0.98 aw. BHA at 20 mM/g inhibited OTA production in peanuts by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger aggregate strains at 0.93 aw and 18 degrees C. PP at 20 mM/g completely inhibited OTA production at 18 degrees C. The results of this work suggest that PP is more appropriate than BHA for controlling growth and OTA production by Aspergillus section Nigri species in peanut kernels.

  4. Disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Maurizio; Brandi, Giorgio; De Santi, Mauro; Rinaldi, Laura; Schiavano, Giuditta F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans strains. A. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. Under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. In this case, A. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete inactivation). All Aspergillus spp. were insensitive to 10 ppm even with extended exposure (>5 h). The combination of chlorine and peracetic acid against Aspergillus spp. did not show synergistic effects except in the case of A. flavus. Complete growth inhibition of C. albicans was observed after about 3 h contact time with 0.2 ppm. C. albicans was less sensitive to peracetic acid. Hence the concentrations of chlorine that are usually present in drinking water distribution systems are ineffective against several Aspergillus spp. and peracetic acid cannot be considered an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting drinking water. The combination of the two biocides is not very effective in eliminating filamentous fungi at the concentrations permitted for drinking water disinfection.

  5. Assessment of mycoflora and infestation of insects, vector of Aspergillus section Flavi, in stored peanut from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Andrea; Montemarani, Analía; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of spoilage fungi and Aspergillus section Flavi populations, the aflatoxins incidence, the role of insects as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi and the AFs-producing ability of the isolated species throughout the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) storage period were evaluated. Analyses of fungal populations from 95 peanut seed samples did not demonstrate significant differences between the incidences in each sampling period. Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated during all incubation periods. Cryptolestes spp. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) were collected in August, September and October with 18, 16 and 28% of peanut samples contaminated, respectively. Insects isolated during August showed 69% of Aspergillus section Flavi contamination. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated (79%) from peanut seeds and from insect (59%). The greater levels of AFB1 were detected in September and October with a mean of 68.86 μg/kg and 69.12 μg/kg respectively. The highest proportion of A. flavus toxigenic strains (87.5%) was obtained in June. The presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and insect vectors of aflatoxigenic fungi presented a potential risk for aflatoxin production during the peanut storage period. Integrated management of fungi and insect vectors is in progress.

  6. Aspergillus terreus recovered from a corneal scraping.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A 52 year old, healthy male presented to his optometrist complaining of redness and irritation in the right eye. A foreign body was removed from the eye. The patient was started on ophthalmic solutions of vigamox and systane. At 48 hours, the patient reported increased redness, limited vision, and yellow discharge from the eye. The patient was referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Physical assessment revealed a superlative central infiltrate (extreme, centrally located injury that had permeated the cornea), diffuse corneal haze, and edema with a 3- to 4+ conjunctival injection and a 1 millimeter hypopyon (an effusion of pus into the anterior chamber of the eye). Corneal scrapings were collected for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. The patient was then prescribed. vancomycin, tobramycin, and natamycin ophthalmic eyedrops. On day three, fungal culture results indicated possible fungal forms seen. On day 12, results from the fungal culture of the corneal scraping revealed the causative agent to be Aspergillus terreus. Voriconazole eyedrops were added to the treatment regimen and continued for 10 weeks. The physician order for a fungal culture as well as laboratory data providing the final identification of Aspergillus terreus and laboratory comments indicating an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (> 2 microg/mL) to amphotericin B is associated with treatment failure positively impacted the patient outcome. After completion of the treatment regimen, a photo-therapeutic keratectomy (PTK) was performed in an attempt to remove the dense corneal scarring caused by the fungal infection.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus flavus reveals veA-dependent regulation of secondary metabolite gene clusters, including the novel aflavarin cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global regulatory veA gene governs development and secondary metabolism in numerous fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus. This is especially relevant since A. flavus infects crops of agricultural importance worldwide, contaminating them with potent mycotoxins. The most well-known are afl...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus flavus reveals isolate specific gene profiles in the response to oxidative stresses and carbon sources in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of peanut and maize is exacerbated by drought stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in host plants during drought/heat stress, and are hypothesized to stimulate aflatoxin production. In order to better understand why Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin and the ...

  9. Correlation of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B2 Production and Presence of the Fumonisin Biosynthetic Gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins associated with cancer and several other serious diseases in humans and animals. Production of the mycotoxins has been reported for over two decades in Fusarium species, but has been reported only recently in strains of Aspergillus niger. In addition, a homologue of the f...

  10. [Aspergillus infection in skin transplantation and its therapy].

    PubMed

    Bauer, U; Staib, F; Hasse, W

    1975-06-01

    In a 10 years old girl sustaining a corrosive injury of the lower leg from sulphuric acid, in the region of a skin transplantation colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenium) and Aspergillus niger (van Tieghem) took place. This infection endangered the attempt of transplantation and the saving of the foot. Treatment by medication with nystatin (moronal) and canesten (clotrimazol) were ineffective. Pimaricin (pimafucin, natamycin) quickly erradicated the mycotic infection and secured an undisturbed progress for the transplantation. Additionally the epidemiology of infections by Aspergillus is briefly discussed.

  11. Novel and sensitive qPCR assays for the detection and identification of aspergillosis causing species.

    PubMed

    Paholcsek, Melinda; Leiter, Eva; Markovics, Arnold; Biró, Sándor

    2014-09-01

    Despite concerted efforts, diagnosis of aspergillosis is still a great challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. Along with the requirement for high sensitivity and specificity, species-specific identification is important. We developed rapid, sensitive and species-specific qPCR assays using the TaqMan technology for the detection and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus. The assays were designed to target orthologs of the Streptomyces factor C gene that are only found in a few species of filamentous fungi. Fungi acquired this gene through horizontal gene transfer and divergence of the gene allows identification of species. The assays have potential as a molecular diagnosis tool for the early detection of fungal infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus, which merits future diagnostic studies. The assays were sensitive enough to detect a few genomic equivalents in blood samples.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  13. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius

    DOE PAGES

    Cabañes, F. Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; ...

    2015-03-13

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5 Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36 Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involvedmore » in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis.« less

  14. Azole drug import into the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Brooke D; Smith, Adam R; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious illness and often death when it invades tissues, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The azole class of drugs is the most commonly prescribed treatment for many fungal infections and acts on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. One common mechanism of acquired azole drug resistance in fungi is the prevention of drug accumulation to toxic levels in the cell. While drug efflux is a well-known resistance strategy, reduced azole import would be another strategy to maintain low intracellular azole levels. Recently, azole uptake in Candida albicans and other yeasts was analyzed using [(3)H]fluconazole. Defective drug import was suggested to be a potential mechanism of drug resistance in several pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida krusei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have adapted and developed an assay to measure azole accumulation in A. fumigatus using radioactively labeled azole drugs, based on previous work done with C. albicans. We used this assay to study the differences in azole uptake in A. fumigatus isolates under a variety of drug treatment conditions, with different morphologies and with a select mutant strain with deficiencies in the sterol uptake and biosynthesis pathway. We conclude that azole drugs are specifically selected and imported into the fungal cell by a pH- and ATP-independent facilitated diffusion mechanism, not by passive diffusion. This method of drug transport is likely to be conserved across most fungal species.

  15. Safety evaluation of a lipase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Greenough, R J; Perry, C J; Stavnsbjerg, M

    1996-02-01

    A programme of studies was conducted to establish the safety of a lipase artificially expressed in Aspergillus oryzae to be used in the detergent industry and as a processing aid in the baking industry. Laboratory animal studies were used to assess general and inhalation toxicity, skin sensitization, and skin and eye irritation. Its potential to cause mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations was assessed in microbial and tissue culture in vitro studies. The pathogenicity of A. oryzae, the organism used to produce the lipase, was also assessed in laboratory animals. Basic ecotoxicity in a variety of test species was studied. General and inhalation toxicity was low. There was evidence of mild skin irritation. There was no evidence of eye irritation, skin sensitization, mutagenic potential, chromosomal aberrations, exotoxicity or notable pathogenicity. Comparison of these results with human exposure levels and previously published data indicates that the lipase appears safe for consumers in the given applications, requires no special occupational health precautions in manufacture and is of low environmental impact. Furthermore, the organism used in production of the lipase hs no notable pathogenicity.

  16. L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

    1982-01-01

    Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracellular medium. The use of histidine as a nitrogen source is regulated by nitrogen metabolite repression control of histidase synthesis. In addition, evidence for a requirement for a carbon source for histidase synthesis and for a minor form of control by nitrate is presented. The activity of the histidase enzyme is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the product urocanate and by physiological levels of L-glutamate and L-glutamine. PMID:6120926

  17. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security.

  18. An essential tyrosine residue of Aspergillus polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Stratilová, E; Dzúrová, M; Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1996-03-11

    Based on strict conservation of a tyrosine residue in 24 polygalacturonases, tyrosine modification was assessed in two different forms of the Aspergillus enzyme. The second subform was unknown in structure but submitted to sequence analysis and was found also to have the conserved tyrosine residue. Results of chemical modifications are consistent in showing inactivation of the proteins with all tyrosine-reactive agents tested, acetic anhydride, N-acetyl imidazole, and tetranitromethane. Furthermore, after acetylation, regeneration of enzyme activity was possible with hydroxylamine. Spectrophotometric pH titration showed that one accessible tyrosine residue is ionized at pH 9.3-9.5, whereas the remaining, masked residues are all ionized at pH 10.5. It is concluded that one tyrosine residue is catalytically important, in agreement with the inactivation and reactivation data, that this residue is accessible, and that it is likely to correspond to the strictly conserved residue observed in all forms.

  19. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  20. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs. PMID:27293296

  1. Identification and characterization of the polyketide synthase involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus carbonarius

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Antonia; Knox, Benjamin P.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Solfrizzo, Michele; Baker, Scott E.; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2014-06-02

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and is a common contaminant of a wide variety of food commodities, with Aspergillus carbonarius being the main producer of OTA contamination in grapes and wine. The molecular structure of OTA is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine and, as shown in different producing fungal species, a polyketide synthase (PKS) is a component of the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Similar to observations in other filamentous ascomycetes, the genome sequence of A. carbonarius contains a large number of genes predicted to encode PKSs. In this work a pks gene identified within the putative OTA cluster of A. carbonarius, designated as AcOTApks, was inactivated and the resulting mutant strain was unable to produce OTA, confirming the role of AcOTApks in this biosynthetic pathway. AcOTApks protein is characteristic of the highly reduced (HR)-PKS family, and also contains a putative methyltransferase domain likely responsible for the addition of the methyl group to the OTA polyketide structure. AcOTApks is different from the ACpks protein that we previously described which showed an expression profile compatible with OTA production. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the β-ketosynthase and acyl-transferase domains of the OTA PKSs which had been identified and characterized in different OTA producing fungal species. The phylogenetic results were similar for both the two domains analyzed and showed that OTA PKS of A. carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus clustered in a monophyletic group with 100% bootstrap support suggesting a common origin, while the other OTA PKSs analyzed were phylogenetically distant. A qRT-PCR assay monitored AcOTApks expression during fungal growth and concomitant production of OTA by A. carbonarius in synthetic grape medium. A clear correlation between the expression profile of AcOTApks and kinetics of OTA production was observed with

  2. Optimization of a biological process for treating potato chips industry wastewater using a mixed culture of Aspergillus foetidus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mishra, B K; Arora, Anju; Lata

    2004-08-01

    Potato chips industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total carbohydrates. Two Aspergillus species, A. foetidus and A. niger, were evaluated for their ability to grow and produce biomass and reduce the organic load of the wastewater. A. foetidus MTCC 508 and A. niger ITCC 2012 were able to reduce COD by about 60% and produce biomass 2.4 and 2.85 gl(-1), respectively. Co-inoculation of both Aspergillus strains resulted in increased fungal biomass production and higher COD reduction than in individual culture at different culture pH. pH 6 was optimum for biomass production and COD reduction. Amendment of the wastewater with different N and P sources, increased the biomass production and COD reduction substantially. Under standardized conditions of pH 6 and amendment of wastewater with 0.1% KH2PO4 and 0.1% (NH4)2 SO4, a mixed culture gave 90% reduction in COD within 60 h of incubation.

  3. Identification of two aflatrem biosynthesis gene loci in Aspergillus flavus and metabolic engineering of Penicillium paxilli to elucidate their function.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Matthew J; Koulman, Albert; Monahan, Brendon J; Pritchard, Beth L; Payne, Gary A; Scott, Barry

    2009-12-01

    Aflatrem is a potent tremorgenic toxin produced by the soil fungus Aspergillus flavus, and a member of a structurally diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites known as indole-diterpenes. Gene clusters for indole-diterpene biosynthesis have recently been described in several species of filamentous fungi. A search of Aspergillus complete genome sequence data identified putative aflatrem gene clusters in the genomes of A. flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. In both species the genes for aflatrem biosynthesis cluster at two discrete loci; the first, ATM1, is telomere proximal on chromosome 5 and contains a cluster of three genes, atmG, atmC, and atmM, and the second, ATM2, is telomere distal on chromosome 7 and contains five genes, atmD, atmQ, atmB, atmA, and atmP. Reverse transcriptase PCR in A. flavus demonstrated that aflatrem biosynthesis transcript levels increased with the onset of aflatrem production. Transfer of atmP and atmQ into Penicillium paxilli paxP and paxQ deletion mutants, known to accumulate paxilline intermediates paspaline and 13-desoxypaxilline, respectively, showed that AtmP is a functional homolog of PaxP and that AtmQ utilizes 13-desoxypaxilline as a substrate to synthesize aflatrem pathway-specific intermediates, paspalicine and paspalinine. We propose a scheme for aflatrem biosynthesis in A. flavus based on these reconstitution experiments in P. paxilli and identification of putative intermediates in wild-type cultures of A. flavus.

  4. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus in patients with various clinical presentations of aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Drira, Inès; Trabelsi, Houwaida; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2013-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species associated with aspergillosis and the incidence of infections caused by it are increasing in the immunocompromised population. This species is of major epidemiological importance in regions with a dry and hot climate. Despite the growing clinical significance of A. flavus, data on its molecular epidemiology are scarce. This study was aimed at examining whether isolates from distinct genotypes were involved in distinct clinical forms of aspergillosis. Sixty-three clinical isolates of A. flavus recovered from 35 patients with various clinical presentations of aspergillosis were characterized by microsatellite typing. The highest discriminatory power for a single locus was obtained with the AFLA1 marker, which had 14 distinct alleles and a 0.903 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded 48 different genotypes with a 0.994 D value. There was a considerable genetic diversity in the isolates and patients with invasive aspergillosis were usually colonized by multiples genotypes. There was no evidence that a given genotype was associated with a particular clinical presentation of A. flavus aspergillosis. The occurrence of more than one genotype in clinical samples indicates that a patient may be infected by multiple genotypes and that any particular isolate from a clinical specimen may not necessarily be the one causing aspergillosis.

  5. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of New Coumarin Derivative, 7-Hydroxy-6-nitro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; de Araújo, Rodrigo Santos Aquino; de Sousa, Janiere Pereira; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Mendonça-Junior, Francisco J. B.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. produce a wide variety of diseases. For the treatment of such infections, the azoles and Amphotericin B are used in various formulations. The treatment of fungal diseases is often ineffective, because of increases in azole resistance and their several associated adverse effects. To overcome these problems, natural products and their derivatives are interesting alternatives. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of coumarin derivative, 7-hydroxy-6-nitro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Cou-NO2), both alone and with antifungal drugs. Its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-NO2 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth and germination of fungal conidia of Aspergillus spp. We also investigated possible Cou-NO2 action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol) and on Cou-NO2 to ergosterol binding in the cell membrane. The study shows that Cou-NO2 is capable of inhibiting both the mycelia growth and germination of conidia for the species tested, and that its action affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. At subinhibitory concentration, Cou-NO2 enhanced the in vitro effects of azoles. Moreover, in combination with azoles (voriconazole and itraconazole) Cou-NO2 displays an additive effect. Thus, our study supports the use of coumarin derivative 7-hydroxy-6-nitro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one as an antifungal agent against Aspergillus species. PMID:26175794

  6. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  7. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  8. Disseminated aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus ustus in a patient following allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Iwen, P C; Rupp, M E; Bishop, M R; Rinaldi, M G; Sutton, D A; Tarantolo, S; Hinrichs, S H

    1998-12-01

    The first case of disseminated aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus ustus in an allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplant patient is described. The patient, a 46-year-old female with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome, underwent high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation prior to transplantation. She was released from the hospital 49 days posttransplant (p.t.) in a stable condition with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 2,700 cells per microl. Multiple antimicrobial agents, including itraconazole (ITR), were prescribed during hospitalization and at the time of discharge. Three days after discharge, the patient was readmitted with hemorrhagic cystitis, persistent thrombocytopenia, and bilateral pulmonary consolidation, although no fever was present. The ANC at the time of readmission was 3,500. Upon detection of a pulmonary nodule (day 67 p.t.), a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed; the lavage fluid was positive for both cytomegalovirus and parainfluenza virus and negative for fungus. The patient was placed on ganciclovir. A biopsy specimen from a leg lesion also noted on day 67 p.t. revealed septate hyphae consistent with Aspergillus species, and a culture subsequently yielded Aspergillus ustus. Confirmation detection of A. ustus was made by demonstration of characteristic reproductive structures with the presence of Hülle cells. On day 67 p.t., ITR was discontinued and liposomal amphotericin B (AMB) was initiated. The patient's condition worsened, and she died 79 days p.t. At the time of autopsy, septate hyphae were present in heart, thyroid, and lung tissues, with lung tissue culture positive for A. ustus. In vitro susceptibility testing indicated probable resistance to AMB but not to ITR. This case supports the need for the development of rapid methods to determine antifungal susceptibility.

  9. Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans ( Gorgonia ventalina): is Aspergillus sydowii always the pathogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.

    2008-09-01

    Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an

  10. Genome mining and functional genomics for siderophore production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Franken, Angelique C W; Lechner, Beatrix E; Werner, Ernst R; Haas, Hubertus; Lokman, B Christien; Ram, Arthur F J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; de Weert, Sandra; Punt, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    Iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. Simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. Consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. In most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. Siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. A second high-affinity iron uptake mechanism is reductive iron assimilation (RIA). As shown in Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans, synthesis of siderophores in Aspergilli is predominantly under control of the transcription factors SreA and HapX, which are connected by a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Abolishing this fine-tuned regulation corroborates iron homeostasis, including heme biosynthesis, which could be biotechnologically of interest, e.g. the heterologous production of heme-dependent peroxidases. Aspergillus niger genome inspection identified orthologues of several genes relevant for RIA and siderophore metabolism, as well as sreA and hapX. Interestingly, genes related to synthesis of the common fungal extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C were absent. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the absence of triacetylfusarinine C, and demonstrated that the major secreted siderophores of A. niger are coprogen B and ferrichrome, which is also the dominant intracellular siderophore. In A. niger wild type grown under iron-replete conditions, the expression of genes involved in coprogen biosynthesis and RIA was low in the exponential growth phase but significantly induced during ascospore germination. Deletion of sreA in A. niger resulted in elevated iron uptake and increased cellular ferrichrome accumulation. Increased sensitivity toward phleomycin and high iron concentration reflected the toxic effects of excessive

  11. Ochratoxin production and taxonomy of the yellow aspergilli (Aspergillus section Circumdati)

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Varga, J.; Houbraken, J.; Meijer, M.; Kocsubé, S.; Yilmaz, N.; Fotedar, R.; Seifert, K.A.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati or the Aspergillus ochraceus group, includes species with rough walled stipes, biseriate conidial heads, yellow to ochre conidia and sclerotia that do not turn black. Several species are able to produce mycotoxins including ochratoxins, penicillic acids, and xanthomegnins. Some species also produce drug lead candidates such as the notoamides. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. Based on this approach the section Circumdati is revised and 27 species are accepted, introducing seven new species: A. occultus, A. pallidofulvus, A. pulvericola, A. salwaensis, A. sesamicola, A. subramanianii and A. westlandensis. In addition we correctly apply the name A. fresenii (≡ A. sulphureus (nom. illeg.)). A guide for the identification of these 27 species is provided. These new species can be distinguished from others based on morphological characters, sequence data and extrolite profiles. The previously described A. onikii and A. petrakii were found to be conspecific with A. ochraceus, whilst A. flocculosus is tentatively synonymised with A. ochraceopetaliformis, despite extrolite differences between the two species. Based on the extrolite data, 13 species of section Circumdati produce large amounts of ochratoxin A: A. affinis, A. cretensis, A. fresenii, A. muricatus, A. occultus, A. ochraceopetaliformis (A. flocculosus), A. ochraceus, A. pseudoelegans, A. pulvericola, A. roseoglobulosus, A. sclerotiorum, A. steynii and A. westerdijkiae. Seven additional species produce ochratoxin A inconsistently and/or in trace amounts: A. melleus, A. ostianus, A. persii, A. salwaensis, A. sesamicola, A. subramanianii and A. westlandensis. The most important species regarding potential ochratoxin A contamination in agricultural products are A. ochraceus, A

  12. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography. This volatile fraction comprises 428 putatively identified compounds distributed over several chemical families, being the major ones hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ketones and aldehydes. These metabolites may be related with different metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids, degradation of aromatic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenoid synthesis and carotenoid cleavage. The A. niger molecular biomarkers pattern was established, comprising the 44 metabolites present in all studied conditions. This pattern was successfully used to distinguish A. niger from other fungi (Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum) with 3 days of growth by using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). In addition, PLS-DA-Variable Importance in Projection was applied to highlight the metabolites playing major roles in fungi distinction; decreasing the initial dataset to only 16 metabolites. The data pre-processing time was substantially reduced, and an improvement of quality-of-fit value was achieved. This study goes a step further on A. niger metabolome construction and A. niger future detection may be proposed based on this molecular biomarkers pattern. PMID:27264696

  13. Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartmańska, Agnieszka; Popłoński, Jarosław; Huszcza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4″,5″:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4″,5″:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2″S)-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4″,5″:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2″R)-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4″,5″:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid.

  14. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

  15. Confocal microscopy of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Avunduk, A M; Beuerman, R W; Varnell, E D; Kaufman, H E

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To use a confocal microscope to characterise the treated and untreated courses of fungal keratitis. Methods: In the first experiment, Aspergillus fumigatus stromal keratitis was produced in both eyes of seven New Zealand white rabbits. In the second experiment, keratitis was induced in right eyes of 20 rabbits. Group 1 rabbits were treated with topical fluconazole, group 2 rabbits received oral fluconazole, and group 3 rabbits were used as controls. The rabbits were examined with a slit lamp and confocal microscope 2, 6, 10, 14, and 20 days after inoculation. The corneal cultures were taken on days 2, 14, and 20 and biopsies were taken on days 2 and 22. Results: On days 14 and 22 confocal microscopy was more sensitive than culture technique in both treated and untreated animals, since not all cases of fungal keratitis can be cultured. Conclusion: This study indicates that confocal microscopy is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for both the early diagnosis and non-invasive follow up of fungal keratitis PMID:12642300

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of variability in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Rinyu, E; Varga, J; Ferenczy, L

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-one isolates and collection strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were compared for their phenotypic (morphological features and isoenzyme profiles) and genotypic (restriction enzyme-generated mitochondrial DNA and ribosomal DNA profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns) features. The examined strains exhibited highly variable colony morphologies and growth rates at different temperatures, but their micromorphologies and conidial diameters were characteristic of the species. Of the isoenzymes studied, the beta-arylesterase and phosphatase patterns were the most divergent, and the 61 strains could be classified into seven groups. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase isoenzyme patterns displayed only a limited variability, while the profiles of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase were highly conserved. The HaeIII-generated mitochondrial DNA patterns and SmaI-digested repetitive DNA and ribosomal DNA hybridization patterns of almost all strains were also invariable. The level of variation was much higher when random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was applied. Although the patterns of the strains were very similar with most of the primers, the application of some primers made it possible to cluster the A. fumigatus isolates into several groups. The results indicate that the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique could be used more efficiently than isoenzyme analysis for typing A. fumigatus isolates. A good correlation was found between the dendrograms obtained from the isoenzyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA data, but the isoenzyme and amplified DNA patterns did not correlate with the pathogenicity, pigment production, or geographical origin of the strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567884

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus Photobiology Illuminates the Marked Heterogeneity between Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Kevin K.; Cramer, Robert A.; Zegans, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The given strain of Aspergillus fumigatus under study varies across laboratories, ranging from a few widely used “standards,” e.g., Af293 or CEA10, to locally acquired isolates that may be unique to one investigator. Since experiments concerning physiology or gene function are seldom replicated by others, i.e., in a different A. fumigatus background, the extent to which behavioral heterogeneity exists within the species is poorly understood. As a proxy for assessing such intraspecies variability, we analyzed the light response of 15 A. fumigatus isolates and observed striking quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity among them. The majority of the isolates fell into one of two seemingly mutually exclusive groups: (i) “photopigmenters” that robustly accumulate hyphal melanin in the light and (ii) “photoconidiators” that induce sporulation in the light. These two distinct responses were both governed by the same upstream blue light receptor, LreA, indicating that a specific protein’s contribution can vary in a strain-dependent manner. Indeed, while LreA played no apparent role in regulating cell wall homeostasis in strain Af293, it was essential in that regard in strain CEA10. The manifest heterogeneity in the photoresponses led us to compare the virulence levels of selected isolates in a murine model; remarkably, the virulence did vary greatly, although not in a manner that correlated with their overt light response. Taken together, these data highlight the extent to which isolates of A. fumigatus can vary, with respect to both broad physiological characteristics (e.g., virulence and photoresponse) and specific protein functionality (e.g., LreA-dependent phenotypes). PMID:27651362

  18. How Peroxisomes Affect Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Flavus

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Smith, Carrie A.; Zjalic, Slaven; Scarpari, Marzia; Scala, Valeria; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Pinzari, Flavia; Payne, Gary A.; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived), an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins) enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:23094106

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma

    2017-01-01

     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  20. Non-Aspergillus fungal infections in chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Dotis, John; Pana, Zoe Dorothea; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital immunodeficiency, characterised by significant infections due to an inability of phagocyte to kill catalase-positive organisms including certain fungi such as Aspergillus spp. Nevertheless, other more rare fungi can cause significant diseases. This report is a systematic review of all published cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in CGD patients. Analysis of 68 cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in 65 CGD patients (10 females) published in the English literature. The median age of CGD patients was 15.2 years (range 0.1-69), 60% of whom had the X-linked recessive defect. The most prevalent non-Aspergillus fungal infections were associated with Rhizopus spp. and Trichosporon spp. found in nine cases each (13.2%). The most commonly affected organs were the lungs in 69.9%. In 63.2% of cases first line antifungal treatment was monotherapy, with amphotericin B formulations being the most frequently used antifungal agents in 45.6% of cases. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Clinicians should take into account the occurrence of non-Aspergillus infections in this patient group, as well as the possibility of a changing epidemiology in fungal pathogens. Better awareness and knowledge of these pathogens can optimise antifungal treatment and improve outcome in CGD patients.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  2. Comparative Genomics of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae: An Early View

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxins and is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus oryzae, on the other hand, has been used for centuries in Japan for the fermentation of food. The recently available whole genome sequences of Aspergillus flavus an...

  3. Colonization of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration by Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Zambudio, Ríos A; Calvo, Roca M J; García, Polo L A; Lanzas, J Torres; Paricio, P Panilla

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus that usually colonizes preexisting lung cavities, especially tuberculous ones. Colonization of a pulmonary sequestration by this germ is exceptional, with just 14 cases reported in the world literature, most of them in Asia. A case is presented of a 48-year-old woman with pleuritic thoracic pain. Simple chest radiology revealed a lower right pulmonary tumor with clear margins and a calcium-type density. CT showed it to correspond to a 6 x 5-cm hypodense mass, which was enhanced at the periphery with intravenous contrast. Aspiration puncture yielded a greenish-yellow pus and the microscopic study strongly suggested Aspergillus, confirmed by culture as Aspergillus fumigatus. Surgery revealed an infected pulmonary sequestration at the lower right lobe, and a lobectomy was performed.

  4. Biosorption potency of Aspergillus niger for removal of chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and effluent of leather tanning mills had higher activity to remove chromium. The potency of Aspergillus niger was evaluated in shake flask culture by absorption of chromium at pH 6 and temperature 30 degrees C. The results of the study indicated removal of more than 75% chromium by Aspergillus niger determined by diphenylcarbazide colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry after 7 days. Study of microbial Cr(VI) reduction and identification of reduction intermediates has been hindered by the lack of analytical techniques that can identify the oxidation state with subcellular spatial resolution. Therefore, removal of chromium was further substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium.

  5. Mechanism of uptake of strontium isotopes in aspergillus lesions.

    PubMed

    Rawal, B D; Adiseshan, N

    1976-03-01

    Observations on experimental aspergillosis of chorioallantoic membranes confirmed that strontium-85 uptake in aspergillus lesions was directly due to infection by the fungus. Such uptake was not found in normal or in Toxoplasma gondii-infected control membranes. Further, the avidity of radionuclide uptake was proportional to the mycelial mass, as previously observed clinically. Investigations on 85Sr containing malt extract broth Aspergillus fumigatus cultures revealed that fungal hyphas did not contain the major proportion of radioactivity, but culture filtrates did, and suggested that a fungal metabolite may be responsible for radiostrontium binding. Subsequent radiochromatography of filtrates obtained from A. fumigatus cultures confirmed the existence of such a metabolite. Several clinical and laboratory observations support the concept that an aspergillus metabolite at foci of infection binds 85Sr and 87mSr.

  6. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  7. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Natalie C.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Little, Dustin J.; Lee, Mark J.; Zacharias, Caitlin A.; Chabot, Josée C.; Geller, Alexander M.; Baptista, Stefanie D.; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P. Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135. PMID:26342082

  8. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives.

  9. Soybean hull induced production of carbohydrases and protease among Aspergillus and their effectiveness in soy flour carbohydrate and protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Coffman, Anthony M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-03-15

    Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A. foetidus, A. phoenicis and 11 A. niger strains were examined together with T. reesei Rut C30, another known carbohydrase producer. The carbohydrases evaluated included pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, cellulase, α-galactosidase and sucrase. Growth morphology and pH profiles were also followed. Among Aspergillus strains, morphology was found to correlate with both carbohydrase production and pH decrease profile. Filamentous strains gave higher carbohydrase production while causing slower pH decrease. The enzyme broths produced were also tested for separation of soy flour carbohydrate and protein. Defatted soy flour contains about 53% protein and 32% carbohydrate. The enzymatic treatment can increase protein content and remove indigestible oligo-/poly-saccharides, and improve use of soy flour in feed and food. Protease production by different strains was therefore also compared for minimizing protein degradation. A. niger NRRL 322 and A. foetidus NRRL 341 were found to be the most potent strains that produced maximal carbohydrases and minimal protease under soybean hull induction.

  10. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro.

  11. Functional Analysis of Sterol Transporter Orthologues in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Nicole; Hagiwara, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Polarized growth in filamentous fungi needs a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the growing hyphal tip. One of the important membrane compounds in fungi is ergosterol. At the apical plasma membrane ergosterol accumulations, which are called sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (SRDs). The exact roles and formation mechanism of the SRDs remained unclear, although the importance has been recognized for hyphal growth. Transport of ergosterol to hyphal tips is thought to be important for the organization of the SRDs. Oxysterol binding proteins, which are conserved from yeast to human, are involved in nonvesicular sterol transport. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae seven oxysterol-binding protein homologues (OSH1 to -7) play a role in ergosterol distribution between closely located membranes independent of vesicle transport. We found five homologous genes (oshA to oshE) in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans. The functions of OshA-E were characterized by gene deletion and subcellular localization. Each gene-deletion strain showed characteristic phenotypes and different sensitivities to ergosterol-associated drugs. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Osh proteins showed specific localization in the late Golgi compartments, puncta associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, or diffusely in the cytoplasm. The genes expression and regulation were investigated in a medically important species Aspergillus fumigatus, as well as A. nidulans. Our results suggest that each Osh protein plays a role in ergosterol distribution at distinct sites and contributes to proper fungal growth. PMID:26116213

  12. Trailing or paradoxical growth of Aspergillus flavus exposed to caspofungin is independent of genotype.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali; Elloumi, Moez; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    There are limited data on in vitro susceptibility testing of echinocandins against Aspergillus species. The objective of this study was to describe the phenotypes of Aspergillus flavus observed on exposure to caspofungin in vitro and to test whether these phenotypes were associated with A. flavus genotypes. The caspofungin MICs of 37 A. flavus clinical isolates collected from 14 patients with invasive aspergillosis were determined using Etest assays. Caspofungin MICs ranged from 0.012 to 0.064 mg l(-1); the modal MIC was 0.023 mg l(-1) and the MIC₅₀ and MIC₉₀ were 0.032 and 0.064 mg l(-1), respectively. A clear end point was noted in 24 (65 %) isolates, whereas seven (19 %) displayed a trailing effect and six (16 %) showed paradoxical growth when exposed to caspofungin. In these A. flavus isolates, the absence of a significant population structure or genetic differentiation indicated that trailing or paradoxical growth phenotypes were independent of microsatellite genotype.

  13. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Osherov, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia) into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just “innocent bystanders” or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome. PMID:23055997

  14. Functional Analysis of the Nitrogen Metabolite Repression Regulator Gene nmrA in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyun; Qiu, Mengguang; Wang, Bin; Yin, Wen-Bing; Nie, Xinyi; Qin, Qiuping; Ren, Silin; Yang, Kunlong; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in A. flavus has not been previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif. Deletion of nmrA slowed the growth of A. flavus but significantly increased conidiation and sclerotia production. Moreover, seed infection experiments indicated that nmrA is required for the invasive virulence of A. flavus. In addition, the ΔnmrA mutant showed increased sensitivity to rapamycin and methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting that nmrA could be responsive to target of rapamycin signaling and DNA damage. Furthermore, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that nmrA might interact with other nitrogen regulatory and catabolic genes. Our study provides a better understanding of NMR and the nitrogen metabolism network in fungi.

  15. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Nitrogen Metabolite Repression Regulator Gene nmrA in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaoyun; Qiu, Mengguang; Wang, Bin; Yin, Wen-Bing; Nie, Xinyi; Qin, Qiuping; Ren, Silin; Yang, Kunlong; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in A. flavus has not been previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif. Deletion of nmrA slowed the growth of A. flavus but significantly increased conidiation and sclerotia production. Moreover, seed infection experiments indicated that nmrA is required for the invasive virulence of A. flavus. In addition, the ΔnmrA mutant showed increased sensitivity to rapamycin and methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting that nmrA could be responsive to target of rapamycin signaling and DNA damage. Furthermore, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that nmrA might interact with other nitrogen regulatory and catabolic genes. Our study provides a better understanding of NMR and the nitrogen metabolism network in fungi. PMID:27933036

  17. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B1, B2, G1 and G2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB1, B2, G1 and G2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. PMID:28077976

  18. Deletion of afpab1 Causes Increased Sensitivity to Oxidative Stress and Hypovirulence in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Shunan; He, Dan; Gao, Song; Xue, Baiji; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus AFPAB1 is the ortholog of the Aspergillus oryzae cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein granules AOPAB1 that function to depress the initiation of translation during stress. A. fumigatus can regulate its cellular physiology in response to environmental stresses, but there has been no research on Pab1 in A. fumigatus. The associated gene afpab1 was replaced with a hygromycin-selectable marker to generate the strain Δafpab1. Phenotypic analysis showed that the Δafpab1 grew more weakly than the wild-type strain. Also the germination rate of Δafpab1 was decreased when exposed to oxidative stress. The morphology of Δafpab1 spores also showed great changes. The killing rate of Δafpab1 by RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells was increased, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability of Δafpab1 was decreased. Pathogenicity testing showed that the deletion strain had decreased virulence. Therefore, we conclude that afpab1 activity is correlated with susceptibility to oxidative stress, and deletion of afpab1 from A. fumigatus possibly leads to observed hypovirulence in an immunosuppressed mouse model. PMID:27801871

  19. Engineering Aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.

    PubMed

    Bromann, Kirsi; Toivari, Mervi; Viljanen, Kaarina; Ruohonen, Laura; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina

    2016-07-01

    Terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. The chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. Here, we studied Aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. Previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in A. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcription factor (pbcR) led to ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene (PD) production. We report further characterization of the A. nidulans PD synthase gene (pbcA). In A. nidulans, overexpression of pbcA resulted in PD production, while deletion of pbcA abolished PD production. Overexpression of Fusarium fujikuroi ent-kaurene synthase (cps/ks) and Citrus unshiu gamma-terpinene synthase resulted in ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production, respectively. A. nidulans is a fungal model organism and a close relative to other industrially relevant Aspergillus species. A. nidulans is a known producer of many secondary metabolites, but its ability to produce heterologous monoterpene and diterpene compounds has not been characterized. Here, we show that A. nidulans is capable of heterologous terpene production and thus has potential as a production host for industrially relevant compounds. The genetic engineering principles reported here could also be applied to other Aspergilli.

  20. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-03-15

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation.

  1. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  2. Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries.

    PubMed

    Joosten, H M; Goetz, J; Pittet, A; Schellenberg, M; Bucheli, P

    2001-04-11

    Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On gamma-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 microg kg(-1) of toxin were detected under optimal conditions (25 degrees C, a(w) 0.99). OA production was strongly reduced (230 microg kg(-1)) at an a(w) of 0.94.

  3. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  4. Performance evaluation of multiplex PCR including Aspergillus-not so simple!

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex PCRs have been designed for including species other than Aspergillus fumigatus for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, such as microarrays, liquid-phase array, and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI MS). These methods are based on the selection of multiple primers to amplify different species with the specificity checked by hybridization to a probe or by base composition of the amplicon for the PCR/ESI MS. When testing complex samples such as respiratory specimens, some clinically relevant species can be missed. Indeed, it is impossible to design primers able to amplify all the known fungal species with the same efficiency. Therefore, the best amplified species may not be the most clinically relevant. Multiplex assays have also been proposed to detect A. fumigatus DNA and azole resistance. Since the gene responsible for azole resistance is single copy and the gene used for detection is multicopy, only the high fungal loads can be evaluated. Thus, although interesting for investigating mycobiome, the multiplex assays should be used with cautious for the diagnosis of IA or the detection of resistance. For the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, validated quantitative PCRs specifically targeting A. fumigatus or a limited set of species to increase sensitivity is a safer option.

  5. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-02

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  6. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M J; Morey, P; Leung, W Y; Morrow, L; Miller, D; Jarvis, B B; Robbins, H; Halsey, J F; Storey, E

    1998-03-01

    The authors present an outbreak of disease associated with exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus species. A courthouse and two associated office buildings had generated discomfort among employees for two years since initial occupancy. Multiple interventions had been unsuccessful An initial evaluation of 14 individuals identified three with potential asthma and three with symptoms consistent with interstitial lung disease. A clinical screening protocol to identify individuals who should be removed from work identified three likely and seven possible cases of building-related asthma. Detailed environmental and engineering assessments of the building identified major problems in mechanical system design, building construction, and operational strategies leading to excess moisture and elevated relative humidities. Moisture-damaged interior surfaces in both buildings were contaminated with S. chartarum, A. versicolor, and Penicillium species. Aspergillus species, especially A. versicolor, at concentrations of 10(1) to 10(4)/m3 dominated the indoor air under normal operating conditions. Bulk samples also revealed large quantities of Stachybotrys. A questionnaire survey of the three case and two control buildings documented between three- and 15-fold increases in symptoms. A nested case-control study suggested emphysematous-like disease in individuals meeting questionnaire definitions for cases. Replication of analysis strategies used in similar previous investigations suggested an association between worsening symptoms and decreased diffusing capacity of the lung. Performance on neuropsychological measures was similar for both cases and controls, although workers with symptoms reported increased levels of current but not past psychiatric symptomatology. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of satratoxins G and H. Cytotoxic laboratory analyses demonstrated the presence of agents with biological effectiveness in bulk materials. No association was seen

  7. The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kolwijck, Eva; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal sensitized asthma. Humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day and when the host is immunocompromised, Aspergillus spp. may cause severe pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that the microbiome plays a significant role in immune regulation, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolism, and other physiological processes, including recovery from the effects of antibiotic treatment. Bacterial microbiome mediated resistance mechanisms probably play a major role in limiting fungal colonization of the lungs, and may therefore prevent humans from contracting Aspergillus-related diseases. In this perspective, we review this emerging area of research and discuss the role of the microbiome in aspergillosis, role of Aspergillus in the microbiome, and the influence of the microbiome on anti-Aspergillus host defense and its role in preventing aspergillosis.

  8. Benzopyrone coumarin leads to an inhibition of ochratoxin biosynthesis in representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. via a type of feedback response mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L S L; Stoll, D A; Geisen, R; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2014-04-01

    Growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis of the ochratoxin-producing fungal strains Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus steynii, Penicillium verrucosum, and Penicillium nordium were analyzed on standard laboratory growth medium supplemented with different amounts of coumarin, an organic compound of the benzopyrone class. Neither the growth nor the phenotypic morphology of the filamentous fungi analyzed was affected by using coumarin concentrations equivalent to 2.5 to 25 μg/ml of medium. In contrast, the ochratoxin biosynthesis was strongly inhibited in both strains of the Aspergillus species and nearly completely inhibited in both Penicillium strains at coumarin concentrations above 8.75 μg/ml. Analyzing the transcriptional activity of the otapksPN polyketide synthase gene in P. nordicum using real-time PCR revealed a strong concentration-dependent decrease in gene expression. Taken together, the data show that ochratoxin biosynthesis in representative strains of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium could be effectively inhibited by coumarin in a concentration-dependent manner. It could be suggested that the molecular background behind this inhibition is some kind of feedback response mechanism, based on the structural similarity of coumarin to the benzopyrone moiety of the ochratoxin molecule.

  9. Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-11-01

    The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 μg/g and 7.0 μg/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes.

  10. Global Population Genetic Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive aspergillosis, a globally distributed disease with a mortality rate of up to 90% in high-risk populations. Effective control and prevention of this disease require a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. However, despite significant efforts, the global molecular epidemiology of A. fumigatus remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed 2,026 A. fumigatus isolates from 13 countries in four continents using nine highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Genetic cluster analyses suggest that our global sample of A. fumigatus isolates belonged to eight genetic clusters, with seven of the eight clusters showing broad geographic distributions. We found common signatures of sexual recombination within individual genetic clusters and clear evidence of hybridization between several clusters. Limited but statistically significant genetic differentiations were found among geographic and ecological populations. However, there was abundant evidence for gene flow at the local, regional, and global scales. Interestingly, the triazole-susceptible and triazole-resistant populations showed different population structures, consistent with antifungal drug pressure playing a significant role in local adaptation. Our results suggest that global populations of A. fumigatus are shaped by historical differentiation, contemporary gene flow, sexual reproduction, and the localized antifungal drug selection that is driving clonal expansion of genotypes resistant to multiple triazole drugs. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity and geographic structure of the human fungal pathogen A. fumigatus have been the subject of many studies. However, most previous studies had relatively limited sample ranges and sizes and/or used genetic markers with low-level polymorphisms. In this paper, we characterize a global collection of strains of A. fumigatus using a panel of 9 highly

  11. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  16. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  17. Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  18. Population shifts and mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  19. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  20. [Aspergillus galactomannan detection in allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Rovira Tarrats, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

    2003-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis has become the leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is partially due to the lack of a prompt diagnosis. Recently the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by means an ELISA technique in serum has been described. The objective of this study was to validate its usefulness in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting.

  1. Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

  2. Evolutionary relationships among Aspergillus flavus vegetative compatibility groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal plant pathogen of many diverse crops including cotton, peanuts, maize, almond, and pistachio. During infection by A. flavus, crops are frequently contaminated with highly carcinogenic aflatoxins. A. flavus populations are composed of numerous vegetative compatibility g...

  3. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  4. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  5. Potential of Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Applications in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that survives in the natural environment by extracting nutrition from plant debris, insect carcasses and a variety of other carbon sources. A. flavus produces numerous secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes. The primary obj...

  6. Genomic sequence of the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural soils so the host range is not well known. Having a si...

  7. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  8. RNA interference-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus is a frequent contaminant of agricultural commodities such as corn, peanut, tree nuts and cottonseed. Ingestion of foods, especially corn, contaminated with aflatoxins has been implicated in acute toxicoses while chronic, low-level exposure can lead to...

  9. Production of itaconic acid from pentose sugars by Aspergillus terreus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially with glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus (A. terreus). However, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost source of sugars ...

  10. Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, John B; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Freeman, James P; Williams, Anna J

    2011-03-01

    Cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-599 in fluid Sabouraud medium were grown with quinazoline and phthalazine for 7 days. Metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quinazoline was oxidized to 4-quinazolinone and 2,4-quinazolinedione, and phthalazine was oxidized to 1-phthalazinone.

  11. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  12. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

  13. Butenolide and furandione from an endophytic Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Nuclear, Paulwatt; Sommit, Damrong; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2010-09-01

    A new butenolide, aspernolide D (1), and furandione, asperterone (2), together with four known butenolides, butyrolactones I-IV and aspernolide B, were obtained from cultures of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus, isolated from the flowering plant Mammea siamensis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data.

  14. Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.

    PubMed

    Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

    1990-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  16. Bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z U; Kortom, M; Marouf, R; Chandy, R; Rinaldi, M G; Sutton, D A

    2000-05-01

    A case of bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of Aspergillus terreus is described. The diagnosis was established by the presence of septate, dichotomously branched fungal elements in freshly collected bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum specimens and by repeated isolation of the fungus in culture. Specific precipitating antibodies against the A. terreus isolate were demonstrated in the patient's serum. The isolate was atypical as it failed to produce fruiting structures on routine mycological media, but it did so on extended incubation on potato flake agar and produced globose, relatively heavy-walled, hyaline accessory conidia (formerly termed aleurioconidia) on both vegetative and aerial mycelia. Also, it produced an intense yellow diffusing pigment in the medium. The report underscores the increasing importance of A. terreus in the etiology of pulmonary aspergillosis. It is suggested that A. terreus antigen be included in the battery of serodiagnostic reagents to facilitate the early diagnosis of infections caused by this species.

  17. Inhibition of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. by fatty acids and their monoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Clelia; Cardillo, Daniela; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2007-05-01

    The antifungal activity of three fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids) and their monoglycerides (monolaurin, monomyristic acid, and palmitin, respectively) against Aspergillus and Penicillium species in a model system was investigated. Data were modeled through a reparameterized Gompertz equation. The maximum colony diameter attained within the experimental time (30 days), the maximal radial growth rate, the lag time (i.e., the number of days before the beginning of radial fungal growth), and the minimum detection time (MDT; the number of days needed to attain 1 cm colony diameter) were evaluated. Fatty acids and their monoglycerides inhibited mold growth by increasing MDT and lag times. The effectiveness of the active compounds seemed to be strain and genus dependent. Palmitic acid was the most effective chemical against aspergilli, whereas penicilli were strongly inhibited by myristic acid. Aspergilli also were more susceptible to fatty acids than were penicilli, as indicated by the longer MDT.

  18. Farnesol induces apoptosis-like cell death in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Youzhi; Zhou, Yuguang; Wei, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Farnesol (FOH) is known to induce apoptosis in some fungi and mammalian cells. We treated Aspergillus flavus, one of the leading causes of human invasive aspergillosis and a key producer of the most potent naturally occurring hepatocarcinogenic compounds, with FOH to assess its effect on the viability of the fungus. FOH strongly inhibited germination and growth of A. flavus and induced markers for apoptosis including nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metacaspase activation and abnormal cellular ultrastructure. Moreover, FOH-induced apoptosis in A. flavus was inhibited by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and partially inhibited by the ROS scavenger l-proline, which suggests that FOH induces apoptosis in A. flavus via a mechanism involving metacaspase activation and ROS production.

  19. The First Case of Total Dystrophic Onychomycosis Caused by Aspergillus clavatus Resistant to Antifungal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Mehraban; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Abastabar, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Farahyar, Shirin; Roudbary, Maryam; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Armaki, Mojtaba Taghizadeh; Hoseinnejad, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of nails which is mainly caused by dermatophyte species and less often by yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. We present a case of onychomycosis due to Aspergillus clavatus for the first time worldwide. The patient was an immunocompetent 32-year-old woman who identified with Psoriasis of the nail. The presence of A. clavatus in a nail sample was confirmed using microscopic and culture analysis followed by PCR of the β-tubulin gene. After antifungal susceptibility test, it is revealed that the isolate was resistant to the majority of common antifungal drugs, but finally the patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg daily. A. clavatus and drug-resistant A. clavatus have not previously been reported from onychomycosis.

  20. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  1. FRET-based quantum dot immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus amstelodami.

    PubMed

    Kattke, Michele D; Gao, Elizabeth J; Sapsford, Kim E; Stephenson, Larry D; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based quantum dot (QD) immunoassay for detection and identification of Aspergillus amstelodami was developed. Biosensors were formed by conjugating QDs to IgG antibodies and incubating with quencher-labeled analytes; QD energy was transferred to the quencher species through FRET, resulting in diminished fluorescence from the QD donor. During a detection event, quencher-labeled analytes are displaced by higher affinity target analytes, creating a detectable fluorescence signal increase from the QD donor. Conjugation and the resulting antibody:QD ratios were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and QuantiT protein assay. The sensitivity of initial fluorescence experiments was compromised by inherent autofluorescence of mold spores, which produced low signal-to-noise and inconsistent readings. Therefore, excitation wavelength, QD, and quencher were adjusted to provide optimal signal-to-noise over spore background. Affinities of anti-Aspergillus antibody for different mold species were estimated with sandwich immunoassays, which identified A. fumigatus and A. amstelodami for use as quencher-labeled- and target-analytes, respectively. The optimized displacement immunoassay detected A. amstelodami concentrations as low as 10(3) spores/mL in five minutes or less. Additionally, baseline fluorescence was produced in the presence of 10(5) CFU/mL heat-killed E. coli O157:H7, demonstrating high specificity. This sensing modality may be useful for identification and detection of other biological threat agents, pending identification of suitable antibodies. Overall, these FRET-based QD-antibody biosensors represent a significant advancement in detection capabilities, offering sensitive and reliable detection of targets with applications in areas from biological terrorism defense to clinical analysis.

  2. Clinical Performance of Aspergillus PCR for Testing Serum and Plasma: a Study by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A; Springer, Jan; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Morton, C Oliver; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem J G; Mengoli, Carlo; Donnelly, J Peter; Heinz, Werner J; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm analytical findings by comparing the performance of Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma and serum in the clinical setting. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on plasma and serum samples concurrently obtained from hematology patients in a multicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with cases diagnosed according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (19 proven/probable cases and 42 controls). Clinical performance and clinical utility (time to positivity) were calculated for both kinds of samples. The sensitivity and specificity for Aspergillus PCR when testing serum were 68.4% and 76.2%, respectively, and for plasma, they were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of serum and plasma PCR results were concordant. On average, plasma PCR was positive 16.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in 13 cases, combined with other biomarkers in five cases. On average, serum PCR was positive 10.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in six cases, combined with other biomarkers in three cases. These results confirm the analytical finding that the sensitivity of Aspergillus PCR using plasma is superior to that using serum. PCR positivity occurs earlier when testing plasma and provides sufficient sensitivity for the screening of invasive aspergillosis while maintaining methodological simplicity.

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus and other thermophilic fungi in nests of wetland birds.

    PubMed

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Kitowski, Ignacy

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on the numbers and species diversity of thermophilic fungi (growing at 45 °C in vitro) in 38 nests of 9 species of wetland birds, taking into account the physicochemical properties of the nests and the bird species. It was found that in nests with the maximum weight (nests of Mute Swan), the number and diversity of thermophilic fungi were significantly greater than in other nests, with lower weight. The diversity of the thermophilic biota was positively correlated with the individual mass of bird and with the level of phosphorus in the nests. The dominant species within the mycobiota under study was Aspergillus fumigatus which inhabited 95% of the nests under study, with average frequency of ca. 650 cfu g(-1) of dry mass of the nest material. In a majority of the nests studied (nests of 7 bird species), the share of A. fumigatus exceeded 50% of the total fungi growing at 45 °C. Significantly higher frequencies of the fungal species were characteristic of the nests of small and medium-sized piscivorous species, compared with the other bird species. The number of A. fumigatus increased with increase in the moisture level of the nests, whereas the frequency of occurrence of that opportunistic pathogen, opposite to the general frequency of thermophilic mycobiota, was negatively correlated with the level of phosphorus in the nest material, and with the body mass and length of the birds. The authors indicate the causes of varied growth of thermophilic fungi in nests of wetland birds and, in particular, present a discussion of the causes of accumulation of A. fumigatus, the related threats to the birds, and its role as a source of transmission in the epidemiological chain of aspergillosis.

  4. Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro. PMID:23798996

  5. Aspergillus Infections in Transplant and Non-Transplant Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guidry, Christopher; Politano, Amani; Rosenberger, Laura; McLeod, Matthew; Hranjec, Tjasa; Sawyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus infections are associated commonly with immunocompromised states, such as transplantation and hematologic malignant disease. Although Aspergillus infections among patients having surgery occur primarily in transplant recipients, they are found in non-recipients of transplants, and have a mortality rate similar to that seen among transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective data base collected from 1996 to 2010, in which we identified patients with Aspergillus infections. We compared demographic data, co-morbidities, and outcomes in non-transplant patients with those in abdominal transplant recipients. Continuous data were evaluated with the Student t-test, and categorical data were evaluated through χ2 analysis. Results: Twenty-three patients (11 transplant patients and 12 non-transplant patients) were identified as having had Aspergillus infections. The two groups were similar with regard to their demographics and co-morbidities, with the exceptions of their scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), of 23.6±8.1 points for transplant patients vs. 16.8±6.1 points for non-transplant patients (p=0.03); Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) of 16.6±8.3 points vs. 9.2±4.1 points, respectively (p=0.02); steroid use 91.0% vs. 25.0%, respectively (p=0.003); and percentage of infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) 27.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively (p=0.01). The most common site of infection in both patient groups was the lung. The two groups showed no significant difference in the number of days from admission to treatment, hospital length of stay following treatment, or mortality. Conclusions: Although Aspergillus infections among surgical patients have been associated historically with solid-organ transplantation, our data suggest that other patients may also be susceptible to such infections, especially those in an ICU who are deemed to be critically ill

  6. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Cross-Reactivity Caused by Invasive Geotrichum capitatum

    PubMed Central

    Giacchino, Mareva; Chiapello, Nadia; Bezzio, Stefania; Fagioli, Franca; Saracco, Paola; Alfarano, Alda; Martini, Vincenza; Cimino, Giuseppe; Martino, Pietro; Girmenia, Corrado

    2006-01-01

    We report three cases of invasive Geotrichum capitatum infection in patients with acute leukemia for which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Supernatants obtained from suspensions of 17 G. capitatum strains gave positive reactions with the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. These clinical and laboratory data seem to suggest that G. capitatum produces a soluble antigen that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan. PMID:16954294

  7. Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor. PMID:22031699

  8. Metabolism of alkyl amines by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, N D

    1987-01-01

    A variety of monoalkyl-substituted amines were able to act as nitrogen sources for heterotrophically growing cultures of Aspergillus versicolor. Only amines whose alkyl chains were at least five carbon atoms long were capable of supporting significant growth in the absence of a separate carbon substrate. However, biomass yields were significantly higher during growth on glucose-amine than on glucose-ammonia, indicating that some energy-generating dissimilation of the amine to CO2 took place. PMID:3566265

  9. Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Tanaka, Hisaki; Akagawa, Takumi; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo

    2007-10-01

    To characterize aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae, the recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids. About 30% activity was retained in 20% NaCl. Digestion of defatted soybean by the enzyme resulted in an increase in the glutamic acid content, suggesting that the enzyme is potentially responsible for the release of glutamic acid in soy sauce mash.

  10. [Nasal, pulmonary, and abomasal aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) in a calf].

    PubMed

    Breuer, W; Stoll, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Hafner-Marx, A; Deischl, K

    2015-07-01

    This study presents a case of nasal aspergillosis in a 17-days old calf (German Fleckvieh): it had been admitted moribund to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Munich, and died after a short time. Pathologically, the calf was diagnosed with purulent-necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing pneumonia, and diphtheroid-necrotizing abomasitis. Histologically, fungal elements were found in all the localizations mentioned before, and mycologically, Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from nasal cavity. Pathogenesis is discussed.

  11. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme

  12. Chronic monolateral otomycosis in a dog caused by Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Peano, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Aspergillus ochraceus, a widely distributed filamentous fungus, was isolated and identified by cytology and culture as the cause of unilateral ceruminous purulent otitis in a 4-year-old male mixed-breed dog. The pathogenic role of the fungal isolate was confirmed by a good response to antifungal therapy and the absence of other pathogens. No underlying diseases were identified and the dog recovered after 3 weeks of therapy with oral itraconazole and topical miconazole.

  13. A case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus candidus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Bahram; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Zaini, Farideh; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Moazeni, Maryam; Mousavi, Bita; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Gheramishoar, Mohsen; Hossein pour, Leila; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Based on epidemiological studies, Aspergillus candidus has been demonstrated as an emerging fungal agent of toenail onychomycosis. Here we report a case of a toenail infection caused by A. candidus in a healthy 60-year-old woman. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the culture as well as nucleotide sequencing of 28S region, the causative agent was identified as A. candidus. PMID:24371736

  14. Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    ..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

  15. IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: a laboratory correlate of disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J; Bradley, J

    1988-01-01

    Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with cystic fibrosis, Aspergillus fumigatus may contribute to deterioration in pulmonary function by local pathogenicity, or by hypersensitivity mechanisms mediated by IgG. PMID:3046514

  16. Characterization of the 41kDa allergen Asp v 13, a subtilisin-like serine protease from Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shi, C; Miller, J D

    2011-09-01

    Aspergillus versicolor is common on moldy building materials. Asp v 13, the principal allergen is produced by strains collected from across Canada. In this paper, we report a 1833bp Asp v 13 open reading frame predicted to encode a protein of 403 amino acids in length with three introns. A BLAST search of Asp v 13, a phylogenic tree calculation and alignment with its homologous proteins from other species indicated that Asp v 13 is a secretory, subtilisin-like serine protease widely distributed in Aspergillus species. His-tagged Asp v 13 was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA columns with a yield of 1mg/L. Based on immuno binding assay of recombinant protein both antibodies developed against the natural protein, and human sera IgE, the recombinant protein was similar to the natural form. Six IgE- and seven IgG-binding epitopes were also identified with selected human sera along the entire amino acid sequence of Asp v 13. Most residues binding these epitopes are exposed on the surface and correspond to charged regions of the molecule.

  17. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  18. Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta soils.

    PubMed

    Zablotowicz, R M; Abbas, H K; Locke, M A

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to manage aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed A. flavus propagules, Fusarium spp., and total fungi associated with Mississippi Delta soils. Soils from 12 and 15 sites were collected in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The propagule density of A. flavus ranged from log(10) 2.0 to 4.3 colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) soil, while total fusaria ranged from log(10) 3.0 to 5.4 cfu g(-1) soil. The highest populations of A. flavus were associated with soils containing higher organic matter, especially in sites under a no-tillage management. The frequency of aflatoxin production in isolates ranged from 13 to 81% depending on soil. In 2001, there was a highly significant correlation between A. flavus and the history of maize cultivation. Soil fertility factors such as organic matter content, nitrate and extractable phosphorus correlated with the density of Aspergillus, Fusarium spp., and total fungi. The relationship between soil parameters and Aspergillus populations may be useful in predicting the contribution of soil microflora to aflatoxin contamination.

  19. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR protocols for testing serum specimens.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Mengoli, Carlo; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Finnstrom, Niklas; Klingspor, Lena; Melchers, Willem J G; McCulloch, Elaine; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Loeffler, Juergen

    2011-11-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was requested. The information provided was made anonymous, and meta-regression analysis was performed to determine any procedural factors that significantly altered PCR performance. Ninety-seven percent of protocols were able to detect a threshold of 10 genomes/ml on at least one occasion, with 83% of protocols reproducibly detecting this concentration. Sensitivity and specificity were 86.1% and 93.6%, respectively. Positive associations between sensitivity and the use of larger sample volumes, an internal control PCR, and PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were shown. Negative associations between sensitivity and the use of larger elution volumes (≥100 μl) and PCR targeting the mitochondrial genes were demonstrated. Most Aspergillus PCR protocols used to test serum generate satisfactory analytical performance. Testing serum requires less standardization, and the specific recommendations shown in this article will only improve performance.

  20. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, A.S.; Madrid, I.M.; Santin, R.; Schuch, L.F.D.; Meireles, M.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  1. Aspergillus Pericarditis with Tamponade in a Renal Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lekkham, Rapeepat; Climaco, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus pericarditis is a rare and life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients. It has nonspecific clinical manifestations that often mimic other disease entities especially in patients who have extensive comorbidities. Diagnosis is oftentimes delayed and rarely done antemortem. A high degree of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is necessary for evaluation and timely diagnosis. This is a case of Aspergillus pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in a renal transplant patient with liver cirrhosis. Two months after transplant, he developed decompensation of his cirrhosis from hepatitis C, acute cellular rejection, and Kluyvera bacteremia, followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia. Four months after transplant, the patient presented with lethargy and fluid overload. He subsequently developed shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. An echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. He had emergent pericardiocentesis that showed purulent drainage. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Amphotericin B was initiated when the pericardial fluid grew mold that was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient quickly decompensated and expired. PMID:28316844

  2. Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of α1-4 linked galactose and α1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

  3. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.

  4. Survey of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxin B(1) in brewer's grain used as pig feedstuff in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Asurmendi, P; Barberis, C; Dalcero, A; Pascual, L; Barberis, L

    2013-02-01

    Brewing industry by-products are important animal feedstuff alternatives for local swine producers in Córdoba, Argentina. The high content of nutrients makes these by-products vulnerable to bacterial and fungal contamination. The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine the presence of Aspergillus section Flavi in brewer's grain used to feed pigs and (2) to evaluate the incidence of aflatoxin B(1) in the substrate. Total fungal count of most samples exceeded the levels proposed as feed quality limits, and most Aspergillus section Flavi strains found were able to produce high amounts of AFB(1) in vitro. However, the incidence of AFB(1) was low. The presence of contamination by aflatoxicogenic species in feedstuff might affect the productivity of swine producers and indirectly represents a public health issue.

  5. Aspergillus Terreus Brain Abscess Complicated by Tension Pneumocephalus in a Patient with Angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, Thejal; Pabbathi, Smitha; Fernandez, Jorge; Nanjappa, Sowmya

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Aspergillus terreus brain abscess complicated by tension pneumocephalus Symptoms: Blurred vision • hemiparesis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Aspergillus terreus is an evolving opportunistic pathogen, and patients with A. terreus often have poor outcomes due to its intrinsic resistance to several systemic antifungal agents. Here we present a unique case of intracranial abscesses of A. terreus in a patient with recurrent angiosarcoma, complicated by development of tension pneumocephalus. Case Report: A 67-year old gentleman with history of scalp angiosarcoma with wide excision two years prior presented to the hospital for left arm clumsiness, altered mental status, and low-grade fever. Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis bacteremia was detected, and Computed Tomography (CT) of the head showed right frontal lobe abscesses. He was started on steroids, intravenous vancomycin and cefepime, and was eventually discharged. He presented to the hospital again due to persistent and worsening symptoms. MRI showed progression of the brain lesions, and surgical biopsy and culture of lesions revealed A. terreus and gram-positive cocci. He was started on trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole and voriconazole and symptoms improved. On post-op day four, he acutely decompensated with total loss of left arm strength; MRI demonstrated tension pneumocephalus. Conservative management was undertaken with continuous supplemental oxygen. Serial x-ray imaging over the next week demonstrated resolution of the pneumocephalus, and the patient was able to regain all proximal lower and upper extremity strength. Conclusions: Never before has a case of A. terreus been associated with angiosarcoma or tension pneumocephalus in the literature. Proper identification and prompt diagnosis of species is crucial in the immunocompromised patient. Tension

  6. Conidial Dihydroxynaphthalene Melanin of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Interferes with the Host Endocytosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Thywißen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Schmaler-Ripcke, Jeannette; Nietzsche, Sandor; Zipfel, Peter F.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen of humans. The interaction of the pathogen with the host's immune system represents a key process to understand pathogenicity. For elimination of invading microorganisms, they need to be efficiently phagocytosed and located in acidified phagolysosomes. However, as shown previously, A. fumigatus is able to manipulate the formation of functional phagolysosomes. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to pigmentless pksP mutant conidia of A. fumigatus, the gray-green wild-type conidia inhibit the acidification of phagolysosomes of alveolar macrophages, monocyte-derived macrophages, and human neutrophil granulocytes. Therefore, this inhibition is independent of the cell type and applies to the major immune effector cells required for defense against A. fumigatus. Studies with melanin ghosts indicate that the inhibitory effect of wild-type conidia is due to their dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin covering the conidia, whereas the hydrophobin RodA rodlet layer plays no role in this process. This is also supported by the observation that pksP conidia still exhibit the RodA hydrophobin layer, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Mutants defective in different steps of the DHN-melanin biosynthesis showed stronger inhibition than pksP mutant conidia but lower inhibition than wild-type conidia. Moreover, A. fumigatus and A. flavus led to a stronger inhibition of phagolysosomal acidification than A. nidulans and A. terreus. These data indicate that a certain type of DHN-melanin that is different in the various Aspergillus species, is required for maximal inhibition of phagolysosomal acidification. Finally, we identified the vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) as potential target for A. fumigatus based on the finding that addition of bafilomycin which inhibits vATPase, led to complete inhibition of the acidification whereas the fusion of phagosomes containing wild-type conidia and lysosomes was not affected. PMID

  7. Changes in Atmospheric CO2 Influence the Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang-Yona, N.; Levin, Y.; Dannemoller, K. C.; Yarden, O.; Peccia, J.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Increased allergic susceptibility has been documented without a comprehensive understanding for its causes. Therefore understanding trends and mechanisms of allergy inducing agents is essential. In this study we investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 levels can affect the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus, a common allergenic fungal species. Both direct exposure to changing CO2 levels during fungal growth, and indirect exposure through changes in the C:N ratios in the growth media were inspected. We determined the allergenicity of the spores through two types of immunoassays, accompanied with genes expression analysis, and proteins relative quantification. We show that fungi grown under present day CO2 levels (392 ppm) exhibit 8.5 and 3.5 fold higher allergenicity compared to fungi grown at preindustrial (280 ppm) and double (560 ppm) CO2 levels, respectively. A corresponding trend is observed in the expression of genes encoding for known allergenic proteins and in the major allergen Asp f1 concentrations, possibly due to physiological changes such as respiration rates and the nitrogen content of the fungus, influenced by the CO2 concentrations. Increased carbon and nitrogen levels in the growth medium also lead to a significant increase in the allergenicity, for which we propose two different biological mechanisms. We suggest that climatic changes such as increasing atmospheric CO2 levels and changes in the fungal growth medium may impact the ability of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus to induce allergies. The effect of changing CO2 concentrations on the total allergenicity per 10^7 spores of A. fumigatus (A), the major allergen Asp f1 concentration in ng per 10^7 spores (B), and the gene expression by RT-PCR (C). The error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

  8. Conidial Dihydroxynaphthalene Melanin of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Interferes with the Host Endocytosis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Thywißen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Schmaler-Ripcke, Jeannette; Nietzsche, Sandor; Zipfel, Peter F; Brakhage, Axel A

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen of humans. The interaction of the pathogen with the host's immune system represents a key process to understand pathogenicity. For elimination of invading microorganisms, they need to be efficiently phagocytosed and located in acidified phagolysosomes. However, as shown previously, A. fumigatus is able to manipulate the formation of functional phagolysosomes. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to pigmentless pksP mutant conidia of A. fumigatus, the gray-green wild-type conidia inhibit the acidification of phagolysosomes of alveolar macrophages, monocyte-derived macrophages, and human neutrophil granulocytes. Therefore, this inhibition is independent of the cell type and applies to the major immune effector cells required for defense against A. fumigatus. Studies with melanin ghosts indicate that the inhibitory effect of wild-type conidia is due to their dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin covering the conidia, whereas the hydrophobin RodA rodlet layer plays no role in this process. This is also supported by the observation that pksP conidia still exhibit the RodA hydrophobin layer, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Mutants defective in different steps of the DHN-melanin biosynthesis showed stronger inhibition than pksP mutant conidia but lower inhibition than wild-type conidia. Moreover, A. fumigatus and A. flavus led to a stronger inhibition of phagolysosomal acidification than A. nidulans and A. terreus. These data indicate that a certain type of DHN-melanin that is different in the various Aspergillus species, is required for maximal inhibition of phagolysosomal acidification. Finally, we identified the vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) as potential target for A. fumigatus based on the finding that addition of bafilomycin which inhibits vATPase, led to complete inhibition of the acidification whereas the fusion of phagosomes containing wild-type conidia and lysosomes was not affected.

  9. A new immunoassay to quantify fungal antigens from the indoor mould Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, Eva; Kespohl, Sabine; Sander, Ingrid; Schies, Ursula; Khosravie-Hohn, Janett; Lorenz, Wolfgang; Engelhart, Steffen; Kolk, Annette; Schneider, Gerd; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Aspergillus versicolor is among the most commonly found moulds in moisture-damaged buildings and can be associated with adverse health effects in humans. This paper reports the development, validation and application of an enzyme immunoassay to quantify A. versicolor antigens. A sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies that recognize a broad range of A. versicolor proteins present in fungal spores and in mycelia fragments. To validate the new method, A. versicolor antigens were quantified in samples collected from homes with visible mould growth, including dust from vacuumed walls and bulk samples of building materials. Antigen concentrations were compared to the results of a commercial ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies (AveX ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies, Charlottesville, USA) and correlated with colony forming units (CFU) of A. versicolor. The A. versicolor ELISA was very sensitive with a lower detection limit of 120 pg ml(-1). The assay also showed some reactivity to other moulds with strongest reactions with other Aspergillus species (1-3% reactivity). The new assay detected A. versicolor antigens in a much higher percentage of dust samples (88% vs. 27%) and bulk samples (89% vs. 24%) than the AveX assay. A significant correlation (r = 0.67, and p < 0.0001) was found between antigen concentrations and CFU of A. versicolor. Based on its low detection limit and good correlation with the culture-based method, this new immunoassay seems to be a useful tool for the measurement of A. versicolor exposure levels and a reliable complement to the traditional monitoring techniques, such as mould cultivation or microscopy.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus Parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi; Pourtalebi, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary hazardous fungal metabolites that are produced by strains of some Aspergillus species on food and feedstuffs. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most important AF with high toxicity. Prevention of AF production and their elimination from food products is a matter of importance for many researchers in the last decades. Nanomaterials applications in medical science have been widely studied in the recent years. Most of existing researches seek the effect of nanoparticles on bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth and AFB1 production of AF-producing Aspergillus parasiticus. Methods: A parasiticus was inoculated (106 conidia per ml of medium) to potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium and then AgNPs was added and incubated with shaking at 130 rpm and 28°C for 7 days. AF was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Microbiological assay (MBA) on microplates contained potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium (4 days at 28°C) at different concentrations of AgNPs (60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 μg/ml) was measured. Results: The results demonstrated that a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) equal to 180 μg/ml was determined for AgNPs against A. parasiticus. The AgNPs effectively inhibited AFB1 production at a concentration of 90 μg/ml. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study show AgNPs at concentrations lower than the MIC drastically inhibited production of AFB1 by A. parasiticus in culture medium. The AgNPs may be useful to control AF contamination of susceptible crops in the field. PMID:26538778

  11. Decontamination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus spores on hazelnuts via atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Dasan, Beyhan Gunaydin; Mutlu, Mehmet; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-01-04

    In this study, an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma (APFBP) system was designed and its decontamination effect on aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) on the surface of hazelnuts was investigated. Hazelnuts were artificially contaminated with A. flavus and A. parasiticus and then were treated with dry air plasma for up to 5min in the APFBP system at various plasma parameters. Significant reductions of 4.50 log (cfu/g) in A. flavus and 4.19 log (cfu/g) in A. parasiticus were achieved after 5min treatments at 100% V - 25kHz (655W) by using dry air as the plasma forming gas. The decontamination effect of APFBP on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores inoculated on hazelnuts was increased with the applied reference voltage and the frequency. No change or slight reductions were observed in A. flavus and A. parasiticus load during the storage of plasma treated hazelnuts whereas on the control samples fungi continued to grow under storage conditions (30days at 25°C). Temperature change on hazelnut surfaces in the range between 35 and 90°C was monitored with a thermal camera, and it was demonstrated that the temperature increase taking place during plasma treatment did not have a lethal effect on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores. The damage caused by APFBP treatment on Aspergillus spp. spores was also observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  13. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5α: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5α, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 μg ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 μg per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 μg ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence.

  14. Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  15. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  16. Larval Preference and Performance of Amyelois transitella (Navel Orangeworm, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Relation to the Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Ampt, Eline A; Bush, Daniel S; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-02-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a polyphagous pest of California nut crops and is responsible for extensive losses in the United States. It directly damages crops by feeding and contaminating nuts with frass and webbing and vectors saprophytic fungi that infect crops. The navel orangeworm is commonly associated with Aspergillus species, including the toxigenic Aspergillus flavus, which causes crop loss by producing carcinogens, including aflatoxin B1. This lepidopteran-fungus association is the most economically serious pest complex in Central Valley orchards, and evidence indicates that this relationship is mutualistic. We assessed preference and performance of navel orangeworm larvae associated with A. flavus in behavioral bioassays in which neonates were allowed to orient within arenas to media with or without fungal tissue, and performance bioassays in which larvae were reared with and without A. flavus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and a semidefined almond PDA diet to evaluate effects on development and pupal weight. Navel orangeworm larvae were attracted to A. flavus and developed faster in its presence, indicating a nutritional benefit to the caterpillars. Larvae reached pupation ∼33% faster on diet containing A. flavus, and pupal weights were ∼18% higher for males and ∼13% higher for females on this diet. Our findings indicate that A. flavus plays an important role in larval orientation and development on infected hosts. The preference-performance relationship between navel orangeworms and Aspergillus flavus is consistent with a facultative mutualism that has broad implications for pest management efforts and basic understanding of Lepidoptera-plant interactions.

  17. The putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor RicA mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nak-Jung; Park, Hee-Soo; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2012-11-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans.

  18. Effects of biological control of rice weevil by Anisopteromalus calandrae with a population of two Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Young; Nam, Youngwoo; Ryoo, Mun Il

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the interaction occurring between the rice weevil and two storage molds (Aspergillus candidus Link and Aspergillus niger Van Tiegem) that prefer different moisture regimens under rice storage conditions. Rice weevil induced rapid population growth in both of the storage molds. The colony forming units (CFUs) of A. candidus and A. niger peaked at 10(9.00 +/- 0.02) and 10(7.72 +/- 0.03)/g, respectively. All of the rice grains were infested with the molds and eventually deteriorated; in the jars infested with A. candidus, no living weevils were found after 135 d. Suppression of the rice weevil by its larval parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), significantly retarded the growth of A. candidus but completely halted the growth of A. niger, which was replaced by xerophyllic molds including Aspergillus penicilloides Spegazzini and Wallemia sebi (Fries). Regression analyses showed that the total number of weevils was a significant factor explaining grain moisture content, which was in turn a significant factor in the growth of both mold species. The growth of A. niger was dependent on the grain moisture content (r2 = 0.52), thereby suggesting that the growth of A. niger was caused primarily by activity of the rice weevil and the resulting increased grain moisture content. However, 27% of the growth of A. candidus was explained by grain moisture contents, suggesting that a factor other than the grain moisture content may also affect its growth. Suppression of rice weevil by A. calandrae could induce an A. candidus-dominant molds community, which would be a factor for consideration in biological control program.

  19. MALDI-TOF MS Andromas strategy for the routine identification of bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts, Aspergillus spp. and positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Bille, E; Dauphin, B; Leto, J; Bougnoux, M-E; Beretti, J-L; Lotz, A; Suarez, S; Meyer, J; Join-Lambert, O; Descamps, P; Grall, N; Mory, F; Dubreuil, L; Berche, P; Nassif, X; Ferroni, A

    2012-11-01

    All organisms usually isolated in our laboratory are now routinely identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using the Andromas software. The aim of this study was to describe the use of this strategy in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory. The microorganisms identified included bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts and Aspergillus spp. isolated on solid media or extracted directly from blood cultures. MALDI-TOF MS was performed on 2665 bacteria isolated on solid media, corresponding to all bacteria isolated during this period except Escherichia coli grown on chromogenic media. All acquisitions were performed without extraction. After a single acquisition, 93.1% of bacteria grown on solid media were correctly identified. When the first acquisition was not contributory, a second acquisition was performed either the same day or the next day. After two acquisitions, the rate of bacteria identified increased to 99.2%. The failures reported on 21 strains were due to an unknown profile attributed to new species (9) or an insufficient quality of the spectrum (12). MALDI-TOF MS has been applied to 162 positive blood cultures. The identification rate was 91.4%. All mycobacteria isolated during this period (22) were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS without any extraction. For 96.3% and 92.2% of yeasts and Aspergillus spp., respectively, the identification was obtained with a single acquisition. After a second acquisition, the overall identification rate was 98.8% for yeasts (160/162) and 98.4% (63/64) for Aspergillus spp. In conclusion, the MALDI-TOF MS strategy used in this work allows a rapid and efficient identification of all microorganisms isolated routinely.

  20. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  1. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  2. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used... the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for use as...

  3. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  4. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  5. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  6. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  7. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, “Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  8. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  9. RmtA, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is found colonizing numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, sorghum, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been de...

  10. Interspecies discrimination of A. fumigatus and siblings A. lentulus and A. felis of the Aspergillus section Fumigati using the AsperGenius(®) assay.

    PubMed

    Chong, G M; Vonk, A G; Meis, J F; Dingemans, G J H; Houbraken, J; Hagen, F; Gaajetaan, G R; van Tegelen, D W E; Simons, G F M; Rijnders, B J A

    2017-03-01

    The AsperGenius(®) assay detects several Aspergillus species and the A. fumigatus Cyp51A mutations TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F that are associated with azole resistance. We evaluated its contribution in identifying A. lentulus and A. felis, 2 rare but intrinsically azole-resistant sibling species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. Identification of these species with conventional culture techniques is difficult and time-consuming. The assay was tested on (i) 2 A. lentulus and A. felis strains obtained from biopsy proven invasive aspergillosis and (ii) control A. fumigatus (n=3), A. lentulus (n=6) and A. felis species complex (n=12) strains. The AsperGenius(®) resistance PCR did not detect the TR34 target in A. lentulus and A. felis in contrast to A. fumigatus. Melting peaks for L98H and Y121F markers differed and those of the Y121F marker were particularly suitable to discriminate the 3 species. In conclusion, the assay can be used to rapidly discriminate A. fumigatus, A. lentulus and A. felis.

  11. Aspergillus sydowii and Other Potential Fungal Pathogens in Gorgonian Octocorals of the Ecuadorian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Soler-Hurtado, M Mar; Sandoval-Sierra, José Vladimir; Machordom, Annie; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen. In this work, we carried out the surveillance of the main coral reef of the Ecuadorian Pacific with a focus on the two most abundant and cosmopolitan species of this ecosystem, Leptogorgia sp. and Leptogorgia obscura. We collected 59 isolates and obtained the corresponding sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. These were phylogenetically analyzed using MrBayes, which indicated the presence of two isolates of the coral reef pathogen A. sydowii, as well as 16 additional species that are potentially pathogenic to corals. Although the analyzed gorgonian specimens appeared healthy, the presence of these pathogens, especially of A. sydowii, alert us to the potential risk to the health and future survival of the Pacific Ecuadorian coral ecosystem under the current scenario of increasing threats and stressors to coral reefs, such as habitat alterations by humans and global climate change.

  12. Redox metabolites signal polymicrobial biofilm development via the NapA oxidative stress cascade in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, He; Kim, Jaekuk; Liew, Mathew; Yan, John K.; Herrera, Oscar; Bok, JinWoo; Kelleher, Neil L.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Filamentous fungi and bacteria form mixed-species biofilms in nature and diverse clinical contexts. They secrete a wealth of redox-active small molecule secondary metabolites, which are traditionally viewed as toxins that inhibit growth of competing microbes. Results Here we report that these “toxins” can act as interspecies signals, affecting filamentous fungal development via oxidative stress regulation. Specifically, in co-culture biofilms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazine-derived metabolites differentially modulated Aspergillus fumigatus development, shifting from weak vegetative growth to induced asexual sporulation (conidiation) along a decreasing phenazine gradient. The A. fumigatus morphological shift correlated with the production of phenazine radicals and concomitant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production generated by phenazine redox cycling. Phenazine conidiation signaling was conserved in the genetic model A. nidulans, and mediated by NapA, a homolog of AP-1-like bZIP transcription factor, which is essential for the response to oxidative stress in humans, yeast, and filamentous fungi. Expression profiling showed phenazine treatment induced a NapA-dependent response of the global oxidative stress metabolome including the thioredoxin, glutathione and NADPH-oxidase systems. Conidiation induction in A. nidulans by another microbial redox-active secondary metabolite, gliotoxin, also required NapA. Conclusions This work highlights that microbial redox metabolites are key signals for sporulation in filamentous fungi, which are communicated through an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic stress response pathway. It provides a foundation for interspecies signaling in environmental and clinical biofilms involving bacteria and filamentous fungi. PMID:25532893

  13. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States: a review.

    PubMed

    Horn, Bruce W

    2007-10-01

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to their ability to produce toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is dependent upon a basic understanding of their diversity in agricultural ecosystems. This review summarizes our current knowledge of species and population diversity in the United States in relation to morphology, mycotoxin production and genetic characters. The high genetic diversity in populations of aflatoxigenic fungi is a reflection of their versatile habits in nature, which include saprotrophic colonization of plant debris in soil and parasitism of seeds and grain. Genetic variation within populations may originate from a cryptic sexual state. The advent of intensive monoculture agriculture not only increases population size but also may introduce positive selective pressure for aflatoxin production due to its link with pathogenicity in crops. Important goals in population research are to determine how section Flavi diversity in agricultural ecosystems is changing and to measure the direction of this evolution.

  14. Molecular characterization of an adaptive response to alkylating agents in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Karen A.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Hatch, Amy; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Owens, Rebecca A.; Doyle, Sean; Jones, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive response to alkylating agents based upon the conformational change of a methylphosphotriester (MPT) DNA repair protein to a transcriptional activator has been demonstrated in a number of bacterial species, but this mechanism appears largely absent from eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus elicits an adaptive response to sub-lethal doses of the mono-functional alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We have identified genes that encode MPT and O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) DNA repair proteins; deletions of either of these genes abolish the adaptive response and sensitize the organism to MNNG. In vitro DNA repair assays confirm the ability of MPT and AGT to repair methylphosphotriester and O6-methylguanine lesions respectively. In eukaryotes, the MPT protein is confined to a select group of fungal species, some of which are major mammalian and plant pathogens. The evolutionary origin of the adaptive response is bacterial and rooted within the Firmicutes phylum. Inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer between Firmicutes and Ascomycete ancestors introduced the adaptive response into the Fungal kingdom. Our data constitute the first detailed characterization of the molecular mechanism of the adaptive response in a lower eukaryote and has applications for development of novel fungal therapeutics targeting this DNA repair system. PMID:22669901

  15. Aspergillus sydowii and Other Potential Fungal Pathogens in Gorgonian Octocorals of the Ecuadorian Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Hurtado, M. Mar; Sandoval-Sierra, José Vladimir; Machordom, Annie; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen. In this work, we carried out the surveillance of the main coral reef of the Ecuadorian Pacific with a focus on the two most abundant and cosmopolitan species of this ecosystem, Leptogorgia sp. and Leptogorgia obscura. We collected 59 isolates and obtained the corresponding sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. These were phylogenetically analyzed using MrBayes, which indicated the presence of two isolates of the coral reef pathogen A. sydowii, as well as 16 additional species that are potentially pathogenic to corals. Although the analyzed gorgonian specimens appeared healthy, the presence of these pathogens, especially of A. sydowii, alert us to the potential risk to the health and future survival of the Pacific Ecuadorian coral ecosystem under the current scenario of increasing threats and stressors to coral reefs, such as habitat alterations by humans and global climate change. PMID:27902710

  16. Extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with CARD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gazendam, Roel P.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Hsu, Amy P.; Collar, Amanda L.; Sugui, Janyce A.; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Hoffman, Kevin; Henderson, Carolyn; Clark, Lily; Mezger, Markus; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Engeholm, Maik; Schüle, Rebecca; Neumayer, Bettina; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Prasad, Vinod K.; Singh, Anurag; Milner, Joshua D.; Williams, Kelli W.; Lim, Jean K.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Holland, Steven M.; Hartl, Dominik; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25. Neither patient developed Aspergillus infection of the lungs. One patient had homozygous M1I CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain family member 9) mutation, while the other had homozygous Q295X CARD9 mutation; both patients lacked CARD9 protein expression. The patients had normal monocyte and Th17 cell numbers in peripheral blood, but their mononuclear cells exhibited impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines upon fungus-specific stimulation. Neutrophil phagocytosis, killing, and oxidative burst against Aspergillus fumigatus were intact, but neither patient accumulated neutrophils in infected tissue despite normal neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. The neutrophil tissue accumulation defect was not caused by defective neutrophil-intrinsic chemotaxis, indicating that production of neutrophil chemoattractants in extrapulmonary tissue is impaired in CARD9 deficiency. Taken together, our results show that CARD9 deficiency is the first known inherited or acquired condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with sparing of the lungs, associated with impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. PMID:27777981

  17. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-11-28

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with

  18. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with

  19. The loss of the inducible Aspergillus carbonarius MFS transporter MfsA leads to ochratoxin A overproduction.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Sempere, A; Martínez-Culebras, P V; González-Candelas, L

    2014-07-02

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a nephrotoxic compound produced by certain Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins in food commodities. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main source of OTA in wine, grape juice and dried vine fruits. Although many studies have focused on OTA production by A. carbonarius, little is known about the genes related to OTA production and transport. We have found a transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MfsA) which is highly expressed with a 102-fold induction in an ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius strain compared to a low OTA producer strain. The encoding mfsA gene shows similarity to the multidrug efflux transporter flu1 from Candida albicans. A high number of putative transcription factor binding sites involved in the response to stress were identified within the promoter of mfsA. Phenotypical analysis of ΔmfsA deletion mutants revealed that the loss of mfsA leads to a slight growth reduction and increased OTA production. We therefore hypothesize that MfsA could be a stress response transporter whose disruption could cause an increase in oxidative stress together with a stimulation of mycotoxin production.

  20. Asperpyrone-Type Bis-Naphtho-γ-Pyrones with COX-2-Inhibitory Activities from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Jianjiao; Liu, Yonghong; Tao, Huaming; Zhou, Xuefeng

    2016-07-20

    Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones (BNPs) are an important group of aromatic polyketides derived from fungi, and asperpyrone-type BNPs are produced primarily by Aspergillus species. The fungal strain Aspergillus niger SCSIO Jcsw6F30, isolated from a marine alga, Sargassum sp., and identified according to its morphological traits and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence, was studied for BNPs secondary metabolisms. After HPLC/MS analysis of crude extract of the fermentation broth, 11 asperpyrone-type BNPs were obtained directly and quickly by chromatographic separation in the extract, and those isolated asperpyrone-type BNPs were structurally identified by NMR and MS analyses. All of the BNPs showed weak cytotoxicities against 10 human tumor cells (IC50 > 30 μM). However, three of them, aurasperone F (3), aurasperone C (6) and asperpyrone A (8), exhibited obvious COX-2-inhibitory activities, with the IC50 values being 11.1, 4.2, and 6.4 μM, respectively. This is the first time the COX-2-inhibitory activities of BNPs have been reported.

  1. Efficacy of two chemical coagulants and three different filtration media on removal of Aspergillus flavus from surface water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-02-01

    Aquatic fungi are common in various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling as well as interacting with other organisms. Species of Aspergillus are the most common fungi that occur in water. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, used at different concentrations to treat drinking water, in removing Aspergillus flavus, as well as testing three different filtration media: sand, activated carbon, and ceramic granules, for their removal of fungi from water. The results revealed that both coagulants were effective in removing fungi and decreasing the turbidity of drinking water, and turbidity decreased with increasing coagulant concentration. Also, at the highest concentration of the coagulants, A. flavus was decreased by 99.6% in the treated water. Among ceramic granules, activated carbon, and sand used as media for water filtration, the sand and activated carbon filters were more effective in removing A. flavus than ceramic granules while simultaneously decreasing the turbidity levels in the test water samples. Post-treatment total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the experimental water did not decrease; on the contrary, TN concentrations increased with the increasing dosage of coagulants. The filtration process had no effect in reducing TOC and TN in tested water.

  2. Emphysematous renal tract disease due to Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Dakshinamurty, K V

    2004-06-01

    Emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) is a rare necrotizing infection of renal parenchyma and/or urinary tract caused by gas producing organisms. A case of acute emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) (emphysematous pyelonephritis along with emphysematous cystitis) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a non-diabetic patient, who did not apparently have any risk factor for fungal infection, is presented. Patient had refused for any surgical intervention. He was treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B and 5-flucytosin and achieved complete recovery. Various causes of ERTD and available therapeutic options are discussed.

  3. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  4. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi.

  5. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  6. Invasive Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus ustus: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Paul E.; van den Bergh, Marjolein F. Q.; Rath, Peter M.; de Pauw, Ben E.; Voss, Andreas; Meis, Jacques F. G. M.

    1999-01-01

    A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient caused by Aspergillus ustus is presented. A. ustus was also recovered from the hospital environment, which may indicate that the infection was nosocomially acquired. A literature review revealed seven cases of invasive infections caused by A. ustus, and three of these were primarily cutaneous infections. In vitro susceptibility testing of 12 A. ustus isolates showed that amphotericin B and terbinafine had fungicidal activity and that itraconazole and voriconazole had fungistatic activity. PMID:10203536

  7. Taxonomic Characterization, Evaluation of Toxigenicity, and Saccharification Capability of Aspergillus Section Flavi Isolates from Korean Traditional Wheat-Based Fermentation Starter Nuruk

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Jyotiranjan; Yun, Suk-Hyun; Chun, Jeesun; Kim, Beom-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation. This study was performed to classify the most efficient strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from various types of traditional wheat nuruk, based on a polyphasic approach involving molecular and biochemical evaluation. A total of 69 strains were isolated based on colony morphology and identified as Aspergillus oryzae/flavus based on internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequencing. Interestingly, none were toxigenic based on PCR amplification of intergenic regions of the aflatoxin cluster genes norB-cypA and the absence of aflatoxin in the culture supernatants by thin-layer chromatography analysis. Saccharification capability of the isolates, assessed through α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, revealed that two isolates, TNA24 and TNA15, showed the highest levels of activity. Although the degrees of variation in α-amylase and glucoamylase activities among the isolates were higher, there were only slight differences in acid protease activity among the isolates with two, TNA28 and TNA36, showing the highest activities. Furthermore, statistical analyses showed that α-amylase activity was positively correlated with glucoamylase activity (p < 0.001), and therefore screening for either was sufficient to predict the saccharifying capacity of the Aspergillus strain. PMID:27790066

  8. Colonization of maize seedlings under drought conditions by two ochratoxin A producers species within the A. section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some species of black-spored aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri) are able to cause disease in several plant hosts, including peanut and maize seedlings. Besides the economical impact of black-spored aspergilli infections, several species within this section are well known mycotoxin producers, spe...

  9. Biodiversity and ITS-RFLP Characterisation of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates in Grapes from Four Traditional Grape-Producing Areas in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kizis, Dimosthenis; Natskoulis, Pantelis; Nychas, George-John E.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the occurrence of Aspergillus section Nigri species on grapes from four traditional grape-producing areas in Greece during the 2011/2012 vintage, and their capability to produce OTA was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight black aspergilli isolates were characterised at the species level initially by the use of morphological criteria in accordance with appropriate keys, followed by molecular characterisation performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the 5.8 ribosomal RNA gene Internal Transcribed Spacer region (5.8 rRNA ITS). Restriction enzyme digestion of the ITS amplicons using the HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, endonucleases distinguished eleven different patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), four for each of the HhaI and RsaI digests and three for HinfI. From a total number of 128 individual isolates, 124 were classified into four Aspergillus species corresponding to A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. ibericus, and the remaining 4 were classified as members of the A. niger aggregate. A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis being the main representative species were equally counted, with higher geographical representation of the former in southern and the latter in northern regions, respectively. All isolates were tested for their ochratoxigenic potential by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA), resulting in significant interspecies differences in OTA production. PMID:24710283

  10. Induced Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae (A. niger group)

    PubMed Central

    Emiliani, Ezio; de Davie, I. Ucha

    1962-01-01

    The examination of substances formed during induced autolysis by Aspergillus niger was continued in this work, which dealt in particular with carbohydrates. The autolysate contained a large amount of d-glucose (14 to 20% dry wt) and traces of glycolic aldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, ribose, xylose, and fructose. It also contained glycopeptides (about 10% dry wt), which were split from the cell wall during autolysis and which differed from one another in their level of polymerization and their composition. They were constituted by glucose and mannose, glucose and galactose, or mannose, glucose, and galactose (mannose being the most abundant in this case), and amino acids (chiefly alanine, serine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid). During autolysis, only a part of the cell wall was dissolved, since it retained its shape. Upon further chemical hydrolysis, it produced mostly glucose and glucosamine, and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and amino acids. Presumably, glucomannoproteins and glucogalactoproteins were present in the intact cell as a macromolecular complex, constituting, together with chitin, the major part of the cell wall of Aspergillus. PMID:16349623

  11. [Overexpression of Aspergillus candidus lactase and analysis of enzymatic properties].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Yun-liu; Yao, Bin

    2005-04-01

    The lactase gene lacb' from Aspergillus candidus was fused behind alpha-factor signal sequence in the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC9, then integrated into the genome of P. pastoris by recombination events. The P. pastoris recombinants for lactase overexpression were screened by enzyme activity analysis and SDS-PAGE. The lactase expressed in P. pastoris was glycosylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 130 kD, while the deglycosylated lactase treated with Endo H had an apparent molecular weight of about 110 kD. The expression level of secreted lactase protein in recombinant P. pastoris was 6 mg/mL with enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in the 5 L fermenter, which was the highest among that of all kinds of recombinant strains reported now. The optimal pH and optimal temperature of the lactase are 5.2 and 60 degrees C. The Vmax, Km, and specific activity of the lactase are 3.3 micromol/min, 1.7 mmol/L and 706.5 +/- 2.6 U/mg, respectively. Compare to the lactase from Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 20423, the expressed lactase from A. candidus have better enzymatic properties including the high thermostability, high specific activity and wide pH range for enzyme reaction.

  12. Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZαC, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of α-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was α-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity.

  13. Aspergillus nidulans mutants defective in stc gene cluster regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Butchko, R A; Adams, T H; Keller, N P

    1999-01-01

    The genes involved in the biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (ST), a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus nidulans and an aflatoxin (AF) precursor in other Aspergillus spp., are clustered on chromosome IV of A. nidulans. The sterigmatocystin gene cluster (stc gene cluster) is regulated by the pathway-specific transcription factor aflR. The function of aflR appears to be conserved between ST- and AF-producing aspergilli, as are most of the other genes in the cluster. We describe a novel screen for detecting mutants defective in stc gene cluster activity by use of a genetic block early in the ST biosynthetic pathway that results in the accumulation of the first stable intermediate, norsolorinic acid (NOR), an orange-colored compound visible with the unaided eye. We have mutagenized this NOR-accumulating strain and have isolated 176 Nor(-) mutants, 83 of which appear to be wild type in growth and development. Sixty of these 83 mutations are linked to the stc gene cluster and are likely defects in aflR or known stc biosynthetic genes. Of the 23 mutations not linked to the stc gene cluster, 3 prevent accumulation of NOR due to the loss of aflR expression. PMID:10511551

  14. Characterization of two amine oxidases from Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-06-01

    We have reported that Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205, which was isolated by our group, produced three enzymes exhibiting oxidase activity for 4-aminobutanamide (4-ABAD) (J. Biosci. Bioeng., 117, 263-268, 2014). Among three enzymes, characteristics of enzyme I have been revealed, but those of the other two enzymes have not. In this study, we purified enzymes II and III, and compared their characteristics with those of enzyme I. Enzymes II and III also oxidized aliphatic monoamines, aromatic amines, and aliphatic aminoalcohols. In addition, the oxidase activity of both enzymes was strongly inhibited by carbonyl reagents and specific inhibitors for copper-containing amine oxidases. Thus, enzymes II and III were also classified into the copper-containing amine oxidase group (EC 1.4.3.6) along with enzyme I. However, these three enzymes differed from each other in their enzymatic, kinetic, and physicochemical properties. The N-terminal amino acid sequences also differed from each other; that of enzyme I was modified, that of enzyme II was similar to those of peroxisomal copper-containing amine oxidases, and that of enzyme III was similar to those of copper-containing amine oxidases from the genus Aspergillus. Therefore, we concluded that A. carbonarius AIU 205 produced three different types of amine oxidase in the mycelia.

  15. Expression and characterization of Aspergillus thermostable phytases in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Promdonkoy, Patcharee; Tang, Kittapong; Sornlake, Warasirin; Harnpicharnchai, Piyanun; Kobayashi, Rutchadaporn Sriprang; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Upathanpreecha, Tewa; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2009-01-01

    Two thermostable phytases were identified from Thai isolates of Aspergillus japonicus BCC18313 (TR86) and Aspergillus niger BCC18081 (TR170). Both genes of 1404 bp length, coding for putative phytases of 468 amino acid residues, were cloned and transferred into Pichia pastoris. The recombinant phytases, r-PhyA86 and r-PhyA170, were expressed as active extracellular, glycosylated proteins with activities of 140 and 100 U mL(-1), respectively. Both recombinant phytases exhibited high affinity for phytate but not for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Optimal phytase activity was observed at 50 degrees C and pH 5.5. High thermostability, which is partly dependent on glycosylation, was demonstrated for both enzymes, as >50% activity was retained after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min. The recombinant phytases also exhibited broad pH stability from 2.0 to 8.0 and are resistant to pepsin. In vitro digestibility tests suggested that r-PhyA86 and r-PhyA170 are at least as efficient as commercial phytase for hydrolyzing phytate in corn-based animal feed and are therefore suitable sources of phytase supplement.

  16. Characterization of Humanized Antibodies Secreted by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael; Lin, Cherry; Victoria, Doreen C.; Fox, Bryan P.; Fox, Judith A.; Wong, David L.; Meerman, Hendrik J.; Pucci, Jeff P.; Fong, Robin B.; Heng, Meng H.; Tsurushita, Naoya; Gieswein, Christine; Park, Minha; Wang, Huaming

    2004-01-01

    Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1(κ) antibodies and an Fab′ fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatography proved effective at removing any antibody to which glucoamylase remained attached. Glycosylation at N297 in the Fc region of the heavy chain was observed, but this site was unoccupied on approximately 50% of the heavy chains. The glycan was of the high-mannose type, with some galactose present, and the size ranged from Hex6GlcNAc2 to Hex15GlcNAc2. An aglycosyl mutant form of antibody was also produced. No significant difference between the glycosylated antibody produced by Aspergillus and that produced by mammalian cell cultures was observed in tests for affinity, avidity, pharmacokinetics, or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity function. PMID:15128505

  17. Aspergillus terreus complex: an emergent opportunistic agent of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana S; Rojas, Florencia D; Cattana, María E; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Mangiaterra, Magdalena L; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte moulds (NDM) is increasing. Aspergillus terreus is relatively undocumented as an agent of this fungal infection. The aim of this work is to show the prevalence of onychomycosis caused by A. terreus and to describe its clinical features. Nail samples were collected for microscopic examination and culturing in selective media. All cases of onychomycosis due to NDM were confirmed by a second sample. Aspergillus terreus isolates were identified through their morphological characteristics and using molecular methods. A total of 2485 samples were obtained. Positive cultures were obtained in 1639 samples. From 124 NDM confirmed cultures, 23 were identified as A. terreus (18.5%). Superficial white onychomycosis was the most frequent clinical pattern. A high percentage was found in fingernails. The prevalence of A. terreus in this study considerably exceeded the percentages reported by other authors. Onychomycosis due to A. terreus presents similar clinical patterns to those caused by dermatophytes, but is difficult to eradicate and is associated with less predictable treatment outcomes. Better knowledge of the aetiology of A. terreus may be important for accomplishing more accurate and effective treatment.

  18. Sequencing the Black Aspergilli species complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Zhou, Kemin; Otillar, Robert; Baker, Scott; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The ~15 members of the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex (the "Black Aspergilli") are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as food processing and spoilage agents and agricultural toxigens. Despite their utility and ubiquity, the morphological and metabolic distinctiveness of the complex's members, and thus their taxonomy, is poorly defined. We are using short read pyrosequencing technology (Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa) to rapidly scale up genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this species complex. To date we predict 11197 genes in Aspergillus niger, 11624 genes in A. carbonarius, and 10845 genes in A. aculeatus. A. aculeatus is our most recent genome, and was assembled primarily from 454-sequenced reads and annotated with the aid of >2 million 454 ESTs and >300 million Solexa ESTs. To most effectively deploy these very large numbers of ESTs we developed 2 novel methods for clustering the ESTs into assemblies. We have also developed a pipeline to propose orthologies and paralogies among genes in the species complex. In the near future we will apply these methods to additional species of Black Aspergilli that are currently in our sequencing pipeline.

  19. Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

    2012-11-01

    In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution.

  20. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    PubMed Central

    Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

  1. Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-01-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115 bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships.

  3. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Thomas O; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-11-01

    Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B(2) (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-gamma-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-gamma-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).

  4. Multicenter Study of Method-Dependent Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. to Amphotericin B and Echinocandins for the Etest Agar Diffusion Method.

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M; Cantón, E; Cordoba, S; Dannaoui, E; García-Rodríguez, J; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Lackner, M; Lass-Flörl, C; Linares Sicilia, M J; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M A; Pelaez, T; Shields, R K; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Sanguinetti, M; Turnidge, J

    2017-01-01

    Method-dependent Etest epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are not available for susceptibility testing of either Candida or Aspergillus species with amphotericin B or echinocandins. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. are unreliable. Candida and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) Etest MIC distributions (microorganisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 4,341 Candida albicans, 113 C. dubliniensis, 1,683 C. glabrata species complex (SC), 709 C. krusei, 767 C. parapsilosis SC, 796 C. tropicalis, 1,637 Aspergillus fumigatus SC, 238 A. flavus SC, 321 A. niger SC, and 247 A. terreus SC isolates. Etest MICs from 15 laboratories (in Argentina, Europe, Mexico, South Africa, and the United States) were pooled to establish Etest ECVs. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and amphotericin B ECVs (in micrograms per milliliter) encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were 0.016, 0.5, 0.03, and 1 for C. albicans; 0.03, 1, 0.03, and 2 for C. glabrata SC; 0.06, 1, 0.25, and 4 for C. krusei; 8, 4, 2, and 2 for C. parapsilosis SC; and 0.03, 1, 0.12, and 2 for C. tropicalis The amphotericin B ECV was 0.25 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis and 2, 8, 2, and 16 μg/ml for the complexes of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus, respectively. While anidulafungin Etest ECVs classified 92% of the Candida fks mutants evaluated as non-WT, the performance was lower for caspofungin (75%) and micafungin (84%) cutoffs. Finally, although anidulafungin (as an echinocandin surrogate susceptibility marker) and amphotericin B ECVs should identify Candida and Aspergillus isolates with reduced susceptibility to these agents using the Etest, these ECVs will not categorize a fungal isolate as susceptible or resistant, as breakpoints do.

  5. Production of catalases by Aspergillus niger isolates as a response to pollutant stress by heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Buckova, M.; Godocikova, J.; Simonovicova, A.; Polek, B.

    2005-04-15

    Isolates of Aspergillus niger, selected from the coal dust of a mine containing arsenic (As; 400 mg/kg) and from the river sediment of mine surroundings (As, 1651 mg/kg, Sb, 362 mg/kg), growing in minimal nitrate medium in the phase of hyphal development and spore formation, exhibited much higher levels of total catalase activity than the same species from the culture collection or a culture adapted to soil contaminated with As (5 mg/L). Electrophoretic resolution of catalases in cell-free extracts revealed three isozymes of catalases and production of individual isozymes was not significantly affected by stress environments. Exogenously added stressors (As{sup 5+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) at final concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (20 or 40 m(M)) mostly stimulated production of catalases only in isolates from mines surroundings, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hg{sup 2+} caused the disappearance of the smallest catalase I. Isolates exhibited a higher tolerance of the toxic effects of heavy metals and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as monitored by growth, than did the strain from the culture collection.

  6. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  7. An Antifungal Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Postharvest Pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation. PMID:25101960

  8. Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengmin; Narukami, Toshiaki; Nameki, Misuzu; Ozawa, Tomoko; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR. PMID:22038601

  9. Spatial differentiation of gene expression in Aspergillus niger colony grown for sugar beet pulp utilization

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Isabelle; Zhou, Miaomiao; Vivas Duarte, Alexandra; Downes, Damien J.; Todd, Richard B.; Kloezen, Wendy; Post, Harm; Heck, Albert J. R.; Maarten Altelaar, A. F.; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of plant biomass to fermentable sugars is of critical importance for the use of plant materials for biofuels. Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous organisms and major plant biomass degraders. Single colonies of some fungal species can colonize massive areas as large as five soccer stadia. During growth, the mycelium encounters heterogeneous carbon sources. Here we assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a major determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. We analyzed whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 5-day-old colonies utilizing sugar beet pulp as a complex carbon source. Growth, protein production and secretion occurred throughout the colony. Genes involved in carbon catabolism were expressed uniformly from the centre to the periphery whereas genes encoding plant biomass degrading enzymes and nitrate utilization were expressed differentially across the colony. A combined adaptive response of carbon-catabolism and enzyme production to locally available monosaccharides was observed. Finally, our results demonstrate that A. niger employs different enzymatic tools to adapt its metabolism as it colonizes complex environments. PMID:26314379

  10. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius

    SciTech Connect

    Cabañes, F. Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M. Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-03-13

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5 Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36 Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis.

  11. GC--MS analysis reveals production of 2--Phenylethanol from Aspergillus niger endophytic in rose.

    PubMed

    Wani, Masood Ahmed; Sanjana, Kaul; Kumar, Dhar Manoj; Lal, Dhar Kanahya

    2010-02-01

    Endophytes include all organisms that during a variable period of their life, colonize the living internal tissues of their hosts without causing detectable symptoms. Several fungal endophytes have been isolated from a variety of plant species which have proved themselves as a rich source of secondary metabolites. The reported natural products from endophytes include antibiotics, immunosuppresants, anticancer compounds, antioxidant agents, etc. For the first time Rosa damacaena (rose) has been explored for its endophytes. The rose oil industry is the major identified deligence for its application in perfumery, flavouring, ointments, and pharmaceuticals including various herbal products. During the present investigation fungal endophytes were isolated from Rosa damacaena. A total of fifty four isolates were isolated out of which sixteen isolates were screened for the production of secondary metabolites. GCMS analysis reveals the production of 2-phenylethanol by one of the isolates JUBT 3M which was identified as Aspergillus niger. This is the first report of production of 2-phenylethanol from endophytic A. niger. 2-phenylethanol is an important constituent of rose oil constituting about 4.06% of rose oil. Presence of 2-phenylethanol indicates that the endophyte of rose may duplicate the biosynthesis of phenyl propanoids by rose plant. Besides this, the other commercial applications of phenylethanol include its use in antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials and preservative in pharmaceuticals.

  12. GDP-mannose transporter paralogues play distinct roles in polarized growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Hayes, Loretta; Hill, Terry W; Loprete, Darlene M; Gordon, Barbara S; Groover, Chassidy J; Johnson, Laura R; Martin, Stuart A

    2010-01-01

    GDP-mannose transporters (GMT) carry GDP-mannose nucleotide sugars from the cytosol across the Golgi apparatus membrane for use as substrates in protein glycosylation in plants, animals and fungi. Genomes of some fungal species, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contain only one gene encoding a GMT, while others, including Aspergillus nidulans, contain two (gmtA and gmtB). We previously showed that cell wall integrity and normal hyphal morphogenesis in A. nidulans depend upon the function of GmtA and that GmtA localizes to a Golgi-like compartment. Cells bearing the calI11 mutation in gmtA also have reduced cell surface mannosylation. Here we show that GmtB colocalizes with GmtA, suggesting that the role of GmtB is similar to that of GmtA, although the respective transcript levels differ during spore germination and early development. Transcript levels of gmtB are high in ungerminated spores and remain so throughout the first 16 h of germination. In contrast, transcript levels of gmrtA are negligible in ungerminated spores but increase to levels comparable to those of gmtB during germination. These observations suggest that although GmtA and GmtB reside within the same subcellular compartments, they nevertheless perform distinct functions at different stages of development.

  13. The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi. PMID:19171936

  14. Redundant synthesis of a conidial polyketide by two distinct secondary metabolite clusters in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Throckmorton, Kurt; Lim, Fang Yun; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Zheng, Weifa; Keller, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filamentous fungi are renowned for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Typically, one distinct metabolite is generated from a specific secondary metabolite cluster. Here, we characterize the newly described trypacidin (tpc) cluster in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We find that this cluster as well as the previously characterized endocrocin (enc) cluster both contribute to the production of the spore metabolite endocrocin. Whereas trypacidin is eliminated when only tpc cluster genes are deleted, endocrocin production is only eliminated when both the tpc and enc non-reducing polyketide synthase-encoding genes, tpcC and encA, respectively, are deleted. EncC, an anthrone oxidase, converts the product released from EncA to endocrocin as a final product. In contrast, endocrocin synthesis by the tpc cluster likely results from incomplete catalysis by TpcK (a putative decarboxylase), as its deletion results in a nearly 10-fold increase in endocrocin production. We suggest endocrocin is likely a shunt product in all related non-reducing polyketide synthase clusters containing homologues of TpcK and TpcL (a putative anthrone oxidase), e.g. geodin and monodictyphenone. This finding represents an unusual example of two physically discrete secondary metabolite clusters generating the same natural product in one fungal species by distinct routes. PMID:26242966

  15. The mechanism of antifungal action of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus.

  16. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient.

  17. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of the Cultivation of a Lovastatin Producer Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Bizukojc, Marcin; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to review bioprocess engineering aspects of lovastatin (antihypercholesterolemia drug) production by Aspergillus terreus in the submerged culture in the bioreactors of various scale presented in the scientific literature since the nineties of the twentieth century. The key factor influencing the cultivation of any filamentous species is fungal morphology and that is why this aspect was treated as the starting point for further considerations. Fungal morphology is known to have an impact on the following issues connected with the cultivation of A. terreus reviewed in this article. These are broth viscosity in conjunction with non-Newtonian behaviour of the cultivation broths, and multistage oxygen transfer processes: from gas phase (air) to liquid phase (broth) and diffusion in the fungal agglomerates. The latest achievements concerning the controlling A. terreus morphology during lovastatin biosynthesis with the use of morphological engineering techniques were also reviewed. Last but not least, some attention was paid to the type of a bioreactor, its operational mode and kinetic modelling of lovastatin production by A. terreus.

  18. Citric acid production from Aspergillus niger MT-4 using hydrolysate extract of the insect Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Incekara, Umit

    2013-06-01

    Citric acid (CA) is the most important organic acid used in the food and other industries. Locusta migratoria is an insect species, which has rich nutritional composition (especially protein) and cultivated in some countries. Therefore, the present study investigated the usability of hydrolysate extract of L. migratoria biomass as substrate for the production of CA from Aspergillus niger MT-4. The insect extract (IE) was found to be rich in ash (34.9 g/100 g), protein (35.6 g/100 g) and mineral contents. Yeast extract was found to be the most favorable substrate for biomass production, whereas the maximum production of CA (41.8 g/L) was achieved in the medium containing IE. Besides, uniform pellets with the smallest size (4 mm) were observed in IE medium. It was thought that rich magnesium (6.78 g/100 g) and manganese (1.14 g/100 g) contents of IE increased the production of CA, resulting in the formation of small uniform pellets. This is the first report on the effect of protein-rich insect biomasses on the production of CA. In this regard, L. migratoria biomass was tested for the first time as a CA-production substrate.

  19. Oxidative stress and carbon metabolism influence Aspergillus flavus transcriptome composition and secondary metabolite production

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Jake C.; Bajaj, Prasad; Pandey, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Yang, Liming; Kumar, Vinay; Jayale, Ashwin S.; Chitikineni, Anu; Zhuang, Weijian; Scully, Brian T.; Lee, R. Dewey; Kemerait, Robert C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of crops with aflatoxin is a serious global threat to food safety. Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus is exacerbated by drought stress in the field and by oxidative stress in vitro. We examined transcriptomes of three toxigenic and three atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus in aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive media with varying levels of H2O2 to investigate the relationship of secondary metabolite production, carbon source, and oxidative stress. We found that toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates employ distinct mechanisms to remediate oxidative damage, and that carbon source affected the isolates’ expression profiles. Iron metabolism, monooxygenases, and secondary metabolism appeared to participate in isolate oxidative responses. The results suggest that aflatoxin and aflatrem biosynthesis may remediate oxidative stress by consuming excess oxygen and that kojic acid production may limit iron-mediated, non-enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species. Together, secondary metabolite production may enhance A. flavus stress tolerance, and may be reduced by enhancing host plant tissue antioxidant capacity though genetic improvement by breeding selection. PMID:27941917

  20. Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

    2014-01-01

    Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions.