Science.gov

Sample records for specific calibration problems

  1. PV reference cells: Calibration and stability problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koltun, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The PV reference cells described in this paper were made and calibrated in Russia. Their parameters have also been measured in Italy, Germany and Israel, in recent years. Different calibration methods are discussed, as well as stability data of PV reference cell parameters, as measured from 1962 to date.

  2. Photometer calibration problem for extended astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of calibration tests for the Skylab experimental T027 photometer is used to show that if an instrument is focused at infinity, the uniform extended calibration source should be positioned at distances at least equal to the hyperfocal distance and should be large enough to fill the field of view. It is noted that the field depth can be increased by focusing the optical system at the hyperfocal distance and that this method of focusing reduces the needed diameter of the calibration source to half that of a system focused at infinity. Other calibration methods discussed includes determining the radiance responsivity distance and extrapolating the curve to larger distances as well as extensive mapping of the spatial response combined with the irradiance responsivity to obtain the radiance responsivity.

  3. Problems with earphone calibration using a manikin.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowski, J M; Cooper, W A

    1976-01-01

    The response of a single TDH-39 receiver mounted in a MX-41/AR and an Auraldome cushion was measured psychoacoustically and electroacoustically using standard couplers and the Zwislocki coupler mounted in KEMAR (Knowles Electronic Manikin for Acoustic Research). Although the psychoacoustic data were similar for both cushions, electroacoustic responses differed across cushions and across couplers. It was concluded that an accurate method for evaluating circumaural earphones has not yet been developed and the manikin, in its present form, is unsuitable for supra-aural or circumaural earphone calibration.

  4. 40 CFR 90.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calibration accuracy. 90.305 Section 90.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.305 Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy... Appendix A of this subpart. The dynamometer must be capable of performing the test cycle described in § 90...

  5. 40 CFR 90.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer specifications and... KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.305 Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy. (a) Dynamometer specifications. The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement...

  6. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer specifications and... Equipment Provisions § 91.305 Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy. (a) Dynamometer specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and...

  7. Calibration problems with the viscosity measurement of liquid metallurgical slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, H. P.; Schürmann, M.; Scholl, K.; Haustein, N.; Lychatz, B.; Falkus, J.

    2017-01-01

    The viscosity of slag is an important characteristic of liquid slags regarding its lubricating effect and mass transfer. For measurement, however, they exhibit considerable differences in the values reported. Therefore, the rotation method, mostly used for high temperatures areas, is investigated regarding the impacts of any geometric inaccuracies. Furthermore, problems in the centering and use of calibration slags are discussed. It appears that, with the use of a more precise rheometer with air bearing, an error of less than +/- 3 % is possible in compliance with geometric critical values and online monitoring of the central operations. The verification was carried out with a blast furnace slag, which is also proposed as a calibration slag.

  8. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a) Dynamometer specifications. The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of power output...

  9. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a) Dynamometer specifications. The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of power output...

  10. Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Tasse, C.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as STEFCAL and peeling can be understood as special cases of this, and place them in the context of the general formalism. Finally, we present an implementation and some applied results of COHJONES, another specialized direction-dependent calibration algorithm derived from the formalism.

  11. Multiplexed Method to Calibrate and Quantitate Fluorescence Signal for Allergen-Specific IgE

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Margo R.; Reddington, Alexander P.; Collins, Austin D.; LaBoda, Craig; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella; Little, Frédéric F.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2012-01-01

    Using a microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of serum. However, variation of probe immobilization on microarrays hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics. To address this problem, we have developed a calibrated, inexpensive, multiplexed, and rapid protein microarray method that directly correlates surface probe density to captured labeled secondary antibody in clinical samples. We have identified three major technological advantages of our calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) technique: (i) a significant increase in fluorescence emission over a broad range of fluorophores on a layered substrate optimized specifically for fluorescence; (ii) a method to perform label-free quantification of the probes in each spot while maintaining fluorescence enhancement for a particular fluorophore; and (iii) a calibrated, quantitative technique that combines fluorescence and label-free modalities to accurately measure probe density and bound target for a variety of antibody–antigen pairs. In this paper, we establish the effectiveness of the CaFE method by presenting the strong linear dependence of the amount of bound protein to the resulting fluorescence signal of secondary antibody for IgG, β-lactoglobulin, and allergen-specific IgEs to Ara h 1 (peanut major allergen) and Phl p 1 (timothy grass major allergen) in human serum. PMID:22060132

  12. P-value calibration for multiple testing problems in genomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John P; Palejev, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Conservative statistical tests are often used in complex multiple testing settings in which computing the type I error may be difficult. In such tests, the reported p-value for a hypothesis can understate the evidence against the null hypothesis and consequently statistical power may be lost. False Discovery Rate adjustments, used in multiple comparison settings, can worsen the unfavorable effect. We present a computationally efficient and test-agnostic calibration technique that can substantially reduce the conservativeness of such tests. As a consequence, a lower sample size might be sufficient to reject the null hypothesis for true alternatives, and experimental costs can be lowered. We apply the calibration technique to the results of DESeq, a popular method for detecting differentially expressed genes from RNA sequencing data. The increase in power may be particularly high in small sample size experiments, often used in preliminary experiments and funding applications.

  13. A Robust Bayesian Random Effects Model for Nonlinear Calibration Problems

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Y.; Wakefield, J.; De Rosa, S.; Frahm, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the context of a bioassay or an immunoassay, calibration means fitting a curve, usually nonlinear, through the observations collected on a set of samples containing known concentrations of a target substance, and then using the fitted curve and observations collected on samples of interest to predict the concentrations of the target substance in these samples. Recent technological advances have greatly improved our ability to quantify minute amounts of substance from a tiny volume of biological sample. This has in turn led to a need to improve statistical methods for calibration. In this paper, we focus on developing calibration methods robust to dependent outliers. We introduce a novel normal mixture model with dependent error terms to model the experimental noise. In addition, we propose a re-parameterization of the five parameter logistic nonlinear regression model that allows us to better incorporate prior information. We examine the performance of our methods with simulation studies and show that they lead to a substantial increase in performance measured in terms of mean squared error of estimation and a measure of the average prediction accuracy. A real data example from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network Laboratory is used to illustrate the methods. PMID:22551415

  14. Invasion Biology: Specific Problems and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Fournier, Alice; Bellard, Céline; Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Bonnaud, Elsa; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Russell, James C

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions have been unambiguously shown to be one of the major global causes of biodiversity loss. Despite the magnitude of this threat and recent scientific advances, this field remains a regular target of criticism - from outright deniers of the threat to scientists questioning the utility of the discipline. This unique situation, combining internal strife and an unaware society, greatly hinders the progress of invasion biology. It is crucial to identify the specificities of this discipline that lead to such difficulties. We outline here 24 specificities and problems of this discipline and categorize them into four groups: understanding, alerting, supporting, and implementing the issues associated with invasive alien species, and we offer solutions to tackle these problems and push the field forward.

  15. Calibrating corneal material model parameters using only inflation data: an ill-posed problem.

    PubMed

    Kok, S; Botha, N; Inglis, H M

    2014-12-01

    Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) is a method used to estimate the intraocular pressure by measuring the indentation resistance of the cornea. A popular approach to investigate the sensitivity of GAT results to material and geometry variations is to perform numerical modelling using the finite element method, for which a calibrated material model is required. These material models are typically calibrated using experimental inflation data by solving an inverse problem. In the inverse problem, the underlying material constitutive behaviour is inferred from the measured macroscopic response (chamber pressure versus apical displacement). In this study, a biomechanically motivated elastic fibre-reinforced corneal material model is chosen. The inverse problem of calibrating the corneal material model parameters using only experimental inflation data is demonstrated to be ill-posed, with small variations in the experimental data leading to large differences in the calibrated model parameters. This can result in different groups of researchers, calibrating their material model with the same inflation test data, drawing vastly different conclusions about the effect of material parameters on GAT results. It is further demonstrated that multiple loading scenarios, such as inflation as well as bending, would be required to reliably calibrate such a corneal material model.

  16. Organ-specific SPECT activity calibration using 3D printed phantoms for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David; Brown, Richard; Flynn, Alex; Oldfield, Christopher; Page, Emma; Price, Emlyn; Smith, Andrew; Snee, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques. SPECT/CT data for the phantom inserts has been used to calculate new organ-specific calibration factors for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The measured calibration factors are compared to predicted values from calculations using a Gaussian kernel. Measured SPECT calibration factors for 3D printed organs display a clear dependence on organ shape for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The observed variation in calibration factor is reproduced using Gaussian kernel-based calculation over two orders of magnitude change in insert volume for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. These new organ-specific calibration factors show a 24, 11 and 8 % reduction in absorbed dose for the liver, spleen and kidneys, respectively. Non-spherical calibration factors from 3D printed phantom inserts can significantly improve the accuracy of whole organ activity quantification for molecular radiotherapy, providing a crucial step towards individualised activity quantification and patient-specific dosimetry. 3D printed inserts are found to provide a cost effective and efficient way for clinical centres to access more realistic phantom data.

  17. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and torque... accuracy. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine torque and...

  18. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and torque... accuracy. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine torque and...

  19. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and torque... accuracy. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine torque and...

  20. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and torque... accuracy. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine torque and...

  1. Calibration-curve-free quantitative PCR: a quantitative method for specific nucleic acid sequences without using calibration curves.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hidenori; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Morita, Nao; Kurata, Shinya; Nakamura, Kazunori; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Noda, Naohiro

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a simple quantitative method for specific nucleic acid sequences without using calibration curves. This method is based on the combined use of competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence quenching. We amplified a gene of interest (target) from DNA samples and an internal standard (competitor) with a sequence-specific fluorescent probe using PCR and measured the fluorescence intensities before and after PCR. The fluorescence of the probe is quenched on hybridization with the target by guanine bases, whereas the fluorescence is not quenched on hybridization with the competitor. Therefore, quench rate (i.e., fluorescence intensity after PCR divided by fluorescence intensity before PCR) is always proportional to the ratio of the target to the competitor. Consequently, we can calculate the ratio from quench rate without using a calibration curve and then calculate the initial copy number of the target from the ratio and the initial copy number of the competitor. We successfully quantified the copy number of a recombinant DNA of genetically modified (GM) soybean and estimated the GM soybean contents. This method will be particularly useful for rapid field tests of the specific gene contamination in samples.

  2. Solving the robot-world, hand-eye(s) calibration problem with iterative methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Robot-world, hand-eye calibration is the problem of determining the transformation between the robot end effector and a camera, as well as the transformation between the robot base and the world coordinate system. This relationship has been modeled as AX = ZB, where X and Z are unknown homogeneous ...

  3. Elementary Students' Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…

  4. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  5. A GPU-Based Implementation of the Firefly Algorithm for Variable Selection in Multivariate Calibration Problems

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Lauro C. M.; Soares, Anderson S.; de Lima, Telma W.; Delbem, Alexandre C. B.; Coelho, Clarimar J.; Filho, Arlindo R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Several variable selection algorithms in multivariate calibration can be accelerated using Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Among these algorithms, the Firefly Algorithm (FA) is a recent proposed metaheuristic that may be used for variable selection. This paper presents a GPU-based FA (FA-MLR) with multiobjective formulation for variable selection in multivariate calibration problems and compares it with some traditional sequential algorithms in the literature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is demonstrated in an example involving a relatively large number of variables. The results showed that the FA-MLR, in comparison with the traditional algorithms is a more suitable choice and a relevant contribution for the variable selection problem. Additionally, the results also demonstrated that the FA-MLR performed in a GPU can be five times faster than its sequential implementation. PMID:25493625

  6. Probabilistic methods for sensitivity analysis and calibration in the NASA challenge problem

    DOE PAGES

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; ...

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of algorithms are proposed to address the problems in the NASA Langley Research Center Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge. A Bayesian approach is employed to characterize and calibrate the epistemic parameters based on the available data, whereas a variance-based global sensitivity analysis is used to rank the epistemic and aleatory model parameters. A nested sampling of the aleatory–epistemic space is proposed to propagate uncertainties from model parameters to output quantities of interest.

  7. Calibration is action specific but perturbation of perceptual units is not.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing S; Coats, Rachel O; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2014-02-01

    G. P. Bingham and C. C. Pagano (1998, The necessity of a perception/action approach to definite distance perception: Monocular distance perception to guide reaching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 145-168) argued that metric space perception should be investigated using relevant action measures because calibration is an intrinsic component of perception/action that yields accurate targeted actions. They described calibration as a mapping from embodied units of perception to embodied units of action. This mapping theory yields a number of predictions. We tested two of them. The first prediction is that calibration should be action specific because what is calibrated is a mapping from perceptual units to a unit of action. Thus, calibration does not generalize to other actions. This prediction is consistent with the "action-specific approach" to calibration (D. R. Proffitt, 2008, An action specific approach to spatial perception. In R. L. Klatzky, B. MacWhinney, & M. Behrmann (Eds.), Embodiment, ego-space and action (pp. 179-202). New York, NY: Psychology Press.). The second prediction is that a change in perceptual units should generalize to all relevant actions that are guided using that perceptual information. The same perceptual units can be mapped to different actions. Change in the unit affects all relevant actions. This prediction is consistent with the "general purpose perception approach" (J. M. Loomis & J. W. Philbeck, 2008, Measuring spatial perception with spatial updating and action. In R. L. Klatzky, B. MacWhinney, & M. Behrmann (Eds.), Embodiment, ego-space and action (pp. 1-43). New York, NY: Psychology Press). In Experiment 1, two targeted actions, throwing and extended reaching were tested to determine if they were comparable in precision and in response to distorted calibration. They were. Comparing these actions, the first prediction was tested in Experiment 2 and confirmed. The second prediction was

  8. The Prediction Properties of Inverse and Reverse Regression for the Simple Linear Calibration Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A.; Geoffrey, Vining G.; Wilson, Sara R.; Szarka, John L., III; Johnson, Nels G.

    2010-01-01

    The calibration of measurement systems is a fundamental but under-studied problem within industrial statistics. The origins of this problem go back to basic chemical analysis based on NIST standards. In today's world these issues extend to mechanical, electrical, and materials engineering. Often, these new scenarios do not provide "gold standards" such as the standard weights provided by NIST. This paper considers the classic "forward regression followed by inverse regression" approach. In this approach the initial experiment treats the "standards" as the regressor and the observed values as the response to calibrate the instrument. The analyst then must invert the resulting regression model in order to use the instrument to make actual measurements in practice. This paper compares this classical approach to "reverse regression," which treats the standards as the response and the observed measurements as the regressor in the calibration experiment. Such an approach is intuitively appealing because it avoids the need for the inverse regression. However, it also violates some of the basic regression assumptions.

  9. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    SciTech Connect

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems.

  11. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  12. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  13. Functional design specification for the problem data system. [space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boatman, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Design Specification is to outline the design for the Problem Data System. The Problem Data System is a computer-based data management system designed to track the status of problems and corrective actions pertinent to space shuttle hardware.

  14. Tensor-based classification of an auditory mobile BCI without a subject-specific calibration phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Objective. One of the major drawbacks in EEG brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is the need for subject-specific training of the classifier. By removing the need for a supervised calibration phase, new users could potentially explore a BCI faster. In this work we aim to remove this subject-specific calibration phase and allow direct classification. Approach. We explore canonical polyadic decompositions and block term decompositions of the EEG. These methods exploit structure in higher dimensional data arrays called tensors. The BCI tensors are constructed by concatenating ERP templates from other subjects to a target and non-target trial and the inherent structure guides a decomposition that allows accurate classification. We illustrate the new method on data from a three-class auditory oddball paradigm. Main results. The presented approach leads to a fast and intuitive classification with accuracies competitive with a supervised and cross-validated LDA approach. Significance. The described methods are a promising new way of classifying BCI data with a forthright link to the original P300 ERP signal over the conventional and widely used supervised approaches.

  15. Determination of site specific calibration functions for the estimation of soil moisture from measurements of cosmic-ray neutron intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, M.; Looms, M. C.; Bogena, H. R.; Desilets, D.; Zreda, M. G.; Jensen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The recently-developed cosmic-ray neutron intensity method measures area-average soil moisture at an intermediate scale of hectometers. Calibration has proven difficult at that scale because of spatial variability of soil water and the presence of other pools of water, such as that in vegetation, also spatially and temporally variable. Soil moisture is determined using a standard calibration function that relates the neutron intensity to soil water, and that has been parameterized by fitting a curve to neutron intensities modelled at different soil moistures. Neutron transport was simulated using the MCNPX model in which a simple setup of bare ground and sandy homogeneous soil only composed of SiO2 was used. The standard procedure is that only one parameter of the calibration function should be fitted, which is determined from at least one independent soil moisture calibration. In this study, site-specific calibration functions are determined to obtain some insights on the effect of other pools of hydrogen than soil moisture. Insights will elucidate whether the calibration scheme for field sites with other major pools of hydrogen should be adapted. The calibration functions are obtained similarly to the standard calibration function, but site specific model-setups are used. We obtained calibration at field sites within HOBE - the Danish Hydrologic Observatory. The field sites represent three major land covers within the catchment; farmland, forest and heathland, and the model-setups are based on site-specific data for soil chemistry, soil organic carbon, litter layer and above- and below ground biomass. The three models provided three different calibration functions and, additionally, they were all different from the standard calibration function. The steepness of the curve and the dynamic range of neutron intensity modeled were found to be particularly dependent on the above-ground biomass and the thickness of the litter layer. Three-to-four independent soil

  16. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems?

    PubMed

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger

    2012-09-01

    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  18. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  19. The use of matrix-specific calibrations for oxygen in analytical glow discharge spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gago, Cristina; Smid, Petr; Hofmann, Thomas; Venzago, Cornel; Hoffmann, Volker; Gruner, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The performance of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for oxygen determination is investigated using a set of new conductive samples containing oxygen in the percent range in three different matrices (Al, Mg, and Cu) prepared by a sintering process. The sputtering rate corrected calibrations obtained at standard conditions for the 4 mm anode (700 V, 20 mA) in GD-OES are matrix independent for Mg and Al but not for Cu. The importance of a "blue shifted" line of oxygen at 130.22 nm (first reported by Köster) for quantitative analyses by GD-OES is confirmed. Matrix-specific calibrations for oxygen in GD-MS are presented. Two source concepts-fast flow (ELEMENT GD) and low gas flow (VG9000)-are evaluated obtaining higher sensitivity with the static flow source. Additional experiments using Ar-He mixtures or μs pulsed GD are carried out in ELEMENT GD aiming to improve the oxygen sensitivity.

  20. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:25143666

  1. Model calibration for ice sheets and glaciers dynamics: a general theory of inverse problems in glaciology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Mauro; Baratelli, Fulvia; Vassena, Chiara; Cattaneo, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Numerical modelling of the dynamic evolution of ice sheets and glaciers requires the solution of discrete equations which are based on physical principles (e.g. conservation of mass, linear momentum and energy) and phenomenological constitutive laws (e.g. Glen's and Fourier's laws). These equations must be accompanied by information on the forcing term and by initial and boundary conditions (IBC) on ice velocity, stress and temperature; on the other hand the constitutive laws involves many physical parameters, which possibly depend on the ice thermodynamical state. The proper forecast of the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers (forward problem, FP) requires a precise knowledge of several quantities which appear in the IBCs, in the forcing terms and in the phenomenological laws and which cannot be easily measured at the study scale in the field. Therefore these quantities can be obtained through model calibration, i.e. by the solution of an inverse problem (IP). Roughly speaking, the IP aims at finding the optimal values of the model parameters that yield the best agreement of the model output with the field observations and data. The practical application of IPs is usually formulated as a generalised least squares approach, which can be cast in the framework of Bayesian inference. IPs are well developed in several areas of science and geophysics and several applications were proposed also in glaciology. The objective of this paper is to provide a further step towards a thorough and rigorous theoretical framework in cryospheric studies. Although the IP is often claimed to be ill-posed, this is rigorously true for continuous domain models, whereas for numerical models, which require the solution of algebraic equations, the properties of the IP must be analysed with more care. First of all, it is necessary to clarify the role of experimental and monitoring data to determine the calibration targets and the values of the parameters that can be considered to be fixed

  2. Sparse Solution of High-Dimensional Model Calibration Inverse Problems under Uncertainty in Prior Structural Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad khaninezhad, M.; Jafarpour, B.

    2012-12-01

    structural variability in the dataset. To solve the resulting inverse problem, we minimize a sparsity-regularized least-squares data mismatch function. This formulation of the inverse problem is inspired by recent advances in sparse reconstruction and the compressed sensing paradigm. We use several numerical experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods and their applicability to high-dimensional model calibration inverse problems.

  3. Analytic Solution to the Problem of Aircraft Electric Field Mill Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William

    2003-01-01

    It is by no means a simple task to retrieve storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with electric field mill sensors. The presence of the aircraft distorts the ambient field in a complicated way. Before retrievals of the storm field can be made, the field mill measurement system must be "calibrated". In other words, a relationship between impressed (i.e., ambient) electric field and mill output must be established. If this relationship can be determined, it is mathematically inverted so that ambient field can be inferred from the mill outputs. Previous studies have primarily focused on linear theories where the relationship between ambient field and mill output is described by a "calibration matrix" M. Each element of the matrix describes how a particular component of the ambient field is enhanced by the aircraft. For example the product M(sub ix), E(sub x), is the contribution of the E(sub x) field to the i(th) mill output. Similarly, net aircraft charge (described by a "charge field component" E(sub q)) contributes an amount M(sub iq)E(sub q) to the output of the i(th) sensor. The central difficulty in obtaining M stems from the fact that the impressed field (E(sub x), E(sub y), E(sub z), E(sub q) is not known but is instead estimated. Typically, the aircraft is flown through a series of roll and pitch maneuvers in fair weather, and the values of the fair weather field and aircraft charge are estimated at each point along the aircraft trajectory. These initial estimates are often highly inadequate, but several investigators have improved the estimates by implementing various (ad hoc) iterative methods. Unfortunately, none of the iterative methods guarantee absolute convergence to correct values (i.e., absolute convergence to correct values has not been rigorously proven). In this work, the mathematical problem is solved directly by analytic means. For m mills installed on an arbitrary aircraft, it is shown that it is possible to solve for a single 2m

  4. Analytic Solution to the Problem of Aircraft Electric Field Mill Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William

    2003-01-01

    It is by no means a simple task to retrieve storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with electric field mill sensors. The presence of the aircraft distorts the ambient field in a complicated way. Before retrievals of the storm field can be made, the field mill measurement system must be "calibrated". In other words, a relationship between impressed (i.e., ambient) electric field and mill output must be established. If this relationship can be determined, it is mathematically inverted so that ambient field can be inferred from the mill outputs. Previous studies have primarily focused on linear theories where the relationship between ambient field and mill output is described by a "calibration matrix" M. Each element of the matrix describes how a particular component of the ambient field is enhanced by the aircraft. For example the product M(sub ix), E(sub x), is the contribution of the E(sub x) field to the i(th) mill output. Similarly, net aircraft charge (described by a "charge field component" E(sub q)) contributes an amount M(sub iq)E(sub q) to the output of the i(th) sensor. The central difficulty in obtaining M stems from the fact that the impressed field (E(sub x), E(sub y), E(sub z), E(sub q) is not known but is instead estimated. Typically, the aircraft is flown through a series of roll and pitch maneuvers in fair weather, and the values of the fair weather field and aircraft charge are estimated at each point along the aircraft trajectory. These initial estimates are often highly inadequate, but several investigators have improved the estimates by implementing various (ad hoc) iterative methods. Unfortunately, none of the iterative methods guarantee absolute convergence to correct values (i.e., absolute convergence to correct values has not been rigorously proven). In this work, the mathematical problem is solved directly by analytic means. For m mills installed on an arbitrary aircraft, it is shown that it is possible to solve for a single 2m

  5. Calibration and assessment of channel-specific biases in microarray data with extended dynamical range

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Henrik; Jönsson, Göran; Vallon-Christersson, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Background Non-linearities in observed log-ratios of gene expressions, also known as intensity dependent log-ratios, can often be accounted for by global biases in the two channels being compared. Any step in a microarray process may introduce such offsets and in this article we study the biases introduced by the microarray scanner and the image analysis software. Results By scanning the same spotted oligonucleotide microarray at different photomultiplier tube (PMT) gains, we have identified a channel-specific bias present in two-channel microarray data. For the scanners analyzed it was in the range of 15–25 (out of 65,535). The observed bias was very stable between subsequent scans of the same array although the PMT gain was greatly adjusted. This indicates that the bias does not originate from a step preceding the scanner detector parts. The bias varies slightly between arrays. When comparing estimates based on data from the same array, but from different scanners, we have found that different scanners introduce different amounts of bias. So do various image analysis methods. We propose a scanning protocol and a constrained affine model that allows us to identify and estimate the bias in each channel. Backward transformation removes the bias and brings the channels to the same scale. The result is that systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios are removed, but also that signal densities become much more similar. The average scan, which has a larger dynamical range and greater signal-to-noise ratio than individual scans, can then be obtained. Conclusions The study shows that microarray scanners may introduce a significant bias in each channel. Such biases have to be calibrated for, otherwise systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios will be observed. The proposed scanning protocol and calibration method is simple to use and is useful for evaluating scanner biases or for obtaining calibrated measurements with extended dynamical

  6. Sport-specific injuries and medical problems of figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B; Young, Craig C; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Gottschlich, Laura M

    2007-09-01

    Figure skating is becoming increasingly popular as both a recreational and competitive sport. As the number of figure skating participants increases, so will the number of active patients who present to their primary care physician with sport-related injuries and medical problems. Figure skating is a unique sport that continues to evolve and progress with participants partaking in more difficult moves and more rigorous training programs. Common problems in figure skating include acute musculo-skeletal injuries and chronic overuse injuries, which primarily occur in the foot, ankle, knee, leg, hip, and lower back. Figure skaters are also more likely to endure specific medical problems such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and eating disorders. Primary care physicians are able to contribute to their figure skating patient's health by recognition and appropriate treatment of acute injuries and prevention of chronic injuries and other medical problems.

  7. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Seeker, Luise A; Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  8. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  9. Patient-specific stopping power calibration for proton therapy planning based on single-detector proton radiography.

    PubMed

    Doolan, P J; Testa, M; Sharp, G; Bentefour, E H; Royle, G; Lu, H-M

    2015-03-07

    A simple robust optimizer has been developed that can produce patient-specific calibration curves to convert x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers to relative stopping powers (HU-RSPs) for proton therapy treatment planning. The difference between a digitally reconstructed radiograph water-equivalent path length (DRRWEPL) map through the x-ray CT dataset and a proton radiograph (set as the ground truth) is minimized by optimizing the HU-RSP calibration curve. The function of the optimizer is validated with synthetic datasets that contain no noise and its robustness is shown against CT noise. Application of the procedure is then demonstrated on a plastic and a real tissue phantom, with proton radiographs produced using a single detector. The mean errors using generic/optimized calibration curves between the DRRWEPL map and the proton radiograph were 1.8/0.4% for a plastic phantom and -2.1/ - 0.2% for a real tissue phantom. It was then demonstrated that these optimized calibration curves offer a better prediction of the water equivalent path length at a therapeutic depth. We believe that these promising results are suggestive that a single proton radiograph could be used to generate a patient-specific calibration curve as part of the current proton treatment planning workflow.

  10. Is Simpler Better? A Visualization-based Exploration of How Parametric Screening Influences Problem Difficulty and Equifinality in Multiobjective Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Urban, R. L.; Wagener, T.; van Werkhoven, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study uses interactive visualization to investigate the common assumption that parametric screening using sensitivity analysis simplifies hydrologic calibration. Put simply, do we make calibration easier by eliminating model parameters from the optimization problem? Traditional approaches for parametric screening focus on model evaluation metrics that seek to minimize statistical error. We demonstrate in this study that additional hydrology relevant metrics (e.g., water balance) are essential to properly screening parameters and producing search problems that do not degenerate into random walks (a severe case of equifinality). This work highlights that we should move beyond a focus on optimality in a traditional error sense and instead focus on enhancing our evaluative metrics and formulations to include hydrology relevant information. Building on the prior work by van Werkhoven et al. 2009, this study utilizes parameter screening results based on Sobol sensitivity analysis to reduce the size of hydrologic calibration problems for the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model (SAC SMA). Our study was conducted across four hydroclimatically diverse watersheds, and we distinguish various sets of parametric screenings, including a full parameter search, as well as parameter screenings based on 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Sobol sensitivity levels. For each Sobol sensitivity level there are two subcases: (1) parameters are screened based on statistical metrics alone, and (2) parameters are screened based on statistical and hydrological metrics. The reduced parameter sets were searched using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to determine the tradeoff surfaces of optimal parameter settings. Our results contribute detailed interactive visualizations of the 4-objective tradeoff surfaces for all of the parametric screening cases evaluated. For almost all of problem formulations that result from parametric screening, the combined use of statistical and hydrological

  11. Some specific features of ionization chamber calibrations in linac x-ray beams at the LNE-LNHB.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, F; Ostrowsky, A

    2007-05-07

    The purpose of this note is to give some details about the modus operandi employed today to calibrate ionization chambers in radiotherapy linac photon beams at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB). Some specific features are described: first the equipment (including the external monitoring ionization chambers), second the calculations of the profile or radial non-uniformity correction factors (up to 0.5% effect for commonly used ionization chambers) and finally the calculations to get the calibration coefficients for customer beam qualities.

  12. Language Problems and ADHD Symptoms: How Specific Are the Links?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Erin; Gathercole, Susan; Astle, Duncan; Holmes, Joni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. A single dimension of behavioural difficulties including both hyperactivity and inattention captured behaviour problems. This was strongly and negatively associated with pragmatic communication skills. There was less evidence for a relationship between behaviour and language structure: behaviour ratings were more weakly associated with the use of structural language in communication, and there were no links with direct measures of literacy. These behaviour problems and pragmatic communication difficulties co-occur in this sample, but impairments in the more formal use of language that impact on literacy and structural communication skills are tied less strongly to behavioural difficulties. One interpretation is that impairments in executive function give rise to both behavioural and social communication problems, and additional or alternative deficits in other cognitive abilities impact on the development of structural language skills. PMID:27775648

  13. Language Problems and ADHD Symptoms: How Specific Are the Links?

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Erin; Gathercole, Susan; Astle, Duncan; The Calm Team; Holmes, Joni

    2016-10-21

    Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. A single dimension of behavioural difficulties including both hyperactivity and inattention captured behaviour problems. This was strongly and negatively associated with pragmatic communication skills. There was less evidence for a relationship between behaviour and language structure: behaviour ratings were more weakly associated with the use of structural language in communication, and there were no links with direct measures of literacy. These behaviour problems and pragmatic communication difficulties co-occur in this sample, but impairments in the more formal use of language that impact on literacy and structural communication skills are tied less strongly to behavioural difficulties. One interpretation is that impairments in executive function give rise to both behavioural and social communication problems, and additional or alternative deficits in other cognitive abilities impact on the development of structural language skills.

  14. Does Preschool Self-Regulation Predict Later Behavior Problems in General or Specific Problem Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Spiegel, Jamie A; Goodrich, J Marc; Morris, Brittany M; Osborne, Colleen M; Lerner, Matthew D; Phillips, Beth M

    2017-01-27

    Findings from prior research have consistently indicated significant associations between self-regulation and externalizing behaviors. Significant associations have also been reported between children's language skills and both externalizing behaviors and self-regulation. Few studies to date, however, have examined these relations longitudinally, simultaneously, or with respect to unique clusters of externalizing problems. The current study examined the influence of preschool self-regulation on general and specific externalizing behavior problems in early elementary school and whether these relations were independent of associations between language, self-regulation, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 815 children (44% female). Additionally, given a general pattern of sex differences in the presentations of externalizing behavior problems, self-regulation, and language skills, sex differences for these associations were examined. Results indicated unique relations of preschool self-regulation and language with both general externalizing behavior problems and specific problems of inattention. In general, self-regulation was a stronger longitudinal correlate of externalizing behavior for boys than it was for girls, and language was a stronger longitudinal predictor of hyperactive/impulsive behavior for girls than it was for boys.

  15. A stochastic analysis of the calibration problem for Augmented Reality systems with see-through head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leebmann, Johannes

    This paper presents a closed stochastic solution for the calibration of see-through head-mounted displays (STHMD) for Augmented Reality. An Augmented Reality system (ARS) is based on several components that are affected by stochastic and random errors. One important component is the tracking system. The flock of birds (FOB) tracking system was tested for consistency in position and orientation outputs by establishing constraints that the system was required to meet. The tests for position and orientation were separated to derive uncorrelated quality measures. The tests are self-controlling and do not require any other measuring device. In addition, the image coordinate accuracy also had to be determined to complete the stochastic description of the calibration problem. Based on this stochastic model, different mathematical models were tested to determine whether or not they fit the stochastic model. An overview of different calibration approaches for optical see-through displays is given and a quantitative comparison of the different models is made based on the derived accuracy information.

  16. A calibration method for patient specific IMRT QA using a single therapy verification film.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Oinam, Arun S; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sandhu, I S; Sharma, S C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and verify the single film calibration procedure used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance. Radiographic films have been regularly used in routine commissioning of treatment modalities and verification of treatment planning system (TPS). The radiation dosimetery based on radiographic films has ability to give absolute two-dimension dose distribution and prefer for the IMRT quality assurance. However, the single therapy verification film gives a quick and significant reliable method for IMRT verification. A single extended dose rate (EDR 2) film was used to generate the sensitometric curve of film optical density and radiation dose. EDR 2 film was exposed with nine 6 cm × 6 cm fields of 6 MV photon beam obtained from a medical linear accelerator at 5-cm depth in solid water phantom. The nine regions of single film were exposed with radiation doses raging from 10 to 362 cGy. The actual dose measurements inside the field regions were performed using 0.6 cm(3) ionization chamber. The exposed film was processed after irradiation using a VIDAR film scanner and the value of optical density was noted for each region. Ten IMRT plans of head and neck carcinoma were used for verification using a dynamic IMRT technique, and evaluated using the gamma index method with TPS calculated dose distribution. Sensitometric curve has been generated using a single film exposed at nine field region to check quantitative dose verifications of IMRT treatments. The radiation scattered factor was observed to decrease exponentially with the increase in the distance from the centre of each field region. The IMRT plans based on calibration curve were verified using the gamma index method and found to be within acceptable criteria. The single film method proved to be superior to the traditional calibration method and produce fast daily film calibration for highly accurate IMRT verification.

  17. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  18. Use of commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras for scientific data acquisition and scene-specific color calibration.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Treibitz, Tali; Xiao, Bei; Gürkan, Umut A; Allen, Justine J; Demirci, Utkan; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-02-01

    Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color cameras. In addition, we present a method for scene-specific color calibration that increases the accuracy of color capture when a scene contains colors that are not well represented in the gamut of a standard color-calibration target. We demonstrate applications of the proposed methodology in the fields of biomedical engineering, artwork photography, perception science, marine biology, and underwater imaging.

  19. Use of commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras for scientific data acquisition and scene-specific color calibration

    PubMed Central

    Akkaynak, Derya; Treibitz, Tali; Xiao, Bei; Gürkan, Umut A.; Allen, Justine J.; Demirci, Utkan; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color cameras. In addition, we present a method for scene-specific color calibration that increases the accuracy of color capture when a scene contains colors that are not well represented in the gamut of a standard color-calibration target. We demonstrate applications of the proposed methodology in the fields of biomedical engineering, artwork photography, perception science, marine biology, and underwater imaging. PMID:24562030

  20. A calibration method for patient specific IMRT QA using a single therapy verification film

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Oinam, Arun S.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sandhu, I.S.; Sharma, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study is to develop and verify the single film calibration procedure used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance. Background Radiographic films have been regularly used in routine commissioning of treatment modalities and verification of treatment planning system (TPS). The radiation dosimetery based on radiographic films has ability to give absolute two-dimension dose distribution and prefer for the IMRT quality assurance. However, the single therapy verification film gives a quick and significant reliable method for IMRT verification. Materials and methods A single extended dose rate (EDR 2) film was used to generate the sensitometric curve of film optical density and radiation dose. EDR 2 film was exposed with nine 6 cm × 6 cm fields of 6 MV photon beam obtained from a medical linear accelerator at 5-cm depth in solid water phantom. The nine regions of single film were exposed with radiation doses raging from 10 to 362 cGy. The actual dose measurements inside the field regions were performed using 0.6 cm3 ionization chamber. The exposed film was processed after irradiation using a VIDAR film scanner and the value of optical density was noted for each region. Ten IMRT plans of head and neck carcinoma were used for verification using a dynamic IMRT technique, and evaluated using the gamma index method with TPS calculated dose distribution. Results Sensitometric curve has been generated using a single film exposed at nine field region to check quantitative dose verifications of IMRT treatments. The radiation scattered factor was observed to decrease exponentially with the increase in the distance from the centre of each field region. The IMRT plans based on calibration curve were verified using the gamma index method and found to be within acceptable criteria. Conclusion The single film method proved to be superior to the traditional calibration method and produce fast daily film calibration for highly

  1. Unrealistic parameter estimates in inverse modelling: A problem or a benefit for model calibration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poeter, E.P.; Hill, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Estimation of unrealistic parameter values by inverse modelling is useful for constructed model discrimination. This utility is demonstrated using the three-dimensional, groundwater flow inverse model MODFLOWP to estimate parameters in a simple synthetic model where the true conditions and character of the errors are completely known. When a poorly constructed model is used, unreasonable parameter values are obtained even when using error free observations and true initial parameter values. This apparent problem is actually a benefit because it differentiates accurately and inaccurately constructed models. The problems seem obvious for a synthetic problem in which the truth is known, but are obscure when working with field data. Situations in which unrealistic parameter estimates indicate constructed model problems are illustrated in applications of inverse modelling to three field sites and to complex synthetic test cases in which it is shown that prediction accuracy also suffers when constructed models are inaccurate.

  2. [Influence of temperature on the calibration curves in IRMA for neuron-specific enolase and its physicochemical interpretation].

    PubMed

    Peris Conejero, T; Olivares Pallerols, R; Moreno Frigols, J L

    2009-01-01

    immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) is one of the principal methods used for the analytical determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentration. We studied the influence of temperature on the calibration curves obtained by this method, and a physicochemical justification based on two theoretical models is proposed. we used a commercially available RIA kit for NSE and a gamma counter. Data was analysed using Statistical software. activity bound to the antibody increases with temperature, producing results that are consistent with two modifications to the four parameter and Langmuir equations. the two models used successfully reproduce the results, with the adsorption model being preferable due to its greater simplicity and clearer physical significance.

  3. Error Analysis in the Joint Event Location/Seismic Calibration Inverse Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    t Ψ(x, t;d). (2.11) 4 Numerically, the minimization of Ψ is typically performed with a Gauss -Newton algorithm, as proposed originally by Geiger (1912...multiple-event location problem (e.g. Jordan and Sverdrup, 1981; Pavlis and Booker, 1983), travel-time corrections are assumed to be common to the events...Probability method for the determination of earthquake epicenters from the arrival time only, Bull. St. Louis Univ., 8, 60–71. Jordan , T.H. and K.A

  4. Introducing global peat-specific temperature and pH calibrations based on brGDGT bacterial lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; Inglis, G. N.; Zheng, Y.; Amesbury, M. J.; Biester, H.; Bindler, R.; Blewett, J.; Burrows, M. A.; del Castillo Torres, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Cohen, A. D.; Evershed, R. P.; Feakins, S. J.; Gałka, M.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Gandois, L.; Gray, D. M.; Hatcher, P. G.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Huguet, A.; Könönen, M.; Laggoun-Défarge, F.; Lähteenoja, O.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marchant, R.; McClymont, E.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Ponton, C.; Pourmand, A.; Rizzuti, A. M.; Rochefort, L.; Schellekens, J.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Pancost, R. D.

    2017-07-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids from Bacteria and Archaea that are ubiquitous in a range of natural archives and especially abundant in peat. Previous work demonstrated that the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) in mineral soils is correlated to environmental factors such as mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the influence of these parameters on brGDGT distributions in peat is largely unknown. Here we investigate the distribution of brGDGTs in 470 samples from 96 peatlands around the world with a broad mean annual air temperature (-8 to 27 °C) and pH (3-8) range and present the first peat-specific brGDGT-based temperature and pH calibrations. Our results demonstrate that the degree of cyclisation of brGDGTs in peat is positively correlated with pH, pH = 2.49 × CBTpeat + 8.07 (n = 51, R2 = 0.58, RMSE = 0.8) and the degree of methylation of brGDGTs is positively correlated with MAAT, MAATpeat (°C) = 52.18 × MBT5me‧ - 23.05 (n = 96, R2 = 0.76, RMSE = 4.7 °C). These peat-specific calibrations are distinct from the available mineral soil calibrations. In light of the error in the temperature calibration (∼4.7 °C), we urge caution in any application to reconstruct late Holocene climate variability, where the climatic signals are relatively small, and the duration of excursions could be brief. Instead, these proxies are well-suited to reconstruct large amplitude, longer-term shifts in climate such as deglacial transitions. Indeed, when applied to a peat deposit spanning the late glacial period (∼15.2 kyr), we demonstrate that MAATpeat yields absolute temperatures and relative temperature changes that are consistent with those from other proxies. In addition, the application of MAATpeat to fossil peat (i.e. lignites) has the potential to reconstruct terrestrial climate during the Cenozoic. We conclude that there is clear potential to use brGDGTs in peats and lignites to

  5. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  6. Specific problems associated with photography in tropical latitudes.

    PubMed

    Shapter, M

    1994-04-01

    This article looks at problems, which may not be encountered in other places, associated with photography in tropical latitudes. It deals with the effects of high air temperatures and high water temperatures as they relate to film exposure, processing and storage. It mentions the effect of tropical conditions on photographic equipment, and difficulties in obtaining materials because of distances from suppliers to delivery point, with reference to the author's experiences in Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

  7. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  8. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  9. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  10. [Transfusion and its specific problems in pediatrics and neonatology].

    PubMed

    Pérel, Y; Runel, C; Huguenin, Y; Renesme, L; Aladjidi, N

    2017-09-01

    Principles of transfusion strategy have been used for neonates and children similar to adults. However, due to substantial discrepancies between physiology/pathology in children and in their adult counterparts, decisions, indications, and doses are different from those of adults, especially in neonates. Specific data and practice guidelines for blood product transfusion are reported owing to the experience of pediatrics and neonatology units and partners of the French Blood product bank. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Calibrating compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis in avian eggs as bioarchives for paleoreconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciado, C., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has become a powerful tool for reconstructing consumer-resource relationships in modern and ancient systems. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis (δ15N) of "trophic" and "source" amino acids provides independent proxies of trophic position and the δ15N value at the base of the food web, respectively. When applied to avian egg tissues (e.g., shell protein, membrane), which can be preserved in the archaeological record, this approach can be used to address complex questions in food web architecture and biogeochemical cycling. In this study, we examined how sample-processing protocols affected the chromatography and reliability of δ15N values of individual amino acids in avian (chicken and penguin) egg components (shell protein, membrane, yolk, and albumen) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. "Unprocessed" egg tissues underwent standard acid hydrolysis protocols prior to derivatization, and resulted in poor chromatography with highly variable δ15N values across replicates. "Processed" samples were eluted through cation exchange columns (Dowex 50WX*400) prior to derivatization, followed by a P-buffer (KH2PO4 + Na2HPO4)-chloroform centrifugation extraction to remove confounding peaks and matrix impurities. These additional procedures greatly improved the chromatography of the "processed" samples, revealing better peak separation and baseline integration as well as lower δ15N variability. Additionally, a standard lipid extraction was necessary for yolk but not membrane, albumen, and shell. While the additional procedures applied to the "columned" samples did result in a significant reduction in sample yield ( 20%), it was non-fractionating and thus only affected the total sample sizes necessary for δ15N CSIA (shell protein 50mg and membrane, yolk, and albumen 0.5mg). The protocols developed here will streamline CSIA of egg tissues for future work in avian ecology.

  12. Failure of homologous synapsis and sex-specific reproduction problems

    PubMed Central

    Kurahashi, Hiroki; Kogo, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Inagaki, Hidehito; Ohye, Tamae

    2012-01-01

    The prophase of meiosis I ensures the correct segregation of chromosomes to each daughter cell. This includes the pairing, synapsis, and recombination of homologous chromosomes. A subset of chromosomal abnormalities, including translocation and inversion, disturbs these processes, resulting in the failure to complete synapsis. This activates the meiotic pachytene checkpoint, and the gametes are fated to undergo cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Spermatogenic cells appear to be more vulnerable to the pachytene checkpoint, and male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are more susceptible to infertility. In contrast, oocytes tend to bypass the checkpoint and instead generate other problems, such as chromosome imbalance that often leads to recurrent pregnancy loss in female carriers. Recent advances in genetic manipulation technologies have increased our knowledge about the pachytene checkpoint and surveillance systems that detect chromosomal synapsis. This review focuses on the consequences of synapsis failure in humans and provides an overview of the mechanisms involved. We also discuss the sexual dimorphism of the involved pathways that leads to the differences in reproductive outcomes between males and females. PMID:22719750

  13. Integrating a Gravity Simulation and Groundwater Modeling on the Calibration of Specific Yield for Choshui Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung

    2014-05-01

    For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is highly related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to high installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause high uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because gravity is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, gravity measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater level observation data and gravity measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, gravity variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the gravity caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named gravity residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton gravity integral to simulate the gravity variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the gravity variation between the two data sets, which are observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the gravity variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated gravity can well fit the observed gravity residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates

  14. Commodity-Free Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity-free calibration is a reaction rate calibration technique that does not require the addition of any commodities. This technique is a specific form of the reaction rate technique, where all of the necessary reactants, other than the sample being analyzed, are either inherent in the analyzing system or specifically added or provided to the system for a reason other than calibration. After introduction, the component of interest is exposed to other reactants or flow paths already present in the system. The instrument detector records one of the following to determine the rate of reaction: the increase in the response of the reaction product, a decrease in the signal of the analyte response, or a decrease in the signal from the inherent reactant. With this data, the initial concentration of the analyte is calculated. This type of system can analyze and calibrate simultaneously, reduce the risk of false positives and exposure to toxic vapors, and improve accuracy. Moreover, having an excess of the reactant already present in the system eliminates the need to add commodities, which further reduces cost, logistic problems, and potential contamination. Also, the calculations involved can be simplified by comparison to those of the reaction rate technique. We conducted tests with hypergols as an initial investigation into the feasiblility of the technique.

  15. The Domain Generality--Specificity of Epistemological Beliefs: A Theoretical Problem, a Methodological Problem or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Research on epistemological beliefs has clearly increased in the last decade. Even though the construct is clearer and relevant data are being collected, there are important theoretical and methodological issues that need further clarification. One of them is the debate about the domain generality-specificity of epistemological beliefs. I argue…

  16. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  17. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  18. Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928

  19. Self-calibration and biconvex compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Shuyang; Strohmer, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The design of high-precision sensing devises becomes ever more difficult and expensive. At the same time, the need for precise calibration of these devices (ranging from tiny sensors to space telescopes) manifests itself as a major roadblock in many scientific and technological endeavors. To achieve optimal performance of advanced high-performance sensors one must carefully calibrate them, which is often difficult or even impossible to do in practice. In this work we bring together three seemingly unrelated concepts, namely self-calibration, compressive sensing, and biconvex optimization. The idea behind self-calibration is to equip a hardware device with a smart algorithm that can compensate automatically for the lack of calibration. We show how several self-calibration problems can be treated efficiently within the framework of biconvex compressive sensing via a new method called SparseLift. More specifically, we consider a linear system of equations {\\boldsymbol{y}}={\\boldsymbol{D}}{\\boldsymbol{A}}{\\boldsymbol{x}}, where both {\\boldsymbol{x}} and the diagonal matrix {\\boldsymbol{D}} (which models the calibration error) are unknown. By ‘lifting’ this biconvex inverse problem we arrive at a convex optimization problem. By exploiting sparsity in the signal model, we derive explicit theoretical guarantees under which both {\\boldsymbol{x}} and {\\boldsymbol{D}} can be recovered exactly, robustly, and numerically efficiently via linear programming. Applications in array calibration and wireless communications are discussed and numerical simulations are presented, confirming and complementing our theoretical analysis.

  20. SU-C-204-02: Improved Patient-Specific Optimization of the Stopping Power Calibration for Proton Therapy Planning Using a Single Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Krah, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We present an improved method to calculate patient-specific calibration curves to convert X-ray computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) to relative stopping powers (RSP) for proton therapy treatment planning. Methods: By optimizing the HU-RSP calibration curve, the difference between a proton radiographic image and a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography (DRR) is minimized. The feasibility of this approach has previously been demonstrated. This scenario assumes that all discrepancies between proton radiography and DRR originate from uncertainties in the HU-RSP curve. In reality, external factors cause imperfections in the proton radiography, such as misalignment compared to the DRR and unfaithful representation of geometric structures (“blurring”). We analyze these effects based on synthetic datasets of anthropomorphic phantoms and suggest an extended optimization scheme which explicitly accounts for these effects. Performance of the method is been tested for various simulated irradiation parameters. The ultimate purpose of the optimization is to minimize uncertainties in the HU-RSP calibration curve. We therefore suggest and perform a thorough statistical treatment to quantify the accuracy of the optimized HU-RSP curve. Results: We demonstrate that without extending the optimization scheme, spatial blurring (equivalent to FWHM=3mm convolution) in the proton radiographies can cause up to 10% deviation between the optimized and the ground truth HU-RSP calibration curve. Instead, results obtained with our extended method reach 1% or better correspondence. We have further calculated gamma index maps for different acceptance levels. With DTA=0.5mm and RD=0.5%, a passing ratio of 100% is obtained with the extended method, while an optimization neglecting effects of spatial blurring only reach ∼90%. Conclusion: Our contribution underlines the potential of a single proton radiography to generate a patient-specific calibration curve and to improve

  1. The Contribution of Domain-Specific Knowledge in Predicting Students' Proportional Word Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Lein, Amy E.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which domain-specific knowledge predicted proportional word problem-solving performance. We tested 411 seventh-grade students on conceptual and procedural fraction knowledge, conceptual and procedural proportion knowledge, and proportional word problem solving. Multiple regression analyses indicated that all four…

  2. SIMBOL-X: the problem of the calibrating a 0.5-80 keV 20m focal length focussing telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, S.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Citterio, O.; Malaguti, G.; Burkert, W.; Freyberg, M.

    2007-09-01

    Simbol-X is a hard X-ray telescope being developed by France and Italy, with the participation of Germany, that will operate in the 0.5-80 keV. Simbol-X will allow, in the key 10-40 keV band, a two order of magnitude leap both in sensitivity and angular resolution, by means of a hybrid focal plane coupled with a 20m focal length multi-layer coated X-ray mirrors. The novel telescope architecture and its three-decade extended energy band translate however into technical issues never addressed before for what concerns the on-ground calibrations. In fact, at least in the full-illumination geometry, the unprecedented focal length causes, due to the calibration source finite distance, two main problems: (a) a non-negligible increase of the fraction of incident photons undergoing only one reflection (in the parabola); (b) a variation of the reflectivity curve between parabola and hyperbola, due to a corresponding variation of the incidence angle of incoming photons. In this work, the issue of calibrating a 20m X-ray focussing telescope is addressed in details, and technical solutions are envisaged and proposed to tackle and minimized the above mentioned problems.

  3. The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

  4. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of past experiences-enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem-solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem-solving task, as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the 3 tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the 3 tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem-solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction- brief training in recollecting details of past experiences- enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem solving task as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the three tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the three tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults. PMID:25365688

  6. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  7. Indication of BOLD-specific venous flow-volume changes from precisely controlled hyperoxic vs. hypercapnic calibration.

    PubMed

    Mark, Clarisse I; Pike, G Bruce

    2012-04-01

    Deriving cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals involves a flow-volume parameter (α), reflecting total cerebral blood volume changes, and a calibration constant (M). Traditionally, the former is assumed a fixed value and the latter is measured under alterations in fixed inspired fractional concentrations of carbon dioxide. We recently reported on reductions in M-variability via precise control of end-tidal pressures of both hypercapnic (HC) and hyperoxic (HO) gases. In light of these findings, our aim was to apply the improved calibration alternatives to neuronal activation, making use of their distinct vasoactive natures to evaluate the α-value. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3 T while simultaneously measuring BOLD and arterial spin-labeling signals during controlled, graded, HC, and HO, followed by visual (VC) and sensorimotor cortices (SMC) activation. On the basis of low M- and CMRO(2)-variability, the comparison of these calibration alternatives accurately highlighted a reduced venous flow-volume relationship (α=0.16±0.02, with α(VC)=0.12±0.04, and α(SMC)=0.20±0.02), as appropriate for BOLD modeling.

  8. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Doolan, P; Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M; Bentefour, E; Royle, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research

  9. The algorithm for automatic detection of the calibration object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artem, Kruglov; Irina, Ugfeld

    2017-06-01

    The problem of the automatic image calibration is considered in this paper. The most challenging task of the automatic calibration is a proper detection of the calibration object. The solving of this problem required the appliance of the methods and algorithms of the digital image processing, such as morphology, filtering, edge detection, shape approximation. The step-by-step process of the development of the algorithm and its adopting to the specific conditions of the log cuts in the image's background is presented. Testing of the automatic calibration module was carrying out under the conditions of the production process of the logging enterprise. Through the tests the average possibility of the automatic isolating of the calibration object is 86.1% in the absence of the type 1 errors. The algorithm was implemented in the automatic calibration module within the mobile software for the log deck volume measurement.

  10. Problem Specific MOEA/D for Barrier Coverage with Wireless Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Qingfu; Lee, Victor C S; Li, Minming

    2016-07-18

    Barrier coverage with wireless sensors aims at detecting intruders who attempt to cross a specific area, where wireless sensors are distributed remotely at random. This paper considers limited-power sensors with adjustable ranges deployed along a linear domain to form a barrier to detect intruding incidents. We introduce three objectives to minimize: 1) total power consumption while satisfying full coverage; 2) the number of active sensors to improve the reliability; and 3) the active sensor nodes' maximum sensing range to maintain fairness. We refer to the problem as the tradeoff barrier coverage (TBC) problem. With the aim of obtaining a better tradeoff among the three objectives, we present a multiobjective optimization framework based on multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA)/D, which is called problem specific MOEA/D (PS-MOEA/D). Specifically, we define a 2-tuple encoding scheme and introduce a cover-shrink algorithm to produce feasible and relatively optimal solutions. Subsequently, we incorporate problem-specific knowledge into local search, which allows search procedures for neighboring subproblems collaborate each other. By considering the problem characteristics, we analyze the complexity and incorporate a strategy of computational resource allocation into our algorithm. We validate our approach by comparing with four competitors through several most-used metrics. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-MOEA/D is effective and outperforms the four competitors in all the cases, which indicates that our approach is promising in dealing with TBC.

  11. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Exploiting Linkage Information and Problem-Specific Knowledge in Evolutionary Distribution Network Expansion Planning.

    PubMed

    Luong, Ngoc Hoang; Poutré, Han La; Bosman, Peter A N

    2017-04-07

    This article tackles the Distribution Network Expansion Planning (DNEP) problemthat has to be solved by distribution network operators to decide which, where, and/or when enhancements to electricity networks should be introduced to satisfy the future power demands. Because of many real-world details involved, the structure of the problem is not exploited easily using mathematical programming techniques, for which reason we consider solving this problem with evolutionary algorithms (EAs). We compare three types of EAs for optimizing expansion plans: the classic genetic algorithm (GA), the estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA), and the Gene-pool Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithm (GOMEA). Not fully knowing the structure of the problem, we study the effect of linkage learning through the use of three linkage models: univariate, marginal product, and linkage tree. We furthermore experiment with the impact of incorporating different levels of problem-specific knowledge in the variation operators. Experiments show that the use of problem-specific variation operators is far more important for the classic GA to find high-quality solutions. In all EAs, the marginal product model and its linkage learning procedure have difficulty in capturing and exploiting the DNEP problemstructure. GOMEA, especiallywhen combined with the linkage tree structure, is found to have the most robust performance by far, even when an out-of-the-box variant is used that does not exploit problem-specific knowledge. Based on experiments, we suggest that when selecting optimization algorithms for power system expansion planning problems, EAs that have the ability to effectively model and efficiently exploit problem structures, such as GOMEA, should be given priority, especially in the case of black-box or grey-box optimization.

  13. An application of risk-based methods to facilitate changes in problem technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Polanski, X.; Bizzak, D.; Gaertner, J.

    1987-01-01

    There has been general agreement throughout the nuclear industry and within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that the existing technical specifications for nuclear power plant operation can be significantly improved. Both the industry and the NRC have developed programs for investigating means of achieving technical specification improvement. These ongoing programs are intended to examine a variety of methods for determining what items should be included in technical specifications as well as a means of justifying the technical bases for limiting conditions for operation, surveillance testing intervals, and allowed outage times. The objective of this Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) project, jointly funded by the Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) and performed by Delian Corporation and CECo, was to develop and implement a comprehensive process for technical specification improvement through the use of probabilistic methods. This was done by specifically considering technical specification problems that exist at the LaSalle station a two-unit boiling water reactor (BWR)-5.

  14. The Role of Problem Specification Workshops in Extension: An IPM Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of three extension models--top-down technology transfer, farmers-first approach, and participatory research--the latter extends elements of the other two into a more comprehensive analysis of a problem and specification of solution strategies. An Australian integrated pest management (IPM) example illustrates how structured workshops are a useful…

  15. Authoring Effective Embedded Tutors: An Overview of the Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo

    2015-01-01

    The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…

  16. Authoring Effective Embedded Tutors: An Overview of the Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo

    2015-01-01

    The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…

  17. Dose Calculation on KV Cone Beam CT Images: An Investigation of the Hu-Density Conversion Stability and Dose Accuracy Using the Site-Specific Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi

    2010-10-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulate sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy{sup TM} system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to {approx}2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site-specific

  18. Dose calculation on kV cone beam CT images: an investigation of the Hu-density conversion stability and dose accuracy using the site-specific calibration.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Smilowitz, Jennifer; Tewatia, Dinesh; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2010-01-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulate sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to approximately 2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site-specific calibration

  19. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  20. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S.; Roberts, Sebastian; Chaube, Shiva Shankar; Saville, Naomi M.; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David; Wells, Jonathan C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations. Objectives. (1) To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM) from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7–9 years. (2) To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy. Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls) using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced. Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R2 93%). The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42). Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution. Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution. PMID:25780755

  1. Computing specific intensity distributions for laser material processing by solving an inverse heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völl, Annika; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam intensity distribution profiles for material processing techniques are most of the time restricted to be either of Gaussian or tophat shape. This often leads to different kind of problems especially at the edges of the laser-heated tracks, examples are energy losses or unnecessary overlaps. Thus, machining quality and process efficiency could be much improved by using application specific intensity profiles to generate optimal temperature distributions in the processed material. In this work, we present a numerical method to derive a specific intensity profile for a given temperature distribution. As this problem belongs to the set of inverse heat conduction problems, which are ill-posed, special regularization algorithms are needed. The only method to solve this inverse problem in reasonable time is the conjugate gradient method which we extend to the given problem of laser material processing applications. This method is an iterative approach where in each step the actual temperature distribution is calculated by using the finite element method. In general, the proposed method is applicable for materials with constant or temperature dependent coefficients, for static and dynamic distributions as well as for plane or complex geometries. However, restricting ourselves to plane geometries, intensity distributions that create tophat- or stepped temperature distributions on the plane surface of the processed material are derived and will be presented. In future work, we intend to verify these results using freeform optics as well as singly addressable V(E)CSEL arrays.

  2. Problem gambling and internalising symptoms: a longitudinal analysis of common and specific social environmental protective factors.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising disorders (anxiety and depression) has long been recognised. However, it is not clear how these relationships develop, and what factors can foster resilience to both conditions. The current study draws on longitudinal cohort data to investigate: 1) the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between problem gambling and internalising symptoms; 2) whether there are common and/or specific social environmental factors protective against both internalising symptoms and problem gambling in young adulthood; and 3) interactive protective factors (i.e., those that moderate the relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms). A sample of 2248 young adults (55% female) completed a survey in 2010 (T1) and 2012 (T2) which assessed problem gambling (measured via two items based on established measures), internalising symptoms, and social environmental protective factors. A positive cross-sectional relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms was found; however, there was no statistically significant longitudinal relationship between the two conditions. Protective factors for internalising symptoms were observed within the domains of the community, family and peer group; however, there were no statistically significant protective factors identified for problem gambling. These findings demonstrate that the social environmental protective factors for adult internalising symptoms assessed in the present study are poor longitudinal predictors of young adult problem gambling. Given the lack of common protective factors, it may be necessary to focus on separate factors to protect against each condition, if we are to address the comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Improving specific autobiographical memory in older adults: impacts on mood, social problem solving, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Fiona; Ridout, Nathan; Mushtaq, Faizah; Holland, Carol

    2017-08-21

    Older adults have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical events. This over-general memory style is a vulnerability factor for depression. Two groups receiving interventions that have previously been successful at reducing over-general memory in depressed populations were compared to a control group. Participants were healthy older adults aged ≥70 years: memory specificity training (MEST; n = 22), life review (n = 22), and control group (n = 22). There were significant improvements in autobiographical memory specificity in the MEST and life review groups at post-training, relative to the control group, suggesting that over-general memory can be reduced in older adults. Change in social problem solving ability and functional limitations were related to change in autobiographical memory specificity, supporting the suggested role of specific retrieval in generating solutions to social problems and maintaining independence. Qualitative analysis of participants' feedback revealed that life review may be more appropriate for older adults, possibly because it involves integrating specific memories into a positive narrative.

  4. Importance of material matching in the calibration of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation: material specificity and nanoparticle surface coating effects on retention time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiou; Quevedo, Ivan R.; Linder, Sean W.; Fong, Andrew; Mudalige, Thilak K.

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with dynamic light scattering or multiangle light scattering detectors is a promising technique for the size-based separation of colloidal particles (nano- and submicron scale) and the online determination of the particle size of the separated fractions in aqueous suspensions. In most cases, the applications of these detectors are problematic due to the material-specific properties of the analyte that results in erroneous calculations, and as an alternative, different nanoparticle size standards are required to properly calibrate the size-based retention in AF4. The availability of nanoparticle size standards in different materials is limited, and this deviation from ideal conditions of retention is mainly due to material-specific and particle coating-specific membrane-particle interactions. Here, we present an experimental method on the applicability of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NP) as standard for AF4 calibration and compare with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) standards having different nominal sizes and surface functionalities.

  5. The influence of eating psychopathology on autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J

    2015-08-30

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. School Vandalism and Break-Ins. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kelly Dedel

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses school vandalism and break-ins, describing the problem and reviewing the risk factors. It also discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help analyze each local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from…

  7. Worrying about the Future: An Episodic Specificity Induction Impacts Problem Solving, Reappraisal, and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Helen G.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction – brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience – enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants’ performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  8. Phosphorus in coral skeleton: Evidence and species-specific global calibrations for a novel seawater phosphate proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, M.; Anagnostou, E.; Cobb, K. M.; Field, M. P.; Grottoli, A. G.; Lazar, B.; Matthews, K. A.; Wellington, G. M.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    A proxy for surface water nutrient concentrations recorded in coral skeleton would provide novel records of sub-seasonal to centennial scale variations in nutrient dynamics and primary production in the past. Such records of tropical euphotic zone nutrient supply and uptake could link climate oscillations to low latitude carbon fixation more directly than existing paleo-SST/upwelling proxies alone. A new coral proxy for seawater phosphate, P/Ca, would complement records from established but quantitatively uncertain surface water upwelling proxies such as coralline Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca. Using solution phase HR-ICP-MS methods, we have constructed mean global "calibrations" for P/Ca in three species of surface-dwelling corals: Pavona gigantea, Porites lutea, and Montastrea faveolata. We show that for all three species, average skeletal P/Ca in colonies growing in distinct nutrient regimes show a good linear positive correlation with average local surface phosphate concentrations, relatively similar slopes (Δ P/Ca coral/ Δ P/Ca seawater = ~1-2), but different y-intercepts (~0-50 P/Ca coral (μmol/mol)) for each species calibration. Further, a 4-year record along the growth axis of a Pavona gigantea coral growing under seasonally varying nutrient levels in the upwelling regime of the Gulf of Panamá shows repeated annual cycles of P/Ca (~75 -230 μmol/mol), with maxima occurring during cool upwelling periods, tracking the ~3 fold seasonal variations of surface water phosphate (LaVigne et al., 2008). Based on chemical cleaning experiments and inorganic phosphorus measurements in the aragonite, we hypothesize that this P/Ca signal reflects a combination of inorganic and organic intracrystalline phases, incorporated in proportion to ambient seawater phosphate. We plan to further test the validity of this new proxy in several coral species by comparing skeletal P/Ca to time series seawater phosphate records in the Gulf of Panamá and the Florida Keys.

  9. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  10. Everyday Problem Solving and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Support for Domain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kimbler, Kristopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that performance on cognitive tasks resembling daily challenges (i.e., everyday problem-solving tasks) may be a better indicator of functional ability in old age compared to traditional measures of cognitive ability. Findings demonstrating this link, however, have yielded mixed results. The current study examined performance on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT) and self-reported ability to perform Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) in a sample of adults over age 50. The EPT measures cognitive performance on tasks with domains consistent with IADLs (telephone use, shopping, meal preparation, housekeeping, transportation, health and finances). Although overall EPT scores and self-reported IADLs were significantly related (rs = 0.20; p < 0.05), additional analyses revealed that domain-specific EPT performance related to IADL reports within the same domain for shopping, meal preparation, housekeeping, and financial management after accounting for other variables such as age, sex, and measures of cognitive ability including total EPT score. These findings suggest that domain-specific performance on cognitive everyday problem-solving tasks may add to the predictability of specific IADLs. PMID:25379233

  11. The specification-based validation of reliable multicast protocol: Problem Report. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  12. An energy-based model for the image edge-histogram specification problem.

    PubMed

    Mignotte, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this correspondence, we present an original energy-based model that achieves the edge-histogram specification of a real input image and thus extends the exact specification method of the image luminance (or gray level) distribution recently proposed by Coltuc et al. Our edge-histogram specification approach is stated as an optimization problem in which each edge of a real input image will tend iteratively toward some specified gradient magnitude values given by a target edge distribution (or a normalized edge histogram possibly estimated from a target image). To this end, a hybrid optimization scheme combining a global and deterministic conjugate-gradient-based procedure and a local stochastic search using the Metropolis criterion is proposed herein to find a reliable solution to our energy-based model. Experimental results are presented, and several applications follow from this procedure.

  13. Simultaneous calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration in cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Shuai; Ma, Jianhui; Li, Bin; Wu, Shuyu; Qi, Hongliang; Zhou, Linghong

    2017-09-01

    Geometry calibration is a vital step for describing the geometry of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and is a prerequisite for CBCT reconstruction. In current methods, calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration are divided into two independent tasks. Small errors in ball-bearing (BB) positioning in the phantom-making step will severely degrade the quality of phantom calibration. To solve this problem, we propose an integrated method to simultaneously realize geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration. Instead of assuming the accuracy of the geometry phantom, the integrated method considers BB centers in the phantom as an optimized parameter in the workflow. Specifically, an evaluation phantom and the corresponding evaluation contrast index are used to evaluate geometry artifacts for optimizing the BB coordinates in the geometry phantom. After utilizing particle swarm optimization, the CBCT geometry and BB coordinates in the geometry phantom are calibrated accurately and are then directly used for the next geometry calibration task in other CBCT systems. To evaluate the proposed method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on simulated and realistic CBCT data. The spatial resolution of reconstructed images using dental CBCT can reach up to 15 line pair cm-1. The proposed method is also superior to the Wiesent method in experiments. This paper shows that the proposed method is attractive for simultaneous and accurate geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration.

  14. Simultaneous calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration in cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Shuai; Ma, Jianhui; Li, Bin; Wu, Shuyu; Qi, Hongliang; Zhou, Linghong

    2017-08-09

    Geometry calibration is a vital step for describing the geometry of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and is a prerequisite for CBCT reconstruction. In current methods, calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration are divided into two independent tasks. Small errors in ball-bearing (BB) positioning in the phantom-making step will severely degrade the quality of phantom calibration. To solve this problem, we propose an integrated method to simultaneously realize geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration. Instead of assuming the accuracy of the geometry phantom, the integrated method considers BB centers in the phantom as an optimized parameter in the workflow. Specifically, an evaluation phantom and the corresponding evaluation contrast index are used to evaluate geometry artifacts for optimizing the BB coordinates in the geometry phantom. After utilizing particle swarm optimization, the CBCT geometry and BB coordinates in the geometry phantom are calibrated accurately and are then directly used for the next geometry calibration task in other CBCT systems. To evaluate the proposed method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on simulated and realistic CBCT data. The spatial resolution of reconstructed images using dental CBCT can reach up to 15 line pair cm(-1). The proposed method is also superior to the Wiesent method in experiments. This paper shows that the proposed method is attractive for simultaneous and accurate geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration.

  15. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long-term memory. We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. The reader will understand how different components of phonological working memory contribute to the word learning problems of children with specific language impairment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Specifications for the Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group Benchmark Problem Four. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Protsik, R.

    1981-09-01

    Benchmark studies have been carried out by the members of the Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group (LCCEWG) as part of a broad effort to systematically evaluate the important steps in the reactor design and analysis process for large fast breeder reactors. The specific objectives of the LCCEWG benchmark studies have been: to quantify the accuracy and efficiency of current neutronics methods for large cores; to identify neutronic design problems unique to large breeder reactors; to identify computer code development requirements; and to provide support for large core critical benchmark experiments.

  17. Research to Study Specific, Important Problems in Distributed Systems and Propose Solutions for Them.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    RD-Ai59 189 RESEARCH TOSTUDY SPECIFIC IMPORTANT PROBLEMS IN 1/2 DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS AND (U) TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCES K M CHANDY...15/81 tjrough 6/14/85 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCES V * THE UNIVERSITY’OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 D SEP 13 198 85 9 10 08 1 -. 77P777; f...7777777 Air Force Scientific Report A.FOSR 81-0205 8/15/81 through 6/14/85 K. M. Chandy and J. Misra .o. Accessio For. Department of Computer

  18. Emergence of Coding and its Specificity as a Physico-Informatic Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Peter R.; Nieselt, Kay; McCaskill, John S.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the origin-of-life consequences of the view that biological systems are demarcated from inanimate matter by their possession of referential information, which is processed computationally to control choices of specific physico-chemical events. Cells are cybernetic: they use genetic information in processes of communication and control, subjecting physical events to a system of integrated governance. The genetic code is the most obvious example of how cells use information computationally, but the historical origin of the usefulness of molecular information is not well understood. Genetic coding made information useful because it imposed a modular metric on the evolutionary search and thereby offered a general solution to the problem of finding catalysts of any specificity. We use the term "quasispecies symmetry breaking" to describe the iterated process of self-organisation whereby the alphabets of distinguishable codons and amino acids increased, step by step.

  19. 3D reconstruction of a patient-specific surface model of the proximal femur from calibrated x-ray radiographs: A validation study

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Guoyan; Schumann, Steffen

    2009-04-15

    Twenty-three femurs (one plastic bone and twenty-two cadaver bones) with both nonpathologic and pathologic cases were considered to validate a statistical shape model based technique for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a patient-specific surface model from calibrated x-ray radiographs. The 3D reconstruction technique is based on an iterative nonrigid registration of the features extracted from a statistically instantiated 3D surface model to those interactively identified from the radiographs. The surface models reconstructed from the radiographs were compared to the associated ground truths derived either from a 3D CT-scan reconstruction method or from a 3D laser-scan reconstruction method and an average error distance of 0.95 mm were found. Compared to the existing works, our approach has the advantage of seamlessly handling both nonpathologic and pathologic cases even when the statistical shape model that we used was constructed from surface models of nonpathologic bones.

  20. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N=2230, age 11.09±0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N=2149, age 13.56±0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related to more reported tiredness, irritability, rule-breaking behaviors, and substance use; and fewer fears and somatic complaints. Girls showed increases in social uncertainty, depressed mood, and worries; boys a decrease in self-criticism. Increasing problems during puberty were mostly related to the process of physical maturation, whereas decreasing problems were rather related to general age-related developments. Pubertal timing was associated with different symptoms than pubertal status or age. Puberty seems to affect girls more negatively than boys.

  1. The conceptual basis for morpheme learning problems in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Connell, P J; Stone, C A

    1994-04-01

    Two groups of children were exposed to instances of a nonlinguistic conceptual rule under controlled instructional conditions to determine whether the problems children with specific language impairment (SLI) have learning and accessing language rules extend beyond the language domain into the general cognitive domain. The performance of 20 children with SLI, aged 5:0 to 6:11 (years:months), was compared to that of 20 normally developing children matched for age and nonverbal ability. These children were taught under two instructional conditions that differed only in whether the child was asked to imitate the solution to a conceptual problem after each demonstration (imitation) or merely to observe it (modeling). Contrary to previous findings regarding linguistic rule-learning using auditory or visual symbol systems and similar instructional conditions, no difference was found between the extent of overall learning displayed by the normally developing children and those with SLI. Also, the performance of the children with SLI was not uniquely better under the imitation condition than under modeling, as had been the case with the learning of a novel morpheme in an auditory linguistic task. These results are interpreted as confirming the earlier assumption that the generally lower overall learning rate of the children with SLI on both the auditory and visual tasks reflects a specific linguistic rule-learning difficulty, rather than a general deficiency in rule induction.

  2. The roles of mothers' neighborhood perceptions and specific monitoring strategies in youths' problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2011-03-01

    The neighborhood context can interfere with parents' abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers' perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these strategies are related to youths' alcohol use and delinquency. The sample consists of 415 mother-child dyads recruited from urban and suburban communities in Western New York state. Youths were between 10 and 16 years of age (56% female), and were mostly Non-Hispanic White and African American (45.3 and 36.5%, respectively). Structural equation modeling shows that mothers who perceive greater neighborhood problems use more rule-setting strategies, but report lower levels of knowledge of their children's whereabouts. Knowledge of whereabouts is related to less youth alcohol use and delinquency through its association with lowered peer substance use, whereas rule-setting is unrelated to these outcomes. Thus, mothers who perceive greater problems in their neighborhoods use less effective monitoring strategies. Prevention programs could address parental monitoring needs based upon neighborhood differences, tailoring programs for different neighborhoods. Further, parents could be apprised of the limitations of rule-setting, particularly in the absence of monitoring their child's whereabouts.

  3. The nature of auditory discrimination problems in children with specific language impairment: an MMN study.

    PubMed

    Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Daniëlle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in an active behavioral task and a passive ERP paradigm, known to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). In addition, attention skills and a variety of language skills were measured. Participants were 25 five-year-old Dutch children with SLI having receptive as well as productive language problems and 25 control children with typical speech- and language development. At the behavioral level, the SLI group was impaired in discriminating the linguistic contrast as compared to the control group, while both groups were unable to distinguish the non-linguistic contrast. Moreover, the SLI group tended to have impaired attention skills which correlated with performance on most of the language tests. At the neural level, the SLI group, in contrast to the control group, did not show an MMN in response to either the linguistic or nonlinguistic contrast. The MMN data are consistent with an account that relates the symptoms in children with SLI to non-speech processing difficulties.

  4. The Roles of Mothers’ Neighborhood Perceptions and Specific Monitoring Strategies in Youths’ Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    The neighborhood context can interfere with parents’ abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these strategies are related to youths’ alcohol use and delinquency. The sample consists of 415 mother-child dyads recruited from urban and suburban communities in Western New York state. Youths were between 10 and 16 years of age (56% female), and were mostly Non-Hispanic White and African American (45.3% and 36.5%, respectively). Structural equation modeling shows that mothers who perceive greater neighborhood problems use more rule-setting strategies, but report lower levels of knowledge of their children’s whereabouts. Knowledge of whereabouts is related to less youth alcohol use and delinquency through its association with lowered peer substance use, whereas rule-setting is unrelated to these outcomes. Thus, mothers who perceive greater problems in their neighborhoods use less effective monitoring strategies. Prevention programs could address parental monitoring needs based upon neighborhood differences, tailoring programs for different neighborhoods. Further, parents could be apprised of the limitations of rule-setting, particularly in the absence of monitoring their child’s whereabouts. PMID:20414711

  5. Tissue-specific Calibration of Real-time PCR Facilitates Absolute Quantification of Plasmid DNA in Biodistribution Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joan K; White, Paul J; Pouton, Colin W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the tissue distribution of plasmid DNA after administration of nonviral gene delivery systems is best accomplished using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), although published strategies do not allow determination of the absolute mass of plasmid delivered to different tissues. Generally, data is expressed as the mass of plasmid relative to the mass of genomic DNA (gDNA) in the sample. This strategy is adequate for comparisons of efficiency of delivery to a single site but it does not allow direct comparison of delivery to multiple tissues, as the mass of gDNA extracted per unit mass of each tissue is different. We show here that by constructing qPCR standard curves for each tissue it is possible to determine the dose of intact plasmid remaining in each tissue, which is a more useful parameter when comparing the fates of different formulations of DNA. We exemplify the use of this tissue-specific qPCR method by comparing the delivery of naked DNA, cationic DNA complexes, and neutral PEGylated DNA complexes after intramuscular injection. Generally, larger masses of intact plasmid were present 24 hours after injection of DNA complexes, and neutral complexes resulted in delivery of a larger mass of intact plasmid to the spleen. PMID:27701400

  6. GPI Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

    2017-09-01

    "The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of Calibrations. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly calibrations. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and instrument cosmetics."

  7. Syringe calibration factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator for selected medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Woods, M J

    2003-01-01

    Before a radiopharmaceutical is administered to a patient, its activity needs to be accurately assayed. This is normally done via a radionuclide calibrator, using a glass vial as the calibration device. The radionuclide is then transferred to a syringe and it is now becoming common practice to re-measure the syringe and use this value as the activity administered to the patient. Due to elemental composition and geometrical differences, etc. between the glass vial and the syringe, the calibration factors are different for the two containers and this can lead to an incorrect activity being given to the patient unless a correction is applied for these differences. To reduce the uncertainty on syringe measurements, syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator have been derived by NPL for several medically important radionuclides. It was found that the differences between the calibration factors for the syringes and glass vials depend on the energies of the photon emissions from the decay of the radionuclides; the lower the energy, the greater the difference. As expected, large differences were observed for 125I (70%) and only small differences for 131I. However, for radionuclides such as 99mTc and 67Ga, differences of up to 30% have been observed. This work has shown the need for the use of specifically derived syringe calibration factors as well as highlighting the complexity of the problem with regard to syringe types, procurement, etc.

  8. Bomb Threats in Schools. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series. Guide Number 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Graeme R.

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses the problem of bomb threats in schools, public or private, kindergarten through 12th grade. Colleges and universities are excluded because they generally differ from schools. The guide reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools and then identifies a series of questions that might assist departments…

  9. Student Party Riots. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series. Guide Number 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madensen, Tamara D.; Eck, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol-related riots among university students pose a significant problem for police agencies that serve college communities. The intensity of the disturbances may vary. However, the possible outcomes include property destruction and physical violence and are a serious threat to community and officer safety. This report provides a framework for…

  10. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. PMID:20943232

  11. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    PubMed

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients.

  12. Calibration of the Urbana lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, T.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for calibrating data obtained by the Urban sodium lidar system is presented. First, an expression relating the number of photocounts originating from a specific altitude range to the soodium concentration is developed. This relation is then simplified by normalizing the sodium photocounts with photocounts originating from the Rayleigh region of the atmosphere. To evaluate the calibration expression, the laser linewidth must be known. Therefore, a method for measuring the laser linewidth using a Fabry-Perot interferometer is given. The laser linewidth was found to be 6 + or - 2.5 pm. Problems due to photomultiplier tube overloading are discussed. Finally, calibrated data is presented. The sodium column abundance exhibits something close to a sinusoidal variation throughout the year with the winter months showing an enhancement of a factor of 5 to 7 over the summer months.

  13. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  14. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  15. Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Chu, Dezhang; Hammar, Terence R.; Baldwin, Kenneth C.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hufnagle, Lawrence C.; Jech, J. Michael

    2005-04-01

    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University of New Hampshire. Methods for measuring the transfer characteristics of each sonar, with transducers attached, are described and illustrated with measurement results. The principal results, however, are the protocols themselves. These are elaborated for positioning the target, choosing the receiver gain function, quantifying the system stability, mapping the directionality in the plane of the receiving array and in the plane normal to the central axis, measuring the directionality of individual beams, and measuring the nearfield response. General preparations for calibrating multibeam sonars and a method for measuring the receiver response electronically are outlined. Advantages of multibeam sonar calibration and outstanding problems, such as that of validation of the performance of multibeam sonars as configured for use, are mentioned. .

  16. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  17. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  18. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Specific Problems Scales Onto Extant Psychopathology Structures.

    PubMed

    Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A main objective in developing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) was to link the hierarchical structure of the instrument's scales to contemporary psychopathology and personality models for greater enhancement of construct validity. Initial evidence published with the Restructured Clinical scales has indicated promising results in that the higher order structure of these measures maps onto those reported in the extant psychopathology literature. This study focused on evaluating the internal structure of the Specific Problems and Interest scales, which have not yet been examined in this manner. Two large, mixed-gender outpatient and correctional samples were used. Exploratory factor analyses revealed consistent evidence for a 4-factor structure representing somatization, negative affect, externalizing, and social detachment. Convergent and discriminant validity analyses in the outpatient sample yielded a pattern of results consistent with expectations. These findings add further evidence to indicate that the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy of scales map onto extant psychopathology literature, and also add support to the notion that somatization and detachment should be considered important higher order domains in the psychopathology literature.

  19. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  20. Quadrature phase interferometer used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shau-Chi; Liou, Huay-Chung; Peng, Gwo-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Feng

    2001-10-01

    To calibrate dial indicators, gage blocks or dial indicator calibrators are usually used. For better accuracy and resolution, interferometers are used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators. Systematic errors of laser interferometers can be classified into three categories of intrinsic errors, environment errors and installation errors. Intrinsic errors include laser wavelength error, electronic error and optics nonlinearity. In order to achieve nanometer accuracy, minimizing intrinsic error is crucial. In this paper, we will address the problems of minimizing the optics nonlinearity error and describe the discrete-time signal processing method to minimize the electronic error, nonlinearity error and drift by simply using quadrature phase interferometer for nanometer accuracy and linearity.

  1. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  2. Is chronic non-specific low back pain chronic? Definitions of a problem and problems of a definition.

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, C; Robert, J; Goerg, D; Perrin, E; Fischer, W; Vischer, T L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (LBP) accounts for the majority of the disability and costs for LBP. However, the definition of chronicity is unclear. AIM: To elicit practitioners' definitions of chronic LBP patients, both in general and in the patients they were treating; to assess the most common characteristics of these practitioners' chronic LBP patients; and to assess the stability of chronicity in a sample of the general population. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 practitioners working in private practice, 71 LBP patients and their therapists, and 252 employees of a chain store who were assessed yearly in a prospective study. RESULTS: The therapists' definitions of chronic LBP patients generally included psychosocial aspects. Only physical symptoms and signs were stressed in the patients they were treating. These patients displayed common characteristics with reference to pain, functional problems, and contact with health care services. Duration of symptoms was not sufficient to define chronicity. In the employee population, chronicity defined according to pain duration was unstable. However, the same was true when chronicity was measured according to the criteria defined in the patient population. CONCLUSION: There is a discrepancy between theory and practice regarding the definition of chronic LBP. This discrepancy concerns not only the literature but also clinical practice itself. The term 'chronic' LBP as currently used is therefore equivocal. PMID:10736885

  3. Sex-specific associations between sleep problems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in children.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Jones, Alexander; Matthews, Karen A; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2012-02-01

    Sleep problems are associated with reduced physical and mental health. Altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) may be one underlying mechanism. We studied the associations between sleep problems and HPAA activity in children. A cross-sectional epidemiological cohort study. Salivary cortisol was sampled throughout one day at home and during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) in clinic. Sleep disorders were measured with a parent-rated Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and sleep duration measured by actigraphy for one week. 284 (51% girls) 8-year-old children. Boys with sleep problems (≥ 85 th percentile in any of the sleep-wake transition, arousal, excessive daytime somnolence or sleep hyperhydrosis subscales) had lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels and salivary cortisol responses to TSST-C stress in comparison to boys without sleep problems. Girls with sleep problems (≥ 85 th percentile in disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep) displayed a higher overall level of salivary cortisol during the TSST-C. Salivary cortisol responses to stress were lower in boys and higher in girls with more than one sleep problem. Sleep problems in children are associated with altered HPAA function, after controlling for actual sleep quantity measured by actigraphy. Boys with sleep problems had lower HPAA activity and girls with sleep problems had higher HPAA activity, compared to children without sleep problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calibration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Balogh, Andre; Coffey, Victoria; Dichter, Bronislaw K.; Kasprzak, Wayne T.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Lennartsson, Walter; McFadden, James P.

    Calibration and characterization of particle instruments with supporting flight electronics is necessary for the correct interpretation of the returned data. Generally speaking, the instrument will always return a measurement value (typically in form of a digital number), for example a count rate, for the measurement of an external quantity, which could be an ambient neutral gas density, an ion composition (species measured and amount), or electron density. The returned values are used then to derive parameters associated with the distribution such as temperature, bulk flow speed, differential energy flux and others. With the calibration of the instrument the direct relationship between the external quantity and the returned measurement value has to be established so that the data recorded during flight can be correctly interpreted. While calibration and characterization of an instrument are usually done in ground-based laboratories prior to integration of the instrument in the spacecraft, it can also be done in space.

  5. A SVD-based method to assess the uniqueness and accuracy of SPECT geometrical calibration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianyu; Yao, Rutao; Shao, Yiping; Zhou, Rong

    2009-12-01

    Geometrical calibration is critical to obtaining high resolution and artifact-free reconstructed image for SPECT and CT systems. Most published calibration methods use analytical approach to determine the uniqueness condition for a specific calibration problem, and the calibration accuracy is often evaluated through empirical studies. In this work, we present a general method to assess the characteristics of both the uniqueness and the quantitative accuracy of the calibration. The method uses a singular value decomposition (SVD) based approach to analyze the Jacobian matrix from a least-square cost function for the calibration. With this method, the uniqueness of the calibration can be identified by assessing the nonsingularity of the Jacobian matrix, and the estimation accuracy of the calibration parameters can be quantified by analyzing the SVD components. A direct application of this method is that the efficacy of a calibration configuration can be quantitatively evaluated by choosing a figure-of-merit, e.g., the minimum required number of projection samplings to achieve desired calibration accuracy. The proposed method was validated with a slit-slat SPECT system through numerical simulation studies and experimental measurements with point sources and an ultra-micro hot-rod phantom. The predicted calibration accuracy from the numerical studies was confirmed by the experimental point source calibrations at approximately 0.1 mm for both the center of rotation (COR) estimation of a rotation stage and the slit aperture position (SAP) estimation of a slit-slat collimator by an optimized system calibration protocol. The reconstructed images of a hot rod phantom showed satisfactory spatial resolution with a proper calibration and showed visible resolution degradation with artificially introduced 0.3 mm COR estimation error. The proposed method can be applied to other SPECT and CT imaging systems to analyze calibration method assessment and calibration protocol

  6. Calibrated entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmatov, I.; Deger, N. S.; Gutowski, J.; Colgáin, E. Ó.; Yavartanoo, H.

    2017-07-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi prescription reduces the problem of calculating entanglement entropy in CFTs to the determination of minimal surfaces in a dual anti-de Sitter geometry. For 3D gravity theories and BTZ black holes, we identify the minimal surfaces as special Lagrangian cycles calibrated by the real part of the holomorphic one-form of a spacelike hypersurface. We show that (generalised) calibrations provide a unified way to determine holographic entanglement entropy from minimal surfaces, which is applicable to warped AdS3 geometries. We briefly discuss generalisations to higher dimensions.

  7. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  8. Assessing the accuracy of an inter-institutional automated patient-specific health problem list

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health problem lists are a key component of electronic health records and are instrumental in the development of decision-support systems that encourage best practices and optimal patient safety. Most health problem lists require initial clinical information to be entered manually and few integrate information across care providers and institutions. This study assesses the accuracy of a novel approach to create an inter-institutional automated health problem list in a computerized medical record (MOXXI) that integrates three sources of information for an individual patient: diagnostic codes from medical services claims from all treating physicians, therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions, and single-indication drugs. Methods Data for this study were obtained from 121 general practitioners and all medical services provided for 22,248 of their patients. At the opening of a patient's file, all health problems detected through medical service utilization or single-indication drug use were flagged to the physician in the MOXXI system. Each new arising health problem were presented as 'potential' and physicians were prompted to specify if the health problem was valid (Y) or not (N) or if they preferred to reassess its validity at a later time. Results A total of 263,527 health problems, representing 891 unique problems, were identified for the group of 22,248 patients. Medical services claims contributed to the majority of problems identified (77%), followed by therapeutic indications from electronic prescriptions (14%), and single-indication drugs (9%). Physicians actively chose to assess 41.7% (n = 106,950) of health problems. Overall, 73% of the problems assessed were considered valid; 42% originated from medical service diagnostic codes, 11% from single indication drugs, and 47% from prescription indications. Twelve percent of problems identified through other treating physicians were considered valid compared to 28% identified through study

  9. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  10. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for Jordanian Tourist Police in Their Workplace: Needs and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldohon, Hatem Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global tourism industry, designing ESP-based curricula is now more vitally needed than ever. To work towards this goal, analyzing learners' problems and needs has become merely unavoidable. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 46 tourist police serving in different…

  11. Performance in chemistry problem solving: A study of expert/novice strategies and specific cognitive factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engemann, Joseph Francis

    The purpose of this study was (a) to determine whether any relationships exist between chemistry problem-solving performance and field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, age, gender, and/or academic level, and (b) to compare the problem-solving strategies employed by novices, advanced novices, and experts in chemistry. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), and the Figural Intersection Test (FIT) were administered to 29 freshman and junior university chemistry students and 19 Regents and Advanced Placement high school chemistry students. In addition, six mole concept problems were given to these participants, as well as to another 25 participants classified as advanced novices or experts in chemistry. All six solutions for each participant were evaluated in order to obtain a problem-solving performance score. Participants were audiotaped as they "talked aloud" during the problem-solving session. Tapes were transcribed into protocols, 37 of which were selected and analyzed for choice of problem-solving strategy and time to solution. Analyses of variance were conducted to look for significant effects of gender or academic level on field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, and problem-solving performance. These analyses provided evidence of a significant relationship between the conservation subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), between the proportional reasoning subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), and between mental capacity and academic level (p < .01). A multiple regression analysis reported that problem-solving performance is related to an interaction between logical reasoning ability and mental capacity. A relationship between academic level and chemistry problem-solving performance was also reported. From an analysis of verbal protocols of successful problem solvers at all three levels of experience, the

  12. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked, and that both are influenced by family environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The current study identifies general and substance-specific predictors of comorbid problem behavior, tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse and dependence. Specifically, we examine the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10 – 18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27 – 30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family monitoring, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents’ attitudes toward alcohol, and children’s involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effect of childhood behavioral disinhibition and control for demographics and initial behavior problems. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition, contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  13. SNLS calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a massive imaging survey, conducted between 2003 and 2008, with the MegaCam instrument, mounted on the CFHT-3.6-m telescope. With a 1 degree wide focal plane, made of 36 2048 × 4612 sensors totalling 340 megapixels, MegaCam was at the time the largest imager on the sky. The Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) uses the cadenced observations of the 4 deg2 wide "DEEP" layer of the CFHTLS to search and follow-up Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and study the acceleration of the cosmic expansion. The reduction and calibration of the CFHTLS/SNLS datasets has posed a series of challenges. In what follows, we give a brief account of the photometric calibration work that has been performed on the SNLS data over the last decade.

  14. Concept of ASTER calibration requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The document of ASTER Calibration Requirement specifies the following items related to spectral and radiometric characteristics of the ASTER instrument: (1) characteristics whose knowledge is specified, (2) requirement for knowledge of the characteristics, (3) methodology for characteristics evaluation, and (4) supplementary information and data related with characteristics evaluation. This document is applicable to the document of the ASTER Instrument Specification on Observational Performances, and will be a part of the ASTER Calibration Plan. ASTER Calibration Requirement is scheduled to establish the concept and framework by March 1992 when the 5th Calibration and Data Validation Panel Meeting is held, and to determine details including requirement values and evaluation methodologies by October 1992 around which the Calibration Peer Review may be held. The ASTER Calibration Plan is planned to finish by the same time.

  15. Temperature Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of temperature measurements is vital to many experiments. In this project, we design an algorithm to calibrate thermocouples' temperature measurements. To collect data, we rely on incremental heating to calculate the diffusion coefficients of argon through sanidine glasses. These coefficients change according to an arrhenius equation that depends on temperature, time, and the size and geometry of the glass; thus by fixing the type of glass and the time of each heating step, we obtain many data points by varying temperature. Because the dimension of temperature is continuous, obtaining data is simpler in noble gas diffusion experiments than in measuring the discrete melting points of various metals. Due to the nature of electrical connections, the need to reference to the freezing point of ice, thermal gradients in the sample, the time dependent dissipation of heat into the surroundings, and other inaccuracies with thermocouple temperature measurements, it is necessary to calibrate the experimental measurements with the expected or theoretical measurements. Since the diffusion constant equation is exponential with the inverse of temperature, we transform the exponential D vs T graph into a linear log(D) vs 1/T graph. Then a simple linear regression yields the equation of the line, and we find a mapping function from the experimental temperature to the expected temperature. By relying on the accuracy of the diffusion constant measurement, the mapping function provides the temperature calibration. Theoretical (Temperature, Diffusion Coefficient, Fractional Loss, Zeta)

  16. Some Factors in Problem Solving: The Name of the Concept, Specific Instructions, and the Ability to Verbalise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sinclair; Wheeler, T. J.

    Three extrinsic factors were manipulated in a problem-solving task performed by 80 ten-year-old children of I Q 90-110. The factors were: the presence or absence of the name of the concept given in feedback, specific instructions, and whether the child was allowed to verbalize. The task was a modification of Vygotsky's experiment on concept…

  17. Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…

  18. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  19. Non-Word Repetition in Dutch-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Parigger, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Recently, English studies have shown a relationship between non-word repetition (NWR) and the presence of reading problems (RP). Children with specific language impairment (SLI) but without RP performed similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers, whereas children with SLI and RP performed significantly worse on an NWR task. The current…

  20. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  1. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  2. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  3. Non-Word Repetition in Dutch-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Parigger, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Recently, English studies have shown a relationship between non-word repetition (NWR) and the presence of reading problems (RP). Children with specific language impairment (SLI) but without RP performed similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers, whereas children with SLI and RP performed significantly worse on an NWR task. The current…

  4. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  5. On Thinking and Feeling Bad: Do Client Problems Derive from a Common Irrationality or Specific Irrational Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Chris D.; And Others

    Two studies have reported that low self-esteem is related to the holding of four specific irrational beliefs; further studies have suggested that these and other irrational beliefs are associated with different client problems. This study attempted to replicate the self-esteem findings with a younger population and improved controls and to explore…

  6. Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…

  7. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  8. Calibrating the genome.

    PubMed

    Markward, Nathan J; Fisher, William P

    2004-01-01

    This project demonstrates how to calibrate different samples and scales of genomic information to a common scale of genomic measurement. 1,113 persons were genotyped at the 13 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) short tandem repeat (STR) marker loci used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for human identity testing. A measurement model of form ln[(P(nik))/(1-P(nik))] = B(n)-D(i)-L(k) is used to construct person measures and locus calibrations from information contained in the CODIS database. Winsteps (Wright and Linacre, 2003) is employed to maximize initial estimates and to investigate the necessity and sufficiency of different rating classification schema. Model fit is satisfactory in all analyses. Study outcomes are found in Tables 1-6. Additive, divisible, and interchangeable measures and calibrations can be created from raw genomic information that transcend sample- and scale-dependencies associated with racial and ethnic descent, chromosomal location, and locus-specific allele expansion structures.

  9. The Roles of Mothers' Neighborhood Perceptions and Specific Monitoring Strategies in Youths' Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.

    2011-01-01

    The neighborhood context can interfere with parents' abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers' perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these…

  10. Neural and cognitive correlates of the common and specific variance across externalizing problems in young adolescence.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Struve, Maren; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal and family-based research suggests that conduct disorder, substance misuse, and ADHD involve both unique forms of dysfunction as well as more specific dysfunctions unique to each condition. Using direct measures of brain function, this study also found evidence in both unique and disorder-specific perturbations.

  11. Preschool Children with Intellectual Disability: Syndrome Specificity, Behaviour Problems, and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A. S.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Likewise, mothers of children with ID are more stressed than mothers of typically developing children. Research on behavioural phenotypes suggests that different syndromes of ID may be associated with distinct child…

  12. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  13. Preschool Children with Intellectual Disability: Syndrome Specificity, Behaviour Problems, and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A. S.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Likewise, mothers of children with ID are more stressed than mothers of typically developing children. Research on behavioural phenotypes suggests that different syndromes of ID may be associated with distinct child…

  14. Calibrating Gamma Ray Bursts from SN Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Ariadna; Bretón, Nora

    2011-10-01

    To consider GRBs as standard candles, the circularity problem should be surmounted. To do this GRBs are calibrated at low redshifts using SNIa data and then extrapolating the calibration to higher redshifts. In this work we apply GRBs calibration to estimate the Hubble parameter, H(z), from the luminosity distance extracted from the calibration and, knowing H(z), we study the parameter w(z) of the equation of state of dark energy.

  15. Effect of Automatic Processing on Specification of Problem Solutions for Computer Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    oermit arrivaL a:t thu ab ,;eribly int within 5 Ciys. J. Fuel on board ni .,t permit stationing .out res;-uppty for . 10 day period. These problem...Department of the Navy Department of the Navy Director CDR R. Gibson Naval Rs earch Laboratory Bureau of Medicine & Surgery Technical Information...Communications Sciences Naval Medical R & D3 Comryiw i Division Code 44 Code 7500 Naval Medical Center Naval Research Laboratory Bethesda, MD. 20014 Washington

  16. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18–29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail. PMID:24688802

  17. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-05-21

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18-29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail.

  18. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  19. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  20. Comprehension problems in children with specific language impairment: does mental imagery training help?

    PubMed

    Joffe, Victoria L; Cain, Kate; Marić, Natasa

    2007-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment experience story comprehension deficits. Research with typically developing children, poor comprehenders and poor readers has shown that the use of mental imagery aids in the comprehension of stories. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention programme in the use of mental imagery to improve the literal and inferential comprehension of children with specific language impairment. Nine children with specific language impairment were trained to produce mental images for sentences and stories in five 30-min sessions. Their ability to answer literal and inferential questions about short narratives was assessed pre- and post-intervention and compared with the performance of 16 same-age typically developing controls. The intervention improved the question-answering performance of the children with specific language impairment for both literal and inferential questions: the improvement was only significant for the literal questions. The findings demonstrate that a relatively short intervention in the use of mental imagery is an effective way to boost the story comprehension of children with specific language impairment.

  1. [Burnout, work disruptions, interpersonal and psychosomatic problems--degree-specific comparison of students at a German university].

    PubMed

    Gumz, A; Brähler, E; Heilmann, V K; Erices, R

    2014-03-01

    In the context of the public debate on psychological strain among students, the prevalence of burnout, procrastination, test anxiety, other work disruptions, interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms were analyzed depending on academic degree. The data of 358 college students (of Leipzig University) were examined. The academic degree had only a marginal effect on burnout- and work disruptions-related variables. In terms of interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms, differences between students were identified, depending on the academic degree. Diploma students reported many complaints, whereas undergraduates aspiring for a State Examination, were comparatively less affected. Knowledge of the population-specific psychological load is useful in order to develop preventive and therapeutic measures.

  2. Specificity of Anti-Tau Antibodies when Analyzing Mice Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Problems and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Franck R.; Pelletier, Jérôme; Bretteville, Alexis; Morin, Françoise; Calon, Frédéric; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Whittington, Robert A.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are found in a group of diseases called tauopathies, which includes Alzheimer's disease. The causes and consequences of tau hyperphosphorylation are routinely investigated in laboratory animals. Mice are the models of choice as they are easily amenable to transgenic technology; consequently, their tau phosphorylation levels are frequently monitored by Western blotting using a panel of monoclonal/polyclonal anti-tau antibodies. Given that mouse secondary antibodies can recognize endogenous mouse immunoglobulins (Igs) and the possible lack of specificity with some polyclonal antibodies, non-specific signals are commonly observed. Here, we characterized the profiles of commonly used anti-tau antibodies in four different mouse models: non-transgenic mice, tau knock-out (TKO) mice, 3xTg-AD mice, and hypothermic mice, the latter a positive control for tau hyperphosphorylation. We identified 3 tau monoclonal antibody categories: type 1, characterized by high non-specificity (AT8, AT180, MC1, MC6, TG-3), type 2, demonstrating low non-specificity (AT270, CP13, CP27, Tau12, TG5), and type 3, with no non-specific signal (DA9, PHF-1, Tau1, Tau46). For polyclonal anti-tau antibodies, some displayed non-specificity (pS262, pS409) while others did not (pS199, pT205, pS396, pS404, pS422, A0024). With monoclonal antibodies, most of the interfering signal was due to endogenous Igs and could be eliminated by different techniques: i) using secondary antibodies designed to bind only non-denatured Igs, ii) preparation of a heat-stable fraction, iii) clearing Igs from the homogenates, and iv) using secondary antibodies that only bind the light chain of Igs. All of these techniques removed the non-specific signal; however, the first and the last methods were easier and more reliable. Overall, our study demonstrates a high risk of artefactual signal when performing Western blotting with routinely used anti-tau antibodies, and proposes several

  3. The binding problem in population neurodynamics: a network model for stimulus-specific coherent oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, J

    1998-12-01

    A hypothesis is presented that coherent oscillatory discharges of spatially distributed neuronal groups (the supposed binding mechanism) are the result of the convergence of stimulus-dependent activity in modality-specific afferent pathways with oscillatory activity generated in unspecific sensory systems. This view is supported by simulation experiments on model networks.

  4. Solving the Problems of Designing and Teaching a Packed English for Specific Purposes Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Background: In an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course offered to a department in a university in Hong Kong preparing the students for their internship, students were expected to learn to write and engage in spoken activities related to a number of documents over a period of 13 weeks. Having to achieve so many learning outcomes within so…

  5. Comprehension Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Does Mental Imagery Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Victoria L.; Cain, Kate; Maric, Natasa

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment experience story comprehension deficits. Research with typically developing children, poor comprehenders and poor readers has shown that the use of mental imagery aids in the comprehension of stories. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program in the use of mental imagery…

  6. Phonological Working Memory Impairments in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Where Does the Problem Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions…

  7. Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shemon, E. R.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Yu, Y. Q.

    2015-12-21

    This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.

  8. Link-prediction to tackle the boundary specification problem in social network surveys

    PubMed Central

    De Wilde, Philippe; Buarque de Lima-Neto, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion processes in social networks often cause the emergence of global phenomena from individual behavior within a society. The study of those global phenomena and the simulation of those diffusion processes frequently require a good model of the global network. However, survey data and data from online sources are often restricted to single social groups or features, such as age groups, single schools, companies, or interest groups. Hence, a modeling approach is required that extrapolates the locally restricted data to a global network model. We tackle this Missing Data Problem using Link-Prediction techniques from social network research, network generation techniques from the area of Social Simulation, as well as a combination of both. We found that techniques employing less information may be more adequate to solve this problem, especially when data granularity is an issue. We validated the network models created with our techniques on a number of real-world networks, investigating degree distributions as well as the likelihood of links given the geographical distance between two nodes. PMID:28426826

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection: Are there still specific problems with genotype 3?

    PubMed Central

    Gondeau, Claire; Pageaux, Georges Philippe; Larrey, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the main indication for liver transplantation worldwide. As promising specific treatments have been introduced for genotype 1, clinicians and researchers are now focusing on patients infected by non-genotype 1 HCV, particularly genotype 3. Indeed, in the golden era of direct-acting antiviral drugs, genotype 3 infections are no longer considered as easy to treat and are associated with higher risk of developing severe liver injuries, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, HCV genotype 3 accounts for 40% of all HCV infections in Asia and is the most frequent genotype among HCV-positive injecting drug users in several countries. Here, we review recent data on HCV genotype 3 infection/treatment, including clinical aspects and the underlying genotype-specific molecular mechanisms. PMID:26576095

  10. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  11. Parental smoking and adolescent problem behavior: an adoption study of general and specific effects.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Margaret; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2008-10-01

    It is essential to understand the effect of parental smoking on offspring tobacco use. In biologically related families, parents who smoke may transmit a nonspecific genetic risk for offspring disinhibited behavior, including tobacco use. Studying adoptive families allows one to control for genetic confounding when examining the environmental effect of exposure to parental smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to the risk represented by exposure to parental smoking and to assess the specificity of that risk. Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in all assessments in person. The main outcome measures were self-reports of behavioral deviance, substance use, and personality, as well as DSM-IV clinical assessments of childhood disruptive disorders. The data from adoptive families suggest that exposure to parental smoking represents an environmental risk for substance use in adolescent offspring. In biologically related families, the effect of exposure to parental smoking is larger and more diverse, including substance use, disruptive behavior disorders, delinquency, deviant peer affiliations, aggressive attitudes, and preference for risk taking. This study provides evidence for an environmentally mediated pathway by which parental smoking increases risk specifically for substance use in adolescent offspring. The data are also consistent with a genetically mediated pathway by which nonadoptive parents who smoke may also transmit a nonspecific genetic risk to their offspring for disinhibited behavior.

  12. The analytical calibration in (bio)imaging/mapping of the metallic elements in biological samples--definitions, nomenclature and strategies: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jurowski, Kamil; Buszewski, Bogusław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, studies related to the distribution of metallic elements in biological samples are one of the most important issues. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical atomic spectrometry techniques used for mapping/(bio)imaging the metallic elements in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is a lack of articles dedicated to reviewing calibration strategies, and their problems, nomenclature, definitions, ways and methods used to obtain quantitative distribution maps. The aim of this article was to characterize the analytical calibration in the (bio)imaging/mapping of the metallic elements in biological samples including (1) nomenclature; (2) definitions, and (3) selected and sophisticated, examples of calibration strategies with analytical calibration procedures applied in the different analytical methods currently used to study an element's distribution in biological samples/materials such as LA ICP-MS, SIMS, EDS, XRF and others. The main emphasis was placed on the procedures and methodology of the analytical calibration strategy. Additionally, the aim of this work is to systematize the nomenclature for the calibration terms: analytical calibration, analytical calibration method, analytical calibration procedure and analytical calibration strategy. The authors also want to popularize the division of calibration methods that are different than those hitherto used. This article is the first work in literature that refers to and emphasizes many different and complex aspects of analytical calibration problems in studies related to (bio)imaging/mapping metallic elements in different kinds of biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chimeric proteins tagged with specific 3xHA cassettes may present instability and functional problems.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Baggetto, Sara; Méndez, Ester; Quilis, Inma; Igual, J Carlos; Bañó, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Epitope-tagging of proteins has become a widespread technique for the analysis of protein function, protein interactions and protein localization among others. Tagging of genes by chromosomal integration of PCR amplified cassettes is a widely used and fast method to label proteins in vivo. Different systems have been developed during years in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, we analysed systematically a set of yeast proteins that were fused to different tags. Analysis of the tagged proteins revealed an unexpected general effect on protein level when some specific tagging module was used. This was due in all cases to a destabilization of the proteins and caused a reduced protein activity in the cell that was only apparent in particular conditions. Therefore, an extremely cautious approach is required when using this strategy.

  14. Bully victimization and emotional problems in adolescents:moderation by specific cognitive coping strategies?

    PubMed

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2014-10-01

    Relationships between bully victimization and symptoms of depression/anxiety were examined. In addition, it was studied whether this relationship was moderated by specific cognitive coping strategies. Participants were 582 secondary school students who filled out online self-report questionnaires on bully victimization, cognitive coping, and depression/anxiety. (Moderated) Multiple Regression analysis was performed. Strong relationships were found between bully victimization and symptoms of depression and anxiety. On top of that, two cognitive coping strategies moderated the relationship between bullying and depression, i.e. rumination (strengthening) and positive refocusing (reducing). Cognitive coping strategies that moderated the effect of bullying on anxiety symptoms were rumination, catastrophizing (strengthening) and positive reappraisal (reducing). The results provide possible targets for intervention: when helping adolescents who have been bullied, maladaptive cognitive coping strategies could be assessed and challenged, while more adaptive strategies could be acquired. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Double-blotting: a solution to the problem of non-specific binding of secondary antibodies in immunoblotting procedures.

    PubMed

    Lasne, F

    2001-07-01

    "Double-blotting" (DB) was developed to overcome the problem of non-specific binding of secondary antibodies in immunoblotting (IB). After it had been probed by the primary antibody, the membrane with the blotted proteins was assembled with a second blank membrane and submitted to a second blotting under acidic conditions. The primary antibody molecules were thus desorbed from their corresponding antigen and transferred onto the second membrane, whereas the antigen and the interfering proteins remained bound to the first one. The second membrane could then be probed by the secondary antibodies without the risk of non-specific binding. This method was developed for the study of erythropoietin (EPO) in concentrated urine since a strong non-specific binding of biotinylated secondary antibodies to some urinary proteins had been observed using classical IB protocols.

  16. Insights into the orbital invariance problem in state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Francesco A; Gauss, Jürgen

    2010-07-28

    In this communication we report the results of our studies on the orbital invariance properties of the state-specific multireference coupled cluster approach suggested by Mukherjee and co-workers (Mk-MRCC). In particular, we have gathered numerical evidence to show that even when the linear excitation manifold is modified in order to span the same space for each reference, the resulting method is not orbital invariant. In order to test this conjecture we have proposed a new truncation scheme (Mk-MRCCSDtq) which, in addition to full single and double excitations, contains partial triple and quadruple excitations. For a reference space generated by all possible combinations of two electrons in two orbitals, the linear excitation manifold of Mk-MRCCSDtq spans the same set for each reference determinant. Mk-MRCCSDtq is found to lack energy invariance for rotations among active molecular orbitals but it is less sensitive to orbital rotations than the conventional scheme which includes only singles and doubles (Mk-MRCCSD). Nevertheless, Mk-MRCCSDtq is a very accurate method, superior with respect to multireference configuration interaction approaches, and competitive with the active-space coupled cluster method and the MRexpT ansatz.

  17. Comprehension problems in children with specific language impairment: literal and inferential meaning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V; Adams, C

    1992-02-01

    A group of 61 schoolchildren with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with a control group on a comprehension task, in which the child was questioned about a story that had been presented either orally or as a series of pictures. Half the questions were literal, requiring the child to provide a detail that had been mentioned or shown explicitly in the story. The remainder required the child to make an inference about what had not been directly shown or stated. SLI children were impaired on this task, even after taking into account "comprehension age," as assessed on a multiple-choice test. However, the effects of mode of presentation and question type were similar for control and SLI groups. Children who fitted the clinical picture of semantic-pragmatic disorder had lower scores than other SLI children on this task. In addition, they were more prone to give answers that suggested they had not understood the question. However, as with the other SLI children, there was no indication that they had disproportionate difficulty with inferential questions. It is concluded that SLI children are impaired in constructing an integrated representation from a sequence of propositions, even when such propositions are presented nonverbally.

  18. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  20. Cosmogenic Chlorine-36 Global Production Rate Parameter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, S.; Borchers, B.; Phillips, F. M.; Aumer, R.; Stone, J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the CRONUS-Earth project, geological calibrations of in-situ production rates of cosmogenic nuclides, including chlorine-36, are being conducted as part of a larger project to improve the accuracy of techniques employing cosmogenic nuclides. Previous chlorine-36 production rate calibrations have been particularly difficult, likely due to the multiple production pathways. We are performing a step-wise calibration in order to specifically address the uncertainties and problems in previous studies. The low-energy neutrons will be constrained first using a depth profile analysis and then the spallation rates will be calibrated using surface and depth profile samples from five additional sites. This study will produce production rate parameters for each of the main spallation reactions (K, Ca) as well as the production by low-energy neutrons from Cl. Muons are based on Heisinger, 2002 and are not calibrated in this study. The geological calibration locations include the Peruvian Andes; Lake Bonneville, UT; Isle of Skye, Scotland; Hawaii; Dry Valleys of Antactica; and Copper Canyon, NM.

  1. Calibration Changes in EUV Solar Satellite Instruments.

    PubMed

    Reeves, E M; Parkinson, W H

    1970-05-01

    This paper reviews the problem of absolute photometric calibration in the extreme uv range with particular reference to a solar satellite instrument. EUV transfer standards, the use of predispersing spectrometers, and polarization effects at near normal incidence are discussed. Changes in preflight calibration associated with the general problems of contamination are given as the background to the main discussion relating to changes in photometric calibration during orbital operation. Conclusions relating to adequate photometric measurements in orbit are drawn, with a short list of the "best" solar flux measurements for reference. Finally, the importance of rocket flights for photometric calibration of satellite instruments is indicated.

  2. Approach to derivation of SIR-C science requirements for calibration. [Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Evans, Diane; Van Zyl, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    Many of the experiments proposed for the forthcoming SIR-C mission require calibrated data, for example those which emphasize (1) deriving quantitative geophysical information (e.g., surface roughness and dielectric constant), (2) monitoring daily and seasonal changes in the Earth's surface (e.g., soil moisture), (3) extending local case studies to regional and worldwide scales, and (4) using SIR-C data with other spaceborne sensors (e.g., ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat). There are three different aspects to the SIR-C calibration problem: radiometric and geometric calibration, which have been previously reported, and polarimetric calibration. The study described in this paper is an attempt at determining the science requirements for polarimetric calibration for SIR-C. A model describing the effect of miscalibration is presented first, followed by an example describing how to assess the calibration requirements specific to an experiment. The effects of miscalibration on some commonly used polarimetric parameters are also discussed. It is shown that polarimetric calibration requirements are strongly application dependent. In consequence, the SIR-C investigators are advised to assess the calibration requirements of their own experiment. A set of numbers summarizing SIR-C polarimetric calibration goals concludes this paper.

  3. Approach to derivation of SIR-C science requirements for calibration. [Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Evans, Diane; Van Zyl, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    Many of the experiments proposed for the forthcoming SIR-C mission require calibrated data, for example those which emphasize (1) deriving quantitative geophysical information (e.g., surface roughness and dielectric constant), (2) monitoring daily and seasonal changes in the Earth's surface (e.g., soil moisture), (3) extending local case studies to regional and worldwide scales, and (4) using SIR-C data with other spaceborne sensors (e.g., ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat). There are three different aspects to the SIR-C calibration problem: radiometric and geometric calibration, which have been previously reported, and polarimetric calibration. The study described in this paper is an attempt at determining the science requirements for polarimetric calibration for SIR-C. A model describing the effect of miscalibration is presented first, followed by an example describing how to assess the calibration requirements specific to an experiment. The effects of miscalibration on some commonly used polarimetric parameters are also discussed. It is shown that polarimetric calibration requirements are strongly application dependent. In consequence, the SIR-C investigators are advised to assess the calibration requirements of their own experiment. A set of numbers summarizing SIR-C polarimetric calibration goals concludes this paper.

  4. Simple solution for a complex problem: proanthocyanidins, galloyl glucoses and ellagitannins fit on a single calibration curve in high performance-gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stringano, Elisabetta; Gea, An; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2011-10-28

    This study was undertaken to explore gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for estimating molecular weights of proanthocyanidin fractions isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The results were compared with data obtained by thiolytic degradation of the same fractions. Polystyrene, polyethylene glycol and polymethyl methacrylate standards were not suitable for estimating the molecular weights of underivatized proanthocyanidins. Therefore, a novel HPLC-GPC method was developed based on two serially connected PolarGel-L columns using DMF that contained 5% water, 1% acetic acid and 0.15 M LiBr at 0.7 ml/min and 50 °C. This yielded a single calibration curve for galloyl glucoses (trigalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose), ellagitannins (pedunculagin, vescalagin, punicalagin, oenothein B, gemin A), proanthocyanidins (procyanidin B2, cinnamtannin B1), and several other polyphenols (catechin, epicatechin gallate, epicallocatechin gallate, amentoflavone). These GPC predicted molecular weights represented a considerable advance over previously reported HPLC-GPC methods for underivatized proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

  6. MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

  7. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  8. The state-specific expansion approach to the solution of the time-dependent many-electron problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2016-12-01

    The ab initio, non-perturbative solution of the many-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the time-resolved description of electron excitations, correlations and rearrangements in atoms and molecules on femtosecond and attosecond scales, may be characterized as a new frontier of many-electron physics and of quantum chemistry. I outline elements of the theory and applications of the state-specific expansion approach to the solution of such time-dependent many-electron problems involving arbitrary electronic structures.

  9. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina

    2016-05-02

    This poster presents the development, implementation, and operation of the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL) Longwave (LW) system at the Southern Great Plains Radiometric Calibration Facility for the calibration of pyrgeometers that provide traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group.

  10. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  11. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  12. Is Poor Frequency Modulation Detection Linked to Literacy Problems? A Comparison of Specific Reading Disability and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, L. F.; Bishop, D. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific reading disability (SRD) is now widely recognised as often being caused by phonological processing problems, affecting analysis of spoken as well as written language. According to one theoretical account, these phonological problems are due to low-level problems in auditory perception of dynamic acoustic cues. Evidence for this has come…

  13. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  14. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  15. Design, Calibration and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather Instruments for the GOES-R Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five instruments that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the instruments, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic instrument that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI instrument, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS instruments. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive calibrations at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each instrument's geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector instruments have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to calibration measurements. Energy overlap regions of the instruments will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.

  16. Design of allele-specific primers and detection of the human ABO genotyping to avoid the pseudopositive problem.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Yukimasa, Tetsuo; Nakano, Shu-ichi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Oka, Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    PCR experiments using DNA primers forming mismatch pairing with template lambda DNA at the 3' end were carried out in order to develop allele-specific primers capable of detecting SNP in genomes without generating pseudopositive amplification products, and thus avoiding the so-called pseudopositive problem. Detectable amounts of PCR products were obtained when primers forming a single or two mismatch pairings at the 3' end were used. In particular, 3' terminal A/C or T/C (primer/template) mismatches tended to allow PCR amplification to proceed, resulting in pseudopositive results in many cases. While less PCR product was observed for primers forming three terminal mismatch pairings, target DNA sequences were efficiently amplified by primers forming two mismatch pairings next to the terminal G/C base pairing. These results indicate that selecting a primer having a 3' terminal nucleotide that recognizes the SNP nucleotide and the next two nucleotides that form mismatch pairings with the template sequence can be used as an allele-specific primer that eliminates the pseudopositive problem. Trials with the human ABO genes demonstrated that this primer design is also useful for detecting a single base pair difference in gene sequences with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 45.

  17. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  18. Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of the pictorial Pediatric Symptom Checklist for psychosocial problem detection in a Mexican sample.

    PubMed

    Leiner, Marie A; Puertas, Héctor; Caratachea, Raúl; Pérez, Héctor; Jiménez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Written questionnaires have been developed to assess children's risks of psychosocial problems based on parents' responses. However, the effectiveness of these questionnaires is limited in populations with low literacy rates, which are also among the most in need of improved mental health screening and care. The present study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a version of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC)--which contained pictorial descriptions in addition to written text--against the "gold standard" Child Behavior Checklist. We retrospectively analyzed 240 sets of questionnaires completed by the mothers or stepmothers of children who visited clinics in a Community Center in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, between May and December 2007, under the Seguro Popular insurance program provided to Mexicans with the lowest socioeconomic status. Over 95% of the parental participants had less than a high school level of education. The pictorial PSC was a useful tool for screening for psychosocial impairment, with improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to previous assessments of the written PSC in similar populations within the U.S. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved when the threshold for clinical follow-up was lowered from 28 to 22 points. Questionnaires that include pictorial descriptions may be valuable for improvements of health screening in communities with low education levels.

  20. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  1. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called "cocktail-party" problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments.

  2. Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Satariano, N.; Cora, S.

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of dose to water and dose to detector has been used to calculate the correction factors needed for dose calibration and output factor measurements on the CyberKnife system. Reference field ionization chambers simulated were the PTW 30006, Exradin A12, and NE 2571 Farmer chambers, and small volume chambers PTW 31014 and 31010. Correction factors for Farmer chambers were found to be 0.7%-0.9% larger than those determined from TRS-398 due mainly to the dose gradient across the chamber cavity. For one microchamber where comparison was possible, the factor was 0.5% lower than TRS-398 which is consistent with previous MC simulations of flattening filter free Linacs. Output factor detectors simulated were diode models PTW 60008, 60012, 60017, 60018, Sun Nuclear edge detector, air-filled microchambers Exradin A16 and PTW 31014, and liquid-filled microchamber PTW 31018 microLion. Factors were generated for both fixed and iris collimators. The resulting correction factors differ from unity by up to +11% for air-filled microchambers and -6% for diodes at the smallest field size (5 mm), and tend towards unity with increasing field size (correction factor magnitude <1% for all detectors at field sizes >15 mm). Output factor measurements performed using these detectors with fixed and iris collimators on two different CyberKnife systems showed initial differences between detectors of >15% at 5 mm field size. After correction the measurements on each unit agreed within ˜1.5% at the smallest field size. This paper provides a complete set of correction factors needed to apply a new small field dosimetry formalism to both collimator types on the CyberKnife system using a range of commonly used detectors.

  3. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  4. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  5. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

  6. Phase Calibration Of Polarimetric Radar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Sheen, Dan R.; Kasischke, Erik S.

    1992-01-01

    Report addresses problem of calibration of differences between phases (relative to transmitted signals) of signals received in two polarization channels of polarimetric imaging radar system. Causes of various types of errors discussed. Calibration necessary to deduce information about target area - type of terrain, presence of vegetation, and land/water boundaries.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for specific phobias with a child demonstrating severe problem behavior and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Kurtz, Patricia F; Gardner, Andrew W; Carman, Nicole B

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and behavior analytic assessment techniques in the CBT of water and height phobia in a 7-year-old male with developmental delays and severe behavior problems. One-session treatment [Ost, L. G. (1989). One-session treatment for specific phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 1-7; Ost, L. G. (1997). Rapid treatment of specific phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research, and treatment (pp. 227-247). New York: Wiley] was provided for water phobia and then 2 months later for height phobia. The massed exposure therapy sessions combined graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, reinforcement, and other techniques. Both indirect and direct observation measures were utilized to evaluate treatment efficacy. Results suggested CBT reduced or eliminated behavioral avoidance, specific phobia symptoms, and subjective fear. Negative vocalizations were reduced during height exposure following treatment. Vocalizations following treatment for water phobia were less clear and may have been indicative of typical 7-year-old protests during bath time. Findings indicate CBT can be effective for treating clinical fears in an individual with developmental disabilities and severe behavior. Future research in this population should examine CBT as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., forced exposure) for treating fears.

  8. Towards Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations Among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multi-method, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children’s fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms one year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children’s symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children’s sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22716918

  9. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI.

  10. Integration of the Two-Dimensional Power Spectral Density into Specifications for the X-ray Domain -- Problems and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Wayne R.; Howells, M. R.; Yashchuk, V. V.

    2008-09-30

    An implementation of the two-dimensional statistical scattering theory of Church and Takacs for the prediction of scattering from x-ray mirrors is presented with a graphical user interface. The process of this development has clarified several problems which are of significant interest to the synchrotron community. These problems have been addressed to some extent, for example, for large astronomical telescopes, and at the National Ignition Facility for normal incidence optics, but not in the synchrotron community for grazing incidence optics. Since it is based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) to provide a description of the deviations from ideal shape of the surface, accurate prediction of the scattering requires an accurate estimation of the PSD. Specifically, the spatial frequency range of measurement must be the correct one for the geometry of use of the optic--including grazing incidence and coherence effects, and the modifications to the PSD of the Optical Transfer Functions (OTF) of the measuring instruments must be removed. A solution for removal of OTF effects has been presented previously, the Binary Pseudo-Random Grating. Typically, the frequency range of a single instrument does not cover the range of interest, requiring the stitching together of PSD estimations. This combination generates its own set of difficulties in two dimensions. Fitting smooth functions to two dimensional PSDs, particularly in the case of spatial non-isotropy of the surface, which is often the case for optics in synchrotron beam lines, can be difficult. The convenient, and physically accurate fractal for one dimension does not readily transfer to two dimensions. Finally, a completely statistical description of scattering must be integrated with a deterministic low spatial frequency component in order to completely model the intensity near the image. An outline for approaching these problems, and our proposed experimental program is given.

  11. Evaluating Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques and computing the uncertainty of force calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years there has been a push within NASA to use statistical techniques to improve the quality of production. Two areas where statistics are used are in establishing product and process quality control of flight hardware and in evaluating the uncertainty of calibration of instruments. The Flight Systems Quality Engineering branch is responsible for developing and assuring the quality of all flight hardware; the statistical process control methods employed are reviewed and evaluated. The Measurement Standards and Calibration Laboratory performs the calibration of all instruments used on-site at JSC as well as those used by all off-site contractors. These calibrations must be performed in such a way as to be traceable to national standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and they must meet a four-to-one ratio of the instrument specifications to calibrating standard uncertainty. In some instances this ratio is not met, and in these cases it is desirable to compute the exact uncertainty of the calibration and determine ways of reducing it. A particular example where this problem is encountered is with a machine which does automatic calibrations of force. The process of force calibration using the United Force Machine is described in detail. The sources of error are identified and quantified when possible. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  12. Online Sensor Calibration Assessment in Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-06-01

    Safe, efficient, and economic operation of nuclear systems (nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication and storage, used fuel processing, etc.) relies on transmission of accurate and reliable measurements. During operation, sensors degrade due to age, environmental exposure, and maintenance interventions. Sensor degradation can affect the measured and transmitted signals, including sensor failure, signal drift, sensor response time, etc. Currently, periodic sensor recalibration is performed to avoid these problems. Sensor recalibration activities include both calibration assessment and adjustment (if necessary). In nuclear power plants, periodic recalibration of safety-related sensors is required by the plant technical specifications. Recalibration typically occurs during refueling outages (about every 18 to 24 months). Non-safety-related sensors also undergo recalibration, though not as frequently. However, this approach to maintaining sensor calibration and performance is time-consuming and expensive, leading to unnecessary maintenance, increased radiation exposure to maintenance personnel, and potential damage to sensors. Online monitoring (OLM) of sensor performance is a non-invasive approach to assess instrument calibration. OLM can mitigate many of the limitations of the current periodic recalibration practice by providing more frequent assessment of calibration and identifying those sensors that are operating outside of calibration tolerance limits without removing sensors or interrupting operation. This can support extended operating intervals for unfaulted sensors and target recalibration efforts to only degraded sensors.

  13. Pressure Transducer Remote Calibration/Health Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoe, Richard; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reports on efforts to develop an in-situ pressure transducer calibration system for extension of calibration lifecycle and transducer health determination. This system aims to: (1) provide a long term solution to determining the calibration of pressure transducers for gas applications, (2) provide a method of isolating problems in remote measurements, and (3) reduce costs and resources by extending the length of time a transducer may be left in a system without a repeat laboratory calibration. Topic covers include: design requirements, design assumptions and design approach.

  14. Nondisease-Specific Problems and All-Cause Mortality in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, C. Barrett; Booth, John N.; Safford, Monika; Whitson, Heather E.; Ritchie, Christine; Wadley, Virginia G.; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia; Allman, Richard M.; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Problems that cross multiple domains of health are frequently assessed in older adults. We evaluated the association between six of these nondisease-specific problems and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort Setting U.S. population sample Participants Participants included 23,669 black and white US adults ≥ 45 years of age enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Measurements Nondisease-specific problems included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, falls, polypharmacy, impaired mobility and exhaustion. Age-stratified (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were calculated for each problem individually and by number of problems. Results Among participants < 65, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, one or more nondisease-specific problems occurred in 40%, 45% and 55% of participants, respectively. Compared to those with none of these problems the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality associated with each additional nondisease-specific problem was 1.34 (1.23–1.46), 1.24 (1.15–1.35) and 1.30 (1.21–1.39), among participants < 65, 65 – 74 years, ≥ 75 years of age, respectively. Conclusion Nondisease-specific problems were associated with mortality across a wide age spectrum. Future studies should determine if treating these problems will improve survival and identify innovative healthcare models to address multiple nondisease-specific problems simultaneously. PMID:23617688

  15. NASA AURA HIRDLS instrument calibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Oduleye, Olusoji O.; Whitney, John G.; Walton, Trevor W.; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    A state-of-the-art calibration facility was designed and built for the calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at the University of Oxford, England. This paper describes the main features of the facility, the driving requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and other constaints determined the design solutions that were adopted and the implementation methodology. The main features of the facility included a high performance clean room, vacuum chamber with thermal environmental control as well as the calibration sources. Particular attention was paid to maintenance of cleanliness (molecular and particulate), ESD control, mechanical isolation and high reliability. Schedule constraints required that all the calibration sources were integrated into the facility so that the number of re-press and warm up cycles was minimized and so that all the equipment could be operated at the same time.

  16. Non-word repetition in Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment with and without reading problems.

    PubMed

    Rispens, Judith; Parigger, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Recently, English studies have shown a relationship between non-word repetition (NWR) and the presence of reading problems (RP). Children with specific language impairment (SLI) but without RP performed similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers, whereas children with SLI and RP performed significantly worse on an NWR task. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether this difference in NWR performance is also found in a language with a transparent orthography--Dutch. The study included 15 TD children and 29 children with SLI. All children performed an NWR task that included non-words of 2-5 syllables in length. Children with SLI - RP (N = 11) did not differ on any of the four conditions from the TD group, whereas the children with SLI + RP (N = 18) scored more poorly on the 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable items compared to the TD group. NWR performance was significantly poorer on the 3- and 4-syllable conditions for children with SLI + RP compared to SLI - RP. To conclude, NWR is specifically affected in children with SLI + RP who are learning to read and write in a transparent orthography. Our data underline the dependency relation between literacy development and NWR performance in children with SLI.

  17. Stimulus Dependency of Object-Evoked Responses in Human Visual Cortex: An Inverse Problem for Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Graewe, Britta; De Weerd, Peter; Farivar, Reza; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked the processing of different object categories to specific event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the face-specific N170. Despite reports showing that object-related ERPs are influenced by visual stimulus features, there is consensus that these components primarily reflect categorical aspects of the stimuli. Here, we re-investigated this idea by systematically measuring the effects of visual feature manipulations on ERP responses elicited by both structure-from-motion (SFM)-defined and luminance-defined object stimuli. SFM objects elicited a novel component at 200–250 ms (N250) over parietal and posterior temporal sites. We found, however, that the N250 amplitude was unaffected by restructuring SFM stimuli into meaningless objects based on identical visual cues. This suggests that this N250 peak was not uniquely linked to categorical aspects of the objects, but is strongly determined by visual stimulus features. We provide strong support for this hypothesis by parametrically manipulating the depth range of both SFM- and luminance-defined object stimuli and showing that the N250 evoked by SFM stimuli as well as the well-known N170 to static faces were sensitive to this manipulation. Importantly, this effect could not be attributed to compromised object categorization in low depth stimuli, confirming a strong impact of visual stimulus features on object-related ERP signals. As ERP components linked with visual categorical object perception are likely determined by multiple stimulus features, this creates an interesting inverse problem when deriving specific perceptual processes from variations in ERP components. PMID:22363479

  18. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  19. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  20. Amplitude calibration experiment for SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and expected results of the amplitude calibration experiment for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) are outlined. Specific objectives include: (1) the determination of the repeatability (stability) of the SIR-B; (2) the absolute and relative calibration of the system; and (3) the ground truth verification of the calibration accuracy using measurements made by a ground spectrometer and an airborne synthetic aperture radar.

  1. Improving self-calibration.

    PubMed

    Enßlin, Torsten A; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

  2. Eye movement detector calibration device.

    PubMed

    Pruchsner, William R; Zenker, Michael; Enderle, John D

    2004-01-01

    Presented is a device developed for specifically calibrating and validating the operation of Eye Movement Detectors or Monitors. The Calibrator centers on two one inch diameter HPDE spheres representing the eyes. A Laser Module is embedded in the rear of each sphere emitting a beam against a target divided in equal measurement intervals mounted as part of the device. The device moves the "eyes" about its center axes enabling the user to validate any vertical, horizontal, or X-Y combination eye position in a plus or minus fifteen degree range. Although hand controlled, the Calibrator can be motorized with stepper motors or other desired drivers. Anatomically correct sized pupils are imbedded in the front of each "eye," thereby acting as the target for whichever system is under test by the very portable Calibrator. Currently, a simple battery controlled circuit controls the laser modules and other electric requirements with accommodation for additional circuit components if required in the future. Specifically designed for validating the operation of an IR Reflective Differencing Saccadic Eye Movement Measurement System, the Calibrator can also be used with little or no alteration for validation of camera systems and other types of devices.

  3. Calibration of pneumotachographs using a calibrated syringe.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongquan; Turner, Martin J; Yem, Johnny S; Baker, A Barry

    2003-08-01

    Pneumotachograph require frequent calibration. Constant-flow methods allow polynomial calibration curves to be derived but are time consuming. The iterative syringe stroke technique is moderately efficient but results in discontinuous conductance arrays. This study investigated the derivation of first-, second-, and third-order polynomial calibration curves from 6 to 50 strokes of a calibration syringe. We used multiple linear regression to derive first-, second-, and third-order polynomial coefficients from two sets of 6-50 syringe strokes. In part A, peak flows did not exceed the specified linear range of the pneumotachograph, whereas flows in part B peaked at 160% of the maximum linear range. Conductance arrays were derived from the same data sets by using a published algorithm. Volume errors of the calibration strokes and of separate sets of 70 validation strokes (part A) and 140 validation strokes (part B) were calculated by using the polynomials and conductance arrays. Second- and third-order polynomials derived from 10 calibration strokes achieved volume variability equal to or better than conductance arrays derived from 50 strokes. We found that evaluation of conductance arrays using the calibration syringe strokes yields falsely low volume variances. We conclude that accurate polynomial curves can be derived from as few as 10 syringe strokes, and the new polynomial calibration method is substantially more time efficient than previously published conductance methods.

  4. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  5. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  6. Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

  7. 40 CFR 86.126-90 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.126-90 Calibration of other equipment. Other test... according to good practice. Specific equipment requiring calibration are the gas chromatograph and flame...

  8. 40 CFR 86.126-90 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.126-90 Calibration of other equipment. Other test... according to good practice. Specific equipment requiring calibration are the gas chromatograph and flame...

  9. 40 CFR 86.126-90 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.126-90 Calibration of other equipment. Other test... according to good practice. Specific equipment requiring calibration are the gas chromatograph and flame...

  10. Calibration method of wave polarization data obtained by KAGUYA/WFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yoshitaka; Uda, Kazuaki; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Kozo

    2016-09-01

    A calibration method for wave polarization data obtained by waveform capture (WFC) instrument on a lunar orbiter KAGUYA is introduced. In order to obtain correct polarizations of plasma waves observed by KAGUYA, it is necessary to remove the difference of onboard delays between two orthogonal channels of the receiver. For that purpose, we use observation data of natural waves instead of onboard calibration signals which were not available due to a technical problem during the mission period. KAGUYA often observed auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the Earth, which had polarizations. The phase differences are determined by using AKR data obtained under a specific condition. As a result, the polarization data are calibrated with a sufficient accuracy. The proposed calibration method is not specialized for the KAGUYA data but it can be applied to wave data obtained with similar types of receivers in future missions.

  11. Laboratory characterization of calibrated thermal imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vroombout, Leo O.; Yasuda, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    Calibrated thermal imagers are being used more frequently than nonimaging radiometers to gather target and background infrared signature data. Current radiometric calibration guidelines should be expanded to include tests specifically designed for imagers. This paper recommends several tests for this purpose and presents data collected on an Inframetrics 210 as an illustration of the value of the tests.

  12. 40 CFR 89.307 - Dynamometer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transducer, any lever arm used to convert a weight or a force through a distance into a torque must be in a... dynamometer manufacturer's specifications. (2) Determine the dynamometer calibration moment arm (a distance... specified in § 89.306 to the moment arm at the calibration distance determined in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  13. Nonword repetition--a clinical marker for specific language impairment in Swedish associated with parents' language-related problems.

    PubMed

    Kalnak, Nelli; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Forssberg, Hans; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children (TD) in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP) in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11) and percent correct consonants (PCC) (d = 1.79). The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12), and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49). The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037), and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7). When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47) than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57). Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and phenotypes

  14. Nonword Repetition – A Clinical Marker for Specific Language Impairment in Swedish Associated with Parents’ Language-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Kalnak, Nelli; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Forssberg, Hans; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children (TD) in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8–12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP) in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of −2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11) and percent correct consonants (PCC) (d = 1.79). The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12), and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49). The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037), and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7). When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47) than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57). Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and

  15. Instrument Calibration and Certification Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Wesley

    2016-05-31

    The Amptec 640SL-2 is a 4-wire Kelvin failsafe resistance meter, designed to reliably use very low-test currents for its resistance measurements. The 640SL-1 is a 2-wire version, designed to support customers using the Reynolds Industries type 311 connector. For both versions, a passive (analog) dual function DC Milliameter/Voltmeter allows the user to verify the actual 640SL output current level and the open circuit voltage on the test leads. This procedure includes tests of essential performance parameters. Any malfunction noticed during calibration, whether specifically tested for or not, shall be corrected before calibration continues or is completed.

  16. The MISR Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Diner, David J.; Duval, Valerie G.

    1996-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is currently under development for NASA's Earth Observing System. The instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras, each with four spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared. The cameras point in different view directions to provide measurements from nadir to highly oblique view angles in the along-track plane. Multiple view-angle observations provide a unique resource for studies of clouds, aerosols, and the surface. MISR is built to challenging radiometric and geometric performance specifications. Radiometric accuracy, for example, must be within +/- 3%/ 1 sigma, and polarization insensitivity must be better than +/- 1 %. An onboard calibrator (OBC) provides monthly updates to the instrument gain coefficients. Spectralon diffuse panels are used within the OBC to provide a uniform target for the cameras to view. The absolute radiometric scale is established both preflight and in orbit through the use of detector standards. During the mission, ground data processing to accomplish radiometric calibration, geometric rectification and registration of the nine view-angle imagery, and geophysical retrievals will proceed in an automated fashion. A global dataset is produced every 9 days. This paper details the preflight characterization of the MISR instrument, the design of the OBC, and the radiance product processing.

  17. Calibrating Wide Field Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Fernández, Carlos; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J.; González Solares, E.

    2017-09-01

    "In this talk I will review the strategies in CASU to calibrate wide field surveys, in particular applied to data taken with the VISTA telescope. These include traditional night-by-night calibrations along with the search for a global, coherent calibration of all the data once observations are finished. The difficulties of obtaining photometric accuracy of a few percent and a good absolute calibration will also be discussed."

  18. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  19. ORNL calibrations facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ORNL Calibrations Facility is operated by the Instrumentation Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation calibration standards for calibration of ORNL health physics instruments and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for calibration of those survey instruments and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL.

  20. Iterative-decreasing calibration method based on regional circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyang

    2017-07-01

    In the field of computer vision, camera calibration is a hot issue. For the existing coupled problem of calculating distortion center and the distortion factor in the process of camera calibration, this paper presents an iterative-decreasing calibration method based on regional circle, uses the local area of the circle plate to calculate the distortion center coordinates by iterative declining, and then uses the distortion center to calculate the local area calibration factors. Finally, makes distortion center and the distortion factor for the global optimization. The calibration results show that the proposed method has high calibration accuracy.

  1. Insecure Attachment Styles, Relationship-Drinking Contexts, and Marital Alcohol Problems: Testing the Mediating Role of Relationship-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motives

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  2. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed.

  3. Infrared stereo calibration for unmanned ground vehicle navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harguess, Josh; Strange, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    The problem of calibrating two color cameras as a stereo pair has been heavily researched and many off-the-shelf software packages, such as Robot Operating System and OpenCV, include calibration routines that work in most cases. However, the problem of calibrating two infrared (IR) cameras for the purposes of sensor fusion and point could generation is relatively new and many challenges exist. We present a comparison of color camera and IR camera stereo calibration using data from an unmanned ground vehicle. There are two main challenges in IR stereo calibration; the calibration board (material, design, etc.) and the accuracy of calibration pattern detection. We present our analysis of these challenges along with our IR stereo calibration methodology. Finally, we present our results both visually and analytically with computed reprojection errors.

  4. ASCAL: Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  5. Quality Management and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Good specification of a product’s performance requires adequate characterization of relevant properties. Particulate products are usually characterized by some PSD, shape or porosity parameter(s). For proper characterization, adequate sampling, dispersion, and measurement procedures should be available or developed and skilful personnel should use appropriate, well-calibrated/qualified equipment. The characterization should be executed, in agreement with customers, in a wellorganized laboratory. All related aspects should be laid down in a quality handbook. The laboratory should provide proof for its capability to perform the characterization of stated products and/or reference materials within stated confidence limits. This can be done either by internal validation and audits or by external GLP accreditation.

  6. SUMS calibration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

  7. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  8. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  9. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  10. Helping Learners Gain Diagnostic Problem Solving Skills: Specific Aspects of the Diagnostic Pathfinder Software Tied to Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Mills, Erik; Vermeer, Pamela; Preast, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    Problem solving is of critical importance in many disciplines. In medicine, the clinician's ability to arrive at the correct diagnosis often means the difference between life and death. Despite its importance and a significant amount of research regarding how to improve problem solving, few unambiguous answers have emerged for promoting problem…

  11. Emotion-recognition abilities and behavior problem dimensions in preschoolers: evidence for a specific role for childhood hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia; Garner, Matthew; Hadwin, Julie A; Thompson, Margaret J J; Chin, Cheryl Y; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion-recognition difficulties have been reported in school-aged children with behavior problems; little is known, however, about either this association in preschool children or with regard to vocal emotion recognition. The current study explored the association between facial and vocal emotion recognition and behavior problems in a sample of 3 to 6-year-old children. A sample of 57 children enriched for risk of behavior problems (41 were recruited from the general population while 16 had been referred for behavior problems to local clinics) were each presented with a series of vocal and facial stimuli expressing different emotions (i.e., angry, happy, and sad) of low and high intensity. Parents rated children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Vocal and facial emotion recognition accuracy was negatively correlated with externalizing but not internalizing behavior problems independent of emotion type. The effects with the externalizing domain were independently associated with hyperactivity rather than conduct problems. The results highlight the importance of using vocal as well as facial stimuli when studying the relationship between emotion-recognition and behavior problems. Future studies should test the hypothesis that difficulties in responding to adult instructions and commands seen in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be due to deficits in the processing of vocal emotions.

  12. A derivative standard for polarimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Saez, P.

    1996-10-01

    A long-standing problem in polarized electron physics is the lack of a traceable standard for calibrating electron spin polarimeters. While several polarimeters are absolutely calibrated to better than 2%, the typical instrument has an inherent accuracy no better than 10%. This variability among polarimeters makes it difficult to compare advances in polarized electron sources between laboratories. The authors have undertaken an effort to establish 100 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs(110) as a material which may be used as a derivative standard for calibrating systems possessing a solid state polarized electron source. The near-bandgap spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from this material has been characterized for a variety of conditions and several laboratories which possess well calibrated polarimeters have measured the photoelectron polarization of cathodes cut from a common wafer. Despite instrumentation differences, the spread in the measurements is sufficiently small that this material may be used as a derivative calibration standard.

  13. Neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration for on-line sequential bayesian moment estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Diana R.; Montano, L.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Neuromusculoskeletal models involve many subject-specific physiological parameters that need to be adjusted to adequately represent muscle properties. Traditionally, neuromusculoskeletal models have been calibrated with a forward-inverse dynamic optimization which is time-consuming and unfeasible for rehabilitation therapy. Non self-calibration algorithms have been applied to these models. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this work is the first on-line calibration algorithm for muscle models that allows a generic model to be adjusted to different subjects in a few steps. Approach. In this paper we propose a reformulation of the traditional muscle models that is able to sequentially estimate the kinetics (net joint moments), and also its full self-calibration (subject-specific internal parameters of the muscle from a set of arbitrary uncalibrated data), based on the unscented Kalman filter. The nonlinearity of the model as well as its calibration problem have obliged us to adopt the sum of Gaussians filter suitable for nonlinear systems. Main results. This sequential Bayesian self-calibration algorithm achieves a complete muscle model calibration using as input only a dataset of uncalibrated sEMG and kinematics data. The approach is validated experimentally using data from the upper limbs of 21 subjects. Significance. The results show the feasibility of neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the generalization of muscle models for subject-specific rehabilitation therapies. Moreover, this work is very promising for rehabilitation devices such as electromyography-driven exoskeletons or prostheses.

  14. Parenting specificity: an examination of the relation between three parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors in the context of a history of caregiver depression.

    PubMed

    McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen; Roland, Erin; Hardcastle, Emily; Compas, Bruce

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the relations between three specific parenting behaviors (warmth, monitoring, and discipline) and two child outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems) within the context of parental depression. Using an approach recommended by A. Caron, B. Weiss, V. Harris, and T. Carron (2006), unique and differential specificity were examined. Ninety-seven parents with a history of depression and 136 of their 9- to 15-year-old children served as participants. Children reported parenting behaviors and parents reported child problem behaviors. The findings indicated that warmth/involvement, but not monitoring or discipline, was uniquely related to externalizing problems and differentially related to internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings suggest that parental warmth has implications for interventions conducted with children living in families with a history of parental depression.

  15. Automatic thoughts as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems in Chinese adolescents: A test of the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis with age effects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meng; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Yawen; Chasson, Gregory S; Wang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the current study was to test the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis across internalizing and externalizing problems in Chinese adolescents. The participants consisted of 2,158 adolescents aged 11-19 years from three middle schools, and they completed a number of measures assessing a wide range of automatic thoughts and syndromes related to internalizing and externalizing problems. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that thoughts about social threats, personal failure and hostility were the strongest predictors of anxiety, depression, and externalizing problems, respectively. Age was a statistically significant, albeit modest, moderator of the relationship between automatic thoughts about social threat and anxiety. The current study provides support for the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis in internalizing and externalizing problems in a Chinese sample. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Calibration of multi-camera photogrammetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detchev, I.; Mazaheri, M.; Rondeel, S.; Habib, A.

    2014-11-01

    Due to the low-cost and off-the-shelf availability of consumer grade cameras, multi-camera photogrammetric systems have become a popular means for 3D reconstruction. These systems can be used in a variety of applications such as infrastructure monitoring, cultural heritage documentation, biomedicine, mobile mapping, as-built architectural surveys, etc. In order to ensure that the required precision is met, a system calibration must be performed prior to the data collection campaign. This system calibration should be performed as efficiently as possible, because it may need to be completed many times. Multi-camera system calibration involves the estimation of the interior orientation parameters of each involved camera and the estimation of the relative orientation parameters among the cameras. This paper first reviews a method for multi-camera system calibration with built-in relative orientation constraints. A system stability analysis algorithm is then presented which can be used to assess different system calibration outcomes. The paper explores the required calibration configuration for a specific system in two situations: major calibration (when both the interior orientation parameters and relative orientation parameters are estimated), and minor calibration (when the interior orientation parameters are known a-priori and only the relative orientation parameters are estimated). In both situations, system calibration results are compared using the system stability analysis methodology.

  17. Practical intraoperative stereo camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Philip; Bergeles, Christos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Many of the currently available stereo endoscopes employed during minimally invasive surgical procedures have shallow depths of field. Consequently, focus settings are adjusted from time to time in order to achieve the best view of the operative workspace. Invalidating any prior calibration procedure, this presents a significant problem for image guidance applications as they typically rely on the calibrated camera parameters for a variety of geometric tasks, including triangulation, registration and scene reconstruction. While recalibration can be performed intraoperatively, this invariably results in a major disruption to workflow, and can be seen to represent a genuine barrier to the widespread adoption of image guidance technologies. The novel solution described herein constructs a model of the stereo endoscope across the continuum of focus settings, thereby reducing the number of degrees of freedom to one, such that a single view of reference geometry will determine the calibration uniquely. No special hardware or access to proprietary interfaces is required, and the method is ready for evaluation during human cases. A thorough quantitative analysis indicates that the resulting intrinsic and extrinsic parameters lead to calibrations as accurate as those derived from multiple pattern views.

  18. In-house calibration of the international sensitivity index or calibration curve for determination of the international normalized ratio.

    PubMed

    Brien, William F; Crawford, Linda; Raby, Anne; Richardson, Harold

    2004-03-01

    The international normalized ratio (INR) has been used since 1983 to standardize prothrombin time results for patients on oral anticoagulants. However, significant interlaboratory variations have been noted. Attempts have been made to address these differences with the use of instrument-specific International Sensitivity Index (ISI) values and in-house calibration of ISI values. To assess the performance of laboratories using a calibration curve for INR testing. Attempts to improve performance of the INR include the use of instrument-specific ISI values, model-specific ISI values, in-house calibration of ISI values, and more recently, the preparation of a calibration curve. Several studies have shown an improvement in performance using these procedures. In this study of licensed laboratories performing routine coagulation testing in the Province of Ontario, Canada, the determination of the INR by a calibration curve was compared with the laboratories' usual method of assessment. These methods were subsequently analyzed by comparing the results to instrument-specific ISI, model-specific ISI, and in-house calibrators. International normalized ratios derived by both methods were analyzed for accuracy and precision. The stability of a calibration curve was also investigated. Performance of INR testing has improved with use of a calibration curve or in-house calibrators. The results confirm that either in-house calibrators or the calibration curve improve performance of INR testing. The calibration curve may be easier to use and appears stable up to 4 months.

  19. A digital calibration method for synthetic aperture radar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard W.; Jackson, P. L.; Kasischke, Eric S.

    1988-01-01

    A basic method to calibrate imagery from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems is presented. SAR images are calibrated by monitoring all the terms of the radar equation. This procedure includes the use of both external (calibrated reference reflectors) and internal (system-generated calibration signals) sources to monitor the total SAR system transfer function. To illustrate the implementation of the procedure, two calibrated SAR images (X-band, 3.2-cm wavelength) are presented, along with the radar cross-section measurements of specific scenes within each image. The sources of error within the SAR image calibration procedure are identified.

  20. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  1. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  2. TOD to TTP calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Vos, Wouter K.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Fanning, Jonathan D.

    2011-05-01

    The TTP (Targeting Task Performance) metric, developed at NVESD, is the current standard US Army model to predict EO/IR Target Acquisition performance. This model however does not have a corresponding lab or field test to empirically assess the performance of a camera system. The TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method, developed at TNO in The Netherlands, provides such a measurement. In this study, we make a direct comparison between TOD performance for a range of sensors and the extensive historical US observer performance database built to develop and calibrate the TTP metric. The US perception data were collected doing an identification task by military personnel on a standard 12 target, 12 aspect tactical vehicle image set that was processed through simulated sensors for which the most fundamental sensor parameters such as blur, sampling, spatial and temporal noise were varied. In the present study, we measured TOD sensor performance using exactly the same sensors processing a set of TOD triangle test patterns. The study shows that good overall agreement is obtained when the ratio between target characteristic size and TOD test pattern size at threshold equals 6.3. Note that this number is purely based on empirical data without any intermediate modeling. The calibration of the TOD to the TTP is highly beneficial to the sensor modeling and testing community for a variety of reasons. These include: i) a connection between requirement specification and acceptance testing, and ii) a very efficient method to quickly validate or extend the TTP range prediction model to new systems and tasks.

  3. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as necessary...

  4. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as necessary...

  5. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as necessary...

  6. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as necessary...

  7. 46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace calibration. 164.009-13 Section 164.009-13...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13 Furnace calibration. A calibration is performed on each new furnace and on each existing furnace as often as...

  8. SAR calibration technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

  9. Association of Nondisease-Specific Problems with Mortality, Long-Term Care, and Functional Impairment among Older Adults Who Require Skilled Nursing Care after Dialysis Initiation.

    PubMed

    Bowling, C Barrett; Plantinga, Laura; Hall, Rasheeda K; Mirk, Anna; Zhang, Rebecca; Kutner, Nancy

    2016-12-07

    The majority of older adults who initiate dialysis do so during a hospitalization, and these patients may require post-acute skilled nursing facility (SNF) care. For these patients, a focus on nondisease-specific problems, including cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, exhaustion, falls, impaired mobility, and polypharmacy, may be more relevant to outcomes than the traditional disease-oriented approach. However, the association of the burden of nondisease-specific problems with mortality, transition to long-term care (LTC), and functional impairment among older adults receiving SNF care after dialysis initiation has not been studied. We identified 40,615 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old who received SNF care after dialysis initiation between 2000 and 2006 by linking renal disease registry data with the Minimum Data Set. Nondisease-specific problems were ascertained from the Minimum Data Set. We defined LTC as ≥100 SNF days and functional impairment as dependence in all four essential activities of daily living at SNF discharge. Associations of the number of nondisease-specific problems (≤1, 2, 3, and 4-6) with 6-month mortality, LTC, and functional impairment were examined. Overall, 39.2% of patients who received SNF care after dialysis initiation died within 6 months. Compared with those with ≤1 nondisease-specific problems, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.26 (1.19 to 1.32), 1.40 (1.33 to 1.48), and 1.66 (1.57 to 1.76) for 2, 3, and 4-6 nondisease-specific problems, respectively. Among those who survived, 37.1% required LTC; of those remaining who did not require LTC, 74.7% had functional impairment. A higher likelihood of transition to LTC (among those who survived 6 months) and functional impairment (among those who survived and did not require LTC) was seen with a higher number of problems. Identifying nondisease-specific problems may help patients and families anticipate LTC needs and

  10. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors’ awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Hahn, Daniela E E; Sidharta, Grace N; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Velthuizen, Mary E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-09-20

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics–specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family cancer clinics in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. All participants completed the psychosocial questionnaire before counseling. In the intervention group, the counselors received the results of this questionnaire before the counseling session. All sessions were audiotaped for content analysis. Primary outcomes were the frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed, the genetic counselors’ awareness of these problems, and their management. Secondary outcomes included cancer worries and psychological distress, duration and dynamics of the counseling, and satisfaction. The frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed with 246 participating counselees was significantly higher in the intervention group (n = 127) than in the control group (n =119; P = .004), as was the counselors’ awareness of psychosocial problems regarding hereditary predisposition (P < .001), living with cancer (P = .01), and general emotions (P < .001). Counselors initiated more discussion of psychosocial problems in the intervention group (P < .001), without affecting the length of the counseling session. No significant differences were found on management (P = .19). The intervention group reported significantly lower levels of cancer worries (p = .005) and distress (p = .02) after counseling. The routine assessment of psychosocial problems by questionnaire facilitates genetic counselors’ recognition and discussion of their clients’ psychosocial problems and reduces clients’ distress levels.

  11. RF impedance measurement calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-02-12

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references.

  12. Specific treatment of problems of the spine (STOPS): design of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy versus advice for people with subacute low back disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low back disorders are a common and costly cause of pain and activity limitation in adults. Few treatment options have demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits apart from advice which is recommended in all international guidelines. Clinical heterogeneity of participants in clinical trials is hypothesised as reducing the likelihood of demonstrating treatment effects, and sampling of more homogenous subgroups is recommended. We propose five subgroups that allow the delivery of specific physiotherapy treatment targeting the pathoanatomical, neurophysiological and psychosocial components of low back disorders. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy treatment to advice for people classified into five subacute low back disorder subgroups. Methods/Design A multi-centre parallel group randomised controlled trial is proposed. A minimum of 250 participants with subacute (6 weeks to 6 months) low back pain and/or referred leg pain will be classified into one of five subgroups and then randomly allocated to receive either physiotherapy advice (2 sessions over 10 weeks) or specific physiotherapy treatment (10 sessions over 10 weeks) tailored according to the subgroup of the participant. Outcomes will be assessed at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, 6 months and 12 months following randomisation. Primary outcomes will be activity limitation measured with a modified Oswestry Disability Index as well as leg and back pain intensity measured on separate 0-10 Numerical Rating Scales. Secondary outcomes will include a 7-point global rating of change scale, satisfaction with physiotherapy treatment, satisfaction with treatment results, the Sciatica Frequency and Bothersomeness Scale, quality of life (EuroQol-5D), interference with work, and psychosocial risk factors (Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire). Adverse events and co-interventions will also be measured. Data will be analysed according to

  13. Specific treatment of problems of the spine (STOPS): design of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy versus advice for people with subacute low back disorders.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Andrew J; Ford, Jon J; Surkitt, Luke D; Richards, Matthew C; Chan, Alexander Y P; Thompson, Sarah L; Hinman, Rana S; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2011-05-20

    Low back disorders are a common and costly cause of pain and activity limitation in adults. Few treatment options have demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits apart from advice which is recommended in all international guidelines. Clinical heterogeneity of participants in clinical trials is hypothesised as reducing the likelihood of demonstrating treatment effects, and sampling of more homogenous subgroups is recommended. We propose five subgroups that allow the delivery of specific physiotherapy treatment targeting the pathoanatomical, neurophysiological and psychosocial components of low back disorders. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy treatment to advice for people classified into five subacute low back disorder subgroups. A multi-centre parallel group randomised controlled trial is proposed. A minimum of 250 participants with subacute (6 weeks to 6 months) low back pain and/or referred leg pain will be classified into one of five subgroups and then randomly allocated to receive either physiotherapy advice (2 sessions over 10 weeks) or specific physiotherapy treatment (10 sessions over 10 weeks) tailored according to the subgroup of the participant. Outcomes will be assessed at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, 6 months and 12 months following randomisation. Primary outcomes will be activity limitation measured with a modified Oswestry Disability Index as well as leg and back pain intensity measured on separate 0-10 Numerical Rating Scales. Secondary outcomes will include a 7-point global rating of change scale, satisfaction with physiotherapy treatment, satisfaction with treatment results, the Sciatica Frequency and Bothersomeness Scale, quality of life (EuroQol-5D), interference with work, and psychosocial risk factors (Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire). Adverse events and co-interventions will also be measured. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat principles

  14. An Example Multi-Model Analysis: Calibration and Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlmann, M.; James, S. C.; Lowry, T. S.

    2007-12-01

    Modeling solute transport is a complex process governed by multiple site-specific parameters like porosity and hydraulic conductivity as well as many solute-dependent processes such as diffusion and reaction. Furthermore, it must be determined whether a steady or time-variant model is most appropriate. A problem arises because over-parameterized conceptual models may be easily calibrated to exactly reproduce measured data, even if these data contain measurement noise. During preliminary site investigation stages where available data may be scarce it is often advisable to develop multiple independent conceptual models, but the question immediately arises: which model is best? This work outlines a method for quickly calibrating and ranking multiple models using the parameter estimation code PEST in conjunction with the second-order-bias-corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc). The method is demonstrated using the twelve analytical solutions to the one- dimensional convective-dispersive-reactive solute transport equation as the multiple conceptual models (van~Genuchten M. Th. and W. J. Alves, 1982. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional convective- dispersive solute transport equation, USDA ARS Technical Bulletin Number 1661. U.S. Salinity Laboratory, 4500 Glenwood Drive, Riverside, CA 92501.). Each solution is calibrated to three data sets, each comprising an increasing number of calibration points that represent increased knowledge of the modeled site (calibration points are selected from one of the analytical solutions that provides the "correct" model). The AICc is calculated after each successive calibration to the three data sets yielding model weights that are functions of the sum of the squared, weighted residuals, the number of parameters, and the number of observations (calibration data points) and ultimately indicates which model has the highest likelihood of being correct. The results illustrate how the sparser data sets can be modeled

  15. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  16. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed; Maker, C. June; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students' scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spatial artistic, and oral linguistic) in the DISCOVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses) and the…

  17. Parenting Specificity: An Examination of the Relation between Three Parenting Behaviors and Child Problem Behaviors in the Context of a History of Caregiver Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen; Roland, Erin; Hardcastle, Emily; Compas, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the relations between three specific parenting behaviors (warmth, monitoring, and discipline) and two child outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems) within the context of parental depression. Using an approach recommended by A. Caron, B. Weiss, V. Harris, and T. Carron (2006),…

  18. Calibration methods for rotating shadowband irradiometers and evaluation of calibration duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, W.; Wilbert, S.; Nouri, B.; Geuder, N.; Fritz, H.

    2015-10-01

    Resource assessment for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) needs accurate Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) measurements. An option for such measurement campaigns are Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (RSIs) with a thorough calibration. Calibration of RSIs and Si-sensors in general is complex because of the inhomogeneous spectral response of such sensors and incorporates the use of several correction functions. A calibration for a given atmospheric condition and air mass might not work well for a different condition. This paper covers procedures and requirements for two calibration methods for the calibration of Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers. The necessary duration of acquisition of test measurements is examined in regard to the site specific conditions at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Data sets of several long-term calibration periods from PSA are used to evaluate the deviation of results from calibrations with varying duration from the long-term result. The findings show that seasonal changes of environmental conditions are causing small but noticeable fluctuation of calibration results. Certain periods (i.e. November to January and April to May) show a higher likelihood of particularly adverse calibration results. These effects can partially be compensated by increasing the inclusions of measurements from outside these periods. Consequently, the duration of calibrations at PSA can now be selected depending on the time of the year in which measurements are commenced.

  19. Efficient Calibration of Computationally Intensive Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, A.; Huot, P. L.; Audet, C.; Alarie, S.

    2015-12-01

    A new hybrid optimization algorithm for the calibration of computationally-intensive hydrological models is introduced. The calibration of hydrological models is a blackbox optimization problem where the only information available to the optimization algorithm is the objective function value. In the case of distributed hydrological models, the calibration process is often known to be hampered by computational efficiency issues. Running a single simulation may take several minutes and since the optimization process may require thousands of model evaluations, the computational time can easily expand to several hours or days. A blackbox optimization algorithm, which can substantially improve the calibration efficiency, has been developed. It merges both the convergence analysis and robust local refinement from the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm, and the global exploration capabilities from the heuristic strategies used by the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm. The new algorithm is applied to the calibration of the distributed and computationally-intensive HYDROTEL model on three different river basins located in the province of Quebec (Canada). Two calibration problems are considered: (1) calibration of a 10-parameter version of HYDROTEL, and (2) calibration of a 19-parameter version of the same model. A previous study by the authors had shown that the original version of DDS was the most efficient method for the calibration of HYDROTEL, when compared to the MADS and the very well-known SCEUA algorithms. The computational efficiency of the hybrid DDS-MADS method is therefore compared with the efficiency of the DDS algorithm based on a 2000 model evaluations budget. Results show that the hybrid DDS-MADS method can reduce the total number of model evaluations by 70% for the 10-parameter version of HYDROTEL and by 40% for the 19-parameter version without compromising the quality of the final objective function value.

  20. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  1. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  2. An Examination of Specific Child Behavior Problems as Predictors of Parenting Stress among Families of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Allyson L.; Neece, Cameron L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other types of developmental delays (DD). This relationship appears to be mediated by elevated levels of behavior problems observed in children with…

  3. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. Calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  4. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    DOE PAGES

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-05

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. Themore » performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. In conclusion, calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.« less

  5. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-05

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. In conclusion, calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  6. Calibration facility safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    A set of requirements is presented to insure the highest practical standard of safety for the Apollo 17 Calibration Facility in terms of identifying all critical or catastrophic type hazard areas. Plans for either counteracting or eliminating these areas are presented. All functional operations in calibrating the ultraviolet spectrometer and the testing of its components are described.

  7. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  8. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  9. Non-specific labelling of mast cells in feline oral mucosa--a potential problem in immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific labelling of mast cells was found to occur in formalin-fixed sections of feline oral mucosa during immunohistochemical procedures. The phenomenon occurred when normal goat, rabbit or mouse serum was applied as a negative control in place of primary antibodies. In addition, with murine isotype-specific negative control reagents, non-specific labelling of mast cells was intense when IgG2b was applied as the primary reagent, but absent or mild when IgGl or IgG2a isotypes were utilized. The non-specific labelling could be eliminated or diminished by reducing the pH of the washing and dilution buffers from 7.4 to 6.0, or by preincubating sections with heparin. The non-specific binding could also be abolished by preincubating sections with heparinase-I. The results suggest that the non-specific binding was mediated by heparin present within feline oral mucosal mast cells. These findings illustrate the importance of the inclusion of adequate control sections in immunohistochemical studies.

  10. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  11. Calibration of a polarization navigation sensor using the NSGA-II algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lilian; He, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    A bio-inspired polarization navigation sensor is designed based on the polarization sensitivity mechanisms of insects. A new calibration model by formulating the calibration problem as a multi-objective optimization problem is presented. Unlike existing calibration models, the proposed model makes the calibration problem well-posed. The calibration parameters are optimized through Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) approach to minimize both angle of polarization (AOP) residuals and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) dispersions. The results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more stable than the compared methods for the calibration applications of polarization navigation sensors.

  12. [Medical surveillance in university: organizational difficulties, legal problems, scientific e technical specificities. Experience of University of Milan Bicocca].

    PubMed

    D'Orso, M I; Giuliani, C; Assini, R; Riva, M A; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Our research describes activities of Occupational Health carried out during last year in University of Milan Bicocca by Occupational Doctors. We describe results of medical surveillance in 1153 employees or students exposed to occupational risks for health and safety. We report results obtained, technical difficulties, organizational problems, and preventive actions decided to improve functionality of our activity. Students seem to be less protected and consequently seem to have higher professional safety and health risks.

  13. Cumulative contextual risk at birth in relation to adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and risky sex: General and specific predictive associations in a Finnish birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A.; Chmelka, Mary B.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Savolainen, Jukka; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Background Research indicates that risk factors cluster in the most vulnerable youth, increasing their susceptibility for adverse developmental outcomes. However, most studies of cumulative risk are cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal, and have been based on data from the United States or the United Kingdom. Using data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study (NFBC1986), we examined cumulative contextual risk (CCR) at birth as a predictor of adolescent substance use and co-occurring conduct problems and risky sex to determine the degree to which CCR predicts specific outcomes over-and-above its effect on general problem behavior, while testing for moderation of associations by gender. Methods Analyses of survey data from 6963 participants of the NFBC1986 followed from the prenatal/birth period into adolescence were conducted using structural equation modeling. Results CCR had long-term positive associations with first-order substance use, conduct problems, and risky sex factors, and, in a separate analysis, with a second-order general problem behavior factor. Further analyses showed that there was a positive specific effect of CCR on risky sex, over-and-above general problem behavior, for girls only. Conclusions This study, conducted within the Finnish context, showed that CCR at birth had long-term general and specific predictive associations with substance use and co-occurring problem behaviors in adolescence; effects on risky sex were stronger for girls. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that early exposure to CCR can have lasting adverse consequences, suggesting the need for early identification and intervention efforts for vulnerable children. PMID:26946447

  14. Calibration apparatus for recess mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Michael A.; Miller, William T., Jr.; Baals, Robert A.; Martin, Ruth M.

    1992-04-01

    Measurement of surface pressure fluctuations is important in aerodynamic studies and is conventionally accomplished via thin surface mounted transducers. These transducers contaminate the airflow, leading to the use of transducers located beneath the surface and communicating thereto via a pipette. This solution creates its own problem of transducer calibration due to the structure of the pipette. A calibration apparatus and method for calibrating a pressure transducer are provided. The pressure transducer is located within a test structure having a pipette leading from an outer structure surface to the pressure transducer. The calibration apparatus defines an acoustic cavity. A first end of the acoustic cavity is adapted to fluidly communicate with the pipette leading to the pressure transducer, wherein a channel is formed from the acoustic cavity to the transducer. An acoustic driver is provided for acoustically exciting fluid in the acoustic cavity to generate pressure waves which propagate to the pressure transducer. A pressure sensing microphone is provided for sensing the pressure fluctuations in the cavity near the cavity end, whereby this sensed pressure is compared with a simultaneously pressure sensed by the pressure transducer to permit calibration of the pressure transducer sensings. Novel aspects of the present invention include its use of a calibration apparatus to permit in-situ calibration of recess mounted pressure transducers.

  15. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

  16. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.

    1998-11-17

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

  17. Definition of energy-calibrated spectra for national reachback

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Christopher L.; Hertz, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the timeliness and accuracy of analysis results of spectra submitted to National Reachback, particularly for the detection of threat items. Many spectra submitted for analysis include either a calibration spectrum using 137Cs or no calibration spectrum at all. The single line provided by 137Cs is insufficient to adequately calibrate nonlinear spectra. A calibration source that provides several lines that are well-spaced, from the low energy cutoff to the full energy range of the detector, is needed for a satisfactory energy calibration. This paper defines the requirements of an energy calibration for the purposes of National Reachback, outlines a method to validate whether a given spectrum meets that definition, discusses general source considerations, and provides a specific operating procedure for calibrating the GR-135.

  18. Psychometric properties of the German version of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised: additional benefit of disease-specific screening in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saßmann, H; Albrecht, C; Busse-Widmann, P; Hevelke, L K; Kranz, J; Markowitz, J T; Marshall, L F; Meurs, S; de Soye, I H; Lange, K

    2015-12-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the German version of the abbreviated 16-item Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised in a sample of young people with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 246 young people, aged 11-19 years, with Type 1 diabetes from six pediatric diabetes centres in Germany were assessed using the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised. In addition, they underwent screening with two generic tools as well as the WHO five-question well-being index. A clinician's report was also obtained. The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.84). The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised scores significantly correlated with those provided by the non-specific screening tools (r = 0.37, P ≤ 0.000 and r = 0.50, P ≤ 0.000 for boys and r = 0.62, P ≤ 0.000 and r = 0.79, P ≤ 0.000 for girls), indicating convergent validity. The mean (sd) total of the scores was 12.0 (9.6). Criterion validity was confirmed against HbA1c value, BMI standard deviation score and expert (clinician) report. Of the boys included in the study, 11 scored higher than the threshold score on the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised, of whom only three (27%) were classified as 'suspected to have a disordered eating behaviour' by their clinicians. The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised delivered more specific information than generic screening instruments and identified more young people with eating disorders than did clinician report, especially regarding the detection of boys at risk. The results of this study support the utility of the German version of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised to identify eating disorders in young people with Type 1 diabetes at an early stage. (German Clinical Trials Registry no.: DRKS00004699). © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  19. Estimation of Radiometric Calibration Coefficients of EGYPTSAT-1 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. H.; El Leithy, B. M.; Badr, H. S.; Centeno, J.

    2012-07-01

    Sensors usually must be calibrated as part of a measurement system. Calibration may include the procedure of correcting the transfer of the sensor, using the reference measurements, in such a way that a specific input-output relation can be guaranteed with a certain accuracy and under certain conditions. It is necessary to perform a calibration to relate the output signal precisely to the physical input signal (e.g., the output Digital Numbers (DNs) to the absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance). Generic calibration data associated with Egyptsat-1 sensor are not provided by the manufacturer. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate Egyptsat-1 sensor specific calibration data and tabulates the necessary constants for its different multispectral bands. We focused our attention on the relative calibration between Egyptsat-1 and Spot-4 sensors for their great spectral similarity. The key idea is to use concurrent correlation of signals received at both sensors in the same day (i.e., sensors are observing the same phenomenon). Calibration formula constructed from Spot-4 sensor is used to derive the calibration coefficients for Egyptsat-1. A brief overview of the radiometric calibration coefficients retrieval procedures is presented. A reasonable estimate of the overall calibration coefficient is obtained. They have been used to calibrate reflectances of Egyptsat-1 sensor. Further updates to evaluate and improve the retrieved calibration data are being investigated.

  20. Study of TFTC Dynamic Character Calibration Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Jun; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Cong; Zhao, Jian

    2011-08-01

    A TFTC (thin film thermocouple) is an advanced thermal sensor that is used for measuring transient temperatures. Because of the TFTC's high-speed response, the usual calibration instrument and method cannot meet the calibration needs. This article introduces a pulse laser heating method. Dynamic character measurements and system identification are combined. The material of the TFTC is NiCr-NiSi, and the film thickness is 2 μm with a ceramic substrate. The transfer function is derived by means of a least-squares solution. In this method under the assumption of an ideal temperature step, there is no strict requirement on a first-order system and the limit of a pulse laser bandwidth. The calibration method introduced in this article resolves the TFTC dynamic character calibration problem.

  1. Calibration of the MEGA Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andritschke, R.; Zoglauer, A.; Kanbach, G.; Schönfelder, V.; Schrey, F.; Schopper, F.; Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Macri, J.; Miller, R. S.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Pinayev, I. V.

    2004-10-01

    Calibration measurements of the MEGA (Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy) prototype have been performed with radioactive lab sources and at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at the Free Electron Laser Laboratory (FELL) of Duke University, Durham, NC. MEGA is a combined Compton scatter and pair creation telescope. It con- sists of two main detector units, the tracker and the calorimeter. Doublesided Silicon strip detectors form the tracker, which is surrounded by the pixelated CsI(Tl) blocks of the calorimeter. A prerequisite for successful data analysis is a calibration of each indi- vidual readout channel. This work is still ongoing. The performance of the detector units will be there- fore presented as currently known. The encountered problems and the resulting (single detector) calibra- tion methods will be described briefly. Since we aim at an energy range of 0.3 50 MeV, the HIGS — a Compton back-scattering source — with beams of mono-energetic, fully linearly polarized photons in the range of 0.7 50 MeV was a good match for the MEGA calibration. Measurements at various ener- gies and for different incidence angles have been per- formed. Some preliminary results will be presented. Key words: Compton telescope; pair telescope; Si strip detector; CsI calorimeter; γ-ray; HIGS.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  3. Nonword Repetition Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Deficit in Accessing Long-Term Linguistic Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Maillart, Christelle; Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) consistently show poor nonword repetition (NWR) performance. However, the reason for these difficulties remains a matter of intensive debate. Nonword repetition is a complex psycholinguistic task that heavily relies upon phonological segmentation and phonological knowledge, and even lexical…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  5. Longitudinal Patterns of Behaviour Problems in Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties: Child and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Strand, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD) in children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD), and the relationship between BESD and the language ability. Methods: A sample of children with SSLD were assessed for BESD at ages 8, 10 and 12 years by both…

  6. Automatic colorimetric calibration of human wounds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, digital photography in medicine is considered an acceptable tool in many clinical domains, e.g. wound care. Although ever higher resolutions are available, reproducibility is still poor and visual comparison of images remains difficult. This is even more the case for measurements performed on such images (colour, area, etc.). This problem is often neglected and images are freely compared and exchanged without further thought. Methods The first experiment checked whether camera settings or lighting conditions could negatively affect the quality of colorimetric calibration. Digital images plus a calibration chart were exposed to a variety of conditions. Precision and accuracy of colours after calibration were quantitatively assessed with a probability distribution for perceptual colour differences (dE_ab). The second experiment was designed to assess the impact of the automatic calibration procedure (i.e. chart detection) on real-world measurements. 40 Different images of real wounds were acquired and a region of interest was selected in each image. 3 Rotated versions of each image were automatically calibrated and colour differences were calculated. Results 1st Experiment: Colour differences between the measurements and real spectrophotometric measurements reveal median dE_ab values respectively 6.40 for the proper patches of calibrated normal images and 17.75 for uncalibrated images demonstrating an important improvement in accuracy after calibration. The reproducibility, visualized by the probability distribution of the dE_ab errors between 2 measurements of the patches of the images has a median of 3.43 dE* for all calibrated images, 23.26 dE_ab for all uncalibrated images. If we restrict ourselves to the proper patches of normal calibrated images the median is only 2.58 dE_ab! Wilcoxon sum-rank testing (p < 0.05) between uncalibrated normal images and calibrated normal images with proper squares were equal to 0 demonstrating a highly

  7. Covariance analysis and fitting of germanium gamma-ray detector efficiency calibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, L. P.; Smith, D. L.

    1990-05-01

    The measurement of neutron-induced reaction cross sections often requires detection of either prompt gamma rays or gamma rays emitted during the decay of radio nuclides. This paper describes the analytical procedures we use to generate calibrations for germanium gamma-ray detector full-energy-peak efficiency ɛ versus photon energy E, and to predict the associated uncertainties. Our method, which involves fitting a parameterized regression formula to measured data by the principle of least squares, is widely applicable beyond the specific problem considered here. It differs from most commonly used methods in that comprehensive use is made of available information on all known sources of random and systematic (correlated) error associated with the calibration process. This is accomplished through the formation and application of a calibration-data covariance matrix. Objective prediction of the errors in subsequently derived quantities (e.g., detector efficiencies at energies not directly represented in the calibration data) is then achieved through error propagation. Specifically, this paper discusses our experiences in fitting the particular empirical formula In ɛ = Σk-1 mpk(In E) k-1 to measured calibration data at gamma-ray energies from just above 200 keV to several MeV. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the utility of this approach.

  8. Calibration methods for rotating shadowband irradiometers and optimizing the calibration duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, Wilko; Wilbert, Stefan; Nouri, Bijan; Geuder, Norbert; Fritz, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Resource assessment for concentrated solar power (CSP) needs accurate direct normal irradiance (DNI) measurements. An option for such measurement campaigns is the use of thoroughly calibrated rotating shadowband irradiometers (RSIs). Calibration of RSIs and Si-sensors is complex because of the inhomogeneous spectral response of these sensors and incorporates the use of several correction functions. One calibration for a given atmospheric condition and air mass might not be suitable under different conditions. This paper covers procedures and requirements of two calibration methods for the calibration of rotating shadowband irradiometers. The necessary duration of acquisition of test measurements is examined with regard to the site-specific conditions at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Spain. Seven data sets of long-term test measurements were collected. For each data set, calibration results of varying durations were compared to its respective long-term result. Our findings show that seasonal changes of environmental conditions are causing small but noticeable fluctuation of calibration results. Calibration results within certain periods (i.e. November to January and April to May) show a higher likelihood of deviation. These effects can partially be attenuated by including more measurements from outside these periods. Consequently, the duration of calibrations at PSA can now be selected depending on the time of year in which measurements commence.

  9. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  10. Airdata Measurement and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

  11. Dynamic Pressure Calibration Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, P. C.; Cate, K. H.; Young, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrating columns of fluid used to calibrate transducers. Dynamic pressure calibration standard developed for calibrating flush diaphragm-mounted pressure transducers. Pressures up to 20 kPa (3 psi) accurately generated over frequency range of 50 to 1,800 Hz. System includes two conically shaped aluminum columns one 5 cm (2 in.) high for low pressures and another 11 cm (4.3 in.) high for higher pressures, each filled with viscous fluid. Each column mounted on armature of vibration exciter, which imparts sinusoidally varying acceleration to fluid column. Signal noise low, and waveform highly dependent on quality of drive signal in vibration exciter.

  12. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  13. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-06-15

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

  14. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  15. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  16. Calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system.

    PubMed

    He, Bingwei; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Youfu

    2012-11-01

    A central catadioptric-perspective camera system is widely used nowadays. A critical problem is that current calibration methods cannot determine the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and a perspective camera effectively. We present a novel calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system, in which the central catadioptric camera has a hyperbolic mirror. Two cameras are used to capture images of one calibration pattern at different spatial positions. A virtual camera is constructed at the origin of the central catadioptric camera and faced toward the calibration pattern. The transformation between the virtual camera and the calibration pattern could be computed first and the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and the calibration pattern could be obtained. Three-dimensional reconstruction results of the calibration pattern show a high accuracy and validate the feasibility of our method.

  17. Calibration of a fuel relocation model in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, L. P.; Williamson, R. L.; Perez, D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate parameter calibration in the context of the BISON nuclear fuels performance analysis code. Specifically, we present the calibration of a parameter governing fuel relocation: the power level at which the relocation model is activated. This relocation activation parameter is a critical value in obtaining reasonable comparison with fuel centerline temperature measurements. It also is the subject of some debate in terms of the optimal values. We show that the optimal value does vary across the calibration to individual rods. We also demonstrate an aggregated calibration, where we calibrate to observations from six rods. (authors)

  18. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  19. SRAM Detector Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

  20. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  1. Meteorological radar calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    A meteorological radar calibration technique is developed. It is found that the integrated, range corrected, received power saturates under intense rain conditions in a manner analogous to that encountered for the radiometric path temperature. Furthermore, it is found that this saturation condition establishes a bound which may be used to determine an absolution radar calibration for the case of radars operating at attenuating wavelengths. In the case of less intense rainfall or for radars at nonattenuating wavelengths, the relationship for direct calibration in terms of an independent measurement of radiometric path temperature is developed. This approach offers the advantage that the calibration is in terms of an independent measurement of the rainfall through the same elevated region as that viewed by the radar.

  2. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2016-05-02

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the progress on the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations for all shortwave and longwave radiometers that are deployed by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program.

  3. Calibration of Cryogenic Thermometers for the Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balle, Ch.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Vauthier, N.; Thermeau, J. P.

    2008-03-01

    6000 cryogenic temperature sensors of resistive type covering the range from room temperature down to 1.6 K are installed on the LHC machine. In order to meet the stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets, each single sensor needs to be calibrated individually. In the framework of a special contribution, IPN (Institut de Physique Nucléaire) in Orsay, France built and operated a calibration facility with a throughput of 80 thermometers per week. After reception from the manufacturer, the thermometer is first assembled onto a support specific to the measurement environment, and then thermally cycled ten times and calibrated at least once from 1.6 to 300 K. The procedure for each of these interventions includes various measurements and the acquired data is recorded in an ORACLE®-database. Furthermore random calibrations on some samples are executed at CERN to crosscheck the coherence between the approximation data obtained by both IPN and CERN. In the range of 1.5 K to 30 K, the calibration apparatuses at IPN and CERN are traceable to standards maintained in a national metrological laboratory by using a set of rhodium-iron temperature sensors of metrological quality. This paper presents the calibration procedure, the quality assurance applied, the results of the calibration campaigns and the return of experience.

  4. Chaos, Consternation and CALIPSO Calibration: New Strategies for Calibrating the CALIOP 1064 nm Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Mark; Garnier, Anne; Liu, Zhaoyan; Josset, Damien; Hu, Yongxiang; Lee, Kam-Pui; Hunt, William; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Rodier, Sharon; Pelon, Jaques; hide

    2012-01-01

    The very low signal-to-noise ratios of the 1064 nm CALIOP molecular backscatter signal make it effectively impossible to employ the "clear air" normalization technique typically used to calibrate elastic back-scatter lidars. The CALIPSO mission has thus chosen to cross-calibrate their 1064 nm measurements with respect to the 532 nm data using the two-wavelength backscatter from cirrus clouds. In this paper we discuss several known issues in the version 3 CALIOP 1064 nm calibration procedure, and describe the strategies that will be employed in the version 4 data release to surmount these problems.

  5. Scanner calibration revisited

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2.) reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides. PMID:20594322

  6. Scanner calibration revisited.

    PubMed

    Pozhitkov, Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2.) reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  7. Is creative insight task-specific? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on insightful problem solving.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wangbing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Luo, Jing; Gong, Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task. These tasks were chosen because they are frequently used to uncover the neurocognitive correlates of insight. Our results demonstrated that creative insight reliably activates largely non-overlapping brain regions across task types, with the exception of some shared regions: the CRA task mainly relied on the right parahippocampal gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus; the PH task primarily depended on the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left lingual gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus; and the CCD task activated a broad cerebral network consisting of most dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, frontoparietal regions and the right MOG. These results provide the first neural evidence of the task dependence of creative insight. The implications of these findings for resolving conflict surrounding the different theories of creative cognition and for defining insight as a set of heterogeneous processes are discussed.

  8. Signal inference with unknown response: Calibration-uncertainty renormalized estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco; Boehm, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of a measurement device is crucial for every scientific experiment, where a signal has to be inferred from data. We present CURE, the calibration-uncertainty renormalized estimator, to reconstruct a signal and simultaneously the instrument's calibration from the same data without knowing the exact calibration, but its covariance structure. The idea of the CURE method, developed in the framework of information field theory, is to start with an assumed calibration to successively include more and more portions of calibration uncertainty into the signal inference equations and to absorb the resulting corrections into renormalized signal (and calibration) solutions. Thereby, the signal inference and calibration problem turns into a problem of solving a single system of ordinary differential equations and can be identified with common resummation techniques used in field theories. We verify the CURE method by applying it to a simplistic toy example and compare it against existent self-calibration schemes, Wiener filter solutions, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We conclude that the method is able to keep up in accuracy with the best self-calibration methods and serves as a noniterative alternative to them.

  9. Signal inference with unknown response: calibration-uncertainty renormalized estimator.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco; Boehm, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of a measurement device is crucial for every scientific experiment, where a signal has to be inferred from data. We present CURE, the calibration-uncertainty renormalized estimator, to reconstruct a signal and simultaneously the instrument's calibration from the same data without knowing the exact calibration, but its covariance structure. The idea of the CURE method, developed in the framework of information field theory, is to start with an assumed calibration to successively include more and more portions of calibration uncertainty into the signal inference equations and to absorb the resulting corrections into renormalized signal (and calibration) solutions. Thereby, the signal inference and calibration problem turns into a problem of solving a single system of ordinary differential equations and can be identified with common resummation techniques used in field theories. We verify the CURE method by applying it to a simplistic toy example and compare it against existent self-calibration schemes, Wiener filter solutions, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We conclude that the method is able to keep up in accuracy with the best self-calibration methods and serves as a noniterative alternative to them.

  10. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  11. Risk-based evaluation of technical specification problems at the La Salle County Nuclear Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzak, D.J.; Trainer, J.E.; McClymont, A.S.

    1987-06-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods are used to evaluate alternatives to existing requirements for three operationally burdensome technical specifications at La Salle Nuclear Station. The study employs a decision logic to minimize the detailed analysis necessary to show compliance with given acceptance criteria; in this case, no risk increase resulting from a proposed change. The analyses provide insights to choose from among alternative options. The SOCRATES computer code was used for the probabilistic analysis. Results support a change to less frequent diesel generator testing, eliminations of one reactor scram setpoint, and establishing an allowed out-of-service time for valves in a reactor scram system. In each case, the change would result in a safety improvement.

  12. [Evaluation of residual osteomuscular function using computerised movement analysis for building sector workers: specificity and technical problem].

    PubMed

    D'Orso, M I; Centemeri, R; Latocca, R; Riva, M; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Occupational Health Doctors active in building sector firms frequently have to evaluate residual workers' osteomuscular function in patients coming back to work after an accident happened during work time or free time. Definition of their specific individual work suitability is usually carried out utilizing semeiotic tests in which subjective evaluation of every single Medical Doctor is real important in definition of final results and this fact can cause legal controversies. In our research we describe the application of computerised movement analysis on 10 workers of building sector. In every patient examined this technical method has been able to study objectively the tridimensional ranges of motion of most important osteomuscular districts. The possibility to have an objective evaluation of residual osteomuscular function has a relevant importance both in definition of workers' work suitability at the moment in which they start again their activities and in possible future legal conflicts.

  13. Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration

    DOEpatents

    Clifford, Harry J [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

  14. Air data position-error calibration using state reconstruction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, S. A.; Larson, T. J.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    During the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) flight test program recently completed at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility, numerous problems were experienced in airspeed calibration. This necessitated the use of state reconstruction techniques to arrive at a position-error calibration. For the HiMAT aircraft, most of the calibration effort was expended on flights in which the air data pressure transducers were not performing accurately. Following discovery of this problem, the air data transducers of both aircraft were wrapped in heater blankets to correct the problem. Additional calibration flights were performed, and from the resulting data a satisfactory position-error calibration was obtained. This calibration and data obtained before installation of the heater blankets were used to develop an alternate calibration method. The alternate approach took advantage of high-quality inertial data that was readily available. A linearized Kalman filter (LKF) was used to reconstruct the aircraft's wind-relative trajectory; the trajectory was then used to separate transducer measurement errors from the aircraft position error. This calibration method is accurate and inexpensive. The LKF technique has an inherent advantage of requiring that no flight maneuvers be specially designed for airspeed calibrations. It is of particular use when the measurements of the wind-relative quantities are suspected to have transducer-related errors.

  15. Problem-solving therapy for adults with diabetic retinopathy and diabetes-specific distress: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Gwyneth; O'Hare, Fleur; Saeed, Marian; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Xie, Jing; Speight, Jane; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2017-01-01

    Objective To provide preliminary evidence for the impact of problem-solving therapy for diabetes (PST-D) in adults with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetes distress. Research design and methods In a pilot randomized controlled trial, 40 participants with DR and diabetes distress were allocated to the PST-D or control groups. Diabetes distress (DDS), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), self-care activities (SDSCA), and HbA1c were assessed at baseline, and 3 and 6-month follow-ups. Results At the 6-month follow-up, the PST-D group showed significant improvements relative to the control group, in ‘regimen-related distress’ (PST-D: −1.3±1.4; control: −0.4±1.1), depressive symptoms (PST-D: −4.3±6.1; control: −0.3±4.6), and HbA1c (PST-D: −1.2%±1.01; control: 0.2%±1.2%) (all p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, adjusting for baseline values and sociodemographic factors, PST-D was associated with significant improvement in ‘regimen-related distress’, depressive symptoms, and HbA1c at the 6-month follow-up (p<0.05). Conclusions PST-D is a promising intervention for improving psychological outcomes and glycemic control. A fully powered study is required to confirm these findings and examine mechanisms of change in HbA1c. Trial registration number ACTRN12616001010482; results. PMID:28243448

  16. Regression calibration with heteroscedastic error variance.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Donna; Logan, Roger; Grove, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The problem of covariate measurement error with heteroscedastic measurement error variance is considered. Standard regression calibration assumes that the measurement error has a homoscedastic measurement error variance. An estimator is proposed to correct regression coefficients for covariate measurement error with heteroscedastic variance. Point and interval estimates are derived. Validation data containing the gold standard must be available. This estimator is a closed-form correction of the uncorrected primary regression coefficients, which may be of logistic or Cox proportional hazards model form, and is closely related to the version of regression calibration developed by Rosner et al. (1990). The primary regression model can include multiple covariates measured without error. The use of these estimators is illustrated in two data sets, one taken from occupational epidemiology (the ACE study) and one taken from nutritional epidemiology (the Nurses' Health Study). In both cases, although there was evidence of moderate heteroscedasticity, there was little difference in estimation or inference using this new procedure compared to standard regression calibration. It is shown theoretically that unless the relative risk is large or measurement error severe, standard regression calibration approximations will typically be adequate, even with moderate heteroscedasticity in the measurement error model variance. In a detailed simulation study, standard regression calibration performed either as well as or better than the new estimator. When the disease is rare and the errors normally distributed, or when measurement error is moderate, standard regression calibration remains the method of choice.

  17. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  18. Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined outstanding issues of sensitivity calibration methods for ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers and provides workable solutions based on physically measureable quantities, laser-based displacement measurement in particular. This leads to mutually consistent determination of transmitting and receiving sensitivities of sensors and transducers. Methods of circumventing problems of extraneous vibrations on free transmitters are used, giving the foundation for face-to-face calibration methods. Working on many ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers, their receiving and transmitting sensitivities are found to be always different, while their ratios exhibit unexpected similarity. This behavior is attributed to monopolar pulse generation and bipolar received signals due to electrical charge transfer during elastic wave motion and reflection on the back face. This is verified through a quantitative piezoelectric sensing experiment. Displacement vs. velocity calibration terminology is clarified, redefining the “V/µbar” reference for contact sensor calibration. With demonstrated differences in the transmitting and receiving sensitivities of transducers, the requirement of the Hill-Adams equation invalidates the basic premise of the currently formulated reciprocity calibration methods for acoustic emission transducers. In addition, the measured reciprocity parameter for the case of through-transmission significantly deviates from the approximate theoretical prediction. It is demonstrated that three methods provide reliable sensor calibration results that are complimentary among them. PMID:28773632

  19. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    PubMed

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-11-04

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  20. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways.

  1. Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences: Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-10-07

    Accurate solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on instrument performance specifications, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methodologies and resulting differences provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these methods calibrate radiometers indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodologies, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from radiometers deployed for 10 months at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. These different methods of calibration resulted in a difference of +/-1% to +/-2% in solar irradiance measurements. Analyzing these differences will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the field radiometer data and will help develop a consensus on a standard for calibration. Further advancing procedures for precisely calibrating radiometers to world reference standards that reduce measurement uncertainties will help the accurate prediction of the output of planned solar conversion projects and improve the bankability of financing solar projects.

  2. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  3. Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by a 3G mobile phone: problems in dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Nirala, Jay Prakash

    2013-12-01

    A specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements system has been developed for compliance testing of personal mobile phone in a brain phantom material contained in a Perspex box. The volume of the box has been chosen corresponding to the volume of a small rat and illuminated by a 3G mobile phone frequency (1718.5 MHz), and the emitted radiation directed toward brain phantom .The induced fields in the phantom material are measured. Set up to lift the plane carrying the mobile phone is run by a pulley whose motion is controlled by a stepper motor. The platform is made to move at a pre-determined rate of 2 degrees per min limited up to 20 degrees. The measured data for induced fields in various locations are used to compute corresponding SAR values and inter comparison obtained. These data are also compared with those when the mobile phone is placed horizontally with respect to the position of the animal. The SAR data is also experimentally obtained by measuring a rise in temperature due to this mobile exposures and data compared with those obtained in the previous set. To seek a comparison with the safety criteria same set of measurements are performed in 10 g phantom material contained in a cubical box. These results are higher than those obtained with the knowledge of induced field measurements. It is concluded that SAR values are sensitive to the angular position of the moving platform and are well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure. The data are suggestive of having a fresh look to understand the mode of electromagnetic field -bio interaction.

  4. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  5. Polarimetric Palsar Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzi, R.; Shimada, M.

    2008-11-01

    Polarimetric PALSAR system parameters are assessed using data sets collected over various calibration sites. The data collected over the Amazonian forest permits validating the zero Faraday rotation hypotheses near the equator. The analysis of the Amazonian forest data and the response of the corner reflectors deployed during the PALSAR acquisitions lead to the conclusion that the antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB). Theses results are confirmed using data collected over the Sweden and Ottawa calibration sites. The 5-m height trihedrals deployed in the Sweden calibration site by the Chalmers University of technology permits accurate measurement of antenna parameters, and detection of 2-3 degree Faraday rotation during day acquisition, whereas no Faraday rotation was noted during night acquisition. Small Faraday rotation angles (2-3 degree) have been measured using acquisitions over the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and the Ottawa calibration sites. The presence of small but still significant Faraday rotation (2-3 degree) induces a CR return at the cross-polarization HV and VH that should not be interpreted as the actual antenna cross-talk. PALSAR antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB), and diagonal antenna distortion matrices (with zero cross-talk terms) can be used for accurate calibration of PALSAR polarimetric data.

  6. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  7. GTC Photometric Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    We are currently developing the calibration programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope calibration (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with calibration stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science instruments require photometric calibration between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The instruments are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first calibration fields observed.

  8. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  9. Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2006-02-01

    The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

  10. TA489A calibrator: SANDUS

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, R.

    1987-08-01

    The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

  11. Definition and sensitivity of the conceptual MORDOR rainfall-runoff model parameters using different multi-criteria calibration strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, F.; Seyve, E.; Gottardi, F.; Le Lay, M.; Gailhard, J.; Garçon, R.

    2014-12-01

    MORDOR is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in Électricité de France (EDF, French electric utility company) operational applications: (i) hydrological forecasting, (ii) flood risk assessment, (iii) water balance and (iv) climate change studies. MORDOR is a lumped, reservoir, elevation based model with hourly or daily areal rainfall and air temperature as the driving input data. The principal hydrological processes represented are evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, ground water, snow accumulation and melt and routing. The model has been intensively used at EDF for more than 20 years, in particular for modeling French mountainous watersheds. In the matter of parameters calibration we propose and test alternative multi-criteria techniques based on two specific approaches: automatic calibration using single-objective functions and a priori parameter calibration founded on hydrological watershed features. The automatic calibration approach uses single-objective functions, based on Kling-Gupta efficiency, to quantify the good agreement between the simulated and observed runoff focusing on four different runoff samples: (i) time-series sample, (I) annual hydrological regime, (iii) monthly cumulative distribution functions and (iv) recession sequences.The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the definition and sensitivity of MORDOR parameters testing different calibration techniques in order to: (i) simplify the model structure, (ii) increase the calibration-validation performance of the model and (iii) reduce the equifinality problem of calibration process. We propose an alternative calibration strategy that reaches these goals. The analysis is illustrated by calibrating MORDOR model to daily data for 50 watersheds located in French mountainous regions.

  12. Application of Optimal Designs to Item Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), examinees are presented with various sets of items chosen from a precalibrated item pool. Consequently, the attrition speed of the items is extremely fast, and replenishing the item pool is essential. Therefore, item calibration has become a crucial concern in maintaining item banks. In this study, a two-parameter logistic model is used. We applied optimal designs and adaptive sequential analysis to solve this item calibration problem. The results indicated that the proposed optimal designs are cost effective and time efficient. PMID:25188318

  13. Model Free Gate Design and Calibration For Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Gates for superconducting qubits are realized by time dependent control pulses. The pulse shape for a specific gate depends on the parameters of the superconducting qubits, e.g. frequency and non-linearity. Based on ones knowledge of these parameters and using a specific model the pulse shape is determined either analytically or numerically using optimal control [arXiv:1306.6894, arXiv:1306.2279]. However the performance of the pulse is limited by the accuracy of the model. For a pulse with few parameters this is generally not a problem since it can be ``debugged'' manually. He we present an automated method for calibrating multiparameter pulses. We use the Nelder-Mead simplex method to close the control loop. This scheme uses the experiment as feedback and thus does not need a model. It requires few iterations and circumvents process tomogrophy, therefore making it a fast and versatile tool for gate design.

  14. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  15. Minerva Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2013-04-01

    Current and future neutrino oscillation experiments depend on precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections. Minerva is a neutrino scattering experiment at Fermilab. Minerva was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). In Order to make these measurements, it is crucial that the detector is carefully calibrated.This talk will describe how MINERvA uses muons from upstream neutrino interactions as a calibration source to convert electronics output to absolute energy deposition.

  16. Calibration of EMI derived apparent electrical conductivity based on ERT measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, S.; Mester, A.; van der Kruk, J.; Weihermüller, L.; Zimmermann, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an indirect measure for various soil physical and chemical parameters. Among non-invasive geophysical methods, electromagnetic induction (EMI) appears to be the most efficient one that is able to measure ECa over large areas in short time. However, this method currently does not provide quantitative values of ECa due to calibration problems. In the calibration approach of Lavoué et al. (2010) inverted electrical conductivity data from a 120 m long ERT (electrical resistivity tomography) calibration transect were used as input parameter for an electromagnetic forward model to predict ECa measured with EMI. To further improve this calibration method we conducted a field survey within an agricultural field for crop breeding studies. The entire field (60x100 m) was mapped with the EM38-MK2 (Geonics, Ontario, Canada), an EMI system with multiple coil spacing which measures the weighted average of ECa over four depth ranges, immediately after the harvest of sugar beet. On the basis of high-resolution ECa distribution maps, an area with high contrast in ECa was selected for calibrating the EMI sensor with ERT. Along a 30 m long transect EMI measurements with two different internal calibration settings were carried out. A Syscal Pro System (IRIS Instruments, Orleans France) and 120 electrodes with an electrode spacing of 0.25 m were used to measure the apparent resistivity of soil. Post processed ERT measurements were inverted using the robust inversion method of the RES2DINV software. Quantitative EM inductions measurements were derived by linear regression between measured and predicted ECa measurements. The observed offset between the repeated EMI measurements could be removed successfully. Furthermore, shortening and focusing the ERT measurements to a specific area of interest could reduce the measurement time for calibration significantly. Prospectively, the application of a quantitative multi-layer inversion of multi

  17. Comparative study of camera calibration algorithms with application to spacecraft navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Ulm, Michael

    1994-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of camera calibration based on 3D feature measurements. It occurs in industrial 3D measurement systems, as well as in autonomous navigation systems, where the estimation of motion parameters is required. We have selected the problem of extrinsic calibration (exterior orientation) of a camera that is looking at flat or almost flat surfaces (or terrain). This situation causes numerical and stability problems to many of the known calibration methods. To study the impact of flatness of the reference surface (or calibration target) on the calibration errors we have done a comparative study using sixteen available calibration procedures. The major emphasis was on robustness with respect to 3D measurement errors and sensitivity to flatness. A new calibration method is also investigated, which can be used independently of whether the calibration reference surface is flat, almost flat, or rugged.

  18. The ISOCAM Strategy for In-flight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, L.

    Many factors combined in order to form the ISOCAM in-flight calibration strategy : (a) the history of the mission development and the evolution of the ground segment design; (b) the approach to planning and organising the work of the Instrument Dedicated Team (IDT) and the tools available to do the work; (c) the preparation of the in-flight calibration command sequences, including the approach to pre-flight testing and simulation of the sequences (distinct from the mainline instrument ground calibration and characterisation); (d) the distribution in time of the calibration observations and any need for special calibration periods; (e) serendipitous calibration: including calibrations extracted from routine science observations or achieved opportunistically through benefiting from regularly scheduled spacecraft or orbital maintenance periods; (f) the amount of time we really needed to accomplish a good calibration vs. the time we had. Could we have performed ALL calibration in-flight? (g) the choice of which Uplink System to use and when (CUS or AOTs); (h) the value and role of formal procedures vs. personal checklists, training and experience; (i) the usage and value of different categories of documentation and the avoidance of extraneous documentation and useless effort; (j) how did the calibrators interface with the rest of the system. These issues will be discussed as a prelude to the more detailed presentations on specific aspects of the calibration which will follow during the course of the meeting.

  19. A simplified gross primary production and evapotranspiration model for boreal coniferous forests - is a generic calibration sufficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minunno, F.; Peltoniemi, M.; Launiainen, S.; Aurela, M.; Lindroth, A.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Minkkinen, K.; Mäkelä, A.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of model complexity has been lively debated in environmental sciences as well as in the forest modelling community. Simple models are less input demanding and their calibration involves a lower number of parameters, but they might be suitable only at local scale. In this work we calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model (PRELES) to data from multiple sites and we tested if PRELES can be used at regional scale to estimate the carbon and water fluxes of Boreal conifer forests. We compared a multi-site (M-S) with site-specific (S-S) calibrations. Model calibrations and evaluations were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. To evaluate model performances BMC results were combined with more classical analysis of model-data mismatch (M-DM). Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 10 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study. Calibration results showed that similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. No significant differences were encountered in the predictions of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES with exception of a site with agricultural history (Alkkia). Although PRELES predicted GPP better than evapotranspiration, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and water fluxes of Boreal forests. Our analyses underlined also the importance of using long and carefully collected flux datasets in model calibration. In fact, even a single site can provide model calibrations that can be applied at a wider spatial scale, since it covers a wide range of variability in climatic conditions.

  20. Spacecraft attitude calibration/verification baseline study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    A baseline study for a generalized spacecraft attitude calibration/verification system is presented. It can be used to define software specifications for three major functions required by a mission: the pre-launch parameter observability and data collection strategy study; the in-flight sensor calibration; and the post-calibration attitude accuracy verification. Analytical considerations are given for both single-axis and three-axis spacecrafts. The three-axis attitudes considered include the inertial-pointing attitudes, the reference-pointing attitudes, and attitudes undergoing specific maneuvers. The attitude sensors and hardware considered include the Earth horizon sensors, the plane-field Sun sensors, the coarse and fine two-axis digital Sun sensors, the three-axis magnetometers, the fixed-head star trackers, and the inertial reference gyros.

  1. Method for calibration accuracy improvement of projector-camera-based structured light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Lei; Ye, Yuping; Song, Zhan

    2017-07-01

    Calibration is a critical step for the projector-camera-based structured light system (SLS). Conventional SLS calibration means usually use the calibrated camera to calibrate the projector device, and the optimization of calibration parameters is applied to minimize the two-dimensional (2-D) reprojection errors. A three-dimensional (3-D)-based method is proposed for the optimization of SLS calibration parameters. The system is first calibrated with traditional calibration methods to obtain the primary calibration parameters. Then, a reference plane with some precisely printed markers is used for the optimization of primary calibration results. Three metric error criteria are introduced to evaluate the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the reference plane. By treating all the system parameters as a global optimization problem and using the primary calibration parameters as initial values, a nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem can be established and solved. Compared with conventional calibration methods that adopt the 2-D reprojection errors for the camera and projector separately, a global optimal calibration result can be obtained by the proposed calibration procedure. Experimental results showed that, with the optimized calibration parameters, measurement accuracy and 3-D reconstruction quality of the system can be greatly improved.

  2. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  3. Calibration maintenance and transfer using Tikhonov regularization approaches.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, John H; Siano, Gabriel G; Andries, Erik; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2009-07-01

    Maintaining multivariate calibrations is essential and involves keeping models developed on an instrument applicable to predicting new samples over time. Sometimes a primary instrument model is needed to predict samples measured on secondary instruments. This situation is referred to as calibration transfer. This paper reports on using a Tikhonov regularization (TR) based method in both cases. A distinction of the TR design for calibration maintenance and transfer is a defined weighting scheme for a small set of new (transfer or standardization) samples augmented to the full set of calibration samples. Because straight application of basic TR theory is not always possible with calibration maintenance and transfer, this paper develops a generic solution to always enable application of TR. Harmonious (bias/variance tradeoff) and parsimonious (effective rank) considerations for TR are compared with the same TR format applied to partial least squares (PLS), showing that both approaches are viable solutions to the calibration maintenance and transfer problems.

  4. ODERACS preflight optical calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madler, Ronald A.; Culp, Robert D.; Maclay, Timothy D.

    1993-09-01

    Detection and measurement of small space debris objects are vital to verify the validity of debris models for the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Calibration of optical instruments is necessary so that reliable estimates of the size and albedo of man-made orbiting objects can be found. The Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS) project is being conducted by NASA and the DoD to calibrate both radar and optical tracking facilities for small objects. This paper discusses the pre-flight optical calibration of the spheres. The purpose of this study is to determine the spectral reflectivity, scattering characteristics and albedo for the visible wavelength region. The measurements are performed by illuminating the flight spheres with a collimated beam of light, and measuring the reflected visible light over possible phase angles. This allows one to estimate the specular and scattering characteristics as well as the albedo. Tests were conducted on several flight and test metal spheres with varying diameters and surface characteristics. The polished metal spheres are shown to be very good specular reflectors, while the diffuse surfaces exhibit both specular and scattering reflection characteristics.

  5. Improved Regression Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrondal, Anders; Kuha, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The likelihood for generalized linear models with covariate measurement error cannot in general be expressed in closed form, which makes maximum likelihood estimation taxing. A popular alternative is regression calibration which is computationally efficient at the cost of inconsistent estimation. We propose an improved regression calibration…

  6. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  7. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  8. Uncertainty in audiometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurélio Pedroso, Marcos; Gerges, Samir N. Y.; Gonçalves, Armando A., Jr.

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality—INMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial Noise Laboratory—LARI of the Federal University of Santa Catarina—UFSC and the Laboratory of Electric/acoustics—LAETA of INMETRO. Similar metrological performance of the measurement system used in both laboratories was obtained, indicating that the interlaboratory results are compatible with the expected values. The uncertainty calculation was based on the documents: EA-4/02 Expression of the Uncertainty of Measurement in Calibration (European Co-operation for Accreditation 1999 EA-4/02 p 79) and Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization 1993 1st edn, corrected and reprinted in 1995, Geneva, Switzerland). Some sources of uncertainty were calculated theoretically (uncertainty type B) and other sources were measured experimentally (uncertainty type A). The global value of uncertainty calculated for the sound pressure levels (SPLs) is similar to that given by other calibration institutions. The results of uncertainty related to measurements of SPL were compared with the maximum uncertainties Umax given in the standard IEC 60645-1: 2001 (International Electrotechnical Commission 2001 IEC 60645-1 Electroacoustics—Audiological Equipment—Part 1:—Pure-Tone Audiometers).

  9. TWSTFT Link Calibration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Serrano, G. Brunetti (2013) Relative Calibration of the Time Transfer Link between CERN and LNGS for Precise Neutrino Time of Flight Measurements. Proc...Esteban, M. Pallavicini, Va. Pettiti, C. Plantard, A. Razeto (2012) Measurement of CNGS Muon Neutrinos Speed with Borexino: INRIM and ROA Contribution

  10. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  11. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  12. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  13. Phase calibration of polarimetric radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Dan R.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Freeman, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The problem of phase calibration between polarization channels of an imaging radar is studied. The causes of various types of phase errors due to the radar system architecture and system imperfections are examined. A simple model is introduced to explain the spatial variation in phase error as being due to a displacement between the phase centers of the vertical and horizontal antennas. It is also shown that channel leakage can cause a spatial variation in phase error. Phase calibration using both point and distributed ground targets is discussed and a method for calibrating phase using only distributed target is verified, subject to certain constraints. Experimental measurements using the NADC/ERIM P-3 synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system and NASA/JPL DC-8 SAR, which operates at C-, L-, and P-bands, are presented. Both of these systems are multifrequency, polarimetric, airborne, SAR systems.

  14. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  15. The specific needs of doctors with mental health problems: qualitative analysis of doctor-patients' experiences with the Practitioner Health Programme.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha K; Gerada, Clare; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-04-01

    The current paper aimed to explore doctor-patients' views about their treatment from the Practitioner Health Programme (PHP), a UK-based service treating health professionals with mental health/addiction problems. Aims were to gain insights into the issues most important to patients and consider whether a service specifically for doctors is important in helping to overcome barriers to accessing mental healthcare. Nine doctor-patients attending PHP took part in semi-structured interviews between September 2010 and June 2011. Thematic analysis was used to explore recurring patterns in the data. 134 written comments from PHP patients were also included. Participants reported difficulties in finding appropriate treatment; problems were often severe by the time PHP was involved. Concerns about confidentiality, judgement and impact on career were obstacles to help-seeking and important issues during treatment. Analysis of written comments provided further support for these findings. Whilst some of the needs of mentally unwell doctors mirror the needs of patients in general - e.g. a supportive and non-judgemental attitude from clinicians - they do have specific needs related to confidentiality and stigma.

  16. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  17. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  18. Validation and Calibration of Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics Multiscale Multiphysics Models - Subcooled Flow Boiling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anh Bui; Nam Dinh; Brian Williams

    2013-09-01

    In addition to validation data plan, development of advanced techniques for calibration and validation of complex multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulation codes are a main objective of the CASL VUQ plan. Advanced modeling of LWR systems normally involves a range of physico-chemical models describing multiple interacting phenomena, such as thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, coolant chemistry, etc., which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. To a large extent, the accuracy of (and uncertainty in) overall model predictions is determined by the correctness of various sub-models, which are not conservation-laws based, but empirically derived from measurement data. Such sub-models normally require extensive calibration before the models can be applied to analysis of real reactor problems. This work demonstrates a case study of calibration of a common model of subcooled flow boiling, which is an important multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon in LWR thermal hydraulics. The calibration process is based on a new strategy of model-data integration, in which, all sub-models are simultaneously analyzed and calibrated using multiple sets of data of different types. Specifically, both data on large-scale distributions of void fraction and fluid temperature and data on small-scale physics of wall evaporation were simultaneously used in this work’s calibration. In a departure from traditional (or common-sense) practice of tuning/calibrating complex models, a modern calibration technique based on statistical modeling and Bayesian inference was employed, which allowed simultaneous calibration of multiple sub-models (and related parameters) using different datasets. Quality of data (relevancy, scalability, and uncertainty) could be taken into consideration in the calibration process. This work presents a step forward in the development and realization of the “CIPS Validation Data Plan” at the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs to enable

  19. Specificity of problem-solving skills training in mothers of children newly diagnosed with cancer: results of a multisite randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Dolgin, Michael J; Phipps, Sean; Fairclough, Diane L; Askins, Martha A; Katz, Ernest R; Noll, Robert B; Butler, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of cancer in a child can be extremely stressful for parents. Bright IDEAS, a problem-solving skills training (PSST) intervention, has been shown to decrease negative affectivity (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of newly diagnosed patients. This study was designed to determine the specificity of PSST by examining its direct and indirect (eg, social support) effects compared with a nondirective support (NDS) intervention. This randomized clinical trial included 309 English- or Spanish-speaking mothers of children diagnosed 2 to 16 weeks before recruitment. Participants completed assessments prerandomization (T1), immediately postintervention (T2), and at 3-month follow-up (T3). Both PSST and NDS consisted of eight weekly 1-hour individual sessions. Outcomes included measures of problem-solving skill and negative affectivity. There were no significant between-group differences at baseline (T1). Except for level of problem-solving skill, which was directly taught in the PSST arm, outcome measures improved equally in both groups immediately postintervention (T2). However, at the 3-month follow-up (T3), mothers in the PSST group continued to show significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress; mothers in the NDS group showed no further significant gains. PSST is an effective and specific intervention whose beneficial effects continue to grow after the intervention ends. In contrast, NDS is an effective intervention while it is being administered, but its benefits plateau when active support is removed. Therefore, teaching coping skills at diagnosis has the potential to facilitate family resilience over the entire course of treatment.

  20. Specificity of Problem-Solving Skills Training in Mothers of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer: Results of a Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Phipps, Sean; Fairclough, Diane L.; Askins, Martha A.; Katz, Ernest R.; Noll, Robert B.; Butler, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diagnosis of cancer in a child can be extremely stressful for parents. Bright IDEAS, a problem-solving skills training (PSST) intervention, has been shown to decrease negative affectivity (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of newly diagnosed patients. This study was designed to determine the specificity of PSST by examining its direct and indirect (eg, social support) effects compared with a nondirective support (NDS) intervention. Patients and Methods This randomized clinical trial included 309 English- or Spanish-speaking mothers of children diagnosed 2 to 16 weeks before recruitment. Participants completed assessments prerandomization (T1), immediately postintervention (T2), and at 3-month follow-up (T3). Both PSST and NDS consisted of eight weekly 1-hour individual sessions. Outcomes included measures of problem-solving skill and negative affectivity. Results There were no significant between-group differences at baseline (T1). Except for level of problem-solving skill, which was directly taught in the PSST arm, outcome measures improved equally in both groups immediately postintervention (T2). However, at the 3-month follow-up (T3), mothers in the PSST group continued to show significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress; mothers in the NDS group showed no further significant gains. Conclusion PSST is an effective and specific intervention whose beneficial effects continue to grow after the intervention ends. In contrast, NDS is an effective intervention while it is being administered, but its benefits plateau when active support is removed. Therefore, teaching coping skills at diagnosis has the potential to facilitate family resilience over the entire course of treatment. PMID:23358975

  1. General and substance-specific predictors of young adult nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, and problem behavior: replication in two samples.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J A; Samek, D R; Keyes, M A; Hill, K G; Hicks, B M; McGue, M; Iacono, W G; Epstein, M; Catalano, R F; Haggerty, K P; Hawkins, J D

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents two replications of a heuristic model for measuring environment in studies of gene-environment interplay in the etiology of young adult problem behaviors. Data were drawn from two longitudinal, U.S. studies of the etiology of substance use and related behaviors: the Raising Healthy Children study (RHC; N=1040, 47% female) and the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; N=1512, 50% female). RHC included a Pacific Northwest, school-based, community sample. MTFS included twins identified from state birth records in Minnesota. Both studies included commensurate measures of general family environment and family substance-specific environments in adolescence (RHC ages 10-18; MTFS age 18), as well as young adult nicotine dependence, alcohol and illicit drug use disorders, HIV sexual risk behavior, and antisocial behavior (RHC ages 24, 25; MTFS age 25). Results from the two samples were highly consistent and largely supported the heuristic model proposed by Bailey et al. (2011). Adolescent general family environment, family smoking environment, and family drinking environment predicted shared variance in problem behaviors in young adulthood. Family smoking environment predicted unique variance in young adult nicotine dependence. Family drinking environment did not appear to predict unique variance in young adult alcohol use disorder. Organizing environmental predictors and outcomes into general and substance-specific measures provides a useful way forward in modeling complex environments and phenotypes. Results suggest that programs aimed at preventing young adult problem behaviors should target general family environment and family smoking and drinking environments in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated application of calibration factors on telemetered data

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.; Voss, T.J.; Yio, J.J.

    1993-04-26

    A long standing problem in telemetry post processing is the application of correct calibration factors to telemetered data generated on a system which has had a history of hardware changes. These calibration problems become most exacerbated when old test data is being examined and there is uncertainty as to hardware configuration at the time of the test. In this paper a mechanism for introducing a high degree of reliability in the application of calibration factors is described in an implementation done for Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3).

  3. Space Power Facility Reverberation Chamber Calibration Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Dolesh, Robert J.; Garrett, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of calibrating the Space Environmental Test EMI Test facility at NASA Plum Brook Space Power Facility according to the specifications of IEC61000-4-21 for susceptibility testing from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. The chamber passed the field uniformity test, in both the empty and loaded conditions, making it the world's largest Reverberation Chamber.

  4. Experimental techniques for ballistic pressure measurements and recent development in means of calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkarous, L.; Coghe, F.; Pirlot, M.; Golinval, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a study carried out with the commonly used experimental techniques of ballistic pressure measurement. The comparison criteria were the peak chamber pressure and its standard deviation inside specific weapon/ammunition system configurations. It is impossible to determine exactly how precise either crusher, direct or conformal transducer methods are, as there is no way to know exactly what the actual pressure is; Nevertheless, the combined use of these measuring techniques could improve accuracy. Furthermore, a particular attention has been devoted to the problem of calibration. Calibration of crusher gauges and piezoelectric transducers is paramount and an essential task for a correct determination of the pressure inside a weapon. This topic has not been completely addressed yet and still requires further investigation. In this work, state of the art calibration methods are presented together with their specific aspects. Many solutions have been developed to satisfy this demand; nevertheless current systems do not cover the whole range of needs, calling for further development effort. In this work, research being carried out for the development of suitable practical calibration methods will be presented. The behavior of copper crushers under different high strain rates by the use of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) technique is investigated in particular. The Johnson-Cook model was employed as suitable model for the numerical study using FEM code

  5. Self calibrating autoTRAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here demonstrates how to automatically compute the position and attitude of a targeting reflective alignment concept (TRAC) camera relative to the robot end effector. In the robotics literature this is known as the sensor registration problem. The registration problem is important to solve if TRAC images need to be related to robot position. Previously, when TRAC operated on the end of a robot arm, the camera had to be precisely located at the correct orientation and position. If this location is in error, then the robot may not be able to grapple an object even though the TRAC sensor indicates it should. In addition, if the camera is significantly far from the alignment it is expected to be at, TRAC may give incorrect feedback for the control of the robot. A simple example is if the robot operator thinks the camera is right side up but the camera is actually upside down, the camera feedback will tell the operator to move in an incorrect direction. The automatic calibration algorithm requires the operator to translate and rotate the robot arbitrary amounts along (about) two coordinate directions. After the motion, the algorithm determines the transformation matrix from the robot end effector to the camera image plane. This report discusses the TRAC sensor registration problem.

  6. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 2 describes the central status and control (CSAC) procedures, supervisor procedures, and logging procedures.

  7. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 3 describes logging and delogging procedures, real-time procedures, and error messages.

  8. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 8 describes procedures for invoking checkout software, file maintenance procedures, system manager procedures.

  9. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Torque transducer verification and...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310....

  10. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque transducer verification and...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310....

  11. Parameterizations for reducing camera reprojection error for robot-world hand-eye calibration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate robot-world, hand-eye calibration is crucial to automation tasks. In this paper, we discuss the robot-world, hand-eye calibration problem which has been modeled as the linear relationship AX equals ZB, where X and Z are the unknown calibration matrices composed of rotation and translation ...

  12. Preparation of enzyme calibration materials.

    PubMed

    Férard, G; Lessinger, J M

    1998-12-01

    Standardisation in clinical enzymology needs not only reference methods but also reference materials. While single-enzyme reference enzymes have been developed, a multienzyme certified reference material (MECRM) available in high amount remains to be produced. To transfer trueness from the value of the reference system to patients' results, validated enzyme calibrators (EC) are also needed. Both the MECRM and the ECs must exhibit the same catalytic properties as the corresponding enzymes in human plasma. Moreover, commutability of these materials with patients' samples must be experimentally tested for one or a set of methods defined by an analytical specificity equal to that of the reference method. Various experimental studies have shown that the commutability of an enzyme material depends on the source of enzyme and its purification process, the matrix (including cofactors, effectors, additives, stabilisers... ) and the mode of processing of the final material. To promote intermethod calibration in clinical enzymology, a collaborative programme between the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium) and IFCC corporate members is in progress for the development of a MECRM containing amylase, ALT, AST, ALP, CK, GGT, LDH, and lipase and exhibiting a wide and defined commutability.

  13. HIRDLS monochromator calibration equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Djotni, Karim; Whitney, John G.; Bracken, Justain N.; Wolfenden, Roger; Row, Frederick; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Gray, Peter F.; Hammond, Geoffory

    2003-11-01

    A specially designed and built monochromator was developed for the spectral calibration of the HIRDLS instrument. The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) is a precision infra-red remote sensing instrument with very tight requirements on the knowledge of the response to received radiation. A high performance, vacuum compatible monochromator, was developed with a wavelength range from 4 to 20 microns to encompass that of the HIRDLS instrument. The monochromator is integrated into a collimating system which is shared with a set of tiny broad band sources used for independent spatial response measurements (reported elsewhere). This paper describes the design and implementation of the monochromator and the performance obtained during the period of calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at Oxford University in 2002.

  14. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  15. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  16. Phase calibration generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

  17. Pipeline Calibration for STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

    The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

  18. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  19. Evaluation of calibration efficacy under different levels of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Yeonsook; Graziano, Diane J.; Guzowski, Leah; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2014-06-10

    This study examines how calibration performs under different levels of uncertainty in model input data. It specifically assesses the efficacy of Bayesian calibration to enhance the reliability of EnergyPlus model predictions. A Bayesian approach can be used to update uncertain values of parameters, given measured energy-use data, and to quantify the associated uncertainty.We assess the efficacy of Bayesian calibration under a controlled virtual-reality setup, which enables rigorous validation of the accuracy of calibration results in terms of both calibrated parameter values and model predictions. Case studies demonstrate the performance of Bayesian calibration of base models developed from audit data with differing levels of detail in building design, usage, and operation.

  20. Evaluation of calibration efficacy under different levels of uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Heo, Yeonsook; Graziano, Diane J.; Guzowski, Leah; ...

    2014-06-10

    This study examines how calibration performs under different levels of uncertainty in model input data. It specifically assesses the efficacy of Bayesian calibration to enhance the reliability of EnergyPlus model predictions. A Bayesian approach can be used to update uncertain values of parameters, given measured energy-use data, and to quantify the associated uncertainty.We assess the efficacy of Bayesian calibration under a controlled virtual-reality setup, which enables rigorous validation of the accuracy of calibration results in terms of both calibrated parameter values and model predictions. Case studies demonstrate the performance of Bayesian calibration of base models developed from audit data withmore » differing levels of detail in building design, usage, and operation.« less

  1. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  2. Calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorefice, Salvatore; Malengo, Andrea

    2006-10-01

    After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and the procedure used at the INRiM (formerly IMGC-CNR) density laboratory have been considered to assess all relevant contributions involved in the calibration of different kinds of hydrometers. The uncertainty is strongly dependent on the kind of hydrometer; in particular, the results highlight the importance of the density of the reference buoyant liquid, the temperature of calibration and the skill of operator in the reading of the scale in the whole assessment of the uncertainty. It is also interesting to realize that for high-resolution hydrometers (division of 0.1 kg m-3), the uncertainty contribution of the density of the reference liquid is the main source of the total uncertainty, but its importance falls under about 50% for hydrometers with a division of 0.5 kg m-3 and becomes somewhat negligible for hydrometers with a division of 1 kg m-3, for which the reading uncertainty is the predominant part of the total uncertainty. At present the best INRiM result is obtained with commercially available hydrometers having a scale division of 0.1 kg m-3, for which the relative uncertainty is about 12 × 10-6.

  3. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  4. Calibration Chamber Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-30

    penetrometers of different designs, (iii) the effect of rod friction, (iv) the effect of discontinuous operation, and (v) sensing an interface between two sand...layers. Other test results on two designs of 10 cm2 Fugro penetrometers, each with a different position of friction sleeve, assisted in the selection...at different stages in the penetration of a specimen. The calibration tests had the prime purpose of establishing correlations between the penetration

  5. SOFIE instrument ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Romrell, Devin; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is the primary infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in eight pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmosphere during solar occultation as AIM orbits Earth. A pointing mirror and imaging sun sensor coaligned with the detectors are used to track the sun during occultation events and maintain stable alignment of the sun on the detectors. Ground calibration experiments were performed to measure SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characteristics. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. SOFIE sun sensor tracking algorithms were verified using a heliostat and relay mirrors to observe the sun from the ground. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting SOFIE performance parameters are presented.

  6. Calibration of Germanium Resistance Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladner, D.; Urban, E.; Mason, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Largely completed thermometer-calibration cryostat and probe allows six germanium resistance thermometers to be calibrated at one time at superfluid-helium temperatures. In experiments involving several such thermometers, use of this calibration apparatus results in substantial cost savings. Cryostat maintains temperature less than 2.17 K through controlled evaporation and removal of liquid helium from Dewar. Probe holds thermometers to be calibrated and applies small amount of heat as needed to maintain precise temperature below 2.17 K.

  7. Fast calibration of gas flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Digital unit automates calibration sequence using calculator IC and programmable read-only memory to solve calibration equations. Infrared sensors start and stop calibration sequence. Instrument calibrates mass flowmeters or rotameters where flow measurement is based on mass or volume. This automatic control reduces operator time by 80 percent. Solid-state components are very reliable, and digital character allows system accuracy to be determined primarily by accuracy of transducers.

  8. Sensor placement for calibration of spatially varying model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Paromita; Hu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a sensor placement optimization framework for the calibration of spatially varying model parameters. To account for the randomness of the calibration parameters over space and across specimens, the spatially varying parameter is represented as a random field. Based on this representation, Bayesian calibration of spatially varying parameter is investigated. To reduce the required computational effort during Bayesian calibration, the original computer simulation model is substituted with Kriging surrogate models based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the model response and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) of the spatially varying parameters. A sensor placement optimization problem is then formulated based on the Bayesian calibration to maximize the expected information gain measured by the expected Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. The optimization problem needs to evaluate the expected K-L divergence repeatedly which requires repeated calibration of the spatially varying parameter, and this significantly increases the computational effort of solving the optimization problem. To overcome this challenge, an approximation for the posterior distribution is employed within the optimization problem to facilitate the identification of the optimal sensor locations using the simulated annealing algorithm. A heat transfer problem with spatially varying thermal conductivity is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  10. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP

    DOEpatents

    Owren, H.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Smith, V.L.

    1958-04-22

    The time calibrator of an electric signal displayed on an oscilloscope is described. In contrast to the conventional technique of using time-calibrated divisions on the face of the oscilloscope, this invention provides means for directly superimposing equal time spaced markers upon a signal displayed upon an oscilloscope. More explicitly, the present invention includes generally a generator for developing a linear saw-tooth voltage and a circuit for combining a high-frequency sinusoidal voltage of a suitable amplitude and frequency with the saw-tooth voltage to produce a resultant sweep deflection voltage having a wave shape which is substantially linear with respect to time between equal time spaced incremental plateau regions occurring once each cycle of the sinusoidal voltage. The foregoing sweep voltage when applied to the horizontal deflection plates in combination with a signal to be observed applied to the vertical deflection plates of a cathode ray oscilloscope produces an image on the viewing screen which is essentially a display of the signal to be observed with respect to time. Intensified spots, or certain other conspicuous indications corresponding to the equal time spaced plateau regions of said sweep voltage, appear superimposed upon said displayed signal, which indications are therefore suitable for direct time calibration purposes.

  11. Radiation calibration targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several prominent features of Mars Pathfinder and surrounding terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder on July 4 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on the Red Planet. Portions of a lander petal are at the lower part of the image. At the left, the mechanism for the high-gain antenna can be seen. The dark area along the right side of the image represents a portion of the low-gain antenna. The radiation calibration target is at the right. The calibration target is made up of a number of materials with well-characterized colors. The known colors of the calibration targets allow scientists to determine the true colors of the rocks and soils of Mars. Three bull's-eye rings provide a wide range of brightness for the camera, similar to a photographer's grayscale chart. In the middle of the bull's-eye is a 5-inch tall post that casts a shadow, which is distorted in this image due to its location with respect to the lander camera.

    A large rock is located at the near center of the image. Smaller rocks and areas of soil are strewn across the Martian terrain up to the horizon line.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Radiation Calibration Targets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    Several prominent features of Mars Pathfinder and surrounding terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder on July 4 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on the Red Planet. Portions of a lander petal are at the lower part of the image. At the left, the mechanism for the high-gain antenna can be seen. The dark area along the right side of the image represents a portion of the low-gain antenna. The radiation calibration target is at the right. The calibration target is made up of a number of materials with well-characterized colors. The known colors of the calibration targets allow scientists to determine the true colors of the rocks and soils of Mars. Three bull's-eye rings provide a wide range of brightness for the camera, similar to a photographer's grayscale chart. In the middle of the bull's-eye is a 5-inch tall post that casts a shadow, which is distorted in this image due to its location with respect to the lander camera. A large rock is located at the near center of the image. Smaller rocks and areas of soil are strewn across the Martian terrain up to the horizon line. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00620

  13. Generating Multiple Calibrating Voltages Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutreix, Lionel J.

    1992-01-01

    Calibrating unit containing signal generator controlled by microprocessor puts out ac signals of known voltages on fifty channels simultaneously. Signals used to calibrate high-frequency tape recorder channels for multiple, ac-coupled strain gauges simultaneously. Calibrating voltage required on each tape channel determined by remote computer, and corresponding data and commands transmitted to microprocessor via modems.

  14. Perceptual Calibration for Immersive Display Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael; Radwin, Robert G.; Shin, Hyun Joon

    2013-01-01

    The perception of objects, depth, and distance has been repeatedly shown to be divergent between virtual and physical environments. We hypothesize that many of these discrepancies stem from incorrect geometric viewing parameters, specifically that physical measurements of eye position are insufficiently precise to provide proper viewing parameters. In this paper, we introduce a perceptual calibration procedure derived from geometric models. While most research has used geometric models to predict perceptual errors, we instead use these models inversely to determine perceptually correct viewing parameters. We study the advantages of these new psychophysically determined viewing parameters compared to the commonly used measured viewing parameters in an experiment with 20 subjects. The perceptually calibrated viewing parameters for the subjects generally produced new virtual eye positions that were wider and deeper than standard practices would estimate. Our study shows that perceptually calibrated viewing parameters can significantly improve depth acuity, distance estimation, and the perception of shape. PMID:23428454

  15. Evaluation of a problem-specific SBAR tool to improve after-hours nurse-physician phone communication: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Erel; Turley, James P; Hwang, Kevin O; Johnson, Todd R; Johnson, Craig W; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2013-11-01

    After-hours telephone communications are common in patient management. Patterns of communication of key information during after-hours phone calls were evaluated, and the utility of problem-specific Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR) forms in improving this communication was assessed. In a randomized trial using a simulated on-call setting, 20 nurses called physicians regarding six cases adapted from inpatient records and based on the six most common reasons for after-hours nurse-physician communication. Three of the cases were handled without the SBAR forms (control cases), and three cases were handled with the forms (SBAR cases). Two cue types of communication were evaluated: situation cues, which conveyed the patient's situation (for example, a patient is confused), and background cues, which conveyed problem-specific data indicated on the SBAR forms (for example, the patient has a low sodium level). Ninety-two phone calls were analyzed (43 SBAR/49 controls). Most of the nurses reported the situation cues (SBAR 88%, control 84%, p = .60) but not the background cues. There was a trend toward fewer background cues communicated in the SBAR cases (14% versus 31%, p = .08). In 14% of the cases, on average, nurses omitted information or reported wrong information regarding the background cue. Physicians asked questions that resulted in the communication of the cues in a minority of the cases when the background cues were not originally provided by the nurses (SBAR 6%, control 16%, p = .39). In after-hours phone communication between physicians and nurses, significant information was often not communicated and physicians did not elicit the necessary information. Simply providing an SBAR-based form did not ensure complete communication of key information.

  16. A frequentist approach to computer model calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Raymond K. W.; Storlie, Curtis Byron; Lee, Thomas C. M.

    2016-05-05

    The paper considers the computer model calibration problem and provides a general frequentist solution. Under the framework proposed, the data model is semiparametric with a non-parametric discrepancy function which accounts for any discrepancy between physical reality and the computer model. In an attempt to solve a fundamentally important (but often ignored) identifiability issue between the computer model parameters and the discrepancy function, the paper proposes a new and identifiable parameterization of the calibration problem. It also develops a two-step procedure for estimating all the relevant quantities under the new parameterization. This estimation procedure is shown to enjoy excellent rates of convergence and can be straightforwardly implemented with existing software. For uncertainty quantification, bootstrapping is adopted to construct confidence regions for the quantities of interest. As a result, the practical performance of the methodology is illustrated through simulation examples and an application to a computational fluid dynamics model.

  17. ACCESS: Design, Calibration Strategy, and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. E.; Access Team

    2016-05-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35-1.7μm bandpass. Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with problems such as dark energy now compete with the statistical errors and thus limit our ability to answer fundamental questions in astrophysics.

  18. A frequentist approach to computer model calibration

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Raymond K. W.; Storlie, Curtis Byron; Lee, Thomas C. M.

    2016-05-05

    The paper considers the computer model calibration problem and provides a general frequentist solution. Under the framework proposed, the data model is semiparametric with a non-parametric discrepancy function which accounts for any discrepancy between physical reality and the computer model. In an attempt to solve a fundamentally important (but often ignored) identifiability issue between the computer model parameters and the discrepancy function, the paper proposes a new and identifiable parameterization of the calibration problem. It also develops a two-step procedure for estimating all the relevant quantities under the new parameterization. This estimation procedure is shown to enjoy excellent rates ofmore » convergence and can be straightforwardly implemented with existing software. For uncertainty quantification, bootstrapping is adopted to construct confidence regions for the quantities of interest. As a result, the practical performance of the methodology is illustrated through simulation examples and an application to a computational fluid dynamics model.« less

  19. The Bayesian Statistics behind Calibration Concordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Vinay Kashyap, David van Dyk, Xufei Wang, Xiao-Li Meng, Herman Marshall

    2017-06-01

    Calibration data for instruments used for astrophysical measurements are usually obtained by observing different astronomical objects with well-understood characteristics simultaneously with different detectors. How to adjust the effective areas of the detectors to achieve concordance among the sources observed by the several detectors is the problem of interest. The calibration concordance problem can be addressed by introducing a log-Normal approach for a multiplicative mean model given by physics. In this context, I will introduce concepts of Bayesian hierarchical model, log-Normal regression model and shrinkage estimators, and give intuitive interpretations of the model and the results. Model fitting is achieved by running the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, the basics of which will also be covered.

  20. Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-12-19

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  1. Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-04-17

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  2. MODIS On-orbit Calibration: Key Issues and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xian-Xiong; Sun, J.; Chiang, K.; Che, N.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS, one of the key instruments for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), is currently operating on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft making continuous observations in 36 spectral bands from 0.4 to 14.4 micrometers. A complete suite of on-board calibrators (OBC) have been designed for the instruments' on-orbit calibration and characterization, including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the radiometric calibration of the 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), a blackbody (BB) for the radiometric calibration of the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEZB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA) for the sensors' spatial and spectral characterization. The task of continuously performing high quality on-orbit calibration and characterization of all 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 detectors located on four focal plane assemblies is extremely challenging. The use of a large two-sided paddle wheel scan mirror with a +/- 55 deg scan angle range and a retractable pinhole attenuation screen in front of the SD panel for calibrating the high gain bands have resulted in additional unanticipated complexity. In this paper, we describe some of the key issues in the Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization, and discuss the methods developed to solve these problems or to reduce their impact on the Level 1B calibration algorithms. Instrument performance and current issues are also presented.

  3. New in-situ, non-intrusive calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, Ronald; Ding, Liuyang; Prestridge, Kathy

    2014-11-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments require precise and accurate camera calibration. Standard techniques make assumptions about hard-to-measure camera parameters (i.e. optical axis angle, distortions, etc.)-reducing the calibration accuracy. Additionally, vibrations and slight movements after calibration may cause significant errors-particularly for tomographic PIV. These problems are exacerbated when a calibration target cannot be placed within the test section. A new PIV camera calibration method has been developed to permit precise calibration without placing a calibration target inside the test section or scanning the target over a volume. The method is capable of correcting for dynamic calibration changes occurring between PIV laser pulses. A transparent calibration plate with fine marks on both sides is positioned on the test section window. Dual-plane mapping makes it possible to determine a mapping function containing both position and angular direction of central rays from particles. From this information, central rays can be traced into the test section with high accuracy. Image distortion by the lens and refraction at various air-glass-liquid interfaces are accounted for, and no information about the position or angle of the camera(s) is required.

  4. Calibration-free optical chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for taking absorbance-based chemical measurements are described. In a specific embodiment, an indicator-based pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) sensor displays sensor-to-sensor reproducibility and measurement stability. These qualities are achieved by: 1) renewing the sensing solution, 2) allowing the sensing solution to reach equilibrium with the analyte, and 3) calculating the response from a ratio of the indicator solution absorbances which are determined relative to a blank solution. Careful solution preparation, wavelength calibration, and stray light rejection also contribute to this calibration-free system. Three pCO2 sensors were calibrated and each had response curves which were essentially identical within the uncertainty of the calibration. Long-term laboratory and field studies showed the response had no drift over extended periods (months). The theoretical response, determined from thermodynamic characterization of the indicator solution, also predicted the observed calibration-free performance.

  5. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  6. [Study on the absolute spectral irradiation calibration method for far ultraviolet spectrometer in remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper studied spectral irradiation responsivities calibration method which can be applied to the far ultraviolet spectrometer for upper atmosphere remote sensing. It is difficult to realize the calibration for far ultraviolet spectrometer for many reasons. Standard instruments for far ultraviolet waveband calibration are few, the degree of the vacuum experiment system is required to be high, the stabilities of the experiment are hardly maintained, and the limitation of the far ultraviolet waveband makes traditional diffuser and the integrating sphere radiance calibration method difficult to be used. To solve these problems, a new absolute spectral irradiance calibration method was studied, which can be applied to the far ultraviolet calibration. We build a corresponding special vacuum experiment system to verify the calibration method. The light source system consists of a calibrated deuterium lamp, a vacuum ultraviolet monochromater and a collimating system. We used the calibrated detector to obtain the irradiance responsivities of it. The three instruments compose the calibration irradiance source. We used the "calibration irradiance source" to illuminate the spectrometer prototype and obtained the spectral irradiance responsivities. It realized the absolute spectral irradiance calibration for the far ultraviolet spectrometer utilizing the calibrated detector. The absolute uncertainty of the calibration is 7.7%. The method is significant for the ground irradiation calibration of the far ultraviolet spectrometer in upper atmosphere remote sensing.

  7. Two Approaches to Calibration in Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Campanelli, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Inferring mathematical relationships with quantified uncertainty from measurement data is common to computational science and metrology. Sufficient knowledge of measurement process noise enables Bayesian inference. Otherwise, an alternative approach is required, here termed compartmentalized inference, because collection of uncertain data and model inference occur independently. Bayesian parameterized model inference is compared to a Bayesian-compatible compartmentalized approach for ISO-GUM compliant calibration problems in renewable energy metrology. In either approach, model evidence can help reduce model discrepancy.

  8. Automatic temperature-calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Stant, R.S.

    1982-08-23

    A relatively inexpensive, computer-controlled temperature calibration system is described. The system will provide working standard level calibration between -90/sup 0/C and +1100/sup 0/C for multiple resistance thermometers or thermocouples. It is designed to collect the data in a cooldown or ballistic state using either a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) or a precision thermocouple as a standard. The use of this calibration system increases measurement repeatability, while greatly reducing the man-hours required for a calibration. Construction and basic software details of the temperature calibration system are provided.

  9. Calibration of triaxial fluxgate gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vcelak, Jan

    2006-04-15

    The description of simple and fast calibration procedures used for double-probe triaxial fluxgate gradiometer is provided in this paper. The calibration procedure consists of three basic steps. In the first step both probes are calibrated independently in order to reach constant total field reading in every position. Both probes are numerically aligned in the second step in order that the gradient reading is zero in homogenous magnetic field. The third step consists of periodic drift calibration during measurement. The results and detailed description of each calibration step are presented and discussed in the paper. The gradiometer is finally verified during the detection of the metal object in the measuring grid.

  10. Tolerance on sphere radius for the calibration of the transfer function of coherence scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rong; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Wang, Yuhang; Leach, Richard K.

    2017-06-01

    Although coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) commonly achieves a sub-nanometre noise level in surface topography measurement, the absolute accuracy is difficult to determine when measuring a surface that contains varying local slope angles and curvatures. Recent research has shown that it is possible to use a single sphere with a radius much greater than the source wavelength to calibrate the three-dimensional transfer function of a CSI system. A major requirement is the accurate knowledge of the sphere radius, but the three-dimensional measurement of a sphere with nanometre level uncertainty is a highly challenging metrology problem, and is not currently feasible. Perfect spheres do not exist and every measurement has uncertainty. Without having a quantitative understanding of the tolerance of the sphere radius, the calibration method cannot be used confidently for calibration of the transfer function of a CSI system that may be used in research laboratories or industry. In this paper, the effects of the tolerance of the radius of the calibration sphere on surface topography measurements are quantitatively analysed through a computational approach. CSI measurements of spherical, sinusoidal and rough surfaces are investigated in the presence of various degrees of radius error. A lookup table that relates the surface height error as a function of the radius error and surface slope angle is provided. The users may estimate the required tolerances of the sphere radius for their specific surface measurements if this calibration approach is used. The output of this paper provides a feasibility analysis for this calibration method for further development and applications.

  11. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  12. Self-Calibrating Pressure Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A self-calibrating pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be calibrated. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be calibrated. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be calibrated in situ. Calibration is optionally automated so that calibration can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be calibrated without removing it from the process, reductions in costs and down time are realized.

  13. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  14. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  15. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  16. Tradeoffs among watershed model calibration targets for parameter estimation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic models are commonly calibrated by optimizing a single objective function target to compare simulated and observed flows, although individual targets are influenced by specific flow modes. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) emphasizes flood peaks in evaluating simulation f...

  17. 40 CFR 86.333-79 - Dynamometer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following: (1) Warm up the dynamometer following the equipment manufacturer's specifications. (2) Determine.... The calibration weights must be traceable to within 0.1 percent of NBS weights. (2) Warm up the... the completion of the dynamometer warm-up....

  18. 40 CFR 86.333-79 - Dynamometer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following: (1) Warm up the dynamometer following the equipment manufacturer's specifications. (2) Determine.... The calibration weights must be traceable to within 0.1 percent of NBS weights. (2) Warm up the... the completion of the dynamometer warm-up....

  19. Tradeoffs among watershed model calibration targets for parameter estimation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic models are commonly calibrated by optimizing a single objective function target to compare simulated and observed flows, although individual targets are influenced by specific flow modes. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) emphasizes flood peaks in evaluating simulation f...

  20. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  1. Uncertainty and Dimensional Calibrations.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted; Stoup, John

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of uncertainty for a measurement is an effort to set reasonable bounds for the measurement result according to standardized rules. Since every measurement produces only an estimate of the answer, the primary requisite of an uncertainty statement is to inform the reader of how sure the writer is that the answer is in a certain range. This report explains how we have implemented these rules for dimensional calibrations of nine different types of gages: gage blocks, gage wires, ring gages, gage balls, roundness standards, optical flats indexing tables, angle blocks, and sieves.

  2. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  3. Uncertainty and Dimensional Calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted; Stoup, John

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of uncertainty for a measurement is an effort to set reasonable bounds for the measurement result according to standardized rules. Since every measurement produces only an estimate of the answer, the primary requisite of an uncertainty statement is to inform the reader of how sure the writer is that the answer is in a certain range. This report explains how we have implemented these rules for dimensional calibrations of nine different types of gages: gage blocks, gage wires, ring gages, gage balls, roundness standards, optical flats indexing tables, angle blocks, and sieves. PMID:27805114

  4. Calibrating bacterial evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ochman, Howard; Elwyn, Susannah; Moran, Nancy A.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to calibrate bacterial evolution have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular sequence divergence in bacteria are similar to those of higher eukaryotes, or to those of the few bacterial taxa for which ancestors can be reliably dated from ecological or geological evidence. Despite similarities in the substitution rates estimated for some lineages, comparisons of the relative rates of evolution at different classes of nucleotide sites indicate no basis for their universal application to all bacteria. However, there is evidence that bacteria have a constant genome-wide mutation rate on an evolutionary time scale but that this rate differs dramatically from the rate estimated by experimental methods. PMID:10535975

  5. White Dwarf Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis

    1994-01-01

    As a result of last November calibration workshop, all parties agreed that the HST should be switched to the WD basis for absolute fluxes. This proposal implements that decision. A measurement of the absolute sensitivity of the FOS detectors will be performed using theoretical pure hydrogen model atmosphere calculations for three white dwarfs. The high resolution gratings will be used in the 1 arcsec aperture. A four stage peakup of the standard star provides centering in the aperture. Observations are requested for fall 94 with repeated observations about two months after.

  6. Transient Calorimeter Calibration System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    can withstand the high heat flux levels encountered during calibration. 3 d. The verification of absorptivity of a colloidal graphite coat- ing used...CC4-)Ŕ ýz- ix w- Vj m ~ CL 4) > r- 4-) r-)W *. M 0 0 a 4) u.) . CJ C4) Lfl 𔃺 4%. C6 0) 0 ~ 4 -0 E 36 The colloidal graphite remains the most...before and after exposure. Such tests performed with the colloidal graphite coating yielded no apparent change in absorptivity up through 5 kW/cm2 . In

  7. ALTEA: The instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

    2008-05-01

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

  8. Calibration and Alignment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassotti, Christopher; Iskenderian, Haig; Hoffman, Ross N.

    1999-06-01

    Discrepancies between estimates of rainfall from ground-based radar and satellite observing systems can be attributed to either calibration differences or to geolocation and sampling differences. These latter include differences due to radar or satellite misregistration, differences in observation times, or variations in instrument and retrieval algorithm sensitivities. A new methodology has been developed and tested for integrating radar- and satellite-based estimates of precipitation using a feature calibration and alignment (FCA) technique. The parameters describing the calibration and alignment are found using a variational approach, and are composed of displacement and amplitude adjustments to the satellite rainfall retrievals, which minimize the differences with respect to the radar data and satisfy additional smoothness and magnitude constraints. In this approach the amplitude component represents a calibration of the satellite estimate to the radar, whereas the displacement components correct temporal and/or geolocation differences between the radar and satellite data.The method has been tested on a number of cases of the NASA WetNet PIP-2 dataset. These data consist of coincident estimates of rainfall by ground-based radar and the DMSP SSM/I. Sensitivity tests were conducted to tune the parameters of the algorithm. Results indicate the effectiveness of the technique in minimizing the discrepancies between radar and satellite observations of rainfall for a variety of rainfall events ranging from midlatitude frontal precipitation to heavy convection associated with a tropical cyclone (Hurricane Andrew). A remaining issue to be resolved is the incorporation of knowledge about location dependencies in the errors of the radar and microwave estimates.Once the satellite data have been adjusted to match the radar observations, the two independent estimates (radar and adjusted SSM/I rain rates) may be blended to improve the overall depiction of the rainfall event

  9. Calibration of radio-astronomical data on the cloud. LOFAR, the pathway to SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Garrido, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Best, P. N.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2015-05-01

    The radio interferometer LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) is fully operational now. This Square Kilometre Array (SKA) pathfinder allows the observation of the sky at frequencies between 10 and 240 MHz, a relatively unexplored region of the spectrum. LOFAR is a software defined telescope: the data is mainly processed using specialized software running in common computing facilities. That means that the capabilities of the telescope are virtually defined by software and mainly limited by the available computing power. However, the quantity of data produced can quickly reach huge volumes (several Petabytes per day). After the correlation and pre-processing of the data in a dedicated cluster, the final dataset is handled to the user (typically several Terabytes). The calibration of these data requires a powerful computing facility in which the specific state of the art software under heavy continuous development can be easily installed and updated. That makes this case a perfect candidate for a cloud infrastructure which adds the advantages of an on demand, flexible solution. We present our approach to the calibration of LOFAR data using Ibercloud, the cloud infrastructure provided by Ibergrid. With the calibration work-flow adapted to the cloud, we can explore calibration strategies for the SKA and show how private or commercial cloud infrastructures (Ibercloud, Amazon EC2, Google Compute Engine, etc.) can help to solve the problems with big datasets that will be prevalent in the future of astronomy.

  10. Application of variance components estimation to calibrate geoid error models.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Mei; Xu, Hou-Ze

    2015-01-01

    The method of using Global Positioning System-leveling data to obtain orthometric heights has been well studied. A simple formulation for the weighted least squares problem has been presented in an earlier work. This formulation allows one directly employing the errors-in-variables models which completely descript the covariance matrices of the observables. However, an important question that what accuracy level can be achieved has not yet to be satisfactorily solved by this traditional formulation. One of the main reasons for this is the incorrectness of the stochastic models in the adjustment, which in turn allows improving the stochastic models of measurement noises. Therefore the issue of determining the stochastic modeling of observables in the combined adjustment with heterogeneous height types will be a main focus point in this paper. Firstly, the well-known method of variance component estimation is employed to calibrate the errors of heterogeneous height data in a combined least square adjustment of ellipsoidal, orthometric and gravimetric geoid. Specifically, the iterative algorithms of minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation are used to estimate the variance components for each of heterogeneous observations. Secondly, two different statistical models are presented to illustrate the theory. The first method directly uses the errors-in-variables as a priori covariance matrices and the second method analyzes the biases of variance components and then proposes bias-corrected variance component estimators. Several numerical test results show the capability and effectiveness of the variance components estimation procedure in combined adjustment for calibrating geoid error model.

  11. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Bogena, Heye Reemt; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Schilling, Bernd; Weuthen, Ansgar; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. PMID:28117731

  12. Beowulf - Beta-Gamma Detector Calibration Graphical User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-09-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated significant advancement in using beta-gamma coincidence detectors to detect a wide range of radioxenon isotopes. To obtain accurate activities with the detector it must be properly calibrated by measuring a series of calibration gas samples. The data is analyzed to create the calibration block used in the International Monitoring System file format. Doing the calibration manually has proven to be tedious and prone to errors, requiring a high degree of expertise. The Beowulf graphical user interface (GUI) is a software application that encompasses several components of the calibration task and generates a calibration block, as well as, a detailed report describing the specific calibration process used. This additional document can be used as a Quality assurance certificate to assist in auditing the calibration. This paper consists of two sections. Section 1 will describe the capabilities of Beowulf and section 2 will be a representative report generated or the 137Cs calibration and quality assurance source.

  13. Photometric calibrations for 21st century science

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Deustua, Susana E.; Smith, J.Allyn; Adelman, Saul; Allam, Sahar S.; Baptista, Brian; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Clem, James L.; Conley, Alex; Edelstein, Jerry; /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /NOAO, Tucson

    2009-02-01

    The answers to fundamental science questions in astrophysics, ranging from the history of the expansion of the universe to the sizes of nearby stars, hinge on our ability to make precise measurements of diverse astronomical objects. As our knowledge of the underlying physics of objects improves along with advances in detectors and instrumentation, the limits on our capability to extract science from measurements is set, not by our lack of understanding of the nature of these objects, but rather by the most mundane of all issues: the precision with which we can calibrate observations in physical units. In principle, photometric calibration is a solved problem - laboratory reference standards such as blackbody furnaces achieve precisions well in excess of those needed for astrophysics. In practice, however, transferring the calibration from these laboratory standards to astronomical objects of interest is far from trivial - the transfer must reach outside the atmosphere, extend over 4{pi} steradians of sky, cover a wide range of wavelengths, and span an enormous dynamic range in intensity. Virtually all spectrophotometric observations today are calibrated against one or more stellar reference sources, such as Vega, which are themselves tied back to laboratory standards in a variety of ways. This system's accuracy is not uniform. Selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are calibrated extremely well, but discontinuities of a few percent still exist, e.g., between the optical and infrared. Independently, model stellar atmospheres are used to calibrate the spectra of selected white dwarf stars, e.g. the HST system, but the ultimate accuracy of this system should be verified against laboratory sources. Our traditional standard star systems, while sufficient until now, need to be improved and extended in order to serve future astrophysics experiments. This white paper calls for a program to improve upon and expand the current networks of spectrophotometrically

  14. Modeling cultivar-specific crop growth and CH4 and N2O emissions using the DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model: Calibration and validation in California rice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, M.; Li, C.; Lee, J.; Six, J.; Van Kessel, C.; Linquist, B.

    2013-12-01

    New understanding and predictability of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural ecosystems have become increasingly important due to growing atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases (GHG) and a need for accurate estimates of mitigation potentials of various management practices. The overall objective of this study was to calibrate and validate the DNDC model in California rice systems based on two crop sub-model calibrations with distinct growth and development characteristics across a wide range of management practices and environmental conditions. After model revisions to the soil climate and biogeochemistry sub-models in DNDC, the crop growth sub-model was calibrated for a high-yielding, medium-grain semi-dwarf rice cultivar (M206) and a long-grain, traditional variety, Koshihikari (KOSH), using data collected from rice fields located in California. The ability of the model to predict the observed temporal patterns and magnitude of both CH4 and N2O emissions was evaluated using field data from 9 (n = 60) and 5 (n = 50) site-year combinations, respectively. Correlations between measured and simulated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content in rice grain, straw and roots, root to shoot ratios, grain yield, soil temperature and soil N dynamics were determined at a subset of the experimental sites as well. The agreement between measured and simulated cumulative emissions depended on the gas (CH4 or N2O) and period of interpolation (growing season or fallow period). The model was best able to predict seasonal CH4 emissions (R2 = 0.75), with measured seasonal emissions ranging from 6 to 767 kg CH4-C ha-1. However it underestimated CH4 on average by 58% of the observed value. Low predictability of seasonal N2O emissions (R2 = 0.12) is partly attributed to the low seasonal N2O flux at all the sites (i.e., mean = 0.58 kg N-N2O ha-1, maximum =2.2 kg N2O-N ha-1). The model was unable to predict cumulative CH4 or N2O emissions during the

  15. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.

  16. GOSAT lunar calibration in two year operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Kataoka, F.; Higuchi, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese mission to monitor greenhouse gases such as CO_{2} and CH_{4} from space. The GOSAT carries the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The FTS has 3 polarized SWIR narrow bands, which are 0.76, 1.6 and 2.0 microns and TIR wide band from 5.5 to 14.3 microns. The FTS observes globally with grid points of 10 km FOV by separate pointing. The CAI is carried 4 radiometers of 0.38, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.60 microns with high spatial resolution of 0.5-1.5 km and wide swath of 1000 km. The GOSAT observes the full moon for the radiometric calibration of the FTS SWIR bands and the CAI by the lunar calibration operation every year. Bottom of the satellite installed the sensors is oriented to the moon before moon rise of the satellite. The initial lunar calibration on orbit just after the launch was operated on March 11 and April 9, 2009. Every year calibrations were operated on April for continuous annual trend and July for corresponding to the Railroad Valley calibration and validation field campaign. In 3rd year operation, the specification of lunar calibration is optimized to observe in phase angle around 7 degrees to avoid the opposition surge and use the lunar model in good accuracy and brightest target. The FTS observes the moon by 0.6 IFOV. The FTS carries a high-resolution monitoring camera for checking the observation target. The moon position in the FTS IFOV is confirmed by the camera image. The CAI observes the moon by 12 pixels of Band 1-3, by 4 pixels of Band 4. The CAI scans the moon in 2 reciprocations with constant scan speed. This presentation shows the sensitivity study using the GOSAT lunar observation in two year operation.

  17. Method calibration of the model 13145 infrared target projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianxia; Gao, Yuan; Han, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The SBIR Model 13145 Infrared Target Projectors ( The following abbreviation Evaluation Unit ) used for characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. Test items: SiTF, MTF, NETD, MRTD, MDTD, NPS. Infrared target projectors includes two area blackbodies, a 12 position target wheel, all reflective collimator. It provide high spatial frequency differential targets, Precision differential targets imaged by infrared imaging system. And by photoelectricity convert on simulate signal or digital signal. Applications software (IR Windows TM 2001) evaluate characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. With regards to as a whole calibration, first differently calibration for distributed component , According to calibration specification for area blackbody to calibration area blackbody, by means of to amend error factor to calibration of all reflective collimator, radiance calibration of an infrared target projectors using the SR5000 spectral radiometer, and to analyze systematic error. With regards to as parameter of infrared imaging system, need to integrate evaluation method. According to regulation with -GJB2340-1995 General specification for military thermal imaging sets -testing parameters of infrared imaging system, the results compare with results from Optical Calibration Testing Laboratory . As a goal to real calibration performances of the Evaluation Unit.

  18. Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Patricia; Liu, Vincent; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2014-04-01

    Risk-adjusted mortality rates are commonly used in quality report cards to compare hospital performance. The risk adjustment depends on models that are assessed for goodness-of-fit using various discrimination and calibration measures. However, the relationship between model fit and the accuracy of hospital comparisons is not well characterized. To evaluate the impact of imperfect model calibration (miscalibration) on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. We constructed Monte Carlo simulations where a risk-adjustment model is used in a population with a different mortality distribution than in the original model. We estimated the power of calibration metrics to detect miscalibration. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a hospital comparisons method under different imperfect model calibration scenarios using an empirical method. The U-statistics showed the highest power to detect intercept and slope deviations in the calibration curve, followed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow, and the calibration intercept and slope tests. The specificity decreased with increased intercept and slope deviations and with hospital size. The effect of an imperfect model fit on sensitivity is a function of the true standardized mortality ratio, the underlying mortality rate, sample size, and observed intercept and slope deviations. Poorly performing hospitals can appear as good performers and vice versa, depending on the deviation magnitude and direction. Deviations from perfect model calibration have a direct impact on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. Publishing the calibration intercept and slope of risk-adjustment models would allow the users to monitor their performance against the true standard population.

  19. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S.

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  20. Camera calibration correction in shape from inconsistent silhouette

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of shape from silhouette for reconstruction tasks is plagued by two types of real-world errors: camera calibration error and silhouette segmentation error. When either error is present, we call the problem the Shape from Inconsistent Silhouette (SfIS) problem. In this paper, we show how sm...

  1. Development of a robust calibration model for nonlinear in-line process data

    PubMed

    Despagne; Massart; Chabot

    2000-04-01

    A comparative study involving a global linear method (partial least squares), a local linear method (locally weighted regression), and a nonlinear method (neural networks) has been performed in order to implement a calibration model on an industrial process. The models were designed to predict the water content in a reactor during a distillation process, using in-line measurements from a near-infrared analyzer. Curved effects due to changes in temperature and variations between the different batches make the problem particularly challenging. The influence of spectral range selection and data preprocessing has been studied. With each calibration method, specific procedures have been applied to promote model robustness. In particular, the use of a monitoring set with neural networks does not always prevent overfitting. Therefore, we developed a model selection criterion based on the determination of the median of monitoring error over replicate trials. The back-propagation neural network models selected were found to outperform the other methods on independent test data.

  2. Self-calibration performance in stereoscopic PIV acquired in a transonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Smith, Barton L.

    2016-03-16

    Three stereoscopic PIV experiments have been examined to test the effectiveness of self-calibration under varied circumstances. Furthermore, we our measurements taken in a streamwise plane yielded a robust self-calibration that returned common results regardless of the specific calibration procedure, but measurements in the crossplane exhibited substantial velocity bias errors whose nature was sensitive to the particulars of the self-calibration approach. Self-calibration is complicated by thick laser sheets and large stereoscopic camera angles and further exacerbated by small particle image diameters and high particle seeding density. In spite of the different answers obtained by varied self-calibrations, each implementation locked onto an apparently valid solution with small residual disparity and converged adjustment of the calibration plane. Thus, the convergence of self-calibration on a solution with small disparity is not sufficient to indicate negligible velocity error due to the stereo calibration.

  3. Self-calibration performance in stereoscopic PIV acquired in a transonic wind tunnel

    DOE PAGES

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Smith, Barton L.

    2016-03-16

    Three stereoscopic PIV experiments have been examined to test the effectiveness of self-calibration under varied circumstances. Furthermore, we our measurements taken in a streamwise plane yielded a robust self-calibration that returned common results regardless of the specific calibration procedure, but measurements in the crossplane exhibited substantial velocity bias errors whose nature was sensitive to the particulars of the self-calibration approach. Self-calibration is complicated by thick laser sheets and large stereoscopic camera angles and further exacerbated by small particle image diameters and high particle seeding density. In spite of the different answers obtained by varied self-calibrations, each implementation locked onto anmore » apparently valid solution with small residual disparity and converged adjustment of the calibration plane. Thus, the convergence of self-calibration on a solution with small disparity is not sufficient to indicate negligible velocity error due to the stereo calibration.« less

  4. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  5. A simplified approach to calibrating [sup 14]C dates

    SciTech Connect

    Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a simplified approach to the calibration of radiocarbon dates. They use splines through the tree-ring data as calibration curves, thereby eliminating a large part of the statistical scatter of the actual data points. To express the age range, they transform the [plus minus]1 [sigma] and [plus minus]2 [sigma] values of the BP age to calendar dates and interpret them as the 68% and 95% confidence intervals. This approach by-passes the conceptual problems of the transfer of individual probability values from the radiocarbon to the calendar age. They have adapted software to make this calibration possible.

  6. Simbol-X Telescope Scientific Calibrations: Requirements and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguti, G.; Angelini, L.; Raimondi, L.; Moretti, A.; Trifoglio, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X telescope characteristics and the mission scientific requirements impose a challenging calibration plan with a number of unprecedented issues. The 20 m focal length implies for the incoming X-ray beam a divergence comparable to the incidence angle of the mirror surface also for 100 m-long facilities. Moreover this is the first time that a direct focussing X-ray telescope will be calibrated on an energy band covering about three decades, and with a complex focal plane. These problems require a careful plan and organization of the measurements, together with an evaluation of the calibration needs in terms of both hardware and software.

  7. Simbol-X Telescope Scientific Calibrations: Requirements and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Malaguti, G.; Raimondi, L.; Trifoglio, M.; Angelini, L.

    2009-05-11

    The Simbol-X telescope characteristics and the mission scientific requirements impose a challenging calibration plan with a number of unprecedented issues. The 20 m focal length implies for the incoming X-ray beam a divergence comparable to the incidence angle of the mirror surface also for 100 m-long facilities. Moreover this is the first time that a direct focussing X-ray telescope will be calibrated on an energy band covering about three decades, and with a complex focal plane. These problems require a careful plan and organization of the measurements, together with an evaluation of the calibration needs in terms of both hardware and software.

  8. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... conform to the Model Specifications for Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Tester (CUs) dated, June 25...) published a standard for Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers. A Qualified Products List of...

  9. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  10. NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

  11. New Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate spacecraft attitudes may only be obtained if the primary attitude sensors are well calibrated. Launch shock, relaxation of gravitational stresses and similar effects often produce large enough alignment shifts so that on-orbit alignment calibration is necessary if attitude accuracy requirements are to be met. A variety of attitude sensor alignment algorithms have been developed to meet the need for on-orbit calibration. Two new algorithms are presented here: ALICAL and ALIQUEST. Each of these has advantages in particular circumstances. ALICAL is an attitude independent algorithm that uses near simultaneous measurements from two or more sensors to produce accurate sensor alignments. For each set of simultaneous observations the attitude is overdetermined. The information content of the extra degrees of freedom can be combined over numerous sets to provide the sensor alignments. ALIQUEST is an attitude dependent algorithm that combines sensor and attitude data into a loss function that has the same mathematical form as the Wahba problem. Alignments can then be determined using any of the algorithms (such as the QUEST quaternion estimator) that have been developed to solve the Wahba problem for attitude. Results from the use of these methods on active missions are presented.

  12. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  13. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  14. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to

  15. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  16. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  17. Hawk-I Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    "The High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) instrument is a cryogenic wide field imager operating in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 microns. It has been in operations since 2007 on the UT4 at the Very Large Telescope Observatory in seeing-limited mode. In 2017-2018, GRound Layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers module (GRAAL) will be in operation and the system GRAAL+HAWK-I will be commissioned. With GRAAL, already installed, HAWK-I will operate more than 80% of the time with an equivalent K-band seeing of 0.55" (instead of 0.7" without GRAAL). I will present here an overview of the calibration plan for HAWK-I and GRAAL+HAWK-I and particularly the challenging aspects for optimal science products and instrument health monitoring."

  18. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  19. Neural networks for calibration tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

  20. Radiance calibration of spherical integrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.