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Sample records for specific mortality 1960-2000

  1. Methuselah's medicine: pharmaceutical innovation and mortality in the United States, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Karandinos, George

    2010-04-01

    Although there is a good deal of speculation surrounding the role of pharmaceutical innovation in late 20th century mortality improvements in the United States, there is little empirical evidence on the topic and there remains a good deal of doubt regarding whether pharmaceuticals matter at all for mortality. Using a reliable indicator of pharmaceutical innovation-yearly approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) by the Food and Drug Administration, along with information on priority status and disease-category indication-this study examines the relationship between pharmaceutical innovation and life expectancy between 1960 and 2000. The study demonstrates a significant relationship between pharmaceutical innovation and life expectancy at birth, which is robust to controls for gross domestic product, as well as controls for various forms of medical spending. The relationship with life expectancy is robust, in part, because pharmaceutical innovation has a stronger relationship with early-life mortality (between 20 and 50) than with later-life mortality (65 and over), even though older persons consume more pharmaceuticals and many recently approved drugs target conditions more common in later life. There is, to be sure, another side to the results. There is some evidence, for example, that the relationship between pharmaceutical innovation and mortality has declined over time, suggesting a change in the kind of innovations now entering the market. Nevertheless, there is more to contemporary pharmaceutical innovation than the development of mere "halfway" technologies. The overall relationship between innovation and mortality is sufficiently strong to warrant further consideration as a key determinant of trends in mortality.

  2. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  3. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  4. The Afar Depression: interpretation of the 1960-2000 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, R.; Beyth, M.

    2003-11-01

    We studied the seismic activity of the Afar Depression (AD) and adjacent regions during the period 1960-2000. We define seven distinct seismogenic regions using geological, tectonic and seismological data. Based on the frequency-magnitude relationships we obtain b-values of about 1 for the different regions. The pattern of the distribution of the location of epicentres fits with the known active fault zone in the AD and the axial volcanic ridges. The Bab el Mandab area and the Danakil-Aysha'a blocks are less active. For 125 intermediate to strong earthquakes the seismic moment and source parameters were calculated. The results of the fault plane solutions for the Afar Depression indicate mainly strike-slip and normal sense of movement originating from fault planes striking NW-SE. These results indicate a clockwise block rotation described previously as a bookshelf model in central AD. There are a few right-lateral faults east of Massawa with E-W-striking fault planes. At the southern Red Sea, north of the Danakil block, the mixed focal mechanisms, with axial plane striking NW-SE, comprise several reverse faulting, strike-slip motion and normal faulting. Right-lateral movement was also calculated for a cluster of seismic events between the Manda Hararo and Alyata volcanic ridges along NW-SE-striking faults. Along the N-S-striking faults in the escarpment, at the western Afar margins, there are two distinct clusters of epicentres. The strong earthquakes at the southern cluster exhibit normal or strike-slip motions. The intermediate to small earthquakes in the northern cluster exhibit reverse and strike-slip motions. Mainly normal faults were calculated along NE-SW-striking faults of the Ethiopian East African Rift. Estimates of the seismic efficiency suggest that the maximal values are about 50 per cent or less, implying that most of the motion is taken aseismically.

  5. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Edwards, Meghan K.; Sng, Eveleen; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0.05). There was evidence of an interaction effect between sedentary behavior and total physical activity on residual-specific mortality (Hazard ratiointeraction [HR] = 0.9989; 95% CI: 0.9982-0.9997; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was independently associated with residual-specific mortality. However, there was evidence to suggest that residual-specific mortality risk was a function of sedentary behavior and total physical activity. These findings highlight the need for future work to not only examine the association between sedentary behavior and health independent of total physical activity, but evaluate whether there is a joint effect of these two parameters on health. PMID:27766237

  6. Atopy and cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thuesen, B H; Hammer-Helmich, L; Linneberg, A

    2014-11-01

    Atopy is the familial or personal propensity to develop immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common environmental allergens and is associated with high risk of allergic disease. It has been proposed that atopy may have effects on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. We investigated the association of atopy with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We included a total of 14 849 individuals from five Danish population-based cohorts with measurements of atopy defined as serum-specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were followed by linkage to the Danish Registry of Causes of Death to obtain information on mortality status and cause of death (median follow-up time 11.3 years). The relative mortality risk was estimated by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs). A total of 1776 person died during follow-up. The mortality risk for atopics vs. non-atopics was: for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.17); neoplasms (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.06); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders (HR = 1.48, 95% CI: 0.71, 3.08); mental and behavioural disorders (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.30); diseases of the nervous system (HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.87); diseases of the circulatory system (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.29); diseases of the respiratory system (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.60); and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.98). We found no statistically significant association between atopy and all-cause mortality. However, atopy was associated with a significantly higher risk of dying from mental and behavioural disorders and gastrointestinal diseases, particularly liver diseases, and a lower risk of dying from breast cancer, but these associations were not statistically significant when applying the Bonferroni adjusted significance level. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimates of Ground-Water Pumpage from the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington, 1960-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Sumioka, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, was estimated for eight categories of use for 1960-2000 as part of an investigation to assess ground-water availability in the basin. Methods used, pumpage estimates, reliability of the estimates, and a comparison with appropriated quantities are described. The eight categories of pumpage were public water supply, self-supplied domestic (exempt wells), irrigation, frost protection, livestock and dairy operations, industrial and commercial, fish and wildlife propagation, and ground-water claims. Pumpage estimates were based on methods that varied by the category and primarily represent pumpage for ground-water rights. Washington State Department of Ecology's digital database has 2,874 active ground-water rights in the basin that can withdraw an annual quantity of about 529,231 acre-feet during dry years. Irrigation rights are for irrigation of about 129,570 acres. All but 220 of the rights were associated with well drillers' logs, allowing for a spatial representation of the pumpage. Five-hundred and sixty of the irrigation rights were estimated to be standby/reserve rights. During this study, another 30 rights were identified that were not in the digital database. These rights can withdraw an annual quantity of about 20,969 acre-feet; about 6,700 acre-feet of these rights are near but outside the basin. In 1960, total annual pumpage in the basin, excluding standby/reserve pumpage, was about 115,776 acre-feet. By 2000, total annual pumpage was estimated to be 395,096 acre-feet, and excluding the standby/reserve rights, the total was 312,284 acre-feet. Irrigation accounts for about 60 percent of the pumpage, followed by public water supply at about 12 percent. The smallest category of pumpage was for livestock use with pumpage estimated to be 6,726 acre-feet. Total annual pumpage in 2000 was about 430 cubic feet per second, which is about 11 percent of the surface-water demand. Maximum pumpage is in July and

  8. Estimates of ground-water pumpage from the Yakima River Basin aquifer system, Washington, 1960-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Sumioka, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, was estimated for eight categories of use for 1960-2000 as part of an investigation to assess groundwater availability in the basin. Methods used, pumpage estimates, reliability of the estimates, and a comparison with appropriated quantities are described. The eight categories of pumpage were public water supply, self-supplied domestic (exempt wells), irrigation, frost protection, livestock and dairy operations, industrial and commercial, fish and wildlife propagation, and ground-water claims. Pumpage estimates were based on methods that varied by the category and primarily represent pumpage for groundwater rights. Washington State Department of Ecology’s digital database has 2,874 active ground-water rights in the basin that can withdraw an annual quantity of about 529,231 acre-feet during dry years. Irrigation rights are for irrigation of about 129,570 acres. All but 220 of the rights were associated with well drillers’ logs, allowing for a spatial representation of the pumpage. Five-hundred and sixty of the irrigation rights were estimated to be standby/reserve rights. During this study, another 30 rights were identified that were not in the digital database. These rights can withdraw an annual quantity of about 20,969 acre-feet; about 6,700 acre-feet of these rights are near but outside the basin. In 1960, total annual pumpage in the basin, excluding standby/reserve pumpage, was about 115,776 acre-feet. By 2000, total annual pumpage was estimated to be 395,096 acre-feet, and excluding the standby/reserve rights, the total was 312,284 acre-feet. Irrigation accounts for about 60 percent of the pumpage, followed by public water supply at about 12 percent. The smallest category of pumpage was for livestock use with pumpage estimated to be 6,726 acre-feet. Total annual pumpage in 2000 was about 430 cubic feet per second, which is about 11 percent of the surface-water demand. Maximum pumpage is in July

  9. Heat waves and cause-specific mortality at all ages.

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Sartini, Claudio; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Dadvand, Payam; Cunillera, Jordi; Ostro, Bart; Sunyer, Jordi; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Mortality has been shown to increase with extremely hot ambient temperatures. Details on the specific cause of mortality can be useful for improving preventive policies. Infants are often identified as a population that is vulnerable to extreme heat conditions; however, information on heat and infant mortality is scarce, with no studies reporting on cause-specific mortality. The study includes all deaths in the Catalonia region of Spain during the warm seasons of 1983-2006 (503,389 deaths). We used the case-crossover design to evaluate the association between the occurrence of extremely hot days (days with maximum temperature above the 95th percentile) and mortality. Total mortality and infant mortality were stratified into 66 and 8 causes of death, respectively. Three consecutive hot days increased total daily mortality by 19%. We calculated that 1.6% of all deaths were attributable to heat. About 40% of attributable deaths did not occur during heat-wave periods. The causes of death that were increased included cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, mental and nervous system disorders, infectious and digestive system diseases, diabetes, and some external causes such as suicide. In infants, the effect of heat was observed on the same day and was detected only for conditions originating in the perinatal period (relative risk = 1.53 [95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.02]). Within the perinatal causes, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive system, and hemorrhagic and hematologic disorders were the causes of death with stronger effects. Heat contributes to an increase in mortality from several causes. In infants, the first week of life is the most critical window of vulnerability.

  10. Beverage-specific alcohol sales and violent mortality in Russia.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    High violent mortality rate in Russia and its profound fluctuation over recent decades have attracted considerable interest. A mounting body of evidence points to the binge drinking pattern as a potentially important contributor to the violent mortality crisis in Russia. In line with this evidence, we assume that higher level of vodka consumption in conjunction with binge drinking pattern results in close aggregate-level association between vodka sales and violent mortality rates in Russia. To test this hypothesis, trends in beverage-specific alcohol sales per capita and mortality rates from external causes in Russia between 1980 and 2005 were analyzed by means of ARIMA time-series analysis. Results of the analysis indicate that violent mortality rates tend to be more responsive to change in vodka sales per capita than to change in total level of alcohol sales. The analysis suggests that a 1-litre increase in vodka sales per capita would result in a 5% increase in violent mortality rate, an 11.3% increase in accidents and injuries mortality rate, a 9.2% increase in suicide rate, a 12.5% increase in homicide rate, and a 21.9% increase in fatal alcohol poisoning rate. The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol played a crucial role in the fluctuation in violent mortality rate in Russia in recent decades. Assuming that drinking vodka is usually associated with intoxication episodes, these findings provide additional evidence that the binge drinking pattern is an important determinant of the violent mortality crisis in Russia.

  11. Do childhood vaccines have non-specific effects on mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William O.; Boyce, Thomas G.; Wright, Peter F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2003-01-01

    A recent article by Kristensen et al. suggested that measles vaccine and bacille Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine might reduce mortality beyond what is expected simply from protection against measles and tuberculosis. Previous reviews of the potential effects of childhood vaccines on mortality have not considered methodological features of reviewed studies. Methodological considerations play an especially important role in observational assessments, in which selection factors for vaccination may be difficult to ascertain. We reviewed 782 English language articles on vaccines and childhood mortality and found only a few whose design met the criteria for methodological rigor. The data reviewed suggest that measles vaccine delivers its promised reduction in mortality, but there is insufficient evidence to suggest a mortality benefit above that caused by its effect on measles disease and its sequelae. Our review of the available data in the literature reinforces how difficult answering these considerations has been and how important study design will be in determining the effect of specific vaccines on all-cause mortality. PMID:14758409

  12. Formulation of work stress in 1960-2000: analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position on cause specific mortality: the Oslo Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, B; Davey, S; Thelle, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of childhood and adulthood social circumstances on cause specific adult mortality. Design: Census data on housing conditions from 1960 and Personal Register income data for 1990 were linked to 1990–94 death registrations, and relative indices of inequality were computed for housing conditions in 1960 and for household income in 1990. Participants: The 128 723 inhabitants in Oslo aged 31–50 years in 1990. Main results: Adulthood mortality was strongly associated with both childhood and adulthood social circumstances among both men and women. Cardiovascular disease mortality was more strongly associated with childhood than with adulthood social circumstances, while the opposite was found for psychiatric and accidental/violent mortality. Smoking related cancer mortality was related to both adulthood and childhood social circumstances in men, but considerably more strongly to adult social circumstances. Conclusions: Childhood social circumstances have an important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Current increases in child poverty that have been seen in Norway over the past two decades could herald unfavourable future trends in adult health. PMID:12490647

  14. An assessment of global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources to sustain irrigation: rivers and reservoirs (1960-2000 and 2050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Yamada, H. G.; Hanasaki, N.; Khajuria, A.; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependency of the supply of irrigation water from rivers, large reservoirs with a greater than 1.0 km3 storage capacity, medium-size reservoirs with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 Mm3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW), particularly taking into account variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2000. We also estimated the future irrigation water requirements from water supply sources in addition to these four sources, using an irrigation area scenario. The net irrigation water requirements from various supply sources were assessed using the global H08 water resources model. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0°. We obtained net irrigation water from rivers and medium-size reservoirs, and determined that the NNBW increased continuously from 1960 to 1985, but the net irrigation water from large reservoirs increased only marginally. After 1985, the net irrigation water from rivers approached a critical limit with the continued expansion of the irrigation area. The irrigation water requirements from medium-size reservoirs and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of medium-size reservoirs. Under the irrigation area scenario without climate change, global net irrigation water requirements from additional water supply sources will account for 26% of the total requirements in the year 2050. We found that expansion of irrigation areas due to population growth will generate an enormous demand for irrigation water from additional resources.

  15. Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Specific Dietary Fats in Relation to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong D.; Li, Yanping; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Previous studies have shown distinct associations between specific dietary fat and cardiovascular disease. However, evidence on specific dietary fats and mortality remains limited and inconsistent. Objective To examine the associations of specific dietary fats with total and cause-specific mortality in two large ongoing prospective cohort studies. Design, setting, and participants We investigated 83,349 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980-2012) and 42,884 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes at baseline. Dietary fat intake was assessed at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years. Main outcomes and measures We performed systematic searches of the vital records of states and of the National Death Index, supplemented by reports from family members or postal authorities. Results We documented 33,304 deaths during 3,439,954 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for known and suspected risk factors, dietary total fat, compared to total carbohydrate, was inversely associated with total mortality (P for trend <0.001). The hazard ratios (HRs) of total mortality comparing extreme quintiles of specific dietary fats was 1.08, (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.14) for saturated fat, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78-0.84) for polyunsaturated fat, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94) for monounsaturated fat and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.18) for trans fat (P for trend <0.001 for all). Replacing 5% of energy from saturated fats with equivalent energy from polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats was associated with 27% (HR =0.73, 95% CI, 0.70-0.77) and 13% (HR =0.87, 95% CI, 0.82-0.93) estimated reductions in total mortality, respectively. HR of total mortality comparing extreme quintiles of n-6 polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.81-0.89). Intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fat, especially linoleic acid, was inversely associated with mortality due to most major causes, while marine n-3

  17. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hanifi, Syed M. A.; Mahmood, Shehrin S.; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4). The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results Analysing cause of death (CoD) revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were the leading causes of deaths (37%), followed by communicable diseases (CDs) (22%), perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%), and injury and accidents (6%); the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years), which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04). For adult and the elderly (15 years and older), NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%), followed by CDs (23%). For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005), and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  18. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, Syed M A; Mahmood, Shehrin S; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES). The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4). The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Analysing cause of death (CoD) revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were the leading causes of deaths (37%), followed by communicable diseases (CDs) (22%), perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%), and injury and accidents (6%); the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0-14 years), which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04). For adult and the elderly (15 years and older), NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%), followed by CDs (23%). For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005), and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001). Epidemiologic transition is taking place

  19. Sex-specific health deterioration and mortality: the morbidity-mortality paradox over age and time.

    PubMed

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Culminskaya, Irina V; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli I

    2008-12-01

    The traditional sex morbidity-mortality paradox that females have worse health but better survival than males is based on studies of major health traits. We applied a cumulative deficits approach to study this paradox, selecting 34 minor health deficits consistently measured in the 9th (1964) and 14th (1974) Framingham Heart and 5th (1991-1995) Offspring Study exams focusing on the 55-78 age range. We constructed four deficit indices (DIs) using all 34 deficits as well as subsets of these deficits characterizing males' (DI(M)) and females' (DI(F)) health disadvantages, and no relative sex-disadvantages. The DI(34)-specific age patterns are sex-insensitive within the 55-74 age range. The DI(34), however, tends to selectively increase the risk of death for males. The DI(F)-associated health dimension supports the traditional morbidity paradox, whereas the DI(M)-associated dimension supports the inverse paradox, wherein males have worse health but better survival than females. The traditional paradox became less pronounced, whereas the inverse paradox became more pronounced from the 1960s to the 1990 s. The sex-specific excess in minor health deficits may vary according to particular set of deficits, thus providing evidence for traditional and inverse morbidity paradoxes. The time-trends suggest the presence of a strong exogenous effect modifier affecting the rate of health deterioration and mortality risk.

  20. Mortality among rubber workers: Relationship to specific jobs.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Spirtas, R; Gamble, J F; Tousey, P M

    1976-03-01

    This study has examined the ten-year mortality in a single-plant population of 6678 male rubber workers, in terms of the association of specific causes of death with a history of having worked in certain categories of jobs within the rubber industry. The work-histories of individual study subjects were analyzed, in detail, for all workers dying of selected causes of death. Comparison was made with the work-histories of a 22% age-stratified random sample of the total population. Age-adjusted exposure ratios (Tables 3 and 4) were calculated for all nine case groups in all 16 work areas, using differing exposure criteria (i.e. duration and calendar period). These ratios provide an approximation of the increased mortality risk associated with particular work areas. The risk ratios (with their associated confidence intervals), in Table 5, provide more rigorous estimates of these instances of increased mortality risk. For each cause of death studied, there were statistically significant associations with several work areas. For the cancers, the strongest associations tended to be with work areas at the front end of the production line (especially compounding and mixing), where the likelihood of contact with dusts, chemical ingredients, and vapors containing the early reaction byproducts, is high. The reclaim operation and the synthetic plant were each associated with several cancers (respiratory and bladder, and stomach and lymphato-hematopoietic cancers, respectively). The lymphatic leukemias were associated with solvent-exposure areas, especially inspection, finishing, and repair. Ischemic heart disease deaths, at ages 40-54, were strongly associated with having worked in extrusion and tread cementing, and in the synthetic plant. Deaths from diabetes mellitus were strongly associated with the janitoring-trucking category, and with jobs in the inspection, finishing and repair area. These observed associations, calculated after controlling for the variables sex and age

  1. Lifespan and Aggregate Size Variables in Specifications of Mortality or Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Epelbaum, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A specification of mortality or survivorship provides respective explicit details about mortality's or survivorship's relationships with one or more other variables (e.g., age, sex, etc.). Previous studies have discovered and analyzed diverse specifications of mortality or survivorship; these discoveries and analyses suggest that additional specifications of mortality or survivorship have yet to be discovered and analyzed. In consistency with previous research, multivariable limited powered polynomials regression analyses of mortality and survivorship of selected humans (Swedes, 1760–2008) and selected insects (caged medflies) show age-specific, historical-time-specific, environmental-context-specific, and sex-specific mortality and survivorship. These analyses also present discoveries of hitherto unknown lifespan-specific, contemporary-aggregate-size-specific, and lifespan-aggregate-size-specific mortality and survivorship. The results of this investigation and results of previous research help identify variables for inclusion in regression models of mortality or survivorship. Moreover, these results and results of previous research strengthen the suggestion that additional specifications of mortality or survivorship have yet to be discovered and analyzed, and they also suggest that specifications of mortality and survivorship indicate corresponding specifications of frailty and vitality. Furthermore, the present analyses reveal the usefulness of a multivariable limited powered polynomials regression model-building approach. This article shows that much has yet to be learned about specifications of mortality or survivorship of diverse kinds of individuals in diverse times and places. PMID:24454719

  2. Probabilistic mortality forecasting with varying age-specific survival improvements.

    PubMed

    Bohk-Ewald, Christina; Rau, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Many mortality forecasting approaches extrapolate past trends. Their predictions of the future development can be quite precise as long as turning points and/or age-shifts of mortality decline are not present. To account even for such mortality dynamics, we propose a model that combines recently developed ideas in a single framework. It (1) uses rates of mortality improvement to model the aging of mortality decline, and it (2) optionally combines the mortality trends of multiple countries to catch anticipated turning points. We use simulation-based Bayesian inference to estimate and run this model that also provides prediction intervals to quantify forecast uncertainty. Validating mortality forecasts for British and Danish women from 1991 to 2011 suggest that our model can forecast regular and irregular mortality developments and that it can perform at least as well as other widely accepted approaches like, for instance, the Lee-Carter model or the UN Bayesian approach. Moreover, prospective mortality forecasts from 2012 to 2050 suggest gradual increases for British and Danish life expectancy at birth.

  3. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  4. Diabetes and Cause-Specific Mortality in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Ramirez, Raul; Hill, Michael; Baigent, Colin; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Whitlock, Gary; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Peto, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Most large, prospective studies of the effects of diabetes on mortality have focused on high-income countries where patients have access to reasonably good medical care and can receive treatments to establish and maintain good glycemic control. In those countries, diabetes less than doubles the rate of death from any cause. Few large, prospective studies have been conducted in middle-income countries where obesity and diabetes have become common and glycemic control may be poor. Methods From 1998 through 2004, we recruited approximately 50,000 men and 100,000 women 35 years of age or older into a prospective study in Mexico City, Mexico. We recorded the presence or absence of previously diagnosed diabetes, obtained and stored blood samples, and tracked 12-year disease-specific deaths through January 1, 2014. We accepted diabetes as the underlying cause of death only for deaths that were due to acute diabetic crises. We estimated rate ratios for death among participants who had diabetes at recruitment versus those who did not have diabetes at recruitment; data from participants who had chronic diseases other than diabetes were excluded from the main analysis. Results At the time of recruitment, obesity was common and the prevalence of diabetes rose steeply with age (3% at 35 to 39 years of age and >20% by 60 years of age). Participants who had diabetes had poor glycemic control (mean [±SD] glycated hemoglobin level, 9.0±2.4%), and the rates of use of other vasoprotective medications were low (e.g., 30% of participants with diabetes were receiving antihypertensive medication at recruitment and 1% were receiving lipid-lowering medication). Previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with rate ratios for death from any cause of 5.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0 to 6.0) at 35 to 59 years of age, 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9 to 3.3) at 60 to 74 years of age, and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1) at 75 to 84 years of age. Between 35 and 74 years of age, the excess mortality

  5. Diabetes and Cause-Specific Mortality in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alegre-Díaz, Jesus; Herrington, William; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Ramirez, Raul; Hill, Michael; Baigent, Colin; McCarthy, Mark I; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Whitlock, Gary; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Peto, Richard; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Emberson, Jonathan R

    2016-11-17

    Background Most large, prospective studies of the effects of diabetes on mortality have focused on high-income countries where patients have access to reasonably good medical care and can receive treatments to establish and maintain good glycemic control. In those countries, diabetes less than doubles the rate of death from any cause. Few large, prospective studies have been conducted in middle-income countries where obesity and diabetes have become common and glycemic control may be poor. Methods From 1998 through 2004, we recruited approximately 50,000 men and 100,000 women 35 years of age or older into a prospective study in Mexico City, Mexico. We recorded the presence or absence of previously diagnosed diabetes, obtained and stored blood samples, and tracked 12-year disease-specific deaths through January 1, 2014. We accepted diabetes as the underlying cause of death only for deaths that were due to acute diabetic crises. We estimated rate ratios for death among participants who had diabetes at recruitment versus those who did not have diabetes at recruitment; data from participants who had chronic diseases other than diabetes were excluded from the main analysis. Results At the time of recruitment, obesity was common and the prevalence of diabetes rose steeply with age (3% at 35 to 39 years of age and >20% by 60 years of age). Participants who had diabetes had poor glycemic control (mean [±SD] glycated hemoglobin level, 9.0±2.4%), and the rates of use of other vasoprotective medications were low (e.g., 30% of participants with diabetes were receiving antihypertensive medication at recruitment and 1% were receiving lipid-lowering medication). Previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with rate ratios for death from any cause of 5.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0 to 6.0) at 35 to 59 years of age, 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9 to 3.3) at 60 to 74 years of age, and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1) at 75 to 84 years of age. Between 35 and 74 years of age, the excess mortality

  6. Income inequality and cause-specific mortality during economic development.

    PubMed

    Lau, Elaine W; Schooling, C Mary; Tin, Keith Y; Leung, Gabriel M

    2012-04-01

    Life expectancy is strongly related to national income, whether there is an additional contribution of income inequality is unclear. We used negative binomial regression to examine the association of neighborhood-level Gini, adjusted for age, sex, and income, with mortality rates in Hong Kong from 1976 to 2006. The association of neighborhood Gini with all-cause mortality varied over time (p-value for interaction < .01). Neighborhood Gini was positively associated with nonmedical mortality in 1976 to 1986; incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.16 per 0.1 change and in 1991 to 2006, IRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.36, adjusted for age, sex and absolute income. Similarly adjusted, Gini was not associated with all-cause mortality in 1976 to 1986 (IRR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-1.00) but was in 1991 to 2006 (IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.20-1.29), when Gini was also positively associated with death from cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and some cancers. Independent of income, income inequality was positively associated with nonmedical mortality rates at a low level of spatial aggregation, indicating the consistent harms of social disharmony. However, the impact on medical mortality was less consistent, suggesting the relevance of contextual factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cause-specific mortality among spouses of Parkinson disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Malene; Hansen, Johnni; Ritz, Beate; Nordahl, Helene; Schernhammer, Eva; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-03-01

    Caring for a chronically ill spouse is stressful, but the health effects of caregiving are not fully understood. We studied the effect on mortality of being married to a person with Parkinson disease. All patients in Denmark with a first-time hospitalization for Parkinson disease between 1986 and 2009 were identified, and each case was matched to five population controls. We further identified all spouses of those with Parkinson disease (n = 8,515) and also the spouses of controls (n = 43,432). All spouses were followed in nationwide registries until 2011. Among men, being married to a Parkinson disease patient was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.11]). Mortality was particularly high for death due to external causes (1.42 [1.09-1.84]) including suicide (1.89 [1.05-3.42]) and death from undefined symptoms/abnormal findings (1.25 [1.07-1.47]). Censoring at the time of death of the patient attenuated the findings for all-cause mortality in husbands (1.02 [0.95-1.09]), indicating that part of the association is with bereavement. Still, living with a person with Parkinson disease 5 years after first Parkinson hospitalization was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality for both husbands (1.15 [1.07-1.23]) and wives (1.11 [1.04-1.17]). Caring for a spouse with a serious chronic illness is associated with a slight but consistent elevation in mortality risk.

  8. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  9. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  10. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina; Konradsen, Helle Bossen; Benfield, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Background Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. Methods Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–5.27), whereas infection with serotype 1 was associated with a decreased risk of death (RR 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06–0.97)). Additionally, older age, relative leucopenia and relative hypothermia were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion Our study shows that capsular serotypes independently influenced the outcome from invasive pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines. PMID:15228629

  11. A review of methods to estimate cause-specific mortality in presence of competing risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisey, Dennis M.; Patterson, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating cause-specific mortality is often of central importance for understanding the dynamics of wildlife populations. Despite such importance, methodology for estimating and analyzing cause-specific mortality has received little attention in wildlife ecology during the past 20 years. The issue of analyzing cause-specific, mutually exclusive events in time is not unique to wildlife. In fact, this general problem has received substantial attention in human biomedical applications within the context of biostatistical survival analysis. Here, we consider cause-specific mortality from a modern biostatistical perspective. This requires carefully defining what we mean by cause-specific mortality and then providing an appropriate hazard-based representation as a competing risks problem. This leads to the general solution of cause-specific mortality as the cumulative incidence function (CIF). We describe the appropriate generalization of the fully nonparametric staggered-entry Kaplan–Meier survival estimator to cause-specific mortality via the nonparametric CIF estimator (NPCIFE), which in many situations offers an attractive alternative to the Heisey–Fuller estimator. An advantage of the NPCIFE is that it lends itself readily to risk factors analysis with standard software for Cox proportional hazards model. The competing risks–based approach also clarifies issues regarding another intuitive but erroneous "cause-specific mortality" estimator based on the Kaplan–Meier survival estimator and commonly seen in the life sciences literature.

  12. Trends in Sri Lankan cause-specific adult mortality 1950–2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although all-cause mortality in Sri Lanka decreased significantly from 1950 to 1970, subsequent declines have been more modest with divergent trends by age and sex. This study investigates these trends through cause of death analysis for 1950–2006 in adults aged 15–64 years. Methods Deaths were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) mortality database for 1950 to 2003, and the Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka for 1992–95 and 2004–06 where WHO data was unavailable. Adult deaths were categorised by age (15–34 and 35–64 years) and sex into: infectious diseases; external-causes; circulatory diseases; cancers; digestive diseases; respiratory diseases; pregnancy-related; ill-defined; and other-causes. Cause-specific mortality rates were directly age-standardised to the 2001 Sri Lankan Census population. Results Mortality declined in females aged 15–34 years by 85% over 1950–2006, predominantly due to sharp declines in infectious disease and pregnancy-related mortality over 1950–70. Among males aged 15–34 years the mortality decline was less at 47%, due to a rise in external-cause mortality during 1970–2000. In females aged 35–64 years mortality declined by 67% over 1950–2006, predominantly due to a sharp decline in infectious disease, ill-defined and other cause mortality over 1950–70. Among males aged 35–64 years, decline in mortality is evident to 1960 (19%) from decline in infectious disease mortality, followed by increased mortality from circulatory diseases and external cause mortality, despite continued decline in infectious disease mortality. All-cause mortality in males 35–64 years has stagnated since 1970, with fluctuating increases. Circulatory diseases were the leading cause of death among adults 35–64 years in 2002–06, with the male rate almost three times higher than females. Conclusions Significant disparities are demonstrated in Sri Lankan cause-specific adult mortality by sex and age

  13. Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S.; Hallman, Stacey A.; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D. Ann; Earn, David JD.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  14. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S; Hallman, Stacey A; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D Ann; Earn, David J D; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.

  15. Organophosphorus poisoning: victim specific analysis of mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda; Patnaik, Kiran Kumar

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of acute organophosphorous (OP) poisoning cases including death, duration of hospitalization and time lapse before arrival at hospital. All OP poisoning cases admitted to the Emergency Department of MKCG Medical College Hospital and other fatal cases received at the mortuary between September 1999 and August 2001 were prospectively studied. Males outnumbered females and most OP poisoning occurred in the 21-30 year age group. In 68 (97.1%) cases the motive was suicide and more than 80% were from rural areas. Nearly one-third of cases occurred during the summer and in the later part of the day. Married females and unmarried males were most frequently affected. Most of the married females were housewives and the males were students or farmers. Fifty-four per cent of cases were admitted for treatment within three hours with a mean time lapse of 6.2 hours. The mean hospital stay for all OP poisoning cases was 5.1 days. Twenty-nine out of 66 admitted OP poisoning cases were fatal. There is a high incidence of OP poisoning with mortality in the region. OP compounds are readily available at low cost in the market. A time of stress and frustration can lead to their use as a common poison with which to commit suicide.

  16. The impact of body mass index in old age on cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    de Hollander, E L; Van Zutphen, M; Bogers, R P; Bemelmans, W J E; De Groot, L C P G M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and cause-specific mortality in older adults and to assess which BMI was associated with lowest mortality. Prospective study. European towns. 1,980 older adults, aged 70-75 years from the SENECA (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a concerted action) study. BMI, examined in 1988/1989, and mortality rates and causes of death during 10 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards model including both BMI and BMI², accounting for sex, smoking status, educational level and age at baseline showed that BMI was associated with all-cause mortality (p<0.01), cardiovascular mortality (p<0.01) and mortality from other causes (p<0.01), but not with cancer or respiratory mortality (p>0.3). The lowest all-cause mortality risk was found at 27.1 (95%CI 24.1, 29.3) kg/m², and this risk was increased with statistical significance when higher than 31.4 kg/m² and lower than 21.1 kg/m². The lowest cardiovascular mortality risk was found at 25.6 (95%CI 17.1, 28.4) kg/m², and was increased with statistical significance when higher than 30.9 kg/m². In this study, BMI was associated with all-cause mortality risk in older people. This risk was mostly driven by an increased cardiovascular mortality risk, as no association was found for mortality risk from cancer or respiratory disease. Our results indicate that the WHO cut-off point of 25 kg/m² for overweight might be too low in old age, but more studies are needed to define specific cut-off points.

  17. Size-Specific Tree Mortality Varies with Neighbourhood Crowding and Disturbance in a Montane Nothofagus Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jennifer M.; Allen, Robert B.; Coomes, David A.; Duncan, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Tree mortality is a fundamental process governing forest dynamics, but understanding tree mortality patterns is challenging because large, long-term datasets are required. Describing size-specific mortality patterns can be especially difficult, due to few trees in larger size classes. We used permanent plot data from Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (mountain beech) forest on the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, where the fates of trees on 250 plots of 0.04 ha were followed, to examine: (1) patterns of size-specific mortality over three consecutive periods spanning 30 years, each characterised by different disturbance, and (2) the strength and direction of neighbourhood crowding effects on size-specific mortality rates. We found that the size-specific mortality function was U-shaped over the 30-year period as well as within two shorter periods characterised by small-scale pinhole beetle and windthrow disturbance. During a third period, characterised by earthquake disturbance, tree mortality was less size dependent. Small trees (<20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die, in all three periods, if surrounded by a high basal area of larger neighbours, suggesting that size-asymmetric competition for light was a major cause of mortality. In contrast, large trees (≥20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die in the first period if they had few neighbours, indicating that positive crowding effects were sometimes important for survival of large trees. Overall our results suggest that temporal variability in size-specific mortality patterns, and positive interactions between large trees, may sometimes need to be incorporated into models of forest dynamics. PMID:22046327

  18. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  19. Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    England, Bryant R; Baker, Joshua F; Sayles, Harlan; Michaud, Kaleb; Caplan, Liron; Davis, Lisa A; Cannon, Grant W; Sauer, Brian C; Solow, E Blair; Reimold, Andreas M; Kerr, Gail S; Mikuls, Ted R

    2017-04-20

    To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of U.S. Veterans with RA were followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the: 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of follow-up, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, 46 respiratory). The highest weight loss rate and weight loss percentage were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular (rate: sHR 2.27 [95% CI 1.61-3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31[1.06-5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [1.11-5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [1.00-3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [0.38-0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [1.28-6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight loss percent and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Estimating heritability for cause specific mortality based on twin studies.

    PubMed

    Scheike, Thomas H; Holst, Klaus K; Hjelmborg, Jacob B

    2014-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in studying the magnitude and type of inheritance of specific diseases. This is typically derived from family or twin studies, where the basic idea is to compare the correlation for different pairs that share different amount of genes. We here consider data from the Danish twin registry and discuss how to define heritability for cancer occurrence. The key point is that this should be done taking censoring as well as competing risks due to e.g.  death into account. We describe the dependence between twins on the probability scale and show that various models can be used to achieve sensible estimates of the dependence within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs that may vary over time. These dependence measures can subsequently be decomposed into a genetic and environmental component using random effects models. We here present several novel models that in essence describe the association in terms of the concordance probability, i.e., the probability that both twins experience the event, in the competing risks setting. We also discuss how to deal with the left truncation present in the Nordic twin registries, due to sampling only of twin pairs where both twins are alive at the initiation of the registries.

  1. Mortality among Coast Guard Shipyard workers: A retrospective cohort study of specific exposures.

    PubMed

    Rusiecki, Jennifer; Stewart, Patricia; Lee, Dara; Alexander, Melannie; Krstev, Srmena; Silverman, Debra; Blair, Aaron

    2017-02-06

    In a previous analysis of a cohort of shipyard workers, we found excess mortality from all causes, lung cancer, and mesothelioma for longer work durations and in specific occupations. Here, we expand the previous analyses by evaluating mortality associated with 5 chemical exposures: asbestos, solvents, lead, oils/greases, and wood dust. Data were gathered retrospectively for 4,702 workers employed at the Coast Guard Shipyard, Baltimore, MD (1950-1964). The cohort was traced through 2001 for vital status. Associations between mortality and these 5 exposures were calculated via standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). We found all 5 substances to be independently associated with mortality from mesothelioma, cancer of the respiratory system, and lung cancer. Findings from efforts to evaluate solvents, lead, oils/greases, and wood dust in isolation of asbestos suggested that the excesses from these other exposures may be due to residual confounding from asbestos exposure.

  2. Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuying; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Liqun; Westerdahl, Dane; Jin, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods: We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007–2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as air pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of extremely high and low ambient temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. Results: For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0–27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0–14. The effects of extremely low and high temperatures differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both extremely high and low temperatures; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) to extremely low temperature. Conclusion: People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to extremely low and high temperatures in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to extremely cold days. PMID:26703637

  3. Culling experiments demonstrate size-class specific biomass increases with mortality.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A; Persson, L; de Roos, A M

    2009-02-24

    Size-selective mortality inevitably leads to a decrease in population density and exerts a direct negative effect on targeted size classes. But density and population size structure are also shaped by food-dependent processes, such as individual growth, maturation, and reproduction. Mortality relaxes competition and thereby alters the dynamic interplay among these processes. As shown by the recently developed size-structured theory, which can account for food-dependent individual performance, this altered interplay can lead to overcompensatory responses in size class-specific biomass, with increasing mortality. We experimentally tested this theory by subjecting laboratory fish populations to a range of size-selective mortality rates. Overall, the results were in agreement with theoretical predictions. Biomass of the juvenile size class increased above control levels at intermediate adult mortality rates and thereafter declined at high mortality rates. Juvenile biomass also increased when juveniles themselves were subjected to intermediate mortality rates. Biomass in other size classes decreased with mortality. Such biomass overcompensation can have wide-ranging implications for communities and food webs, including a high sensitivity of top predators to irreversible catastrophic collapses, the establishment of alternative stable community states, and the promotion of coexistence and biodiversity.

  4. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    People with lower levels of education tend to have higher rates of disease and death, compared with people who have higher levels of education. However, because death registrations in Canada do not contain information on the education of the deceased, unlinked vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality differentials by education. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by education in a broadly representative sample of Canadians aged 25 or older. The data are from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which included about 2.7 million people and 426,979 deaths. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated by education for different causes of death. Rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were also calculated. All-cause ASMRs were highest among people with less than secondary graduation and lowest for university degree-holders. If all cohort members had the mortality rates of those with a university degree, the overall ASMRs would have been 27% lower for men and 22% lower for women. The causes contributing most to that "excess" mortality were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, diabetes, injuries (men), and respiratory infections (women). Causes associated with smoking and alcohol abuse had the steepest gradients. A mortality gradient by education was evident for many causes of death.

  5. Cause-specific mortality by income adequacy in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    People with lower incomes tend to have less favourable health outcomes than do people with higher incomes. Because death registrations in Canada do not contain information about the income of the deceased, vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality by income at the individual level. However, through record linkage, information on the individual or family income of people followed for mortality can be obtained. Recently, a large, population-based sample of Canadian adults was linked to almost 16 years of mortality data. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by income adequacy among Canadian adults. It is based on data from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study, which followed 2.7 million people aged 25 or older at baseline, 426,979 of whom died during the 16-year period. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were calculated by income adequacy quintile for various causes of death. For most causes examined, ASMRs were clearly graded by income: highest among people in the in the lowest income quintile, and lowest among people in the highest income quintile. Inter-quintile rate ratios (quintile 1/quintile 5) were greater than 2.00 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide, cancer of the cervix, and causes of death closely associated with smoking and alcohol. These individually based results provide cause-specific information by income adequacy quintile that was not previously available for Canada.

  6. Age-Specific Morbidity and Mortality Rates Among U.S. Navy Enlisted Divers and Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare age-specific hospitalization, disability, and mortality rates for diving-related and stress- induced...actions for stress-related disorders were observed among controls than divers. For both groups, medical board, physical evaluation board, and mortality ... rates increased with age as did hospitalization for musculoskeletal disorders, stress-related disorders, and circulatory diseases. Subsequent research

  7. Are self-thinning contraints needed in a tree-specific mortality model.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Thomas Ledermann; Hubert. Sterba

    2005-01-01

    Can a tree-specific mortality model elicit expected forest stand density dynamics without imposing stand-level constraints such as Reineke's maximum stand density index (SDI,) or the -312 power law of self-thinning? We examine this emergent properties question using the Austrian stand simulator PROGNAUS. This simulator was chosen specifically because it does not...

  8. Is intake of breakfast cereals related to total and cause-specific mortality in men?

    PubMed

    Liu, Simin; Sesso, Howard D; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Buring, Julie E

    2003-03-01

    Prospective studies suggested that substituting whole-grain products for refined-grain products lowers the risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Although breakfast cereals are a major source of whole and refined grains, little is known about their direct association with the risk of premature mortality. We prospectively evaluated the association between whole- and refined-grain breakfast cereal intakes and total and CVD-specific mortality in a cohort of US men. We examined 86,190 US male physicians aged 40-84 y in 1982 who were free of known CVD and cancer at baseline. During 5.5 y, we documented 3114 deaths from all causes, including 1381 due to CVD (488 myocardial infarctions and 146 strokes). Whole-grain breakfast cereal intake was inversely associated with total and CVD-specific mortality, independent of age; body mass index; smoking; alcohol intake; physical activity; history of diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol; and use of multivitamins. Compared with men who rarely or never consumed whole-grain cereal, men in the highest category of whole-grain cereal intake (> or = 1 serving/d) had multivariate-estimated relative risks of total and CVD-specific mortality of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.94; P for trend < 0.001) and 0.80 (0.66, 0.97; P for trend < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, total and refined-grain breakfast cereal intakes were not significantly associated with total and CVD-specific mortality. These findings persisted in analyses stratified by history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. Both total mortality and CVD-specific mortality were inversely associated with whole-grain but not refined-grain breakfast cereal intake. These prospective data highlight the importance of distinguishing whole-grain from refined-grain cereals in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  9. The 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City: age-specific timing, mortality, and transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan; Petkova, Elisaveta; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background The 1918 influenza pandemic caused disproportionately high mortality among certain age groups. The mechanisms underlying these differences are not fully understood. Objectives To explore the dynamics of the 1918 pandemic and to identify potential age-specific transmission patterns. Methods We examined 1915–1923 daily mortality data in New York City (NYC) and estimated the outbreak duration and initial effective reproductive number (Re) for each 1-year age cohort. Results Four pandemic waves occurred from February 1918 to April 1920. The fractional mortality increase (i.e. ratio of excess mortality to baseline mortality) was highest among teenagers during the first wave. This peak shifted to 25- to 29-year-olds in subsequent waves. The distribution of age-specific mortality during the last three waves was strongly correlated (r = 0·94 and 0·86). With each wave, the pandemic appeared to spread with a comparable early growth rate but then attenuate with varying rates. For the entire population, Re estimates made assuming 2-day serial interval were 1·74 (1·27), 1·74 (1·43), 1·66 (1·25), and 1·86 (1·37), respectively, during the first week (first 3 weeks) of each wave. Using age-specific mortality, the average Re estimates over the first week of each wave were 1·62 (95% CI: 1·55–1·68), 1·68 (1·65–1·72), 1·67 (1·61–1·73), and 1·69 (1·63–1·74), respectively; Re was not significantly different either among age cohorts or between waves. Conclusions The pandemic generally caused higher mortality among young adults and might have spread mainly among school-aged children during the first wave. We propose mechanisms to explain the timing and transmission dynamics of the four NYC pandemic waves. PMID:24299150

  10. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharaoh, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality. PMID:24872865

  11. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharaoh, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality.

  12. Menopausal hormone therapy and lung cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis: the California Teachers Study.

    PubMed

    Clague, Jessica; Reynolds, Peggy; Henderson, Katherine D; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Ma, Huiyan; Lacey, James V; Chang, Shine; Delclos, George L; Du, Xianglin L; Forman, Michele R; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Previous results from research on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and lung cancer survival have been mixed and most have not studied women who used estrogen therapy (ET) exclusively. We examined the associations between MHT use reported at baseline and lung cancer-specific mortality in the prospective California Teachers Study cohort. Among 727 postmenopausal women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 through 2007, 441 women died before January 1, 2008. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for lung-cancer-specific mortality were obtained by fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models using age in days as the timescale. Among women who used ET exclusively, decreases in lung cancer mortality were observed (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93). No association was observed for estrogen plus progestin therapy use. Among former users, shorter duration (<5 years) of exclusive ET use was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer mortality (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89), whereas among recent users, longer duration (>15 years) was associated with a decreased risk (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95). Smoking status modified the associations with deceases in lung cancer mortality observed only among current smokers. Exclusive ET use was associated with decreased lung cancer mortality.

  13. Associations of Diabetes Mellitus with Site-Specific Cancer Mortality in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eugene K.K.; Batty, G. David; Huxley, Rachel R.; Martiniuk, Alexandra L.C.; Barzi, Federica; Lam, Tai Hing; Lawes, Carlene M.M.; Giles, Graham G.; Welborn, Tim; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Woo, Jean; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Czernichow, Sébastien; Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Owing to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Asia, and the paucity of studies, we examined the influence of raised blood glucose and diabetes on cancer mortality risk. Methods Thirty-six cohort Asian and Australasian studies provided 367,361 participants (74% from Asia); 6% had diabetes at baseline. Associations between diabetes and site-specific cancer mortality were estimated using time-dependent Cox models, stratified by study and sex, and adjusted for age. Results During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, there were 5,992 deaths due to cancer (74% Asian; 41% female). Participants with diabetes had 23% greater risk of mortality from all-cause cancer compared with those without: hazard ratio (HR) 1.23 (95% CI 1.12, 1.35). Diabetes was associated with mortality due to cancer of the liver (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19, 1.91), pancreas (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.20, 2.65), and, less strongly, colorectum (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98, 1.78). There was no evidence of sex- or region-specific differences in these associations. The population attributable fractions for cancer mortality due to diabetes were generally higher for Asia compared with non-Asian populations. Conclusion Diabetes is associated with increased mortality from selected cancers in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:20705912

  14. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  15. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

    PubMed

    Huvinen, M; Pukkala, E

    2016-04-01

    Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  16. Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; McLerran, Dale F; Rolland, Betsy; Chen, Yu; Grant, Eric J; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Masako; Ahsan, Habibul; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Pan, Wen-Harn; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yang, Gong; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugawara, Yumi; Parvez, Faruque; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Ohishi, Waka; Park, Sue K; Feng, Ziding; Thornquist, Mark; Boffetta, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John; Sinha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Total or red meat intake has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality in Western populations, but little is known of the risks in Asian populations. Objective: We examined temporal trends in meat consumption and associations between meat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia. Design: We used ecological data from the United Nations to compare country-specific meat consumption. Separately, 8 Asian prospective cohort studies in Bangladesh, China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan consisting of 112,310 men and 184,411 women were followed for 6.6 to 15.6 y with 24,283 all-cause, 9558 cancer, and 6373 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. We estimated the study-specific HRs and 95% CIs by using a Cox regression model and pooled them by using a random-effects model. Results: Red meat consumption was substantially lower in the Asian countries than in the United States. Fish and seafood consumption was higher in Japan and Korea than in the United States. Our pooled analysis found no association between intake of total meat (red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood) and risks of all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality among men and women; HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality from a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile were 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) in men and 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) in women. Conclusions: Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries. PMID:23902788

  17. Short-term effects of air temperature on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Breitner, Susanne; Wolf, Kathrin; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    This time series study aimed to examine the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. We obtained data from the cities Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg and two adjacent administrative districts (Augsburg and Aichach-Friedberg), for the period 1990-2006. Data included daily cause-specific cardiovascular death counts, mean daily meteorological variables and air pollution concentrations. In the first stage, data were analysed for Munich, Nuremberg and the Augsburg region separately using Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models adjusting for long-term trend, calendar effects and meteorological factors. In a second stage, we combined city-specific exposure-response relationships through a multivariate meta-analysis framework. An increase in the 2-day average temperature from the 90th (20.0°C) to the 99th centiles (24.8°C) resulted in an increase of cardiovascular mortality by 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) in the pooled analysis, while for a decrease from the 10th (-1.0°C) to the 1st centiles (-7.5°C) in the 15-day average temperature cardiovascular mortality increased by 8% (95% CI 2% to 14%). Strongest consistent risk estimates were seen for high 2-day average temperatures and mortality due to other heart diseases (including arrhythmias and heart failure) and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in the elderly. Results indicate that, in addition to low temperatures, high temperatures increase cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in temperature climates. These findings may guide planning public health interventions to control and prevent the health effects of exposure to air temperature, especially for individuals at risk for mortality due to heart failure, arrhythmias or cerebrovascular diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M.; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the NHS 2, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were non-linearly associated with mortality. Compared to non-drinkers, coffee consumption one to five cups/d was associated with lower risk of mortality, while coffee consumption more than five cups/d was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers, compared to non-drinkers, the HRs of mortality were 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for ≤ 1 cup/d, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97) for 1.1-3 cups/d, 0.85 (0.79 to 0.92) for 3.1-5 cups/d, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) for > 5 cups/d (p for non-linearity = 0.32; p for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (p for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (p for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Conclusions Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. PMID:26572796

  20. Are self-thinning constraints needed in a tree-specific mortality model?

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Thomas Ledermann; Hubert. Sterba

    2005-01-01

    Can a tree-specific mortality model elicit expected forest stand density dynamics without imposing stand-level constraints such as Reineke's maximum stand density index (SDImax) or the -3/2 power law of self-thinning? We examine this emergent properties question using the Austrian stand simulator PROGNAUS. This simulator was chosen...

  1. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  2. Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health effects of particulate air pollution are widely recognized and there is some evidence that the magnitude of these effects vary by particle component. We studied the effects of ambient fine particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5μm, PM2.5) and their components on cause-specific mortality in Santiago, Chile, where particulate pollution is a major public health concern. Methods Air pollution was collected in a residential area in the center of Santiago. Daily mortality counts were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic. The associations between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality were studied by time series analysis controlling for time trends, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity. We then included an interaction term between PM2.5 and the monthly averages of the mean ratios of individual elements to PM2.5 mass. Results We found significant effects of PM2.5 on all the causes analyzed, with a 1.33% increase (95% CI: 0.87-1.78) in cardiovascular mortality per 10μg/m3 increase in the two days average of PM2.5. We found that zinc was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. Particles with high content of chromium, copper and sulfur showed stronger associations with respiratory and COPD mortality, while high zinc and sodium content of PM2.5 amplified the association with cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PM2.5 with high zinc, chromium, copper, sodium, and sulfur content have stronger associations with mortality than PM2.5 mass alone in Santiago, Chile. The sources of particles containing these elements need to be determined to better control their emissions. PMID:23116481

  3. Association of Prostate Cancer Risk Loci with Disease Aggressiveness and Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Mark M.; Werner, Lillian; Xie, Wanling; Regan, Meredith M.; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Sun, Tong; Evan, Carolyn; Petrozziello, Gillian; Nakabayashi, Mari; Oh, William K.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have detected more than 30 inherited prostate cancer risk variants. While clearly associated with risk, their relationship with clinical outcome, particularly prostate cancer–specific mortality, is less well known. We investigated whether the risk variants are associated with various measures of disease aggressiveness and prostate cancer–specific mortality. In a cohort of 3,945 men of European ancestry with prostate cancer, we genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): 35 known prostate cancer risk variants and one SNP (rs4054823) that was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. The majority of subjects had a diagnosis of prostate cancer between 1995 and 2004, and the cohort included a total of 580 prostate cancer–specific deaths. We evaluated associations between the 36 polymorphisms and prostate cancer survival, as well as other clinical parameters including age at diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, and Gleason score. Two SNPs, rs2735839 at chromosome 19q13 and rs7679673 at 4q24, were associated with prostate cancer–specific survival (P = 7 × 10−4 and 0.014, respectively). A total of 12 SNPs were associated with other variables (P < 0.05): age at diagnosis, PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score, and/or disease aggressiveness based on D’Amico criteria. Genotype status at rs4054823 was not associated with aggressiveness or outcome. Our results identify two common polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer–specific mortality. PMID:21367958

  4. Impact of road traffic noise on cause-specific mortality in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Recio, Alberto; Linares, Cristina; Banegas, José Ramón; Díaz, Julio

    2017-07-15

    Latest time-series research conducted in Madrid has reported associations of road traffic noise with cause-specific daily mortality. Based on the results from that research, this study presents the health impact of urban noise for the period 2003-2009 as the number of avoidable deaths from various cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic diseases. The impact of noise on cardiovascular mortality exceeds that of fine particles (PM2.5) in the two population groups considered: <65 and >65years of age.

  5. Size-specific mortality in fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Seelye, J.G.; Mac, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A study to test the presence and magnitude of size-specific mortality in fry from Lake Michigan lake trout and fry of hatchery origin during exposure to PCBs is presented. Fry from both sources were exposed to 50 ng/l PCBs for about 50 days after hatching and fry from both sources were reared in water to which no PCBs were added. The average lengths of fry from all four groups were significantly less than fry from Lake Michigan. Size-specific mortality observed in fry of Lake Michigan origin could be the result of a number of factors, including origin and condition of parents and environmental stresses, including organic contaminants. Higher mortality of the smaller fry might be considered to have a positive effect on long-term fish production in the larger fish are being selected for, however, decreasing genetic variability in the fish population can result in lower production. Considering the similarity between the physiochemical properties of PCBs and DDT, the substantial concentrations of PCBs in the fry of lake origin may be an important factor in explaining the size-specific mortality observed.

  6. Method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not apparent from observed data.

  7. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data.

  8. Racial disparities in stage-specific colorectal cancer mortality rates from 1985 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Anthony S; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates for whites and blacks in the United States have been diverging as a result of earlier and larger reductions in death rates for whites. We examined whether this mortality pattern varies by stage at diagnosis. The Incidence-Based Mortality database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program was used to examine data from the nine original SEER regions. Our main outcome measures were changes in stage-specific mortality rates by race. From 1985 to 1987 to 2006 to 2008, CRC mortality rates decreased for each stage in both blacks and whites, but for every stage, the decreases were smaller for blacks, particularly for distant-stage disease. For localized stage, mortality rates decreased 30.3% in whites compared with 13.2% in blacks; for regional stage, declines were 48.5% in whites compared with 34.0% in blacks; and for distant stage, declines were 32.6% in whites compared with 4.6% in blacks. As a result, the black-white rate ratios increased from 1.17 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.39) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.63) for localized disease, from 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.14) to 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.44) for regional disease, and from 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.34) to 1.72 (95% CI, 1.58 to 1.86) for distant-stage disease. In absolute terms, the disparity in distant-stage mortality rates accounted for approximately 60% of the overall black-white mortality disparity. The black-white disparities in CRC mortality increased for each stage of the disease, but the overall disparity in overall mortality was largely driven by trends for late-stage disease. Concerted efforts to prevent or detect CRC at earlier stages in blacks could improve the worsening black- white disparities.

  9. Total and Cause-Specific Mortality of U.S. Nurses Working Rotating Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fangyi; Han, Jiali; Laden, Francine; Pan, An; Caporaso, Neil E.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Speizer, Frank; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotating night shift work imposes circadian strain and is linked to the risk of several chronic diseases. Purpose To examine associations between rotating night shift work and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort study of 74,862 registered U.S. nurses from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods Lifetime rotating night shift work (defined as ≥3 nights/month) information was collected in 1988. During 22 years (1988–2010) of follow-up, 14,181 deaths were documented, including 3,062 CVD and 5,413 cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models (2013) estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results All-cause and CVD mortality were significantly increased among women with ≥5 years of rotating night shift work, compared to women who never worked night shifts. Specifically, for women with 6–14 and ≥15 years of rotating night shift work, the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI=1.06, 1.17) and 1.11 (95% CI=1.05, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI=1.07, 1.33) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.09, 1.38) for CVD mortality. There was no association between rotating night shift work and all-cancer mortality (HR≥15years=1.08, 95% CI=0.89, 1.19) or any other cancer, with the exception of lung cancer (HR≥15years=1.25, 95% CI=1.04, 1.51). Conclusions Women working rotating night shifts for ≥5 five years have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality; those working ≥15 years of rotating night shift work have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity. PMID:25576495

  10. Abrupt transitions of the top-down controlled Black Sea pelagic ecosystem during 1960 2000: Evidence for regime-shifts under strong fishery exploitation and nutrient enrichment modulated by climate-induced variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Temel; Gilbert, Denis

    2007-02-01

    Functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem has profoundly changed since the early 1970s under cumulative effects of excessive nutrient enrichment, strong cooling/warming, over-exploitation of pelagic fish stocks, and population outbreak of gelatinous carnivores. Applying a set of criteria to the long-term (1960-2000) ecological time-series data, the present study demonstrates that the Black Sea ecosystem was reorganised during this transition phase in different forms of top-down controlled food web structure through successive regime-shifts of distinct ecological properties. The Secchi disc depth, oxic-anoxic interface zone, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentrations also exhibit abrupt transition between their alternate regimes, and indicate tight coupling between the lower trophic food web structure and the biogeochemical pump in terms of regime-shift events. The first shift, in 1973-1974, marks a switch from large predatory fish to small planktivore fish-controlled system, which persisted until 1989 in the form of increasing small pelagic and phytoplankton biomass and decreasing zooplankton biomass. The increase in phytoplankton biomass is further supported by a bottom-up contribution due to the cumulative response to high anthropogenic nutrient load and the concurrent shift of the physical system to the "cold climate regime" following its ˜20-year persistence in the "warm climate regime". The end of the 1980s signifies the depletion of small planktivores and the transition to a gelatinous carnivore-controlled system. By the end of the 1990s, small planktivore populations take over control of the system again. Concomitantly, their top-down pressure when combined with diminishing anthropogenic nutrient load and more limited nutrient supply into the surface waters due to stabilizing effects of relatively warm winter conditions switched the "high production" regime of phytoplankton to its background "low production" regime. The Black Sea regime

  11. Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Karlsen, Sashia; Stayner, Leslie; Andersen, Johnni; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Evidence of an effect of shift work on all-cause and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. This study aims to examine whether shift work is associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods We linked 28 731 female nurses (age ≥44 years), recruited in 1993 or 1999 from the Danish nurse cohort where they reported information on shift work (night, evening, rotating, or day), to the Danish Register of Causes of Death to identify deaths up to 2013. We used Cox regression models with age as the underlying scale to examine the associations between night, evening, and rotating shift work (compared to day shift work) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in models adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Results Of 18 015 nurses included in this study, 1616 died during the study time period from the following causes: cardiovascular disease (N=217), cancer (N= 945), diabetes (N=20), Alzheimer's disease or dementia (N=33), and psychiatric diseases (N=67). We found that working night [hazard ratio (HR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval 95% CI) 1.05-1.51] or evening (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49) shifts was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality when compared to working day shift. We found a significant association of night shift work with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.69) and diabetes (HR 12.0, 95% CI 3.17-45.2, based on 8 cases) and none with overall cancer mortality (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.81-1.35) or mortality from psychiatric diseases (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.47-2.92). Finally, we found strong association between evening (HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.62-11.3) and rotating (HR 5.39, 95% CI 2.35-12.3) shift work and mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia (based on 8 and 14 deaths among evening and rotating shift workers, respectively). Conclusions Women working night and evening shifts have increased all-cause, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's and dementia mortality.

  12. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Anna E; Shiels, Meredith S; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A

    2015-07-20

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well

  13. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Coghill, Anna E.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non–AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. Patients and Methods We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Results Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non–AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). Conclusion HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to

  14. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  15. Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Kubaje; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2). FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases. PMID:16583076

  16. Estimating cause-specific mortality from community- and facility-based data sources in the United Republic of Tanzania: options and implications for mortality burden estimates.

    PubMed

    Whiting, David R; Setel, Philip W; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wolfson, Lara J; Hemed, Yusuf; Lopez, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    To compare mortality burden estimates based on direct measurement of levels and causes in communities with indirect estimates based on combining health facility cause-specific mortality structures with community measurement of mortality levels. Data from sentinel vital registration (SVR) with verbal autopsy (VA) were used to determine the cause-specific mortality burden at the community level in two areas of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proportional cause-specific mortality structures from health facilities were applied to counts of deaths obtained by SVR to produce modelled estimates. The burden was expressed in years of life lost. A total of 2884 deaths were recorded from health facilities and 2167 recorded from SVR/VAs. In the perinatal and neonatal age group cause-specific mortality rates were dominated by perinatal conditions and stillbirths in both the community and the facility data. The modelled estimates for chronic causes were very similar to those from SVR/VA. Acute febrile illnesses were coded more specifically in the facility data than in the VA. Injuries were more prevalent in the SVR/VA data than in that from the facilities. In this setting, improved International classification of diseases and health related problems, tenth revision (ICD-10) coding practices and applying facility-based cause structures to counts of deaths from communities, derived from SVR, appears to produce reasonable estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden in those aged 5 years and older determined directly from VA. For the perinatal and neonatal age group, VA appears to be required. Use of this approach in a nationally representative sample of facilities may produce reliable national estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden for leading causes of death in adults.

  17. Estimating cause-specific mortality from community- and facility-based data sources in the United Republic of Tanzania: options and implications for mortality burden estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, David R.; Setel, Philip W.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wolfson, Lara J.; Hemed, Yusuf; Lopez, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality burden estimates based on direct measurement of levels and causes in communities with indirect estimates based on combining health facility cause-specific mortality structures with community measurement of mortality levels. METHODS: Data from sentinel vital registration (SVR) with verbal autopsy (VA) were used to determine the cause-specific mortality burden at the community level in two areas of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proportional cause-specific mortality structures from health facilities were applied to counts of deaths obtained by SVR to produce modelled estimates. The burden was expressed in years of life lost. FINDINGS: A total of 2884 deaths were recorded from health facilities and 2167 recorded from SVR/VAs. In the perinatal and neonatal age group cause-specific mortality rates were dominated by perinatal conditions and stillbirths in both the community and the facility data. The modelled estimates for chronic causes were very similar to those from SVR/VA. Acute febrile illnesses were coded more specifically in the facility data than in the VA. Injuries were more prevalent in the SVR/VA data than in that from the facilities. CONCLUSION: In this setting, improved International classification of diseases and health related problems, tenth revision (ICD-10) coding practices and applying facility-based cause structures to counts of deaths from communities, derived from SVR, appears to produce reasonable estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden in those aged 5 years and older determined directly from VA. For the perinatal and neonatal age group, VA appears to be required. Use of this approach in a nationally representative sample of facilities may produce reliable national estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden for leading causes of death in adults. PMID:17242829

  18. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Li, Yanjie; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-08-04

    To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Population based prospective cohort study. China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. 199,293 men and 288,082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Total and cause specific mortality. During 3,500,004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11,820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. In this large prospective study, the habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with total and certain cause specific mortality

  19. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. Participants 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Main exposure measures Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Main outcome measures Total and cause specific mortality. Results During 3 500 004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11 820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion In this large prospective study, the habitual

  20. Survival, cause-specific mortality, and harvesting of male black-tailed deer in washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schirato, G.A.; Spencer, R.D.; McAllister, K.R.; Murphie, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined survival rates, causes of mortality, and documented impacts of harvest on ???1.5-year-old male (hereafter, male) Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 2 Washington, USA, game management units (GMUs; Skookumchuck and Snoqualmie) characterized by different hunting-season structures. We monitored 66 males (n = 28 and 38 annually) in Skookumchuck and 58 males (n = 26 and 32 annually) in Snoqualmie, September 1999-September 2001. Annual survival rates were 0.498 (SE = 0.066) in Skookumchuck and 0.519 (SE = 0.067) in Snoqualmie. Survival rates derived from population age structure did not differ from rates derived from radiotelemetry. Harvest was the primary mortality factor for each population, accounting for 67% (SE = 7; Skookumchuck) to 44% (SE = 9; Snoqualmie) of total annual mortality. Annual harvest-specific mortality rates were 0.317 (SE = 0.032) in Skookumchuck and 0.211 (SE = 0.021) in Snoqualmie, likely due to longer hunting seasons and greater hunter effort in Skookumchuck. Following the elimination of a late buck season centered on the rut in Snoqualmie, male harvest declined 56% and annual survival increased 60%, indicating that male harvest was largely additive to other mortality. Our results indicated that harvest was the primary influence on male black-tailed deer populations in Washington, was additive, and that the effect of harvest varied with hunting-season structure and hunter effort. Managers should not assume that harvesting removes a constant proportion of the male population annually, and management models that assume compensatory mortality in adult harvest may result in over-harvest of male populations.

  1. Green tea consumption and cause-specific mortality: Results from two prospective cohort studies in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Li, Hong-Lan; Sun, Jiang-Wei; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in Asia. While a possible protective role of green tea against various chronic diseases has been suggested in experimental studies, evidence from human studies remains controversial. We conducted this study using data from Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) and Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), two population-based prospective cohorts of middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults in urban Shanghai, China. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with green tea intake were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 8.3 and 14.2 years for men and women, respectively, 6517 (2741 men and 3776 women) deaths were documented. We found that green tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-1.01), particularly among never-smokers (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.96). The inverse association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97) was slightly stronger than that with all-cause mortality. No significant association was observed between green tea intake and cancer mortality (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10). Green tea consumption may be inversely associated with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, especially among never smokers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Green tea consumption and cause-specific mortality: Results from two prospective cohort studies in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Li, Hong-Lan; Sun, Jiang-Wei; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Green tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in Asia. While a possible protective role of green tea against various chronic diseases has been suggested in experimental studies, evidence from human studies remains controversial. Methods We conducted this study using data from Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) and Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), two population-based prospective cohorts of middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults in urban Shanghai, China. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with green tea intake were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results During a median follow-up of 8.3 and 14.2 years for men and women, respectively, 6517 (2741 men and 3776 women) deaths were documented. We found that green tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90–1.01), particularly among never-smokers (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.96). The inverse association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77–0.97) was slightly stronger than that with all-cause mortality. No significant association was observed between green tea intake and cancer mortality (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93–1.10). Conclusions Green tea consumption may be inversely associated with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, especially among never smokers. PMID:28135196

  3. General and specific mortality among the elderly during the 2003 heat wave in Genoa (Italy).

    PubMed

    Conti, Susanna; Masocco, Maria; Meli, Paola; Minelli, Giada; Palummeri, Ernesto; Solimini, Renata; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica

    2007-02-01

    The effects of heat waves on health can be serious for elderly persons, especially those in urban areas. We investigated in-depth the mortality excess during the 2003 heat wave among elderly persons (>74 years) in the City of Genoa (Italy). The excess in general mortality was calculated for the period July 16-August 31, as the ratio of observed to expected deaths. To evaluate "harvesting", we compared observed and expected mortality in the period September 2003-April 2004. We also studied the relationship between mortality and climatic conditions considering daily maximum temperature and Humidex discomfort degrees, as well as "lag-time". For cause-specific mortality, we considered all pathologies reported on the death certificate. The excess in general mortality was significant and was greatest in the first half of August. During Summer 2003, in Genoa the climatic conditions (described in terms of maximum temperature and Humidex Index) were extremely hot; regarding lag-time, the greatest correlation between the number of observed deaths and the maximum temperature values was observed for the three preceding days (rho=0.568; significance level<0.01). The prominent causes of death, for which an excess was observed, were cerebrovascular diseases, severe respiratory diseases, severe renal diseases, dementia; moreover, certain pathologic conditions and symptoms, usually not lethal, were also frequent causes of death (e.g., hypovolemia, hyperpyrexia, decubitus ulcers and immobilization syndrome). The results of this study confirm the relationship between the heat waves and death among elderly, stressing that, because of their poorer physical health and the prevalence of cognitive disturbances that hinder risk perception, it is necessary to properly care for them during heat waves.

  4. Association of Metformin Use With Cancer-Specific Mortality in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Seok; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Sook; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Sang Bum; Han, Chul Ju; Kim, Youn Joo; Jang, Won Il; Kang, Shin Hee; Tchoe, Ha Jin; Park, Chan Mi; Jo, Ae Jung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Jin A; Choi, Hyung Jin; Polak, Michael N.; Ko, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many preclinical reports and retrospective population studies have shown an anticancer effect of metformin in patients with several types of cancer and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this work, the anticancer effect of metformin was assessed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with T2DM who underwent curative resection. A population-based retrospective cohort design was used. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and Korea Center Cancer Registry in the Republic of Korea, identifying 5494 patients with newly diagnosed HCC who underwent curative resection between 2005 and 2011. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models to estimate effects. In the sensitivity analysis, we excluded patients who started metformin or other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) after HCC diagnosis to control for immortal time bias. From the patient cohort, 751 diabetic patients who were prescribed an OHA were analyzed for HCC-specific mortality and retreatment upon recurrence, comparing 533 patients treated with metformin to 218 patients treated without metformin. In the fully adjusted analyses, metformin users showed a significantly lower risk of HCC-specific mortality (HR 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–0.49) and retreatment events (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.33–0.52) compared with metformin nonusers. Risks for HCC-specific mortality were consistently lower among metformin-using groups, excluding patients who started metformin or OHAs after diagnosis. In this large population-based cohort of patients with comorbid HCC and T2DM, treated with curative hepatic resection, metformin use was associated with improvement of HCC-specific mortality and reduced occurrence of retreatment events. PMID:27124061

  5. Collaborative modeling of the impact of obesity on race-specific breast cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaojen; Schechter, Clyde B; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Near, Aimee M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Levy, David; de Koning, Harry J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2012-12-01

    Obesity affects multiple points along the breast cancer control continuum from prevention to screening and treatment, often in opposing directions. Obesity is also more prevalent in Blacks than Whites at most ages so it might contribute to observed racial disparities in mortality. We use two established simulation models from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) to evaluate the impact of obesity on race-specific breast cancer outcomes. The models use common national data to inform parameters for the multiple US birth cohorts of Black and White women, including age- and race-specific incidence, competing mortality, mammography characteristics, and treatment effectiveness. Parameters are modified by obesity (BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) in conjunction with its age-, race-, cohort- and time-period-specific prevalence. We measure age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality and cases and deaths attributable to obesity. Obesity is more prevalent among Blacks than Whites until age 74; after age 74 it is more prevalent in Whites. The models estimate that the fraction of the US breast cancer cases attributable to obesity is 3.9-4.5 % (range across models) for Whites and 2.5-3.6 % for Blacks. Given the protective effects of obesity on risk among women <50 years, elimination of obesity in this age group could increase cases for both the races, but decrease cases for women ≥ 50 years. Overall, obesity accounts for 4.4-9.2 % and 3.1-8.4 % of the total number of breast cancer deaths in Whites and Blacks, respectively, across models. However, variations in obesity prevalence have no net effect on race disparities in breast cancer mortality because of the opposing effects of age on risk and patterns of age- and race-specific prevalence. Despite its modest impact on breast cancer control and race disparities, obesity remains one of the few known modifiable risks for cancer and other diseases, underlining its relevance as a public health target.

  6. Mortality reduction by post-dilution online-haemodiafiltration: a cause-specific analysis.

    PubMed

    Nubé, Menso J; Peters, Sanne A E; Blankestijn, Peter J; Canaud, Bernard; Davenport, Andrew; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Asci, Gulay; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Bots, Michiel L

    2017-03-01

    From an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis from four randomized controlled trials comparing haemodialysis (HD) with post-dilution online-haemodiafiltration (ol-HDF), previously it appeared that HDF decreases all-cause mortality by 14% (95% confidence interval 25; 1) and fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 23% (39; 3). Significant differences were not found for fatal infections and sudden death. So far, it is unclear, however, whether the reduced mortality risk of HDF is only due to a decrease in CVD events and if so, which CVD in particular is prevented, if compared with HD. The IPD base was used for the present study. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality overall and in thirds of the convection volume were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard regression models. Annualized mortality and numbers needed to treat (NNT) were calculated as well. Besides 554 patients dying from CVD, fatal infections and sudden death, 215 participants died from 'other causes', such as withdrawal from treatment and malignancies. In this group, the mortality risk was comparable between HD and ol-HDF patients, both overall and in thirds of the convection volume. Subdivision of CVD mortality in fatal cardiac, non-cardiac and unclassified CVD showed that ol-HDF was only associated with a lower risk of cardiac casualties [0.64 (0.61; 0.90)]. Annual mortality rates also suggest that the reduction in CVD death is mainly due to a decrease in cardiac fatalities, including both ischaemic heart disease and congestion. Overall, 32 and 75 patients, respectively, need to be treated by high-volume HDF (HV-HDF) to prevent one all-cause and one CVD death, respectively, per year. The beneficial effect of ol-HDF on all-cause and CVD mortality appears to be mainly due to a reduction in fatal cardiac events, including ischaemic heart disease as well as congestion. In HV-HDF, the NNT to prevent one CVD death is 75 per year.

  7. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in 3 Large Prospective Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-15

    The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were nonlinearly associated with mortality. Compared with nondrinkers, coffee consumption of 1 to 5 cups per day was associated with lower risk of mortality, whereas coffee consumption of more than 5 cups per day was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers compared with nondrinkers, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of mortality were 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for 1.0 or less cup per day, 0.92 (0.87-0.97) for 1.1 to 3.0 cups per day, 0.85 (0.79-0.92) for 3.1 to 5.0 cup per day, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for more than 5.0 cup per day (P value for nonlinearity = 0.32; P value for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (P value for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (P value for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease, neurologic diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Mortality Due to Chagas Disease in Brazil According to a Specific Cause

    PubMed Central

    da Nóbrega, Aglaêr Alves; de Araújo, Wildo Navegantes; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales

    2014-01-01

    A century after its discovery, Chagas disease (CD) is still considered a public health problem. Mortality caused by CD between 2000 and 2010 was described according to the specific underlying cause, year of occurrence, gender, age range, and region of Brazil. The standardized mortality rate decreased 32.4%, from 3.4% in 2000 to 2.3% in 2010. Most of the deaths (85.9%) occurred in male patients who were > 60 years of age caused by cardiac involvement. The mortality rate caused by cardiac involvement decreased in all regions of Brazil, except in the North region, where it increased by 1.6%. The Northeast had the smallest and the Central-West had the largest decrease. The mortality rate caused by a compromised digestive tract increased in all regions. Despite the control of transmission by vector and blood transfusions, CD should remain on the list of priority diseases for the public health service in Brazil, and surveillance actions cannot be interrupted. PMID:25002301

  9. Disparities in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates in the United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Martha S; Smith, Ruben A; Petrini, Joann R; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-08-24

    Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed. Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were lower risks of fetal mortality among NHB women (aPRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.71-0.81) and Hispanic women (aPRR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.83-0.96) compared with NHWs at 22-23 weeks' gestation. For NHB women, the risk was higher starting at 32-33 weeks (aPRR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.04-1.18) and continued to increase as gestational age increased. Hispanic and AIAN women had lower risks of fetal mortality compared with NHW women until 38-39 weeks. Further examination is needed to identify causes of fetal death within the later pregnancy period and how those causes and their antecedents might differ by race and ethnicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  11. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality: Prospective Analysis of 367,442 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Huang, Tao; Lee, Albert W; Qi, Lu; Cho, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Intakes of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) have been inversely associated with risk factors of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers; however, their relations with total and cause-specific mortality remain unclear. To prospectively assess the associations of RTEC intakes with all causes and disease-specific mortality risk. The study included 367,442 participants from the prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of RTEC were assessed at baseline. Over an average of 14 years of follow-up, 46,067 deaths were documented. Consumption of RTEC was significantly associated with reduced risk of mortality from all-cause mortality and death from CVD, diabetes, all cancer, and digestive cancer (all p for trend < 0.05). In multivariate models, compared to nonconsumers of RTEC, those in the highest intake of RTEC had a 15% lower risk of all-cause mortality and 10%-30% lower risk of disease-specific mortality. Within RTEC consumers, total fiber intakes were associated with reduced risk of mortality from all-cause mortality and deaths from CVD, all cancer, digestive cancer, and respiratory disease (all p for trend < 0.005). Consumption of RTEC was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from specific diseases such as CVD, diabetes, and cancer. This association may be mediated via greater fiber intake.

  12. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  13. Risk of cancer-specific mortality following recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Michael; Sjoberg, Daniel; Comploj, Evi; Margulis, Vitaly; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Lee, Richard K.; Hansen, Jens; Cha, Eugene K.; Raman, Jay D.; Remzi, Mesut; Bensalah, Karim; Novara, Giacomo; Matin, Surena F.; Chun, Felix K.; Kikuchi, Eiji; Kassouf, Wassim; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I.; Lotan, Yair; Seitz, Christian; Pycha, Armin; Zigeuner, Richard; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Scherr, Douglas S.; Vickers, Andrew; Shariat, Shahrokh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the natural history and identify predictors of cancer-specific survival in patients who experience disease recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Of 2,494 UTUC patients treated with RNU without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 597 patients experienced disease recurrence. 148 patients (25%) received adjuvant chemotherapy before disease recurrence. Multivariable Cox regression model addressed time to cancer-specific mortality after disease recurrence. Results The median time from RNU to disease recurrence was 12 months (IQR 5–22). 491 of 597 (82%) patients died from UTUC and 8 patients (1.3%) died from other causes. The median time from disease recurrence to death of UTUC was 10 months. Actuarial cancer-specific survival estimate at 12 months after disease recurrence was 35%. On multivariable analysis that adjusted for the effects of standard clinico-pathologic characteristics, higher tumor stages (HR pT3 vs. pT0-T1: 1.66, p=0.001; HR pT4 vs. pT0-T1: 1.90, p=0.002), absence of lymph node dissection (HR 1.28, p=0.041), ureteral tumor location (HR 1.44, p<0.0005) and a shorter interval from surgery to disease recurrence (p<0.0005) were significantly associated with cancer-specific mortality. The adjusted 6, 12 and 24 months post-recurrence cancer-specific mortality was 73%, 60% and 57%, respectively. Conclusion Approximately 80% of patients who experience disease recurrence after RNU die within two years post-recurrence. Patients with non-organ-confined stage, absence of lymph node dissection, ureteral tumor location and/or shorter time to disease recurrence died of their tumor faster than their counterparts. These factors should be considered in patient counseling and risk-stratification for salvage treatment decision-making. PMID:22805867

  14. The Effect of Coffee and Quantity of Consumption on Specific Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: Coffee Consumption Does Not Affect Mortality.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether or not an association exists between the consumption of caffeinated coffee to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This study aimed to delineate this association using population representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Patients were included in the study if all the following criteria were met: (1) follow-up mortality data were available, (2) age of at least 45 years, and (3) reported amount of average coffee consumption. A total of 8608 patients were included, with patients stratified into the following groups of average daily coffee consumption: (1) no coffee consumption, (2) less than 1 cup, (3) 1 cup a day, (4) 2-3 cups, (5) 4-5 cups, (6) more than 6 cups a day. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated for univariate analysis to compare the prevalence of all-cause mortality, ischemia-related mortality, congestive heart failure-related mortality, and stroke-related mortality, using the no coffee consumption group as reference. These were then adjusted for confounding factors for a multivariate analysis. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between coffee consumption and mortality, although this became insignificant on multivariate analysis. Coffee consumption, thus, does not seem to impact all-cause mortality or specific cardiovascular mortality. These findings do differ from those of recently published studies. Coffee consumption of any quantity seems to be safe without any increased mortality risk. There may be some protective effects but additional data are needed to further delineate this.

  15. Exploring mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in mortality of Lake Michigan bloaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rogers, M.W.; Holuszko, J.D.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in mortality rates have been observed among freshwater and marine fish taxa, and underlying mechanisms can include sex-specific differences in (1) age at maturity, (2) growth rate, or (3) activity or behavior during the spawning period. We used a long-term (1973–2009) Lake Michigan data set to evaluate whether there were sex-specific differences in catch per unit effort, mortality, age at maturity, and length at age in bloaters Coregonus hoyi. Because bloater population biomass varied 200-fold during the years analyzed, we divided the data into three periods: (1) 1973–1982 (low biomass), (2) 1983–1997 (high biomass), and (3) 1998–2009 (low biomass). Mortality was higher for males than for females in periods 2 and 3; the average instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) over these two periods was 0.71 for males and 0.57 for females. Length at age was slightly greater (2–6%) for females than for males in different age-classes (3–6 years) during each period. Age at maturity was earlier for males than for females in periods 1 and 2, but the mean difference was only 0.2–0.4 years. To test the hypothesis that somatic lipids declined more in males than in females during spawning (perhaps due to increased activity or reduced feeding), we estimated sex-specific percent somatic lipids for fish sampled in 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. During 2005–2006, somatic lipids declined from prespawning to postspawning for males but were unchanged for females. During 2007–2008, however, somatic lipids were unchanged for males, whereas they increased for females. We found that sex-specific differences in Z occurred in the Lake Michigan bloater population, but our hypotheses that sex-specific differences in maturity and growth could explain this pattern were generally unsupported. Our hypothesis that somatic lipids in males declined during spawning at a faster rate than in females will require additional research to clarify its importance.

  16. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies.

  17. Avian growth and development rates and age-specific mortality: the roles of nest predation and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Remes, V

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that avian growth and development covary with juvenile mortality. Juveniles of birds under strong nest predation pressure grow rapidly, have short incubation and nestling periods, and leave the nest at low body mass. Life-history theory predicts that parental investment increases with adult mortality rate. Thus, developmental traits that depend on the parental effort exerted (pre- and postnatal growth rate) should scale positively with adult mortality, in contrast to those that do not have a direct relationship with parental investment (timing of developmental events, e.g. nest leaving). I tested this prediction on a sample of 84 North American songbirds. Nestling growth rate scaled positively and incubation period duration negatively with annual adult mortality rates even when controlled for nest predation and other covariates, including phylogeny. On the contrary, neither the duration of the nestling period nor body mass at fledging showed any relationship. Proximate mechanisms generating the relationship of pre- and postnatal growth rates to adult mortality may include increased feeding, nest attentiveness during incubation and/or allocation of hormones, and deserve further attention.

  18. Estimating Population Cause-Specific Mortality Fractions from in-Hospital Mortality: Validation of a New Method

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher J. L; Lopez, Alan D; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Lozano, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Background Cause-of-death data for many developing countries are not available. Information on deaths in hospital by cause is available in many low- and middle-income countries but is not a representative sample of deaths in the population. We propose a method to estimate population cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) using data already collected in many middle-income and some low-income developing nations, yet rarely used: in-hospital death records. Methods and Findings For a given cause of death, a community's hospital deaths are equal to total community deaths multiplied by the proportion of deaths occurring in hospital. If we can estimate the proportion dying in hospital, we can estimate the proportion dying in the population using deaths in hospital. We propose to estimate the proportion of deaths for an age, sex, and cause group that die in hospital from the subset of the population where vital registration systems function or from another population. We evaluated our method using nearly complete vital registration (VR) data from Mexico 1998–2005, which records whether a death occurred in a hospital. In this validation test, we used 45 disease categories. We validated our method in two ways: nationally and between communities. First, we investigated how the method's accuracy changes as we decrease the amount of Mexican VR used to estimate the proportion of each age, sex, and cause group dying in hospital. Decreasing VR data used for this first step from 100% to 9% produces only a 12% maximum relative error between estimated and true CSMFs. Even if Mexico collected full VR information only in its capital city with 9% of its population, our estimation method would produce an average relative error in CSMFs across the 45 causes of just over 10%. Second, we used VR data for the capital zone (Distrito Federal and Estado de Mexico) and estimated CSMFs for the three lowest-development states. Our estimation method gave an average relative error of 20%, 23

  19. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J B; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-04-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees(-1)  year(-1) ) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2-0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India

    PubMed Central

    Fottrell, Edward; Osrin, David; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Bapat, Ujwala; Beard, James; Bondo, Austin; Colbourn, Tim; Das, Sushmita; King, Carina; Manandhar, Dharma; Manandhar, Sunil; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Neuman, Melissa; Phiri, Tambosi; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Seward, Nadine; Shah Moore, Neena; Shrestha, Bhim Prasad; Singini, Bright; Tumbahangphe, Kirti Man; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. Design We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs were carried out to ascertain cause of death. We applied descriptive epidemiological techniques and the InterVA method to characterise the burden, timing and causes of neonatal mortality at each site. Results Analysis included 3772 neonatal deaths and 3256 stillbirths. Between 63% and 82% of neonatal deaths occurred in the first week of life, and males were more likely to die than females. Prematurity, birth asphyxia and infections accounted for most neonatal deaths, but important subnational and regional differences were observed. More than one-third of deaths in urban India were attributed to asphyxia, making it the leading cause of death in this setting. Conclusions Population-based VA methods can fill information gaps on the burden and causes of neonatal mortality in resource-poor and data-poor settings. Local data should be used to inform and monitor the implementation of interventions to improve newborn health. High rates of home births demand a particular focus on community interventions to improve hygienic delivery and essential newborn care. PMID:25972443

  1. Selected epidemiologic observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the United States, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the United States during 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns were analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5-9-year age group and lowest rates in age group 35-44, after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5-9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymphatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types, and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  2. Selected epidemiological observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the USA, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the USA during the period 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns have been analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5 to 9 year age group and lowest rates in age group 35 to 44 after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5 to 9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymhatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  3. Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wennuan; Xie, Chunmei C.; Thomas, Christopher Y.; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lindberg, Johan; Egevad, Lars; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jishan; Sun, Jielin; Koty, Patrick P.; Kader, A. Karim; Cramer, Scott D.; Bova, G. Steve; Zheng, S. Lilly; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), we evaluated chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlated these with clinicopathologic features and outcome. METHODS CNAs in tumor DNAs from 125 prostatectomy patients in the discovery cohort were assayed with high resolution Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm. RESULTS The assays revealed twenty significant regions of CNAs, four of them novel, and identified the target genes of four of the alterations. By univariate analysis, seven CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN and MYC contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial PSA level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (OR = 53; C.I.= 6.92–405, P = 1 × 10−4). Analyses of 333 tumors from three additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa. CONCLUSION This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality. PMID:23609948

  4. Association Between Diabetes and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rural and Urban Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Fiona; Holmes, Michael V; Iona, Andri; Guo, Yu; Du, Huaidong; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Herrington, William; Bennett, Derrick; Turnbull, Iain; Liu, Yongmei; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Junshi; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-17

    In China, diabetes prevalence has increased substantially in recent decades, but there are no reliable estimates of the excess mortality currently associated with diabetes. To assess the proportional excess mortality associated with diabetes and estimate the diabetes-related absolute excess mortality in rural and urban areas of China. A 7-year nationwide prospective study of 512 869 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 (5 rural and 5 urban) regions in China, who were recruited between June 2004 and July 2008 and were followed up until January 2014. Diabetes (previously diagnosed or detected by screening) recorded at baseline. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, collected through established death registries. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted mortality rate ratio (RR) comparing individuals with diabetes vs those without diabetes at baseline. Among the 512 869 participants, the mean (SD) age was 51.5 (10.7) years, 59% (n = 302 618) were women, and 5.9% (n = 30 280) had diabetes (4.1% in rural areas, 8.1% in urban areas, 5.8% of men, 6.1% of women, 3.1% had been previously diagnosed, and 2.8% were detected by screening). During 3.64 million person-years of follow-up, there were 24 909 deaths, including 3384 among individuals with diabetes. Compared with adults without diabetes, individuals with diabetes had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (1373 vs 646 deaths per 100 000; adjusted RR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.93-2.08]), which was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (rural RR, 2.17 [95% CI, 2.07-2.29]; urban RR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.73-1.94]). Presence of diabetes was associated with increased mortality from ischemic heart disease (3287 deaths; RR, 2.40 [95% CI, 2.19-2.63]), stroke (4444 deaths; RR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.81-2.17]), chronic liver disease (481 deaths; RR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.76-3.06]), infections (425 deaths; RR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.76-2.99]), and cancer of the liver (1325 deaths; RR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.28-1.86]), pancreas

  5. Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality.

    PubMed

    Björ, B; Burström, L; Jonsson, H; Nathanaelsson, L; Damber, L; Nilsson, T

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in iron-ore mines in Sweden. The mortality of employees (surface and underground workers) at the iron-ore mines in Malmberget and Kiruna, Sweden was investigated. The study cohort comprised men who had been employed for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Indirect standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes. Mortality specifically from myocardial infarction was also analysed. 4504 deaths in the cohort gave an SMR for total mortality of 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.97). There was an increased risk of injuries and poisonings (SMR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.46) and respiratory diseases (SMR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28). There were 1477 cases of myocardial infarction, resulting in an SMR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18). SMR was higher (1.35, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.50) for men aged 60 years of age (1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13). Mortality from myocardial infarction was higher than expected. There was also an increased risk of death from injuries and poisonings, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, as well as higher general mortality. Our findings support the results of previous studies that there is an association between working in the mining industry and adverse health outcomes.

  6. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; de la Aleja, Jesús González; Martínez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population. In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed. A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P < 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of cancer-specific mortality was decreased in participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55−0.98, P = 0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38−0.89; P = 0.01. This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  7. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  8. Cause-specific mortality in adult epilepsy patients from Tyrol, Austria: hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bauer, Gerhard; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Seppi, Klaus; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a devastating condition with a considerable increase in mortality compared to the general population. Few studies have focused on cause-specific mortality which we analyse in detail in over 4,000 well-characterized epilepsy patients. The cohort comprised of epilepsy patients ≥ 18, treated between 1970 and 2009 at the epilepsy clinic of Innsbruck Medical University, Austria, and living in the province of Tyrol, Austria. Epilepsy diagnosis was based on ILAE guidelines (1989); patients with brain tumor were excluded. Deceased patients and causes of death (ICD-codes) were obtained via record linkage to the national death registry. We computed age-, sex-, and period-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 36 diagnoses subgroups in four major groups. Additional analyses were performed for an incidence cohort. Overall cohort: 4,295 patients, 60,649.1 person-years, 822 deaths, overall SMR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.6-1.9), highest elevated cause-specific SMR: congenital anomalies [7.1 (95 % CI 2.3-16.6)], suicide [4.2 (95 % CI 2.0-8.1)], alcohol dependence syndrome [3.9 (95 % CI 1.8-7.4)], malignant neoplasm of esophagus [3.1 (95 % CI 1.2-6.4)], pneumonia [2.7 (95 % CI 1.6-4.2)]. Incidence cohort: 1,299 patients, 14,215.4 person-years, 267 deaths, overall SMR 1.8 (95 % CI 1.6-2.1), highest elevated cause-specific SMR congenital anomalies [10.8 (95 % CI 1.3-39.3)], suicide [6.8 (95 % CI 1.4-19.8)], alcohol dependence syndrome (6.4 [95 % CI 1.8-16.5)], pneumonia [3.9 (95 % CI 1.8-7.4)], cerebrovascular disease at 3.5 (95 % CI 2.6-4.6). Mortality due to mental health problems, such as suicide or alcohol dependence syndrome, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases was highly increased in our study. In addition to aim for seizure freedom, we suggest improving general health promotion, including cessation of smoking, lowering of alcohol intake, and reduction of weight as well as early identification of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy.

  9. [Associations between airflow obstruction and total and cause-specific mortality in adults in China].

    PubMed

    Lan, F L; Li, J C; Yu, C Q; Guo, Y; Bian, Z; Tan, Y L; Pei, P; Chen, J S; Chen, Z M; Cao, W H; Lyu, J; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To examine the prospective associations between airflow obstruction and total and cause-specific mortality. Methods: The study was based on China Kadoorie Biobank, in which 199 099 men and 287 895 women aged 30-79 years at baseline survey were included after excluding those with heart disease, stroke and cancer. The Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guideline was used to classify airflow obstruction. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted HR and 95%CI. Results: During 3 494 079 person-years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 21 649 people died. Absolute mortality rates were 5.5, 9.9, 13.1, 32.4 and 63.3 deaths per 1 000 person-years for participants who had normal airflow, GOLD-1 to GOLD-4 airflow obstruction, respectively. After adjusting potential confounders, compared with participants with normal lung function, the HRs for death were 0.98 (95%CI: 0.88-1.09), 1.03 (95%CI: 0.97-1.09), 1.62 (95% CI: 1.53-1.73) and 2.83 (95% CI: 2.59-3.10) for those whose airflow obstruction were classified as GOLD-1 to GOLD-4, respectively. The airflow obstruction was also associated with increased risk for deaths due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Airflow obstruction is associated with total and certain cause-specific mortality, the higher the airflow obstruction degree is, the higher the death risk is.

  10. The influence of the CHIEF pathway on colorectal cancer-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors) pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product) to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555) and rectal cancer (n = 754) cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035). Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR) were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP < 0.05); JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086), PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098), and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059) had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP < 0.05). SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002). Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1) were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP < 0.05). The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74) and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78) for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies.

  11. Nationwide Assessment of Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Rosacea: A Cohort Study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-12-01

    Emerging data suggest that rosacea is associated with several comorbidities; however, the causes of mortality in patients with rosacea have not yet been investigated. We evaluated all-cause and cause-specific death rates in patients with rosacea in a population-based Danish cohort study. All Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 with rosacea diagnosed by hospital dermatologists were linked in nationwide registers and compared with age- and sex-matched general-population subjects (1:5 ratio). Death rates were calculated per 1000 person-years, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models. The total cohort (n = 35,958) included 5993 patients with rosacea and 29,965 age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. During the maximum 15 years of follow-up, 664 (11.1 %) patients with rosacea and 3121 (10.4 %) patients in the reference population died. The risk of all-cause mortality was similar in patients with rosacea and the reference population [HR 1.06, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.15]. Analyses of cause-specific mortality revealed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases in patients with rosacea (HR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.31-2.89), primarily related to hepatic disease. No increased risk of death due to other major disease categories, e.g. cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, or infectious diseases was observed. We observed a significantly increased risk of death due to gastrointestinal diseases (primarily hepatic disease) in patients with rosacea; however, we found no increased risk of death due to other causes such as cardiovascular or neurological diseases. Although this does not necessarily imply a causal link, the findings underscore the association between rosacea and gastrointestinal disease, but also that rosacea may be associated with increased risk factors, including alcohol consumption.

  12. Disease-specific mortality burdens in a rural Gambian population using verbal autopsy, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Jasseh, Momodou; Howie, Stephen R C; Gomez, Pierre; Scott, Susana; Roca, Anna; Cham, Mamady; Greenwood, Brian; Corrah, Tumani; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    To estimate and evaluate the cause-of-death structure and disease-specific mortality rates in a rural area of The Gambia as determined using the InterVA-4 model. Deaths and person-years of observation were determined by age group for the population of the Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance area from January 1998 to December 2007. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA) using the InterVA-4 model and ICD-10 disease classification. Assigned causes of death were classified into six broad groups: infectious and parasitic diseases; cancers; other non-communicable diseases; neonatal; maternal; and external causes. Poisson regression was used to estimate age and disease-specific mortality rates, and likelihood ratio tests were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 3,203 deaths were recorded and VA administered for 2,275 (71%). All-age mortality declined from 15 per 1,000 person-years in 1998-2001 to 8 per 1,000 person-years in 2005-2007. Children aged 1-4 years registered the most marked (74%) decline from 27 to 7 per 1,000 person-years. Communicable diseases accounted for half (49.9%) of the deaths in all age groups, dominated by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (13.7%), malaria (12.9%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (10.2%). The leading causes of death among infants were ARI (5.59 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 4.38-7.15]) and malaria (4.11 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI: 3.09-5.47]). Mortality rates in children aged 1-4 years were 3.06 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 2.58-3.63) for malaria, and 1.05 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.79-1.41) for ARI. The HIV-related mortality rate in this age group was 1.17 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.89-1.54). Pulmonary tuberculosis and communicable diseases other than malaria, HIV/AIDS and ARI were the main killers of adults aged 15 years and over. Stroke-related mortality increased to become the leading cause of death among the elderly aged 60 years or more in 2005-2007. Mortality in

  13. Multiple Metazoan Life-span Interventions Exhibit a Sex-specific Strehler-Mildvan Inverse Relationship Between Initial Mortality Rate and Age-dependent Mortality Rate Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Landis, Gary N; Tower, John

    2017-01-01

    The Gompertz equation describes survival in terms of initial mortality rate (parameter a), indicative of health, and age-dependent acceleration in mortality rate (parameter b), indicative of aging. Gompertz parameters were analyzed for several published studies. In Drosophila females, mating increases egg production and decreases median life span, consistent with a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. Mating increased parameter a, causing decreased median life span, whereas time parameter b was decreased. The inverse correlation between parameters indicates the Strehler-Mildvan (S-M) relationship, where loss of low-vitality individuals yields a cohort with slower age-dependent mortality acceleration. The steroid hormone antagonist mifepristone/RU486 reversed these effects. Mating and mifepristone showed robust S-M relationships across genotypes, and dietary restriction showed robust S-M relationship across diets. Because nutrient optima differed between females and males, the same manipulation caused opposite effects on mortality rates in females versus males across a range of nutrient concentrations. Similarly, p53 mutation in Drosophila and mTOR mutation in mice caused increased median life span associated with opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. The data demonstrate that dietary and genetic interventions have sex-specific and sometimes sexually opposite effects on mortality rates consistent with sexual antagonistic pleiotropy.

  14. Dialysis dose scaled to body surface area and size-adjusted, sex-specific patient mortality.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Sylvia Paz B; Kapke, Alissa; Port, Friedrich K; Wolfe, Robert A; Saran, Rajiv; Pearson, Jeffrey; Hirth, Richard A; Messana, Joseph M; Daugirdas, John T

    2012-12-01

    When hemodialysis dose is scaled to body water (V), women typically receive a greater dose than men, but their survival is not better given a similar dose. This study sought to determine whether rescaling dose to body surface area (SA) might reveal different associations among dose, sex, and mortality. Single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V), equilibrated Kt/V, and standard Kt/V (stdKt/V) were computed using urea kinetic modeling on a prevalent cohort of 7229 patients undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis. Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Project. SA-normalized stdKt/V (SAN-stdKt/V) was calculated as stdKt/V × ratio of anthropometric volume to SA/17.5. Patients were grouped into sex-specific dose quintiles (reference: quintile 1 for men). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 1-year mortality were calculated using Cox regression. spKt/V was higher in women (1.7 ± 0.3) than in men (1.5 ± 0.2; P<0.001), but SAN-stdKt/V was lower (women: 2.3 ± 0.2; men: 2.5 ± 0.3; P<0.001). For both sexes, mortality decreased as spKt/V increased, until spKt/V was 1.6-1.7 (quintile 4 for men: HR, 0.62; quintile 3 for women: HR, 0.64); no benefit was observed with higher spKt/V. HR for mortality decreased further at higher SAN-stdKt/V in both sexes (quintile 5 for men: HR, 0.69; quintile 5 for women: HR, 0.60). SA-based dialysis dose results in dose-mortality relationships substantially different from those with volume-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V analyses suggest women may be relatively underdosed when treated by V-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V as a measure for dialysis dose may warrant further study.

  15. Dialysis Dose Scaled to Body Surface Area and Size-Adjusted, Sex-Specific Patient Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kapke, Alissa; Port, Friedrich K.; Wolfe, Robert A.; Saran, Rajiv; Pearson, Jeffrey; Hirth, Richard A.; Messana, Joseph M.; Daugirdas, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives When hemodialysis dose is scaled to body water (V), women typically receive a greater dose than men, but their survival is not better given a similar dose. This study sought to determine whether rescaling dose to body surface area (SA) might reveal different associations among dose, sex, and mortality. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V), equilibrated Kt/V, and standard Kt/V (stdKt/V) were computed using urea kinetic modeling on a prevalent cohort of 7229 patients undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis. Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Project. SA-normalized stdKt/V (SAN-stdKt/V) was calculated as stdKt/V × ratio of anthropometric volume to SA/17.5. Patients were grouped into sex-specific dose quintiles (reference: quintile 1 for men). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 1-year mortality were calculated using Cox regression. Results spKt/V was higher in women (1.7±0.3) than in men (1.5±0.2; P<0.001), but SAN-stdKt/V was lower (women: 2.3±0.2; men: 2.5±0.3; P<0.001). For both sexes, mortality decreased as spKt/V increased, until spKt/V was 1.6–1.7 (quintile 4 for men: HR, 0.62; quintile 3 for women: HR, 0.64); no benefit was observed with higher spKt/V. HR for mortality decreased further at higher SAN-stdKt/V in both sexes (quintile 5 for men: HR, 0.69; quintile 5 for women: HR, 0.60). Conclusions SA-based dialysis dose results in dose-mortality relationships substantially different from those with volume-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V analyses suggest women may be relatively underdosed when treated by V-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V as a measure for dialysis dose may warrant further study. PMID:22977208

  16. Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife-disease interactions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Smith, Graham C; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Hodgson, Dave

    2014-09-07

    In animal populations, males are commonly more susceptible to disease-induced mortality than females. However, three competing mechanisms can cause this sex bias: weak males may simultaneously be more prone to exposure to infection and mortality; being 'male' may be an imperfect proxy for the underlying driver of disease-induced mortality; or males may experience increased severity of disease-induced effects compared with females. Here, we infer the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology by decomposing fixed mortality rates into mortality trajectories and comparing their parameters. We applied Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to a 22-year longitudinal study of a population of badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). At the point of infection, infected male and female badgers had equal mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that acquisition of infection occurs in males with coincidentally high mortality. Males and females exhibited similar levels of heterogeneity in mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that maleness is only a proxy for disease susceptibility. Instead, sex differences were caused by a more rapid increase in male mortality rates following infection. Males are indeed more susceptible to bTB, probably due to immunological differences between the sexes. We recommend this mortality trajectory approach for the study of infection in animal populations.

  17. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of immigrants and native born in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G K; Siahpush, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether US-born people and immigrants 25 years or older differ in their risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and whether these differentials, if they exist, vary according to age, sex, and race/ethnicity. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (1979-1989), we derived mortality risks of immigrants relative to those of US-born people by using a Cox regression model after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, urban/rural residence, education, occupation, and family income. RESULTS: Immigrant men and women had, respectively, an 18% and 13% lower risk of overall mortality than their US-born counterparts. Reduced mortality risks were especially pronounced for younger and for Black and Hispanic immigrants. Immigrants showed significantly lower risks of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung and prostate cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cirrhosis, pneumonia and influenza, unintentional injuries, and suicide but higher risks of mortality from stomach and brain cancer and infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality patterns for immigrants and for US-born people vary considerably, with immigrants experiencing lower mortality from several major causes of death. Future research needs to examine the role of sociocultural and behavioral factors in explaining the mortality advantage of immigrants. PMID:11236403

  18. ICD coding changes and discontinuities in trends in cause-specific mortality in six European countries, 1950-99.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how often coding changes between and within revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) complicate the description of long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Data on cause-specific mortality between 1950 and 1999 for men and women aged 60 and older were obtained from Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained by five-year age groups. We constructed a concordance table using three-digit ICD codes. In addition we evaluated the occurrence of mortality discontinuities by visually inspecting cause-specific trends and country-specific background information. Evaluation was also based on quantification of the discontinuities using a Poisson regression model (including period splines). We compared the observed trends in cause-specific mortality with the trends after adjustment for the discontinuities caused by changes to coding. FINDINGS: In 45 out of 416 (10.8 %) instances of ICD revisions to cause-specific mortality codes, significant discontinuities that were regarded as being due to ICD revisions remained. The revisions from ICD-6 and ICD-7 to ICD-8 and a wide range of causes of death, with the exception of the specific cancers, were especially affected. Incidental changes in coding rules were also important causes of discontinuities in trends in cause-specific mortality, especially in England and Wales, Finland and Sweden. Adjusting for these discontinuities can lead to significant changes in trends, although these primarily affect only limited periods of time. CONCLUSION: Despite using a carefully constructed concordance table based on three-digit ICD codes, mortality discontinuities arising as a result of coding changes (both between and within revisions) can lead to substantial changes in long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. Coding changes should therefore be evaluated by researchers and, where necessary, controlled for. PMID:15654404

  19. Multimorbidity as specific disease combinations, an important predictor factor for mortality in octogenarians: the Octabaix study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Sanz, Héctor; Almeda, Jesús; Padrós, Glòria

    2017-01-01

    Background The population is aging and multimorbidity is becoming a common problem in the elderly. Objective To explore the effect of multimorbidity patterns on mortality for all causes at 3- and 5-year follow-up periods. Materials and methods A prospective community-based cohort (2009–2014) embedded within a randomized clinical trial was conducted in seven primary health care centers, including 328 subjects aged 85 years at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, sensory status, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and geriatric tests were analyzed. Multimorbidity patterns were defined as combinations of two or three of 16 specific chronic conditions in the same individual. Results Of the total sample, the median and interquartile range value of conditions was 4 (3–5). The individual morbidities significantly associated with death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3; 4.7), atrial fibrillation (AF; HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.3; 4.3), and malignancy (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.6) at 3-year follow-up; whereas dementia (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.3; 3.2), malignancy (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.2; 2.8), and COPD (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.1; 2.8) were the most associated with mortality at 5-year follow-up, after adjusting using Barthel functional index (BI). The two multimorbidity patterns most associated with death were AF, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and visual impairment (HR: 4.19; 95% CI: 2.2; 8.2) at 3-year follow-up as well as hypertension, CKD, and malignancy (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.8; 5.8) at 5 years, after adjusting using BI. Conclusion Multimorbidity as specific combinations of chronic conditions showed an effect on mortality, which would be higher than the risk attributable to individual morbidities. The most important predicting pattern for mortality was the combination of AF, CKD, and visual impairment after 3 years. These findings suggest that a new approach is required to target multimorbidity in

  20. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  1. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India.

    PubMed

    Fottrell, Edward; Osrin, David; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Bapat, Ujwala; Beard, James; Bondo, Austin; Colbourn, Tim; Das, Sushmita; King, Carina; Manandhar, Dharma; Manandhar, Sunil; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Neuman, Melissa; Phiri, Tambosi; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Seward, Nadine; Shah Moore, Neena; Shrestha, Bhim Prasad; Singini, Bright; Tumbahangphe, Kirti Man; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs were carried out to ascertain cause of death. We applied descriptive epidemiological techniques and the InterVA method to characterise the burden, timing and causes of neonatal mortality at each site. Analysis included 3772 neonatal deaths and 3256 stillbirths. Between 63% and 82% of neonatal deaths occurred in the first week of life, and males were more likely to die than females. Prematurity, birth asphyxia and infections accounted for most neonatal deaths, but important subnational and regional differences were observed. More than one-third of deaths in urban India were attributed to asphyxia, making it the leading cause of death in this setting. Population-based VA methods can fill information gaps on the burden and causes of neonatal mortality in resource-poor and data-poor settings. Local data should be used to inform and monitor the implementation of interventions to improve newborn health. High rates of home births demand a particular focus on community interventions to improve hygienic delivery and essential newborn care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Diagnosis-specific sickness absence and all-cause mortality in the GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, Jane E.; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Melchior, Maria; Alexanderson, Kristina; Head, Jenny; Chevalier, Anne; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a risk marker for all-cause mortality. Design Prospective occupational cohort (the GAZEL study). Medically-certified sickness absence spells greater than 7 days for 15 diagnostic categories, 1990–1992, were examined in relation to all-cause mortality, January 1993-February 2007. The reference group for each diagnostic category was participants with no spell >7 days for that diagnosis. Participants French public utility workers (5,271 women and 13,964 men) aged 37–51 in 1990, the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up period there were 144 deaths in women and 758 in men. Main results 7,875 employees (41.0%) had at least one spell of sickness absence >7 days over the three-year period. The commonest diagnoses were mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory diseases and external causes in both sexes; genitourinary diseases in women, and digestive and circulatory diseases in men. Of these common diagnoses mental disorders in women, hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) 1.24 (1.1–1.4); and mental disorders 1.35 (1.3–1.5), digestive diseases 1.29 (1.1–1.6) and circulatory diseases 1.35 (1.2–1.6) in men were associated with mortality after adjustment for age, employment grade and sickness absence in all other diagnostic categories. Conclusions Employees with medically-certified absence spells of one week or more over a three-year period had a 60% excess risk of early death. In women and men, this excess risk was associated with some of the commonest diagnoses of sickness absence, in particular mental disorders. Sickness absence for mental disorders may be a useful early indicator of groups at increased risk of fatal disease. PMID:19039005

  3. Nut consumption in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a meta-analysis 18 prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Ru; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Bonaccio, Marialaura; van Dam, Rob M; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Several previous meta-analyses show a consistent inverse association between nut consumption and all-cause mortality, but the associations with cause-specific mortality remain uncertain. A recent meta-analysis on nut consumption and multiple health outcomes combined incidence and mortality outcomes across most of the analyses, which may have introduced heterogeneity across studies. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the nut-mortality association. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and we contacted authors for additional data. The final analyses included 18 prospective studies. The random-effects summary RRs for high compared with low nut consumption were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.84) for all-cause mortality (18 studies with 81 034 deaths), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71-0.79) for CVD mortality (17 studies with 20 381 deaths), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.80) for CHD mortality (14 studies with 10 438 deaths), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91) for stroke mortality (13 studies with 4850 deaths) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80-0.93) for cancer mortality (11 studies 21 353 deaths). These results were broadly consistent within subgroups according to various study and population characteristics and within sensitivity analyses that took into account potential confounders. Peanut (5 studies) and tree nut (3 studies) consumption were similarly associated with mortality risks. Dose-response analyses suggested evidence for nonlinear associations between nut consumption and mortality (P-nonlinearity <0.001 for all outcomes except cancer mortality), with mortality risk levelling off at the consumption of about 3 servings per week (12 g d(-1)). Our findings suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced all-cause and cause-specific mortality, with the strongest reduction for CHD mortality. Both tree nuts and peanuts may lower mortality and most of the survival benefits may be achieved at a relative low level of nut consumption.

  4. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographic studies have found evidence for this, others have found little support for it. Here, we re-model the predictions of the grandmother hypothesis by examining the genetic relatedness between grandmothers and grandchildren. We use this new model to re-evaluate the grandmother effect in seven previously studied human populations. Boys and girls differ in the per cent of genes they share with maternal versus paternal grandmothers because of differences in X-chromosome inheritance. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between X-chromosome inheritance and grandchild mortality in the presence of a grandmother. With this sex-specific and X-chromosome approach to interpreting mortality rates, we provide a new perspective on the prevailing theory for the evolution of human female longevity. This approach yields more consistent support for the grandmother hypothesis, and has implications for the study of human evolution. PMID:19864288

  5. Economic inequality, working-class power, social capital, and cause-specific mortality in wealthy countries.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Lynch, John W; Hillemeier, Marianne; Lee, Ju Hee; David, Richard; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2002-01-01

    This study tests two propositions from Navarro's critique of the social capital literature: that social capital's importance has been exaggerated and that class-related political factors, absent from social epidemiology and public health, might be key determinants of population health. The authors estimate cross-sectional associations between economic inequality, working-class power, and social capital and life expectancy, self-rated health, low birth weight, and age- and cause-specific mortality in 16 wealthy countries. Of all the health outcomes, the five variables related to birth and infant survival and nonintentional injuries had the most consistent association with economic inequality and working-class power (in particular with strength of the welfare state) and, less so, with social capital indicators. Rates of low birth weight and infant deaths from all causes were lower in countries with more "left" (e.g., socialist, social democratic, labor) votes, more left members of parliament, more years of social democratic government, more women in government, and various indicators of strength of the welfare state, as well as low economic inequality, as measured in a variety of ways. Similar associations were observed for injury mortality, underscoring the crucial role of unions and labor parties in promoting workplace safety. Overall, social capital shows weaker associations with population health indicators than do economic inequality and working-class power. The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds.

  6. Age- and gender-specific population attributable risks of metabolic disorders on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent of attributable risks of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on mortality remains unclear, especially with respect to age and gender. We aimed to assess the age- and gender-specific population attributable risks (PARs) for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality and all-cause mortality for public health planning. Methods A total of 2,092 men and 2,197 women 30 years of age and older, who were included in the 2002 Taiwan Survey of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH), were linked to national death certificates acquired through December 31, 2009. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and PARs for mortality, with a median follow-up of 7.7 years. Results The respective PAR percentages of MetS for all-cause and CVD-related mortality were 11.6 and 39.2 in men, respectively, and 18.6 and 44.4 in women, respectively. Central obesity had the highest PAR for CVD mortality in women (57.5%), whereas arterial hypertension had the highest PAR in men (57.5%). For all-cause mortality, younger men and post-menopausal women had higher PARs related to Mets and its components; for CVD mortality, post-menopausal women had higher overall PARs than their pre-menopausal counterparts. Conclusions MetS has a limited application to the PAR for all-cause mortality, especially in men; its PAR for CVD mortality is more evident. For CVD mortality, MetS components have higher PARs than MetS itself, especially hypertension in men and waist circumference in post-menopausal women. In addition, PARs for diabetes mellitus and low HDL-cholesterol may exceed 20%. We suggest differential control of risk factors in different subpopulation as a strategy to prevent CVD-related mortality. PMID:22321049

  7. Latitudinal and age-specific patterns of larval mortality in the damselfly Lestes sponsa: Senescence before maturity?

    PubMed

    Dańko, Maciej J; Dańko, Aleksandra; Golab, Maria J; Stoks, Robby; Sniegula, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Latitudinal differences in life history traits driven by differences in seasonal time constraints have been widely documented. Yet, latitudinal patterns in (age-specific) mortality rates have been poorly studied. Here, we studied latitudinal differences in pre-adult age-specific mortality patterns in the strictly univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa. We compared individuals from three latitudes reared from the egg stage in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at the latitude of origin (main experiment) and under common-garden conditions at a fixed temperature and photoperiod (supplementary experiment). Results from the main experiment showed that the high-latitude population exhibited higher mortality rates than the central and southern populations, likely reflecting a cost of their faster development. Age-specific mortality patterns, also indicated higher ageing rates in the high-latitude compared to the low-latitude population, which likely had a genetic basis. The strong within-population variation in hatching dates in the low-latitude population caused variation in mortality rates; individuals that hatched later showed higher mortality rates presumably due to their shorter development times compared to larvae that hatched earlier. In both experiments, larvae from all three latitudes showed accelerated mortality rates with age, which is consistent with a pattern of senescence before adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Colony-specific calcification and mortality under ocean acidification in the branching coral Montipora digitata.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Javid; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying marine organisms including reef-building corals. In this study, we examined the OA responses of individual colonies of the branching scleractinian coral Montipora digitata. We exposed nubbins of unique colonies (n = 15) to ambient or elevated pCO2 under natural light and temperature regimes for 110 days. Although elevated pCO2 exposure on average reduced calcification, individual colonies showed unique responses ranging from declines in positive calcification to negative calcification (decalcification) to no change. Similarly, mortality was greater on average in elevated pCO2, but also showed colony-specific patterns. High variation in colony responses suggests the possibility that ongoing OA may lead to natural selection of OA-tolerant colonies within a coral population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R(2)=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R(2)=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Freedman, Neal D; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2017-08-15

    Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse. To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death. The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996. Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. 185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment. Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. 58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend < 0.001). Trends were similar between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (<55 years), and those who had not previously reported a chronic disease. Among examined end points, inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney disease. Unmeasured confounding and measurement error, although sensitivity analysis suggested that neither was likely to affect results. Higher consumption of coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. National Cancer Institute.

  11. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Results After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R2=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R2=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. Conclusions AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. PMID:26674986

  12. Intestine-Specific Deletion of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Increases Mortality in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhe; Xie, Yan; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Breed, Elise R.; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO) exhibit a complete block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Young (8–10 week) Mttp-IKO mice have improved survival when subjected to a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. However, 80% of deaths in sepsis occur in patients over age 65. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts outcome in Mttp-IKO mice subjected to sepsis. Methods Aged (20–24 months) Mttp-IKO mice and WT mice underwent intratracheal injection with P. aeruginosa. Mice were either sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively for mechanistic studies or followed seven days for survival. Results In contrast to young septic Mttp-IKO mice, aged septic Mttp-IKO mice had a significantly higher mortality than aged septic WT mice (80% vs. 39%, p = 0.005). Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice exhibited increased gut epithelial apoptosis, increased jejunal Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL ratios yet simultaneously demonstrated increased crypt proliferation and villus length. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice also manifested increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, suggesting increased neutrophil infiltration, as well as decreased systemic TNFα compared to aged septic WT mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion alters mortality following sepsis in an age-dependent manner. Increases in gut apoptosis and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and decreased systemic TNFα represent potential mechanisms for why intestine-specific Mttp deletion is beneficial in young septic mice but harmful in aged mice as each of these parameters are altered differently in young and aged septic WT and Mttp-IKO mice. PMID:25010671

  13. The Influence of the CHIEF Pathway on Colorectal Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors) pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product) to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555) and rectal cancer (n = 754) cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035). Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR) were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP <0.05); JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086), PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098), and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059) had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP<0.05). SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002). Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1) were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP<0.05). The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74) and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78) for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies. PMID:25541970

  14. Associations of pre-diagnostic body mass index with overall and cancer-specific mortality in a large Austrian cohort.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Katharina; Peter, Raphael S; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. Within the VHM&PP cohort, 8,673 cancer patients (42.2% women) were followed over a median time of 11.9 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of pre-diagnostic overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Cubic restricted splines were additionally modeled. During 71,126 person-years, 4,571 deaths were observed. Compared to normal weight, overweight was associated with statistically significantly decreased all-cause mortality (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.997) and cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84-0.99). Underweight was statistically significantly associated with 28% increased overall mortality, in particular in men [HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.43-2.83) vs. HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.71-1.30) in women]. J-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality with the nadir around a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). Analysis by cancer site showed though not statistically significantly that overweight was associated with reduced mortality, while obesity was associated with increased cancer-specific mortality except cancers of the upper digestive tract. In patients with local stage colorectal cancers, obesity was associated with increased all-cause (vs. normal weight HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.52) and cancer-specific mortality (HR 3.17; 95% CI 1.29-7.81). Overweight patients have a better overall prognosis, while for obesity no association and for underweight worse prognosis were found. Our results on common cancers indicate that there are tumor- and stage-specific differences.

  15. Sex and ethnic-origin specific BMI cut points improve prediction of 40-year mortality: the Israel GOH study.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Shanik, Michael; Roth, Jesse; Luski, Ayala; Lubin, Flora; Chetrit, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Although obesity has been associated with a higher risk for premature death, the sex and ethnic-origin specific body mass index (BMI) levels that are associated with increased mortality are controversial. We investigated the 40-year cumulative all-cause mortality, in relation to the BMI in adult life, among men and women originating from Yemen, Europe/America, Middle East and North Africa, using sex and ethnic-origin specific BMI cut points. A random stratified cohort (n = 5710) was sampled from the central population registry and followed since 1969 for vital status. Weight, height and blood pressure were measured, and smoking status was recorded at baseline. BMI was analysed according to conventional categories and according to sex and ethnic-origin specific quintiles. Elevated and significant mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.45] for women and 1.22 (95%CI 1.03-1.44) for men were found for the highest origin-specific BMI quintile. In men, the lowest ethnic-origin specific quintile was also significantly associated with increased mortality (HR of 1.22 95% CI 1.03-1.45), adjusting for age, smoking and blood pressure. Obesity was associated with mortality in non-smokers (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61 in men and HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.19-1.79 in women), whereas leanness was associated with mortality only among smoking men (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.77). Refinement of BMI categories using country of origin specific quintiles demonstrated significantly increased mortality in the upper quintile in both sexes, while according to the conventional values this association did not prevail in men. We propose the establishment of sex and origin-specific BMI categories when setting goals for disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  17. Heterogeneity in cause-specific mortality according to birthplace in immigrant men residing in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; de La Fuente, Luis; Martínez, David; Calle, M Elisa; Domínguez, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate whether mortality in immigrants in the region of Madrid (Spain) differs from mortality in Spanish in-country migrants. Analyses of mortality in men aged 20 to 64 years residing in Madrid were conducted, using data from the municipal population register and the cause of death register for the period 2000 through 2004. Mortality rate ratios were used to compare mortality in immigrants from different parts of the world with mortality in men residing in Madrid who were born in other regions in Spain. After adjustment was made for age and per capita income of the area of residence, the highest mortality rate ratio for the leading causes of death by disease category was observed in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest in those from South America and Asia. In immigrants from Western countries and from North Africa, the mortality rate ratios for most of the diseases studied did not differ significantly from those of Spanish in-country migrants. In general, the mortality rate ratios for external causes of death were higher than 1, and they were very high for mortality from homicide. Mortality from the leading causes of death in immigrants shows important heterogeneity depending on the place of origin and, with some exceptions, shows a pattern similar to that observed in studies carried out in other wealthy countries.

  18. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  19. Specific inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase delays preterm labour and reduces mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pirianov, Grisha; MacIntyre, David A; Lee, Yun; Waddington, Simon N; Terzidou, Vasso; Mehmet, Huseyin; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Preterm labour (PTL) is commonly associated with infection and/or inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from different bacteria can be used to independently or mutually activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP1- or NF-κB-driven inflammatory pathways that lead to PTL. Previous studies using Salmonella abortus LPS, which activates both JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB, showed that selective inhibition of NF-κB delays labour and improves pup outcome. Where labour is induced using Escherichia coli LPS (O111), which upregulates JNK/AP-1 but not NF-κB, inhibition of JNK/AP-1 activation also delays labour. In this study, to determine the potential role of JNK as a therapeutic target in PTL, we investigated the specific contribution of JNK signalling to S. Abortus LPS-induced PTL in mice. Intrauterine administration of S. Abortus LPS to pregnant mice resulted in the activation of JNK in the maternal uterus and fetal brain, upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2, CXCL1, and CCL2, phosphorylation of cPLA2 in myometrium, and induction of PTL. Specific inhibition of JNK by co-administration of specific D-JNK inhibitory peptide (D-JNKI) delayed LPS-induced preterm delivery and reduced fetal mortality. This is associated with inhibition of myometrial cPLA2 phosphorylation and proinflammatory proteins synthesis. In addition, we report that D-JNKI inhibits the activation of JNK/JNK3 and caspase-3, which are important mediators of neural cell death in the neonatal brain. Our data demonstrate that specific inhibition of TLR4-activated JNK signalling pathways has potential as a therapeutic approach in the management of infection/inflammation-associated PTL and prevention of the associated detrimental effects to the neonatal brain. PMID:26183892

  20. Specific inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase delays preterm labour and reduces mortality.

    PubMed

    Pirianov, Grisha; MacIntyre, David A; Lee, Yun; Waddington, Simon N; Terzidou, Vasso; Mehmet, Huseyin; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm labour (PTL) is commonly associated with infection and/or inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from different bacteria can be used to independently or mutually activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP1- or NF-κB-driven inflammatory pathways that lead to PTL. Previous studies using Salmonella abortus LPS, which activates both JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB, showed that selective inhibition of NF-κB delays labour and improves pup outcome. Where labour is induced using Escherichia coli LPS (O111), which upregulates JNK/AP-1 but not NF-κB, inhibition of JNK/AP-1 activation also delays labour. In this study, to determine the potential role of JNK as a therapeutic target in PTL, we investigated the specific contribution of JNK signalling to S. Abortus LPS-induced PTL in mice. Intrauterine administration of S. Abortus LPS to pregnant mice resulted in the activation of JNK in the maternal uterus and fetal brain, upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2, CXCL1, and CCL2, phosphorylation of cPLA2 in myometrium, and induction of PTL. Specific inhibition of JNK by co-administration of specific D-JNK inhibitory peptide (D-JNKI) delayed LPS-induced preterm delivery and reduced fetal mortality. This is associated with inhibition of myometrial cPLA2 phosphorylation and proinflammatory proteins synthesis. In addition, we report that D-JNKI inhibits the activation of JNK/JNK3 and caspase-3, which are important mediators of neural cell death in the neonatal brain. Our data demonstrate that specific inhibition of TLR4-activated JNK signalling pathways has potential as a therapeutic approach in the management of infection/inflammation-associated PTL and prevention of the associated detrimental effects to the neonatal brain. © 2015 The authors.

  1. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths.

  2. Overall and cause-specific excess mortality in HIV-positive persons compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Alejos, Belén; Hernando, Victoria; Iribarren, Jose; Gonzalez-García, Juan; Hernando, Asuncion; Santos, Jesus; Asensi, Victor; Gomez-Berrocal, Ana; del Amo, Julia; Jarrin, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to estimate overall and cause-specific excess mortality of HIV-positive patients compared with the general population, and to assess the effect of risk factors. We included patients aged >19 years, recruited from January 1, 2004 to May 31, 2014 in Cohort of the Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research. We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to model excess mortality rates. In 10,340 patients, 368 deaths occurred. Excess mortality was 0.82 deaths per 100 person-years for all-cause mortality, 0.11 for liver, 0.08 for non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs), 0.08 for non-AIDS infections, and 0.02 for cardiovascular-related causes. Lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load, lower education, being male, and over 50 years were predictors of overall excess mortality. Short-term (first year follow-up) overall excess hazard ratio (eHR) for subjects with AIDS at entry was 3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 5.19) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.87, 2.15) for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected; medium/long-term eHR for AIDS at entry was 0.90 (95% CI 0.58, 1.39) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.37, 6.19) for HCV coinfection. Liver excess mortality was associated with low CD4 counts and HCV coinfection. Patients aged ≥50 years and HCV-coinfected showed higher NADM excess mortality, and HCV-coinfected patients showed increased non-AIDS infections excess mortality. Overall, liver, NADM, non-AIDS infections, and cardiovascular excesses of mortality associated with being HIV-positive were found, and HCV coinfection and immunodeficiency played significant roles. Differential short and medium/long-term effects of AIDS at entry and HCV coinfection were found for overall excess mortality. PMID:27603368

  3. Education inequality in mortality: The age and gender specific mediating effects of cigarette smoking*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; Rogers, Richard G.; Hummer, Robert A.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    A debate within the mortality literature centers around the impact of health behaviors on the prospects of disadvantaged groups. Meanwhile, a growing body of work illustrates the social processes that shape changes in smoking levels by socioeconomic status (SES), especially educational attainment. These literatures are merged by examining the mediating effects of cigarette smoking on education gaps in U.S. adult mortality by age and gender. Findings reveal that cigarette smoking is an important mediator of the education-mortality gap for all males and for younger females. In particular, education-mortality gaps for young men narrow considerably when cigarette smoking is accounted for, while older women experienced no reduction in the education-mortality gap with controls for smoking. These results are consistent with diffusion arguments that describe SES differences in smoking adoption by age and gender and provide strong evidence that smoking is an important differentiator of mortality risks by education. PMID:20563305

  4. Higher sensitivity and lower specificity in post-fire mortality model validation of 11 western US tree species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Jeffrey M.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Lalemand, Laura; Keifer, MaryBeth

    2017-01-01

    Managers require accurate models to predict post-fire tree mortality to plan prescribed fire treatments and examine their effectiveness. Here we assess the performance of a common post-fire tree mortality model with an independent dataset of 11 tree species from 13 National Park Service units in the western USA. Overall model discrimination was generally strong, but performance varied considerably among species and sites. The model tended to have higher sensitivity (proportion of correctly classified dead trees) and lower specificity (proportion of correctly classified live trees) for many species, indicating an overestimation of mortality. Variation in model accuracy (percentage of live and dead trees correctly classified) among species was not related to sample size or percentage observed mortality. However, we observed a positive relationship between specificity and a species-specific bark thickness multiplier, indicating that overestimation was more common in thin-barked species. Accuracy was also quite low for thinner bark classes (<1 cm) for many species, leading to poorer model performance. Our results indicate that a common post-fire mortality model generally performs well across a range of species and sites; however, some thin-barked species and size classes would benefit from further refinement to improve model specificity.

  5. Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Neal D.; Park, Yikyung; Abnet, Christian C.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. Methods We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. Results During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline. Conclusions In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total

  6. Stage-specific biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality in a wild fish population.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein; Edeline, Eric; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-12-01

    Recently developed theoretical models of stage-structured consumer-resource systems have shown that stage-specific biomass overcompensation can arise in response to increased mortality rates. We parameterized a stage-structured population model to simulate the effects of increased adult mortality caused by a pathogen outbreak in the perch (Perca fluviatilis) population of Windermere (UK) in 1976. The model predicts biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality due to a shift in food-dependent growth and reproduction rates. Considering cannibalism between life stages in the model reinforces this compensatory response due to the release from predation on juveniles at high mortality rates. These model predictions are matched by our analysis of a 60-year time series of scientific monitoring of Windermere perch, which shows that the pathogen outbreak induced a strong decrease in adult biomass and a corresponding increase in juvenile biomass. Age-specific adult fecundity and size at age were higher after than before the disease outbreak, suggesting that the pathogen-induced mortality released adult perch from competition, thereby increasing somatic and reproductive growth. Higher juvenile survival after the pathogen outbreak due to a release from cannibalism likely contributed to the observed biomass overcompensation. Our findings have general implications for predicting population- and community-level responses to increased size-selective mortality caused by exploitation or disease outbreaks.

  7. Impacts of cold weather on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Texas, 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Cold weather was estimated to account for more than half of weather-related deaths in the U.S. during 2006-2010. Studies have shown that cold-related excessive mortality is especially relevant with decreasing latitude or in regions with mild winter. However, only limited studies have been conducted in the southern U.S. The purpose of our study is to examine impacts of cold weather on mortality in 12 major Texas Metropolitan Areas (MSAs) for the 22-year period, 1990-2011. Our study used a two-stage approach to examine the cold-mortality association. We first applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to 12 major MSAs to estimate cold effects for each area. A random effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate pooled effects. Age-stratified and cause-specific mortalities were modeled separately for each MSA. Most of the MSAs were associated with an increased risk in mortality ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% with a 1 °C decrease in temperature below the cold thresholds. Higher increased mortality risks were generally observed in MSAs with higher average daily mean temperatures and lower latitudes. Pooled effect estimate was 1.58% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 2.37]) increase in all-cause mortality risk with a 1 °C decrease in temperature. Cold wave effects in Texas were also examined, and several MSAs along the Texas Gulf Coast showed statistically significant cold wave-mortality associations. Effects of cold on all-cause mortality were highest among people over 75 years old (1.86%, 95% CI [1.09, 2.63]). Pooled estimates for cause-specific mortality were strongest in myocardial infarction (4.30%, 95% CI [1.18, 7.51]), followed by respiratory diseases (3.17%, 95% CI [0.26, 6.17]) and ischemic heart diseases (2.54%, 95% CI [1.08, 4.02]). In conclusion, cold weather generally increases mortality risk significantly in Texas, and the cold effects vary with MSAs, age groups, and cause-specific deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Emilie; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive systems for surveilling prescription opioid–related harms provide clear evidence that deaths from prescription opioids have increased dramatically in the United States. However, these harms are not systematically monitored in Canada. In light of a growing public health crisis, accessible, nationwide data sources to examine prescription opioid–related harms in Canada are needed. We sought to examine the performance of 5 algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics data against data abstracted from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario as a gold standard. Methods: We identified all prescription opioid–related deaths from Ontario coroners’ data that occurred between Jan. 31, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2010. We then used 5 different algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics death data in 2010. We selected the algorithm with the highest sensitivity and a positive predictive value of more than 80% as the optimal algorithm for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths. Results: Four of the 5 algorithms had positive predictive values of more than 80%. The algorithm with the highest sensitivity (75%) in 2010 improved slightly in its predictive performance from 2003 to 2010. Interpretation: In the absence of specific systems for monitoring prescription opioid–related deaths in Canada, readily available national vital statistics data can be used to study prescription opioid–related mortality with considerable accuracy. Despite some limitations, these data may facilitate the implementation of national surveillance and monitoring strategies. PMID:26622006

  9. Relationships of Suicide Ideation with Cause-Specific Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of South Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The…

  10. Relationships of Suicide Ideation with Cause-Specific Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of South Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The…

  11. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  12. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Vitamin D, PTH and the risk of overall and disease-specific mortality: Results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    El Hilali, Jamila; de Koning, Elisa J; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Lips, Paul; Sohl, Evelien; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Visser, Marjolein; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies suggest that low concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with a higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations are independently associated with overall and disease-specific (cardiovascular and cancer-related) mortality in a large, prospective population-based cohort of older adults. Data from 1317 men and women (65-85 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to examine whether 25(OH)D and PTH at baseline were associated with overall mortality (with a follow-up of 18 years) and disease-specific mortality (with a follow-up of 13 years). Compared to persons in the reference category of ≥75nmol/L, persons with serum 25(OH)D <25nmol/L (HR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12-1.91) and 25-49.9nmol/L (HR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01-1.53) had a significantly higher risk of overall mortality, as well as men with baseline PTH concentrations ≥7pmol/L (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.58-4.08)), compared to the reference category of <2.33pmol/L. The relationship of 25(OH)D with overall mortality was partly mediated by PTH. Furthermore, men with PTH concentrations of ≥7pmol/L (HR 3.22; 95% CI: 1.40-7.42) had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality, compared to the reference category. No significant associations of 25(OH)D or PTH with cancer-related mortality were observed. Both 25(OH)D and PTH should be considered as important health markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex specific association between carnosinase gene CNDP1 and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-22).

    PubMed

    Alkhalaf, A; Landman, G W D; van Hateren, K J J; Groenier, K H; Mooyaart, A L; De Heer, E; Gans, R O B; Navis, G J; Bakker, S J L; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2015-04-01

    Homozygosity for a 5-leucine repeat (5L-5L) in the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) has been associated with a reduced prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in cross-sectional studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly in women. Prospective studies on mortality are not available. This study investigated whether 5L-5L was associated with mortality and progression of renal function loss and to what extent this effect is modified by sex. In a prospective cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, a Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare 5L-5L with other genotypes regarding (cardiovascular) mortality. Renal function slopes were obtained by within-individual linear regression of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, and were compared between 5L-5L and other genotypes. 871 patients were included (38% with 5L-5L). After 9.5 years of follow-up, hazards ratios (HR) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 5L-5L versus other genotypes were 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.36] and 1.12 (95% CI 0.79-1.58), respectively. There was a significant interaction between CNDP1 and sex for the association with cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.01), not for all-cause mortality (p = 0.32). Adjusted HR in 5L-5L for cardiovascular mortality was 0.69 (95% CI 0.39-1.23) in men and 1.77 (95% CI 1.12-2.81) in women. The slopes of eGFR-MDRD did not significantly differ between 5L-5L and other genotypes. The association between CNDP1 and cardiovascular mortality was sex-specific, with a higher risk in women with 5L-5L genotype. CNDP1 was not associated with all-cause mortality or change in eGFR.

  15. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Janne; Obel, Niels; Gill, Michael John; Crane, Heidi; Boesecke, Christoph; Samji, Hasina; Grabar, Sophie; Cazanave, Charles; Cavassini, Matthias; Shepherd, Leah; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smit, Colette; Saag, Michael; Lampe, Fiona; Hernando, Vicky; Montero, Marta; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy; Miro, Jose; Ingle, Suzanne; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996–1999 and survived for more than ten years. Methods We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA. Results During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5%) patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified) were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years. Conclusions Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes. PMID:27525413

  16. Impact of surgical margin status on prostate-cancer-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Heather J.; Dinizo, Michael; Trock, Bruce J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Han, Misop

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relative impact of a positive surgical margin (PSM) and other clinicopathological variables on prostate-cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a large retrospective cohort of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS Between 1982 and 2011, 4569 men underwent RP performed by a single surgeon. Of the patient population, 4461 (97.6%) met all the inclusion criteria. The median (range) age was 58 (33–75) years and the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 5.4 ng/mL; RP Gleason score was ≤6 in 2834 (63.7%), 7 in 1351 (30.3%), and 8–10 in 260 (6.0%) patients; PSMs were found in 462 (10.4%) patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the impact of a PSM on PCSM. RESULTS At a median (range) follow-up of 10 years (1–29), 187 men (4.3%) had died from prostate cancer. The 20-year prostate-cancer-specific survival rate was 75% for those with a PSM and 93% for those without. Compared with those with a negative surgical margin, men with a PSM were more likely to be older (median age 60 vs 58 years) and to have undergone RP in the pre-PSA era (36.6% vs 11.8%). Additionally, they were more likely to have a higher PSA level (median 7.6 vs 5.2 ng/mL), a Gleason score of ≥7 (58.7% vs 33.7%), and a non-organ-confined tumour (90.9% vs 30.6% [P < 0.001 for all]). In a univariate model for PCSM, PSM was highly significant (hazard ratio [HR] 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7–6.7, P < 0.001). In a multivariable model, adjusting for pathological variables and RP year, PSM remained an independent predictor of PCSM (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–1.9, P = 0.036) with a modest effect relative to RP Gleason score (HR 5.7–12.6) and pathological stage (HR 2.2–11.0 [P < 0.001]). CONCLUSION Although a PSM has a statistically significant adverse effect on prostate-cancer-specific survival in multivariable analysis, Gleason grade and pathological stage were stronger predictors. PMID:22788795

  17. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeka, A; Zanobetti, A; Schwartz, J

    2005-10-01

    Consistent evidence has shown increased all-cause mortality, and mortality from broad categories of causes associated with airborne particles. Less is known about associations with specific causes of death, and modifiers of those associations. To examine these questions in 20 US cities, between 1989 and 2000. Mortality files were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Air pollution data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency website. The associations between daily concentrations of particulate matter of aero-diameter < or =10 microm (PM10) and daily mortality from all-cause and selected causes of death, were examined using a case-crossover design. Temporal effects of PM10 were examined using lag models, in first stage regressions. City specific modifiers of these associations were examined in second stage regressions. All-cause mortality increased with PM10 exposures occurring both one and two days prior the event. Deaths from heart disease were primarily associated with PM10 on the two days before, while respiratory deaths were associated with PM10 exposure on all three days. Analyses using only one lag underestimated the effects for all-cause, heart, and respiratory deaths. Several city characteristics modified the effects of PM10 on daily mortality. Important findings were seen for population density, percentage of primary PM10 from traffic, variance of summer temperature, and mean of winter temperature. There was overall evidence of increased daily mortality from increased concentrations of PM10 that persisted across several days, and matching for temperature did not affect these associations. Heterogeneity in the city specific PM10 effects could be explained by differences in certain city characteristics.

  18. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Associated with Bariatric Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Tapan S.; Davidson, Lance E.; Hunt, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether or not nonsurgical intentional or voluntary weight loss results in reduced mortality has been equivocal, with long-term mortality following weight loss being reported as increased, decreased, and not changed. In part, inconsistent results have been attributed to the uncertainty of whether the intentionality of weight loss is accurately reported in large population studies and also that achieving significant and sustained voluntary weight loss in large intervention trials is extremely difficult. Bariatric surgery has generally been free of these conflicts. Patients voluntarily undergo surgery and the resulting weight is typically significant and sustained. These elements, combined with possible non-weight loss-related mechanisms, have resulted in improved comorbidities, which likely contribute to a reduction in longterm mortality. This paper reviews the association between bariatric surgery and long-term mortality. From these studies, the general consensus is that bariatric surgical patients have: 1) significantly reduced long-term all-cause mortality when compared to severely obese non-bariatric surgical control groups; 2) greater mortality when compared to the general population, with the exception of one study; 3) reduced cardiovascular-, stroke-, and cancer-caused mortality when compared to severely obese non-operated controls; and 4) increased risk for externally caused death such as suicide. PMID:26496931

  19. [Mortality and risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Russia: Specific features, trends, and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Boytsov, S A; Deev, A D; Shalnova, S A

    2017-01-01

    In the Russian Federation, the increase in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality began in the 1960s and lasted almost continuously until 2003. In our country, the characteristics of mortality are its substantially higher rates among men and a large regional variability, which is associated with economic, climatic, and geographic factors. Urbanization coupled with dietary changes and the higher prevalence of hypertension is the most likely initial impetus to the rise in mortality rates. The subsequent increase in mortality can be explained by the higher prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors, alcoholism, and, since the 1990s, by heavy and protracted socioeconomic upheavals and lifestyle changes. The mortality decline since 2006 has been linked to the strengthening of the health system and to the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among men and hypertension in women. The slowing down of the pace of mortality decline may be due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among men. The modelling data show that by 2025, reductions in smoking prevalence rates by 23% among men and by 12% among women and increases in the efficiency of hypertension treatment by 17.2% in men and by 11.2% in women will reduce cardiovascular mortality rates by 15%.

  20. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Ouattara, Mamadou; Sanou, Aboubakary; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Abreha, Loko; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ansah, Akosua; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Gyapong, Margaret; Narh, Clement T.; Narh-Bana, Solomon A.; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ngulukyo, Emmanuel; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Sewe, Maquins; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie; Collinson, Mark A.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Kahn, Kathleen; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Bangha, Martin; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA) interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates. External causes of death are

  1. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. We studied 367,932 adults (20-93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996-2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24-1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54-2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 when eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10-2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66-2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32-1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96-2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention and management strategies in individuals with CKD

  2. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Social inequalities in total and cause-specific mortality of a sample of the Italian population, from 1999 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Marinacci, Chiara; Grippo, Francesco; Pappagallo, Marilena; Sebastiani, Gabriella; Demaria, Moreno; Vittori, Patrizia; Caranci, Nicola; Costa, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    There is extensive documentation on social inequalities in mortality across Europe, showing heterogeneity among countries. Italy contributed to this comparative research, through longitudinal systems from northern or central cities of the country. This study aims to analyse educational inequalities in general and cause-specific mortality in a sample of the Italian population. Study population was selected within a cohort of 123,056 individuals, followed up for mortality through record linkage with national archive of death certificates for the period 1999-2007. People aged between 25 and 74 years were selected (n = 81,763); relative risks of death by education were estimated through Poisson models, stratified according to sex and adjusted for age and geographic area of residence. Heterogeneity of risks by area of residence was evaluated. Men and women with primary education or less show 79% and 63% higher mortality risks, respectively, compared with graduates. Mortality risks seem to frequently increase with decreasing education, with a significant linear trend among men. For men, social inequalities appear related to mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system and to all neoplasms, whereas for women, they are related to inequalities in cancer mortality. Results from the first follow-up of a national sample highlight that Italy presents significant differences in mortality according to the socio-economic conditions of both men and women. These results not only challenge policies aimed at redistributing resources to individuals and groups, but also those policies that direct programmes and resources for treatment and prevention according to the different health needs.

  4. [Neonatal mortality in a regional perinatal hospital in Merida, Yucatan, 1995-2004 I. Analysis of the gross, specific rates].

    PubMed

    Osorno Covarrubias, Lorenzo; Acosta Mass, Arlene; Dávila Velásquez, Jorge; Rodríguez Chapuz, José; Escamilla Sosa, Manuel; Echeverría Eguiluz, Manuel

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the neonatal mortality and the specific neonatal mortality rates by groups of birthweight and gestacional age, at the Ignacio García Téllez National Medical Center which is a reference tertiary perinatal center of the Social Security Mexican Institute for the Yucatan Peninsula, along the period of 1995-2004. A cohort of 46,297 live newborns was studied with birtweight of 500 grams or more, that were discharged between January 1st 1995 and December 31st 2004. Birthweight, gestational age, length of hospitalization, condition at discharge were captured in a data base. Triennial analysis of mortality was done. The proportion of neonates with birthweight <2,500 g increased and 19% neonates <1,000 g 50%, the increment was 21% for preterm neonates, 46% for immature, and 40% for those extremely immature. The early neonatal mortality rate diminished from 7.0 to 6.9, the late mortality from 3.0 to 2.2, the neonatal from 10.0 to 9.2/1,000 live newborn, the survival increased 232% in neonates with birthweight between 500-749 g, 25% between 750-999 g, 5.8% between 1,000-1,249 g, 8.2% between 1,250-1,499 g. The neonatal mortality decreased 31.8% from the expected, because the adjusted neonatal mortality rate was 13.5 compared with the observed 9.2/1,000 live newborn. There was a significant increase of the survival with lesser birthweight and gestational age, although it was not reflected in the brut neonatal mortality rate because there was an increase of the risk population.

  5. Replication of a genetic variant for prostate cancer-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Penney, K L; Shui, I M; Feng, Z; Sesso, H D; Stampfer, M J; Stanford, J L

    2015-09-01

    Few genetic variants have been confirmed as being associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). A recent study identified 22 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCSM in a Seattle-based patient cohort. Five of these associations were replicated in an independent Swedish cohort. We genotyped these 22 SNPs in Physicians' Health Study (PHS) participants diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa). Using the same model that was found to be most significant in the Seattle cohort, we examined the association of these SNPs with lethal disease with Cox proportional hazards models. One SNP, rs5993891 in the ARVCF gene on chromosome 22q11, which had also replicated in the Swedish cohort, was also significantly associated with PCSM in the PHS cohort (hazard ratio (HR)=0.32; P=0.01). When we tested this SNP in an additional cohort (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, HPFS), the association was null (HR=0.95, P=0.90); however, a meta-analysis across all studies showed a statistically significant association with a HR of 0.52 (0.29-0.93, P=0.03). The association of rs5993891 with PCSM was further replicated in PHS and remains significant in a meta-analysis, though there was no association in HPFS. This SNP may contribute to a genetic panel of SNPs to determine at diagnosis whether a patient is more likely to exhibit an indolent or aggressive form of PCa. This study also emphasizes the importance of multiple rounds of replication.

  6. Replication of a Genetic Variant for Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Shui, Irene M.; Feng, Ziding; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few genetic variants have been confirmed as being associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). A recent study identified 22 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCSM in a Seattle-based patient cohort. Five of these associations were replicated in an independent Swedish cohort. Methods We genotyped these 22 SNPs in Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) participants diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa). Utilizing the same model found to be most significant in the Seattle cohort, we examined the association of these SNPs with lethal disease with Cox proportional hazards models. Results One SNP, rs5993891 in the ARVCF gene on chromosome 22q11, which had also replicated in the Swedish cohort, was also significantly associated with PCSM in the PHS cohort (hazard ratio (HR)=0.32; P=0.01). When we tested this SNP in an additional cohort (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, HPFS), the association was null (HR=0.95, P=0.90); however, a meta-analysis across all studies showed a statistically significant association with a HR of 0.52 (0.29–0.93, P=0.03). Conclusions The association of rs5993891 with PCSM was further replicated in PHS and remains significant in a meta-analysis, though there was no association in HPFS. This SNP may contribute to a genetic panel of SNPs to determine at diagnosis whether a patient is more likely to exhibit an indolent or aggressive form of PCa. This study also emphasizes the importance of multiple rounds of replication. PMID:25939514

  7. PREDICTING FIFTEEN-YEAR CANCER-SPECIFIC MORTALITY BASED ON THE PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Eggener, Scott E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Trock, Bruce J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Wood, David P.; Eastham, James A.; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Rabah, Danny M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Yu, Changhong; Klein, Eric A.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy is poorly defined in the era of widespread screening. An understanding of the treated natural history of screen-detected cancers and the pathological risk factors for PCSM are needed for treatment decision-making. Methods Using Fine and Gray competing risk regression analysis, the clinical and pathological data and follow-up information of 11,521 patients treated by radical prostatectomy at four academic centers from 1987 to 2005 were modeled to predict PCSM. The model was validated on 12,389 patients treated at a separate institution during the same period. Results The overall 15-year PCSM was 7%. Primary and secondary pathological Gleason grade 4–5 (P < 0.001 for both), seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.001), and year of surgery (P = 0.002) were significant predictors of PCSM. A nomogram predicting 15-year PCSM based on standard pathological parameters was accurate and discriminating with an externally-validated concordance index of 0.92. Stratified by patient age, 15-year PCSM for Gleason score ≤ 6, 3+4, 4+3, and 8–10 ranged from 0.2–1.2%, 4.2–6.5%, 6.6–11%, and 26–37%, respectively. The 15-year PCSM risks ranged from 0.8–1.5%, 2.9–10%, 15–27%, and 22–30% for organ-confined cancer, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastasis, respectively. Only 3 of 9557 patients with organ-confined, Gleason score ≤ 6 cancers have died from prostate cancer. Conclusions The presence of poorly differentiated cancer and seminal vesicle invasion are the prime determinants of PCSM after radical prostatectomy. The risk of PCSM can be predicted with unprecedented accuracy once the pathological features of prostate cancer are known. PMID:21239008

  8. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(3)-2 - Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to determine present value. 1.430(h)(3)-2 Section 1.430(h)(3)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.430(h)(3)-2 Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value. (a) In...)(C) in determining any present value or making any computation under section 430 in accordance...

  9. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  10. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  11. Short-term effects of gaseous pollutants on cause-specific mortality in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengmin Qian; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin

    2007-07-15

    This study was to determine the acute mortality effects of the gaseous pollutants in Wuhan, China a city with 7.5 million permanent residents during the period from 2000 to 2004. The major sources of air pollution in the city are motor vehicles and the use of coal for domestic cooking, heating, and industrial processes. In recent years, combustion of gas has been the most common method for domestic cooking. There is a large coal-combustion smelter in the district. There are approximately 4.5 million residents in Wuhan who live in the city's core area of 201 km{sup 2}, where air pollution levels are highest, and pollution ranges are wider than the majority of the cities in the published literature. We used the generalized additive model to analyze pollution, mortality, and covariate data. We found consistent NO{sub 2} effects on mortality with the strongest effects on the same day. Every 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} increase in NO{sub 2} daily concentration on the same day was associated with an increase in nonaccidental cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and cardiopulmonary mortality. These effects were stronger among the elderly than among the young. Formal examination of exposure-response curves suggests no-threshold linear relationships between daily mortality and NO{sub 2}, where the NO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from 19.2 to 127.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were not associated with daily mortality. The exposure response relationships demonstrated heterogeneity, with some curves showing nonlinear relationships for SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. We conclude that there is consistent evidence of acute effects of NO{sub 2} on mortality and suggest that a no-threshold linear relationship exists between NO{sub 2} and mortality. 36 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of Patient Specific Predictors for Mortality in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danda, Neeraja; Etzion, Zipora; Cohen, Hillel W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction White Blood Cell (WBC) count, %HbF, and serum creatinine (Cr), have been identified as markers for increased mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA) but no studies have examined the significance of longitudinal rate of change in these or other biomarkers for SCA individuals. Methods Clinical, demographic and laboratory data from SCA patients seen in 2002 by our hospital system were obtained. Those who were still followed in 2012 (survival cohort) were compared to those who had died in the interim (mortality cohort). Patients lost to follow-up were excluded. Age adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess hazard ratios of mortality risk associated with the direction and degree of change for each variable. Results 359 SCA patients were identified. Baseline higher levels of WBC, serum creatinine and hospital admissions were associated with increased mortality, as were alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase levels. Lower baseline levels of %HbF were also associated with increased mortality. When longitudinal rates of change for individuals were assessed, increases in Hb or WBC over patient baseline values were associated with greater mortality risk (HR 1.54, p = 0.02 and HR 1.16, p = 0.01 with negative predictive values of 87.8 and 94.4 respectively), while increasing ED use was associated with decreased mortality (HR 0.84, p = 0.01). We did not detect any increased mortality risk for longitudinal changes in annual clinic visits or admissions, creatinine or %HbF. Conclusions Although initial steady state observations can help predict survival in SCA, the longitudinal course of a patient may give additional prognostic information. PMID:27764159

  13. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Canada during the era of prostate-specific antigen screening

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, James; Shane, Amanda; Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Joffres, Michel; Singh, Harminder; Bell, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to screen for prostate cancer began in the early 1990s. Advocates for screening assert that this has caused a decrease in prostate cancer mortality. We sought to describe secular changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Canada in relation to the onset of PSA screening. Methods: Age-standardized and age-specific prostate cancer incidence (1969-2007) and mortality (1969-2009) from Public Health Agency of Canada databases were analyzed by joinpoint regression. Changes in incidence and mortality were related to introduction of PSA screening. Results: Prior to PSA screening, prostate cancer incidence increased from 54.2 to 99.8 per 100 000 between 1969 and 1990. Thereafter, incidence increased sharply (12.8% per year) to peak at 140.8/100 000 in 1993. After decreasing in all age groups between 1993 and 1996, incidence continued to increase for men aged less than 70 years, but decreased for older men. Age-standardized mortality was stable from 1969 to 1977, increased 1.4% per year to peak in 1995 and subsequently decreased at 3.3% per year; the decline started from 1987 in younger men (age < 60 yr). Interpretation: Incidence was increasing before PSA screening occurred, but rose further after it was introduced. Reductions in prostate cancer mortality began before PSA screening was widely used and were larger than could be anticipated from screening alone. These findings suggest that screening caused artifactual increase in incidence, but no more than a part of reductions in prostate cancer mortality. The reduction may be due to changing treatment or certification of death. PMID:27280117

  14. Cause‐specific long‐term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; Ammann, Roland A.; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause‐specific long‐term mortality in a population‐based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976–2007) at age 0–14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age‐, calendar year‐, and sex‐standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause‐specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5‐year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty‐five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow‐up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  15. Cause-specific long-term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D; Ammann, Roland A; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-07-15

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause-specific long-term mortality in a population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976-2007) at age 0-14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age-, calendar year-, and sex-standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause-specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5-year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty-five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow-up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  16. High juvenile mortality is associated with sex-specific adult survival and lifespan in wild roe deer.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Lemaître, Jean-François; Douhard, Mathieu; Bonenfant, Christophe; Capron, Gilles; Warnant, Claude; Klein, François; Brooks, Robert C; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-16

    Male mammals typically have shorter lifespans than females [1]. Sex differences in survival may result, in part, from sex-specific optima in investment in reproduction, with higher male mortality rates from sexual competition selecting for a "live-fast die-young" strategy in this sex [2]. In the wild, lifespan is also influenced by environmental conditions experienced early in life. Poor conditions elevate juvenile mortality, which may selectively remove individuals with a particular phenotype or genotype from a cohort [3], and can alter the subsequent phenotypic condition and fate of those that survive to adulthood [4]. Males and females can respond differently to the same early-life environmental experiences [5, 6], but whether such environmental pressures generate sex differences in lifespan has rarely been considered. We show that sex differences in adult survival and lifespan in cohorts of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) range from virtually absent in some years to females living 30% longer than males in others. The extent of this sex difference in adult longevity is strongly linked to the level of mortality each cohort experiences as juveniles, with high juvenile mortality generating a strong sex difference in both adult survival and lifespan. In females, high juvenile mortality leads to increased adult survival for those remaining individuals, whereas in males survival is actually reduced. Early environmental conditions and the selective pressures they impose may help to explain variability in sex-specific aging across animal taxa.

  17. Reducing mortality risk by targeting specific air pollution sources: Suva, Fiji.

    PubMed

    Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, A J; Cohen, D D; Mani, F S; Maata, M

    2017-08-29

    Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM2.5: effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation. A review of recent literature has been carried out to delineate the mortality risk associated with these sources. Risk factors have then been applied for Suva, to calculate the possible mortality reduction that may be achieved through reduction in pollutant levels. Higher risk ratios for black carbon and sulphur resulted in mortality predictions for PM2.5 from fossil fuel combustion, road vehicle emissions and waste burning that surpass predictions for these sources based on health risk of PM2.5 mass alone. Predicted mortality for Suva from fossil fuel smoke exceeds the national toll from road accidents in Fiji. The greatest benefit for Suva, in terms of reduced mortality, is likely to be accomplished by reducing emissions from fossil fuel combustion (diesel), vehicles and waste burning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Combined Impact of Lifestyle-Related Factors on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality among Chinese Women: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Butian; Zhang, Xianglan; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women. Methods and Findings We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996–2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake). The score ranged from zero (least healthy) to five (most healthy) points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44–0.74) for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16–0.54) for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54–1.06) for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4–5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths. Conclusions In

  19. Dyspnoea as a predictor of cause-specific heart/lung disease mortality in Bangladesh: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Gene R; Argos, Maria; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul

    2016-07-01

    The spectrum of mortality outcomes by cause in populations with/without dyspnoea has not been determined. The study aimed to evaluate whether dyspnoea, a symptom, predicts cause-specific mortality differences between groups. The hypothesis was that diseases that result in chronic dyspnoea, those originating from the heart and lungs, would preferentially result in heart and lung disease mortality in those with baseline dyspnoea (relative to no dyspnoea) when followed over time. A population-based sample of 11 533 Bangladeshis was recruited and followed for 11-12 years and cause-specific mortality evaluated in those with and without baseline dyspnoea. Dyspnoea was ascertained by trained physicians. The cause of death was determined by verbal autopsy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Fine-Gray competing risk hazards model and logistic regression models were used to determine group differences in cause-specific mortality. Compared to those not reporting dyspnoea at baseline, the adjusted HRs were 6.4 (3.8 to 10.7), 9.3 (3.9 to 22.3), 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8), 2.2 (1.0 to 5.1) and 2.8 (1.3 to 6.2) for greater risk of dying from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, heart disease, tuberculosis and lung cancer, respectively. In contrast, there was a similar risk of dying from stroke, cancer (excluding lung), liver disease, accidents and other (miscellaneous causes) between the dyspnoeic and non-dyspnoeic groups. In addition, the HR was 2.1 (1.7 to 2.5) for greater all-cause mortality in those with baseline dyspnoea versus no dyspnoea. Dyspnoea, ascertained by a single question with binary response, predicts heart and lung disease mortality. Individuals reporting dyspnoea were twofold to ninefold more likely to die of diseases that involve the heart and/or lungs relative to the non-dyspnoeic individuals. Therefore, in those with chronic dyspnoea, workup to look for the five common dyspnoeic diseases resulting in increased mortality (COPD, asthma, heart disease

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR) of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR) of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. Results Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41–11.06) and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01–4.30), compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18–3.14), respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52–21.42 for uncategorized production worker), and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22–4.24) systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52–3.66) including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32–10.01). Conclusion This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work. PMID:24505454

  1. Size fractionate particulate matter, vehicle traffic, and case-specific daily mortality in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Perez, L; Medina-Ramón, M; Künzli, N; Alastuey, A; Pey, J; Pérez, N; Garcia, R; Tobias, A; Querol, X; Sunyer, J

    2009-07-01

    Recent epidemiological research suggests that short-term effects of particle matter (PM) in urban areas may preferentially be driven by fine fractions. Questions remain concerning the adversehealth effects of coarse particles generated by noncombustion, traffic-related processes and the mechanism of action of PM. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, we investigated the association between three independent size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5), intermodal (PM2.5-1), and very fine PMs (PM1), and three health outcomes, respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular mortality in Barcelona, Spain, during the period of March 2003-December 2005. Using existing data, we examined the chemical composition of each fraction to explore the effects of PM from different sources and the mechanisms of action. We found that increased levels of PM, and PM10-2.5 were associated with increased levels of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality at lag 1 and lag 2. At lag 1, the odds ratio (OR) for a 1 microg/m3 increase in PM1 was 1.028 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000-1.058] for cardiovascular mortality and 1.063 (95% CI, 1.004-1.124) for cerebrovascular mortality. At lag 1, the odds ratio per a 10 microg/ m3 increase of PM10-2.5 was 1.059 (95% CI, 1.026-1.094) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.098 (95% CI, 1.030-1.171) for cerebrovascular mortality. Association with respiratory mortality was only detected for PM2.5-1 at lag 2 (OR, 1.206 per a 10 microg/ m3 increase; 95% CI, 1.028-1.416). Chemical composition data showed that PM in Barcelona was generated in a large proportion by vehicle traffic. Vehicle traffic PM, generated by combustion and noncombustion processes, should be considered in air pollution mitigation strategies in urban areas.

  2. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city.

  3. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; van Dam, Rob M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Data on the long-term association between low-carbohydrate diets and mortality are sparse. Objective To examine the association of low-carbohydrate diets with mortality during 26 years of follow-up in women and 20 years in men. Design A prospective cohort study of women and men, followed from 1980 (women) or 1986 (men) until 2006. Low-carbohydrate diets, either animal-based (emphasizing animal sources of fat and protein), or vegetable-based (emphasizing vegetable sources of fat and protein) were computed from multiple validated food frequency questionnaire assessed during follow-up. Setting Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study Participants 85,168 women (aged 34-59 years at baseline) and 44,548 men (aged 40-75 years at baseline) without heart disease, cancer, or diabetes. Measurement Investigator documented 12,555 deaths (2,458 cardiovascular, 5,780 cancer) in women and 8,678 deaths (2,746 cardiovascular, 2,960 cancer) in men. Results The overall low-carbohydrate score was associated with a modest increase in overall mortality in pooled analysis (Hazard Ratio, HR, comparing extreme deciles=1.12 (95% CI=1.01-1.24, p-trend=0.14). The animal low-carbohydrate score was associated with a higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR comparing extreme deciles=1.23, 95% CI=1.11-1.37, p-trend=0.05), cardiovascular mortality (corresponding HR=1.14, 95% CI=1.01-1.29, p-trend=0.029), and cancer mortality (corresponding HR=1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.60, p for trend = 0.09). In contrast, a higher vegetable low-carbohydrate score was associated with lower all-cause (HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.75-0.85, p-trend<0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.68-0.87, p-trend<0.001). Limitations Diet and lifestyle characteristics were assessed with some degree of error, however, sensitivity analyses indicated that results were not unlikely to be substantially affected by residual or confounding or an unmeasured confounder. In addition, participants were not a

  4. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors and cause-specific mortality in US adults123

    PubMed Central

    George, Stephanie M; Moore, Steven C; Bowles, Heather R; Blair, Aaron; Park, Yikyung; Troiano, Richard P; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sedentary behaviors predominate modern life, yet we do not fully understand the adverse effects of these behaviors on mortality after considering the benefits of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Objective: We tested the hypotheses that higher amounts of overall sitting time and television viewing are positively associated with mortality and described the independent and combined effects of these sedentary behaviors and MVPA on mortality. Design: In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined 240,819 adults (aged 50–71 y) who did not report any cancer, cardiovascular disease, or respiratory disease at baseline. Mortality was ascertained over 8.5 y. Results: Sedentary behaviors were positively associated with mortality after adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, diet, race, and MVPA. Participants who reported the most television viewing (≥7 h compared with <1 h/d) were at greater risk of all-cause (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.47, 1.76), cardiovascular (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.56, 2.20), and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.40) mortality after adjustment for MVPA. Overall sitting was associated with all-cause mortality. Even among adults reporting high levels of MVPA (>7 h/wk), high amounts of television viewing (≥7 h/d) remained associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.79) and cardiovascular (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.00) mortality compared with those reporting the least television viewing (<1 h/d). Conclusions: Time spent in sedentary behaviors was positively associated with mortality, and participation in high levels of MVPA did not fully mitigate health risks associated with prolonged time watching television. Adults should be encouraged to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors, when possible, and to participate in MVPA at recommended levels. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:22218159

  5. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension.

  6. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  7. Age-Specific Variation in Adult Mortality Rates in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Y. Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical changes in both single-year-of-age adult mortality rates and variation of the single-year mortality rates around expected values within age intervals over the past two centuries in 15 developed countries. We apply an integrated Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort—Variance Function Regression Model to data from the Human Mortality Database. We find increasing variation of the single-year rates within broader age intervals over the life course for all countries, but the increasing variation slows down at age 90 and then increases again after age 100 for some countries; the variation significantly declined across cohorts born after the early 20th century; and the variation continuously declined over much of the last two centuries but has substantially increased since 1980. Our further analysis finds the recent increases in mortality variation are not due to increasing proportions of older adults in the population, trends in mortality rates, or disproportionate delays in deaths from degenerative and man-made diseases, but rather due to increasing variations in young and middle-age adults. PMID:28133402

  8. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Cause-Specific Mortality in the General Population: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Souma, Nao; Isakova, Tamara; Lipiszko, David; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; DeRosa, Janet T; Silverberg, Shonni J; Mendez, Armando J; Dong, Chuanhui; Wright, Clinton B; Wolf, Myles

    2016-10-01

    An elevated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with kidney disease. The relationship between FGF23 and cause-specific mortality in the general population is unknown. To investigate the association of elevated FGF23 with the risk of cause-specific mortality in a racially and ethnically diverse urban general population. The Northern Manhattan Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. Residents who were > 39 years old and had no history of stroke were enrolled between 1993 and 2001. Participants with available blood samples for baseline FGF23 testing were included in the current study (n = 2525). Cause-specific death events. A total of 1198 deaths (474 vascular, 612 nonvascular, 112 unknown cause) occurred during a median follow-up of 14 years. Compared to participants in the lowest FGF23 quintile, those in the highest quintile had a 2.07-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45, 2.94) of vascular death and a 1.64-fold higher risk (95% CI, 1.22, 2.20) of nonvascular death in fully adjusted models. Higher FGF23 was independently associated with increased risk of mortality due to cancer, but only in Hispanic participants (hazard ratio per 1 unit increase in ln FGF23 of 1.87; 95% CI, 1.40, 2.50; P for interaction = .01). Elevated FGF23 was independently associated with increased risk of vascular and nonvascular mortality in a diverse general population and with increased risk of cancer death specifically in Hispanic individuals.

  9. Clopidogrel use and cancer-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Blánaid M; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-08-01

    Concerns were raised about the safety of antiplatelet thienopyridine derivatives after a randomized control trial reported increased risks of cancer and cancer deaths in prasugrel users. We investigate whether clopidogrel, a widely used thienopyridine derivative, was associated with increased risk of cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in cancer patients. Colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients, newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009, were identified from the National Cancer Data Repository. Cohorts were linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, providing prescription records, and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (up to 2012). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in post-diagnostic clopidogrel users were calculated using time-dependent Cox regression models. The analysis included 10 359 colorectal, 17 889 breast and 13 155 prostate cancer patients. There was no evidence of an increase in cancer-specific mortality in clopidogrel users with colorectal (HR = 0.98 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77, 1.24) or prostate cancer (HR = 1.03 95%CI 0.82, 1.28). There was limited evidence of an increase in breast cancer patients (HR = 1.22 95%CI 0.90, 1.65); however, this was attenuated when removing prescriptions in the year prior to death. This novel study of large population-based cohorts of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients found no evidence of an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality among colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients using clopidogrel. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.

  11. Impact of different domains of physical activity on cause-specific mortality: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Miriam; Tarnutzer, Silvan; Martin, Brian W; Braun, Julia; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the associations between different domains of physical activity and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. Participants (n=17,663, aged 16-92 years) of two general population health studies conducted between 1977 and 1993 in Switzerland were included. Physical activity was assessed at baseline in the domains of commuting to work, work-related physical activity, and leisure-time physical activity (including leisure-time activity level and sport activity). A median follow-up time of 20.2 years was obtained with anonymous record linkage providing 3878 deaths (CVD: 1357; cancer: 1351). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were calculated. There were no significant associations between commuting and work-related physical activities, respectively, and mortality. Leisure-time activity level was associated with all-cause mortality in men [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.63-0.89] and women [HR 0.82 (0.74-0.91)], with CVD mortality in women only [HR 0.79 (0.67-0.94)] and with cancer mortality in men only [HR 0.63 (0.47-0.86)]. Sport activity was associated with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in men [HR ranged between 0.76 (0.63-0.92) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95)], but not in women. These results underline the public health relevance of physical activity for the prevention of CVD and cancer, especially regarding leisure-time physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Song, Xiaoling; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-10-07

    Although omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) have been recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), controversy remains about benefits versus harms, including concerns over theorized proinflammatory effects of n-6 PUFA. We investigated associations of circulating n-6 PUFA including linoleic acid (the major dietary PUFA), γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid, with total and cause-specific mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based U.S. cohort. Among 2792 participants(aged ≥65 years) free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFA were measured at baseline using standardized methods. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, and total incident CHD and stroke, were assessed and adjudicated centrally. Associations of PUFA with risk were assessed by Cox regression. During 34 291 person-years of follow-up (1992-2010), 1994 deaths occurred (678 cardiovascular deaths), with 427 fatal and 418 nonfatal CHD, and 154 fatal and 399 nonfatal strokes. In multivariable models, higher linoleic acid was associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratio =0.87 (P trend=0.005). Lower death was largely attributable to cardiovascular disease causes, especially nonarrhythmic CHD mortality (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.82; P trend=0.001). Circulating γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid were not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality (eg, for arachidonic acid and CHD death, the extreme-quintile hazard ratio was 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.34; P trend=0.87). Evaluated semiparametrically, linoleic acid showed graded inverse associations with total mortality (P=0.005). There was little evidence that associations of n-6 PUFA with total mortality varied by age, sex, race, or plasma n-3 PUFA. Evaluating both n-6 and n-3 PUFA, lowest risk was evident with highest levels of both. High circulating

  13. Examining the association of olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jou-Wei; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Caffrey, James L; Wu, Li-Chiu; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2014-05-01

    Concerns about an increased cardiovascular risk with the angiotensin receptor blocker, olmesartan, prompted the current study to examine associations between olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortalities. We collected patients who started to use losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan, and olmesartan between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, from Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database. Prescribed drug types, dosage, and other clinical information were collected. Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality were ascertained through linkages with Taiwan's National Death Registry. Two follow-up analyses, labeled intention-to-treat and as-treated, were conducted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using losartan as the reference group. A total of 690 463 subjects were included, with a mean follow-up ranging from a low of 2.8 years for olmesartan to a high of 4.1 years for irbesartan. Subjects who began with valsartan had a modest but significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06) compared with losartan. Irbesartan (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), candesartan (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), telmisartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96), and olmesartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97) were associated with a slightly lower overall mortality risk than losartan. The analysis indicates that the differences in mortality risk among individual angiotensin receptor blockers were only marginal and thus less likely to be clinically important. Although uncontrolled confounding might still exist, olmesartan does not seem to increase cardiovascular risk compared with losartan.

  14. Cause-specific mortality by occupational skill level in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, M; Wilkins, R; Long, A

    2013-09-01

    Mortality data by occupation are not routinely available in Canada, so we analyzed census-linked data to examine cause-specific mortality rates across groups of occupations ranked by skill level. A 15% sample of 1991 Canadian Census respondents aged 25 years or older was previously linked to 16 years of mortality data (1991-2006). The current analysis is based on 2.3 million people aged 25 to 64 years at cohort inception, among whom there were 164 332 deaths during the follow-up period. Occupations coded according to the National Occupation Classification were grouped into five skill levels. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios (RRs), rate differences (RDs) and excess mortality were calculated by occupational skill level for various causes of death. ASMRs were clearly graded by skill level: they were highest among those employed in unskilled jobs (and those without an occupation) and lowest for those in professional occupations. All-cause RRs for men were 1.16, 1.40, 1.63 and 1.83 with decreasing occupational skill level compared with professionals. For women the gradient was less steep: 1.23, 1.24, 1.32 and 1.53. This gradient was present for most causes of death. Rate ratios comparing lowest to highest skill levels were greater than 2 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide and cancer of the cervix as well as for causes of death associated with tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption. Mortality gradients by occupational skill level were evident for most causes of death. These results provide detailed cause-specific baseline indicators not previously available for Canada.

  15. Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Norat, Teresa; Murphy, Neil; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Perquier, Florence; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M; Brustad, Magritt; Åsli, Lene Angell; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J Ramón; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz Aicua, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Key, Timothy; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,717 men and women. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy. During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d. Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance.

  16. Age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in European harbour seals.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Tero; Harding, Karin; Rasmussen, Thomas Dau; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2007-09-12

    Analyses of the dynamics of diseases in wild populations typically assume all individuals to be identical. However, profound effects on the long-term impact on the host population can be expected if the disease has age and sex dependent dynamics. The Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) caused two mass mortalities in European harbour seals in 1988 and in 2002. We show the mortality patterns were highly age specific on both occasions, where young of the year and adult (>4 yrs) animals suffered extremely high mortality, and sub-adult seals (1-3 yrs) of both sexes experienced low mortality. Consequently, genetic differences cannot have played a main role explaining why some seals survived and some did not in the study region, since parents had higher mortality levels than their progeny. Furthermore, there was a conspicuous absence of animals older than 14 years among the victims in 2002, which strongly indicates that the survivors from the previous disease outbreak in 1988 had acquired and maintained immunity to PDV. These specific mortality patterns imply that contact rates and susceptibility to the disease are strongly age and sex dependent variables, underlining the need for structured epidemic models for wildlife diseases. Detailed data can thus provide crucial information about a number of vital parameters such as functional herd immunity. One of many future challenges in understanding the epidemiology of the PDV and other wildlife diseases is to reveal how immune system responses differ among animals in different stages during their life cycle. The influence of such underlying mechanisms may also explain the limited evidence for abrupt disease thresholds in wild populations.

  17. City-Specific Spatiotemporal Infant and Neonatal Mortality Clusters: Links with Socioeconomic and Air Pollution Spatial Patterns in France

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Cindy M.; Kihal-Talantikit, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica M.; Deguen, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Infant and neonatal mortality indicators are known to vary geographically, possibly as a result of socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. To better understand how these factors contribute to spatial and temporal patterns, we conducted a French ecological study comparing two time periods between 2002 and 2009 for three (purposefully distinct) Metropolitan Areas (MAs) and the city of Paris, using the French census block of parental residence as the geographic unit of analysis. We identified areas of excess risk and assessed the role of neighborhood deprivation and average nitrogen dioxide concentrations using generalized additive models to generate maps smoothed on longitude and latitude. Comparison of the two time periods indicated that statistically significant areas of elevated infant and neonatal mortality shifted northwards for the city of Paris, are present only in the earlier time period for Lille MA, only in the later time period for Lyon MA, and decrease over time for Marseille MA. These city-specific geographic patterns in neonatal and infant mortality are largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. Spatial analysis can be a useful tool for understanding how risk factors contribute to disparities in health outcomes ranging from infant mortality to infectious disease—a leading cause of infant mortality. PMID:27338439

  18. Admission plasma levels of the neuronal injury marker neuron-specific enolase are associated with mortality and delirium in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Reilly, John P; Shashaty, Michael G S; Palakshappa, Jessica A; Wysoczanski, Alex; Dunn, Thomas G; Kazi, Altaf; Tommasini, Anna; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Schweickert, William D; Kolson, Dennis L; Christie, Jason D; Meyer, Nuala J

    2016-12-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) concentrations are prognostic following traumatic and anoxic brain injury and may provide a method to quantify neuronal injury in other populations. We determined the association of admission plasma NSE concentrations with mortality and delirium in critically ill septic patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 124 patients from a larger sepsis cohort. Plasma NSE was measured in the earliest blood draw at intensive care unit admission. Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and intensive care unit delirium determined by chart review. Sixty-one patients (49.2%) died within 30 days, and delirium developed in 34 (31.5%) of the 108 patients who survived at least 24 hours and were not persistently comatose. Each doubling of the NSE concentration was associated with a 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-12.0, P= .003) increased risk of 30-day mortality and a 5.2% (95% CI 3.2-7.2, P< .001) increased risk of delirium. An NSE concentration >12.5 μg/L was independently associated with a 23.3% (95% CI 6.7-39.9, P= .006) increased risk of 30-day mortality and a 29.3% (95% CI 8.8-49.8, P= .005) increased risk of delirium. Higher plasma NSE concentrations were associated with mortality and delirium in critically ill septic patients, suggesting that NSE may have utility as a marker of neuronal injury in sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fine and Gray competing risk regression model to study the cause-specific under-five child mortality in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khandoker Akib; Fatima-Tuz-Zahura, Most; Bari, Wasimul

    2017-01-28

    The cause-specific under-five mortality of Bangladesh has been studied by fitting cumulative incidence function (CIF) based Fine and Gray competing risk regression model (1999). For the purpose of analysis, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data set was used. Three types of mode of mortality for the under-five children are considered. These are disease, non-disease and other causes. Product-Limit survival probabilities for the under-five child mortality with log-rank test were used to select a set of covariates for the regression model. The covariates found to have significant association in bivariate analysis were only considered in the regression analysis. Potential determinants of under-five child mortality due to disease is size of child at birth, while gender of child, NGO (non-government organization) membership of mother, mother's education level, and size of child at birth are due to non-disease and age of mother at birth, NGO membership of mother, and mother's education level are for the mortality due to other causes. Female participation in the education programs needs to be increased because of the improvement of child health and government should arrange family and social awareness programs as well as health related programs for women so that they are aware of their child health.

  20. City-Specific Spatiotemporal Infant and Neonatal Mortality Clusters: Links with Socioeconomic and Air Pollution Spatial Patterns in France.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikit, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica M; Deguen, Séverine

    2016-06-22

    Infant and neonatal mortality indicators are known to vary geographically, possibly as a result of socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. To better understand how these factors contribute to spatial and temporal patterns, we conducted a French ecological study comparing two time periods between 2002 and 2009 for three (purposefully distinct) Metropolitan Areas (MAs) and the city of Paris, using the French census block of parental residence as the geographic unit of analysis. We identified areas of excess risk and assessed the role of neighborhood deprivation and average nitrogen dioxide concentrations using generalized additive models to generate maps smoothed on longitude and latitude. Comparison of the two time periods indicated that statistically significant areas of elevated infant and neonatal mortality shifted northwards for the city of Paris, are present only in the earlier time period for Lille MA, only in the later time period for Lyon MA, and decrease over time for Marseille MA. These city-specific geographic patterns in neonatal and infant mortality are largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. Spatial analysis can be a useful tool for understanding how risk factors contribute to disparities in health outcomes ranging from infant mortality to infectious disease-a leading cause of infant mortality.

  1. Physical activity and cancer-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steve C.; Park, Yikyung; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael; Matthews, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Higher physical activity levels have been associated with a lower risk of developing various cancers and all-cancer mortality, but the impact of pre-diagnosis physical activity on cancer-specific death has not been fully characterized. In the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with 293,511 men and women, we studied pre-diagnosis moderate to vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity (MVPA) in the past 10 years and cancer-specific mortality. Over a median 12.1 years we observed 15,001 cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MVPA with cancer mortality overall and by 20 specific cancer sites, adjusting for relevant risk factors. Compared to participants reporting never/rare MVPA, those reporting >7 hours/week MVPA had a lower risk of total cancer mortality (HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.94; p-trend<.001). When analyzed by cancer site-specific deaths, comparing those reporting >7 hours/week of MVPA to those reporting never/rare MVPA, we observed a lower risk of death from colon (HR=0.70; 95% CI 0.57–0.85; p-trend<.001), liver (0.71; 0.52–0.98; p-trend=.012) and lung cancer (0.84; 0.77–0.92; p-trend<.001) and a significant p-trend for non-Hodgkins lymphoma (0.80; 0.62–1.04; p-trend=.017). An unexpected increased mortality p-trend with increasing MVPA was observed for death from kidney cancer (1.42; 0.98–2.03; p-trend=.016). Our findings suggest that higher pre-diagnosis leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of overall cancer mortality and mortality from multiple cancer sites. Future studies should confirm observed associations and further explore timing of physical activity and underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:24311115

  2. Physical activity and cancer-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steve C; Park, Yikyung; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael; Matthews, Charles E

    2014-07-15

    Higher physical activity levels have been associated with a lower risk of developing various cancers and all-cancer mortality, but the impact of pre-diagnosis physical activity on cancer-specific death has not been fully characterized. In the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with 293,511 men and women, we studied prediagnosis moderate to vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity (MVPA) in the past 10 years and cancer-specific mortality. Over a median 12.1 years, we observed 15,001 cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MVPA with cancer mortality overall and by 20 specific cancer sites, adjusting for relevant risk factors. Compared to participants reporting never/rare MVPA, those reporting >7 hr/week MVPA had a lower risk of total cancer mortality (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.94; p-trend <0.001). When analyzed by cancer site-specific deaths, comparing those reporting >7 hr/week of MVPA to those reporting never/rare MVPA, we observed a lower risk of death from colon (HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.85; p-trend <0.001), liver (0.71; 0.52-0.98; p-trend = 0.012) and lung cancer (0.84; 0.77-0.92; p-trend <0.001) and a significant p-trend for non-Hodgkins lymphoma (0.80; 0.62-1.04; p-trend = 0.017). An unexpected increased mortality p-trend with increasing MVPA was observed for death from kidney cancer (1.42; 0.98-2.03; p-trend = 0.016). Our findings suggest that higher prediagnosis leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of overall cancer mortality and mortality from multiple cancer sites. Future studies should confirm observed associations and further explore timing of physical activity and underlying biological mechanisms.

  3. The heterologous (non-specific) effects of vaccines: implications for policy in high-mortality countries.

    PubMed

    Shann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There are important interactions between vaccines, and between vaccines and unrelated (heterologous) infections. In high-mortality regions, until the next vaccine is given, live vaccines such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccines reduce mortality from infections such as pneumonia and sepsis. However, non-live vaccines such as diphtheria, tetanus and whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase mortality from infections other than diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. All-cause mortality might be reduced if an extra dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine were given at 20 weeks of age, 4-6 weeks after the third dose of DTP, with no subsequent doses of DTP in girls, and no vitamin A in girls or boys before the second dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Policy should change to increase the proportion of babies given BCG and oral polio vaccine at birth, and should recognize the important differences between BCG, DTP and measles vaccines produced by different manufacturers.

  4. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15–60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table

  5. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    PubMed

    2017-09-16

    Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific

  6. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Lange, Theis

    2011-02-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with <1% loss to follow-up. Body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were measured annually through self-reporting. During follow-up, a total of 1,045 men and women died. Sleep disturbances were associated with a higher overall mortality risk in men (P = 0.005) but not in women (P = 0.33). This effect was most pronounced for men <45 years of age (≥3 symptoms vs. none: hazard ratio = 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.33). There were no clear associations between sleep disturbances and cardiovascular mortality rates, although men and women with sleep disturbances were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes (P < 0.001). Compared with people with no sleep disturbances, men who reported ≥3 types of sleep disturbance had an almost 5 times' higher risk of committing suicide (hazard ratio = 4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 15.7). Future strategies to prevent premature deaths may benefit from assessment of sleep disturbances, especially in younger individuals.

  7. Sleep Disturbances and Cause-Specific Mortality: Results From the GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Lange, Theis

    2011-01-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with <1% loss to follow-up. Body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were measured annually through self-reporting. During follow-up, a total of 1,045 men and women died. Sleep disturbances were associated with a higher overall mortality risk in men (P = 0.005) but not in women (P = 0.33). This effect was most pronounced for men <45 years of age (≥3 symptoms vs. none: hazard ratio = 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.33). There were no clear associations between sleep disturbances and cardiovascular mortality rates, although men and women with sleep disturbances were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes (P < 0.001). Compared with people with no sleep disturbances, men who reported ≥3 types of sleep disturbance had an almost 5 times' higher risk of committing suicide (hazard ratio = 4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 15.7). Future strategies to prevent premature deaths may benefit from assessment of sleep disturbances, especially in younger individuals. PMID:21193534

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis for the effect of ambient particulate matter on cause-specific respiratory mortality in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuying; Guo, Yuming; Li, Guoxing; Zhang, Yajuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Jin, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiaochuan; Chen, Liangfu

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the association between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and the cause-specific respiratory mortality. We used the ordinary kriging method to estimate the spatial characteristics of ambient PM10 at 1-km × 1-km resolution across Beijing during 2008-2009 and subsequently fit the exposure-response relationship between the estimated PM10 and the mortality due to total respiratory disease, chronic lower respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia at the street or township area levels using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). We also examined the effects of age, gender, and season in the stratified analysis. The effects of ambient PM10 on the cause-specific respiratory mortality were the strongest at lag0-5 except for pneumonia, and an inter-quantile range increase in PM10 was associated with an 8.04 % (95 % CI 4.00, 12.63) increase in mortality for total respiratory disease, a 6.63 % (95 % CI 1.65, 11.86) increase for chronic lower respiratory disease, and a 5.68 % (95 % CI 0.54, 11.09) increase for COPD, respectively. Higher risks due to the PM10 exposure were observed for females and elderly individuals. Seasonal stratification analysis showed that the effects of PM10 on mortality due to pneumonia were stronger during spring and autumn. While for COPD, the effect of PM10 in winter was statistically significant (15.54 %, 95 % CI 5.64, 26.35) and the greatest among the seasons. The GAMM model evaluated stronger associations between concentration of PM10. There were significant associations between PM10 and mortality due to respiratory disease at the street or township area levels. The GAMM model using high-resolution PM10 could better capture the association between PM10 and respiratory mortality. Gender, age, and season also acted as effect modifiers for the relationship between PM10 and respiratory mortality.

  9. Walking and running produce similar reductions in cause-specific disease mortality in hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    To test prospectively in hypertensives whether moderate and vigorous exercise produce equivalent reductions in mortality, Cox-proportional hazard analyses were applied to energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents hours/day, METh/d) in 6,973 walkers and 3,907 runners who used hypertensive medications at baseline. 1121 died during 10.2-year follow-up: 695 cardiovascular disease (CVD, ICD10 I00-99, 465 underlying cause, 230 contributing cause), 124 cerebrovascular disease, 353 ischemic heart disease (ICD10 I20-25, 257 underlying, 96 contributing), 122 heart failure (ICD10 I50, 24 underlying, 98 contributing), and 260 dysrhythmias (ICD10 I46-49, 24 underlying, 236 contributing). Relative to <1.07 METh/d, running or walking 1.8-3.6 METh/d produced significantly lower all-cause (29% reduction, 95%CI: 17% to 39%, P=0.0001), CVD (34% reduction, 95%CI: 20% to 46%, P=0.0001), cerebrovascular disease (55% reduction, 95%CI: 27% to 73%, P=0.001), dysrhythmia (47% reduction, 95%CI: 27% to 62%, P=0.0001), and heart failure mortality (51% reduction, 95%CI: 21% to 70%, P=0.003), as did ≥3.6 METh/d with all-cause (22% reduction, 95%CI: 6% to 35%, P=0.005), CVD (36% reduction, 95%CI: 19% to 50%, P=0.0002), cerebrovascular disease (47% reduction, 95%CI: 6% to 71%, P=0.03), and dysrhythmia mortality (43% reduction, 95%CI: 16% to 62%, P=0.004). Diabetes and chronic kidney disease mortality also decreased significantly with METh/d. All results remained significant when BMI adjusted. Merely meeting guideline levels (1.07 to 1.8 METh/d) did not significantly reduced mortality. The dose-response was significantly nonlinear for all endpoints except diabetes, and cerebrovascular and chronic kidney disease. Results did not differ between running and walking. Thus, walking and running produce similar reductions in mortality in hypertensives. PMID:23940195

  10. Walking and running produce similar reductions in cause-specific disease mortality in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-09-01

    To test prospectively in hypertensives whether moderate and vigorous exercise produces equivalent reductions in mortality, Cox-proportional hazard analyses were applied to energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents hours/d [METh/d]) in 6973 walkers and 3907 runners who used hypertensive medications at baseline. A total of 1121 died during 10.2-year follow-up: 695 cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision [ICD10] I00-99; 465 underlying cause and 230 contributing cause), 124 cerebrovascular disease, 353 ischemic heart disease (ICD10 I20-25; 257 underlying and 96 contributing), 122 heart failure (ICD10 I50; 24 underlying and 98 contributing), and 260 dysrhythmias (ICD10 I46-49; 24 underlying and 236 contributing). Relative to <1.07 METh/d, running or walking 1.8 to 3.6 METh/d produced significantly lower all-cause (29% reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-39%; P=0.0001), cardiovascular disease (34% reduction; 95% CI, 20%-46%; P=0.0001), cerebrovascular disease (55% reduction; 95% CI, 27%-73%; P=0.001), dysrhythmia (47% reduction; 95% CI, 27%-62%; P=0.0001), and heart failure mortality (51% reduction; 95% CI, 21%-70%; P=0.003), as did ≥ 3.6 METh/d with all-cause (22% reduction; 95% CI, 6%-35%; P=0.005), cardiovascular disease (36% reduction; 95% CI, 19%-50%; P=0.0002), cerebrovascular disease (47% reduction; 95% CI, 6%-71%; P=0.03), and dysrhythmia mortality (43% reduction; 95% CI, 16%-62%; P=0.004). Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease mortality also decreased significantly with METh/d. All results remained significant when body mass index adjusted. Merely meeting guideline levels (1.07-1.8 METh/d) did not significantly reduced mortality. The dose-response was significantly nonlinear for all end points except diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular and chronic kidney disease. Results did not differ between running and walking. Thus, walking and running produce similar reductions in mortality in hypertensives.

  11. Knock down of Whitefly Gut Gene Expression and Mortality by Orally Delivered Gut Gene-Specific dsRNAs.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Meenal; Raza, Amir; Ali, Muhammad Yousaf; Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Brown, Judith K

    2017-01-01

    Control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) agricultural pest and plant virus vector relies on the use of chemical insecticides. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent innate immune response in eukaryotes, including insects, which results in degradation of the corresponding transcript following its recognition by a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that shares 100% sequence homology. In this study, six whitefly 'gut' genes were selected from an in silico-annotated transcriptome library constructed from the whitefly alimentary canal or 'gut' of the B biotype of B. tabaci, and tested for knock down efficacy, post-ingestion of dsRNAs that share 100% sequence homology to each respective gene target. Candidate genes were: Acetylcholine receptor subunit α, Alpha glucosidase 1, Aquaporin 1, Heat shock protein 70, Trehalase1, and Trehalose transporter1. The efficacy of RNAi knock down was further tested in a gene-specific functional bioassay, and mortality was recorded in 24 hr intervals, six days, post-treatment. Based on qPCR analysis, all six genes tested showed significantly reduced gene expression. Moderate-to-high whitefly mortality was associated with the down-regulation of osmoregulation, sugar metabolism and sugar transport-associated genes, demonstrating that whitefly survivability was linked with RNAi results. Silenced Acetylcholine receptor subunit α and Heat shock protein 70 genes showed an initial low whitefly mortality, however, following insecticide or high temperature treatments, respectively, significantly increased knockdown efficacy and death was observed, indicating enhanced post-knockdown sensitivity perhaps related to systemic silencing. The oral delivery of gut-specific dsRNAs, when combined with qPCR analysis of gene expression and a corresponding gene-specific bioassay that relates knockdown and mortality, offers a viable approach for functional genomics analysis and the discovery of prospective dsRNA biopesticide targets. The approach can

  12. The relationship between incarceration and premature adult mortality: gender specific evidence.

    PubMed

    Massoglia, Michael; Pare, Paul-Philippe; Schnittker, Jason; Gagnon, Alain

    2014-07-01

    We examine the relationship between incarceration and premature mortality for men and women. Analyses using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) reveal strong gender differences. Using two different analytic procedures the results show that women with a history of incarceration are more likely to die than women without such a history, even after controlling for health status and criminal behavior prior to incarceration, the availability of health insurance, and other socio-demographic factors. In contrast, there is no relationship between incarceration and mortality for men after accounting for these factors. The results point to the importance of examining gender differences in the collateral consequences of incarceration. The results also contribute to a rapidly emerging literature linking incarceration to various health hazards. Although men constitute the bulk of inmates, future research should not neglect the special circumstances of female former inmates and their rapidly growing numbers.

  13. Socioeconomic Status across the Life Course and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    We used high quality register based data to study the relationship between childhood and adult socio-demographic characteristics and all-cause and cause-specific mortality at ages 35–72 in Finland among cohorts born in 1936–1950. The analyses were based on a 10% sample of households drawn from the 1950 Finnish Census of Population with the follow-up of household members in subsequent censuses and death records beginning from the end of 1970 through the end of 2007. The strengths of these data come from the fact that neither childhood nor adult characteristics are self reported and thus are not subject to recall bias, misreporting and no loss to follow-up after age 35. In addition, the study population includes several families with at least two children enabling us to control for unobserved family characteristics. We documented significant associations between early life social and family conditions on all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality, with protective effects of higher childhood socio-demographic characteristics varying between 10% and 30%. These associations were mostly mediated through adult educational attainment and occupation, suggesting that the indirect effects of childhood conditions were more important than their direct effects. We further found that adult socioeconomic status was a significant predictor of mortality. The associations between adult characteristics and mortality were robust to controls for observed and unobserved childhood characteristics. The results imply that long-term adverse health consequences of disadvantaged early life social circumstances may be mitigated by investments in educational and employment opportunities in early adulthood. PMID:24369809

  14. All-cause and disease-specific mortality among male, former elite athletes: an average 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Jyrki A; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli; Peltonen, Markku; Eriksson, Johan G; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate life expectancy and mortality among former elite athletes and controls. HR analysis of cause-specific deaths sourced from the national death registry for former Finnish male endurance, team and power sports athletes (N=2363) and controls (N=1657). The median follow-up time was 50 years. Median life expectancy was higher in the endurance (79.1 years, 95% CI 76.6 to 80.6) and team (78.8, 78.1 to 79.8) sports athletes than in controls (72.9, 71.8 to 74.3). Compared to controls, risk for total mortality adjusted for socioeconomic status and birth cohort was lower in the endurance ((HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.79)) and team (0.80, 0.72 to 0.89) sports athletes, and slightly lower in the power sports athletes (0.93, 0.85 to 1.03). HR for ischaemic heart disease mortality was lower in the endurance (0.68, 0.54 to 0.86) and team sports (0.73, 0.60 to 0.89) athletes. HR for stroke mortality was 0.52 (0.33 to 0.83) in the endurance and 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88) in the team sports athletes. Compared to controls, the risk for smoking-related cancer mortality was lower in the endurance (HR 0.20, 0.08 to 0.47) and power sports (0.40, 0.25 to 0.66) athletes. For dementia mortality, the power sports athletes, particularly boxers, had increased risk (HR 4.20, 2.30 to 7.81). Elite athletes have 5-6 years additional life expectancy when compared to men who were healthy as young adults. Lower mortality for cardiovascular disease was in part due to lower rates of smoking, as tobacco-related cancer mortality was especially low. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Anaemia, Haemoglobin Level and Cause-Specific Mortality in People with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Czernichow, Sébastien; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Both anaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in people with diabetes. While individually both characteristics are known to raise mortality risk, their combined influence has yet to be quantified. In this pooling project, we examined the combined impact of baseline haemoglobin levels and existing CVD on all-cause and CVD mortality in people with diabetes. We draw comparison of these effects with those apparent in diabetes-free individuals. Methods/Principal Findings A combined analyses of 7 UK population-based cohorts resulted in 26,480 study members. There were 946 participants with physician-diagnosed diabetes, 2227 with anaemia [haemoglobin<13 g/dl (men) or <12 (women)], 2592 with existing CVD (stroke, ischaemic heart disease), and 21,396 with none of the conditions. Across diabetes and anaemia subgroups, and using diabetes-free, non-anaemic participants as the referent group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.30–1.63) for anaemia, 1.67 (1.45–1.92) for diabetes, and 2.10 (1.55–2.85) for diabetes and anaemia combined. Across combined diabetes, anaemia and CVD subgroups, and compared with non-anaemic, diabetes-free and CVD-free participants, HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.49 (1.32–1.69) anaemia, 1.60 (1.46–1.76) for existing CVD, and 1.66 (1.39–1.97) for diabetes alone. Equivalents were 2.13 (1.48–3.07) for anaemia and diabetes, 2.68 (2.14–3.36) for diabetes and existing CVD, and 3.25 (1.88–5.62) for the three combined. Patterns were similar for CVD mortality. Conclusions/Significance Individually, anaemia and CVD confer similar mortality risks in people with diabetes, and are excessively fatal in combination. Screening for anaemia would identify vulnerable diabetic patients whose outcomes can potentially be improved. PMID:22876293

  16. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases.Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age.Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors.Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend < 0.01) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.73; P-trend < 0.01). The corresponding HRs for all-cancer mortality were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; P-trend = 0.03) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.84; P-trend = 0.01), and for all-cardiovascular disease mortality they were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.00; P-trend = 0.06) and HR: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.88; P-trend = 0.01).Conclusions: Findings from this biracial prospective study suggest that diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

  17. Does size matter? A test of size-specific mortality in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Newton, M; Barry, J; Dodd, J A; Lucas, M C; Boylan, P; Adams, C E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters were assessed to determine if mortality was size dependent. The routinely accepted, but widely debated, '2% transmitter mass: body mass' rule in biotelemetry was tested by extending the transmitter burden up to 12·7% of body mass in small [mean fork length (LF ) 138·3 mm, range 115-168 mm] downstream migrating S. salar smolts. Over the short timescale of emigration (range 11·9-44·5 days) through the lower river and estuary, mortality was not related to S. salar size, nor was a relationship found between mortality probability and transmitter mass: body mass or transmitter length: LF ratios. This study provides further evidence that smolt migration studies can deviate from the '2% rule' of thumb, to more appropriate study-specific measures, which enables the use of fishes representative of the body size in natural populations without undue effects. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality Pattern and Its Changing Feature According to Estrogen Receptor Status in Two Time Periods.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Liu, Yirong; Jiang, Yizhou; Shao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether and how the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) changed along with time periods. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry to identify 228209 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1], 112981) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2], 115228). BCSM was compared in two cohorts using Cox proportional hazard regression models. We analysed the relative hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute BCSM rates by flexible parametric survival modelling. The patterns of BCSM were similar between the two cohorts, with the peak of mortality presenting in the first 2-3 years after diagnosis, and mortality rate significantly decreased in C2 in all cases. In C2, the annual BCSM rate of all cases was 9.64 (per 1000 persons per year) in year 10 with a peak rate of 23.34 in year 2. In ER-negative and high-risk patients, marked survival improvements were achieved mostly in the first 5 years, while in ER-positive and low-risk patients, survival improvements were less but constant up to 10 years. There has been a significant improvement of BCSM with substantially decreased mortality within 5 years. The current pattern of BCSM and its changing feature differs according to ER status. Our findings have some clinical implications both for treatment decisions and adjuvant treatment trial design.

  19. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions.

  20. The associations between US state and local social spending, income inequality, and individual all-cause and cause-specific mortality: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    To investigate government state and local spending on public goods and income inequality as predictors of the risks of dying. Data on 431,637 adults aged 30-74 and 375,354 adults aged 20-44 in the 48 contiguous US states were used from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study to estimate the impacts of state and local spending and income inequality on individual risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for leading causes of death in younger and middle-aged adults and older adults. To reduce bias, models incorporated state fixed effects and instrumental variables. Each additional $250 per capita per year spent on welfare predicted a 3-percentage point (-0.031, 95% CI: -0.059, -0.0027) lower probability of dying from any cause. Each additional $250 per capita spent on welfare and education predicted 1.6-percentage point (-0.016, 95% CI: -0.031, -0.0011) and 0.8-percentage point (-0.008, 95% CI: -0.0156, -0.00024) lower probabilities of dying from coronary heart disease (CHD), respectively. No associations were found for colon cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; for diabetes, external injury, and suicide, estimates were inverse but modest in magnitude. A 0.1 higher Gini coefficient (higher income inequality) predicted 1-percentage point (0.010, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0180) and 0.2-percentage point (0.002, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.002) higher probabilities of dying from CHD and suicide, respectively. Empirical linkages were identified between state-level spending on welfare and education and lower individual risks of dying, particularly from CHD and all causes combined. State-level income inequality predicted higher risks of dying from CHD and suicide. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  2. The Interval to Biochemical Failure Is Prognostic for Metastasis, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Overall Mortality After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler; Jackson, William; Li, Darren; Song, Yeohan; Foster, Corey; Foster, Ben; Zhou, Jessica; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Feng, Felix; Hamstra, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer as a surrogate endpoint for distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality (OM). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 575 patients treated with SRT after RP from a single institution. Of those, 250 patients experienced biochemical failure (BF), with the IBF defined as the time from commencement of SRT to BF. The IBF was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models for its association with DM, PCSM, and OM. Results: The median follow-up time was 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 49.8-121.1) months, with a median IBF of 16.8 (IQR, 8.5-37.1) months. With a cutoff time of 18 months, as previously used, 129 (52%) of patients had IBF ≤18 months. There were no differences among any clinical or pathologic features between those with IBF ≤ and those with IBF >18 months. On log–rank analysis, IBF ≤18 months was prognostic for increased DM (P<.0001, HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.2-7.4), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.1), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.1). Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other clinical variables demonstrated that IBF was independently prognostic for DM (P<.001, HR 4.9), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.0), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7). IBF showed minimal change in performance regardless of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use. Conclusion: After SRT, a short IBF can be used for early identification of patients who are most likely to experience progression to DM, PCSM, and OM. IBF ≤18 months may be useful in clinical practice or as an endpoint for clinical trials.

  3. Trends in age-specific coronary heart disease mortality in the European Union over three decades: 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Melanie; Townsend, Nick; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Recent decades have seen very large declines in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality across most of Europe, partly due to declines in risk factors such as smoking. Cardiovascular diseases (predominantly CHD and stroke), remain, however, the main cause of death in most European countries, and many risk factors for CHD, particularly obesity, have been increasing substantially over the same period. It is hypothesized that observed reductions in CHD mortality have occurred largely within older age groups, and that rates in younger groups may be plateauing or increasing as the gains from reduced smoking rates are increasingly cancelled out by increasing rates of obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine sex-specific trends in CHD mortality between 1980 and 2009 in the European Union (EU) and compare trends between adult age groups. Sex-specific data from the WHO global mortality database were analysed using the joinpoint software to examine trends and significant changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Specific age groups analysed were: under 45, 45-54, 55-64, and 65 years and over. The number and location of significant joinpoints for each country by sex and age group was determined (maximum of 3) using a log-linear model, and the annual percentage change within each segment calculated. Average annual percentage change overall (1980-2009) and separately for each decade were calculated with respect to the underlying joinpoint model. Recent CHD rates are now less than half what they were in the early 1980s in many countries, in younger adult age groups as well as in the population overall. Trends in mortality rates vary markedly between EU countries, but less so between age groups and sexes within countries. Fifteen countries showed evidence of a recent plateauing of trends in at least one age group for men, as did 12 countries for women. This did not, however, appear to be any more common in younger age groups compared with older adults

  4. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Men Released From State Prison, 1980–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David L.; Wohl, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We compared mortality of ex-prisoners and other state residents to identify unmet health care needs among former prisoners. Methods. We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1980 to 2005 to estimate the number of overall and cause-specific deaths among male ex-prisoners aged 20 to 69 years and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the number of expected deaths had they experienced the same age-, race-, and cause-specific death rates as other state residents. Results. All-cause mortality among White (SMR = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04, 2.13) and Black (SMR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05) ex-prisoners was greater than for other male NC residents. Ex-prisoners' deaths from homicide, accidents, substance use, HIV, liver disease, and liver cancer were greater than the expected number of deaths estimated using death rates among other NC residents. Deaths from cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes were at least 30% greater than expected for White ex-prisoners, but less than expected for Black ex-prisoners. Conclusions. Ex-prisoners experienced more deaths than would have been expected among other NC residents. Excess deaths from injuries and medical conditions common to prison populations highlight ex-prisoners' medical vulnerability and the need to improve correctional and community preventive health services. PMID:18923131

  5. Differences in survival and cause-specific mortality in a culturally diverse Greek population, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Christos; Nena, Evangelia; Agorastakis, Michalis; Constantinidis, Theodore C

    2016-03-01

    Modern urban populations exhibit considerable internal heterogeneity. Several social groups, such as ethnic minorities or immigrants, constitute individual clusters with different demographic and epidemiological characteristics. Death records were collected from the Municipality Registry between 1999 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted for (i) natively born Greeks, (ii) former USSR-repatriated Greeks and (iii) Roma. Further evaluation was conducted by log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Relative mortality rates were assessed by means of cross-tabulation (Pearson's χ(2)). Statistically significant differences in median survival were observed among the three social groups (P < 0.001). The relative mortality from infectious diseases was higher in the Roma population compared with natively born Greeks, odds ratio (OR) = 8.31 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 3.19-21.61]. More than 70% of these deaths were attributed to respiratory tract infections and were associated with children under the age of 5. Excess mortality due to external causes, injuries and substance abuse was observed in repatriated males compared with their natively born counterparts, OR = 2.27 (CI 95% 1.35-3.81). Specific public health interventions are required, to improve the survival of different cultural groups. For example, improvement of immunization status and increase in overall hygiene awareness can ameliorate high infant/childhood mortality in Roma population, while social integration can help reduce acculturation-related mortality among repatriated Greeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption Quantity and Frequency and Cancer-Specific Mortality in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Chen, Chiung M.; Graubard, Barry I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective associations between quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and cancer-specific mortality were studied using a nationally representative sample with pooled data from the 1988, 1990, 1991, and 1997–2004 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 323,354). By 2006, 8,362 participants had died of cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks. Among current alcohol drinkers, for all-site cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking (≥3 drinks on drinking days vs. 1 drink on drinking days) was associated with increased risk among men (relative risk (RR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.41; P for linear trend = 0.001); higher-frequency drinking (≥3 days/week vs. <1 day/week) was associated with increased risk among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.55; P-trend < 0.001). Lung cancer mortality results were similar, but among never smokers, results were null. For colorectal cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking was associated with increased risk among women (RR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.18; P-trend = 0.03). Higher-frequency drinking was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.38; P for quadratic effect = 0.03) and tended to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.17; P-trend = 0.06). Epidemiologic studies of alcohol and cancer mortality should consider the independent effects of quantity and frequency. PMID:21965184

  7. Education and cause-specific mortality: the mediating role of differential exposure and vulnerability to behavioral risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Helene; Lange, Theis; Osler, Merete; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-05-01

    Differential exposures to behavioral risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the education-mortality relation. However, little is known about the extent to which educational attainment interacts with health behavior, possibly through differential vulnerability. In a cohort study of 76,294 participants 30 to 70 years of age, we estimated educational differences in cause-specific mortality from 1980 through 2009 and the mediating role of behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index). With the use of marginal structural models and three-way effect decomposition, we simultaneously regarded the behavioral risk factors as intermediates and clarified the role of their interaction with educational exposure. Rate differences in mortality comparing participants with low to high education were 1,277 (95% confidence interval = 1,062 to 1,492) per 100,000 person-years for men and 746 (598 to 894) per 100,000 person-years for women. Smoking was the strongest mediator for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality when conditioning on sex, age, and cohort. The proportion mediated through smoking was most pronounced in cancer mortality as a combination of the pure indirect effect, owing to differential exposure (men, 42% [25% to 75%]; women, 36% [17% to 74%]) and the mediated interactive effect, owing to differential vulnerability (men, 18% [2% to 35%], women, 26% [8% to 50%]). The mediating effects through body mass index, alcohol intake, or physical activity were partial and varied for the causes of deaths. Differential exposure and vulnerability should be addressed simultaneously, as these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may operate at the same time.

  8. Plutonium-related work and cause-specific mortality at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David; Wolf, Susanne; Mihlan, Gary

    2004-02-01

    Health effects of working with plutonium remain unclear. Plutonium workers at the United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, USA were evaluated for increased risks of cancer and non-cancer mortality. Periods of employment in jobs with routine or non-routine potential for plutonium exposure were identified for 26,389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978. Life table regression was used to examine associations of length of employment in plutonium jobs with confirmed plutonium deposition and with cause specific mortality through 1994. Incidence of confirmed internal plutonium deposition in all plutonium workers was 15.4 times greater than in other Hanford jobs. Plutonium workers had low death rates compared to other workers, particularly for cancer causes. Mortality for several causes was positively associated with length of employment in routine plutonium jobs, especially for employment at older ages. At ages 50 and above, death rates for non-external causes of death, all cancers, cancers of tissues where plutonium deposits, and lung cancer, increased 2.0 +/- 1.1%, 2.6 +/- 2.0%, 4.9 +/- 3.3%, and 7.1 +/- 3.4% (+/-SE) per year of employment in routine plutonium jobs, respectively. Workers employed in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure have low mortality rates compared to other Hanford workers even with adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and employment factors. This may be due, in part, to medical screening. Associations between duration of employment in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure and mortality may indicate occupational exposure effects. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Association between body mass index and cause-specific mortality as well as hospitalization in frail Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tuen-Ching; Luk, James Ka Hay; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Felix Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has been reported, but there are few studies examining the association between BMI and cause-specific mortality and hospitalization. We carried out a longitudinal study to examine these associations in Chinese older adults with multiple comorbidities, which could provide a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. From 2004 to 2013, a retrospective cohort of Chinese older adults was selected from a geriatric day hospital in Hong Kong. They were divided into groups according to their BMI: BMI <16; BMI 16-18; BMI 18.1-20; BMI 20.1-22; BMI 22.1-24; BMI 24.1-26; BMI 26.1-28; BMI 28.1-30 and BMI >30. Other assessments included medical, functional, cognitive, social and nutritional assessment. A total of 1747 older adults (mean age 80.8 ± 7.1 years, 44.1% male, 46.1% living in nursing homes, Charlson Comorbidity Index 2.0 ± 1.6) with a median follow up of 3.5 years were included. Older adults with BMI 24-28 had the lowest all-cause, infection-related and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and hazard ratio for all-cause and infection-related mortality in both nursing home and community-dwelling older adults. The rate of all-cause hospitalization was lower in older adults with BMI 22-28 (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between the odds ratio of recurrent hospitalization and BMI. Chinese older adults with BMI 24-28 had lower all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality and all-cause hospitalization. This study provides a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Racial disparities in adult all-cause and cause-specific mortality among us adults: mediating and moderating factors.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Mode, N; Dore, G A; Canas, J A; Eid, S M; Zonderman, A B

    2016-10-22

    Studies uncovering factors beyond socio-economic status (SES) that would explain racial and ethnic disparities in mortality are scarce. Using prospective cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality disparities by race, mediation through key factors and moderation by age (20-49 vs. 50+), sex and poverty status. Cox proportional hazards, discrete-time hazards and competing risk regression models were conducted (N = 16,573 participants, n = 4207 deaths, Median time = 170 months (1-217 months)). Age, sex and poverty income ratio-adjusted hazard rates were higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) vs. Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Within the above-poverty young men stratum where this association was the strongest, the socio-demographic-adjusted HR = 2.59, p < 0.001 was only partially attenuated by SES and other factors (full model HR = 2.08, p = 0.003). Income, education, diet quality, allostatic load and self-rated health, were among key mediators explaining NHB vs. NHW disparity in mortality. The Hispanic paradox was observed consistently among women above poverty (young and old). NHBs had higher CVD-related mortality risk compared to NHW which was explained by factors beyond SES. Those factors did not explain excess risk among NHB for neoplasm-related death (fully adjusted HR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.75, p = 0.044). Moreover, those factors explained the lower risk of neoplasm-related death among MA compared to NHW, while CVD-related mortality risk became lower among MA compared to NHW upon multivariate adjustment. In sum, racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality (particularly cardiovascular and neoplasms) were partly explained by socio-demographic, SES, health-related and dietary factors, and differentially by age, sex and poverty strata.

  11. Fertile lifespan characteristics and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among postmenopausal women: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Kavousi, Maryam; Erler, Nicole S; Hofman, Albert; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relation between established and previously unexplored characteristics of the fertile life with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 4,076 postmenopausal women. Women's fertile lifespan (age at menarche to menopause), number of children, maternal age at first and last child, maternal lifespan (interval between maternal age at first and last child), postmaternal fertile lifespan (interval between age at last child and menopause), lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles, and unopposed cumulative endogenous estrogen (E) exposure. Registry-based all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A total of 2,754 women died during 14.8 years of follow-up. Compared with women with 2-3 children, a 12% higher hazard of dying was found for women having 1 child (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.24), which became nonsignificant in models adjusted for confounders (HR, 1.08; 95% CI 0.96-1.21). Late age at first and last birth were associated with a 1% lower hazard of dying (HR, 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-1.00). Longer maternal and postmaternal fertile lifespan (HR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02), longer fertile lifespan (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.05), and unopposed cumulative E exposure (HR, 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04) were significantly harmful for all-cause mortality. Findings differed with regard to direction, size, and statistical significance when stratifying for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other mortality. Overall, we found that late first and last reproduction were protective for all-cause mortality, whereas a longer maternal lifespan, postmaternal fertile lifespan, and E exposure were harmful for all-cause mortality. More research is needed in contemporary cohorts with larger sample sizes and more extreme ages of birth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cause-specific mortality by race in low-income Black and White people with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, B N; May, M E; Fischl, A; Frisbee, J; Han, X; Blot, W J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate, with extended follow-up, cause-specific mortality among low-income Black and White Americans with Type 2 diabetes who have similar socio-economic status. Methods Black and White Americans aged 40–79 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 12 498) were recruited from community health centres as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios and 95% CIs for subsequent cause-specific mortality, based on both underlying and contributing causes of death. Results During the follow-up (median 5.9 years), 13.3% of the study population died. The leading causes of death in each race were ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, cancer, renal failure and heart failure; however, Blacks were at a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) or respiratory disorders (hazard ratio 0.70, 0.53–0.92) than Whites but had higher or similar mortality attributable to renal failure (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.40), heart failure (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.19) and cancer (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62–1.22). Risk factors for each cause of death were generally similar in each race. Conclusions These findings suggest that the leading causes of death and their risk factors are largely similar among Black and White Americans with diabetes. For the two leading causes of death in each race, however, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disorders, the magnitude of risk is lower among Black Americans and contributes to their higher survival rates. PMID:25112863

  13. Infant mortality at time of birth and cause-specific adult mortality among residents of the Region of Madrid born elsewhere in Spain.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L; Calle, M Elisa; Navarro, Pedro; Domínguez, Vicente

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the association between infant mortality at time of birth and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood in men and women. Linked mortality study based on mortality records for 1996 and 1997 and on 1996 population census data of the Region of Madrid (Spain). Deaths from five cancer sites and from five chronic diseases were estimated for 1 224 894 people aged 35-74 years residing in the Region of Madrid who were born elsewhere in Spain. A gradient in mortality by infant mortality quartile was seen for mortality from stomach cancer, colon cancer, diabetes mellitus and chronic liver disease in men, and for stomach cancer, ischaemic heart disease and chronic liver disease in women. The association was positive for stomach cancer and negative for all other causes. The relative mortality rates adjusted for age and adult socioeconomic factors for men belonging to infant mortality quartiles 3 and 4 (highest) versus those belonging to quartiles 1 and 2 as baseline were 1.06 (95% CI : 0.75-1.56) for stomach cancer, 0.67 (95% CI : 0.47-0.95) for colon cancer, 0.59 (95% CI : 0.35- 1.00) for diabetes mellitus, and 0.70 (95% CI : 0.49-0.99) for chronic heart disease. The relative mortality rates for women were 2.06 (95% CI : 1.09-3.88) for stomach cancer, 0.58 (95% CI : 0.41-0.80) for ischaemic heart disease, and 0.44 (95% CI : 0.27-0.70) for chronic liver disease. Higher infant mortality at time of birth is associated with adult mortality from diabetes mellitus and colon cancer in men, from ischaemic heart disease in women, and from stomach cancer and chronic liver disease in both sexes. These results most likely reflect adverse living conditions and/or nutritional deprivation in childhood.

  14. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Sara M.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Hall, Aron J.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Duarte, Ana S. R.; Black, Robert E.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the global and regional incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases caused by nine pathogens that are commonly transmitted through foods. Methods and Findings We abstracted data from systematic reviews and, depending on the overall mortality rates of the country, applied either a national incidence estimate approach or a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) approach to estimate the aetiology-specific incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases, by age and region. The nine diarrhoeal diseases assessed caused an estimated 1.8 billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.1–3.3 billion) cases and 599,000 (95% UI 472,000–802,000) deaths worldwide in 2010. The largest number of cases were caused by norovirus (677 million; 95% UI 468–1,153 million), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (233 million; 95% UI 154–380 million), Shigella spp. (188 million; 95% UI 94–379 million) and Giardia lamblia (179 million; 95% UI 125–263); the largest number of deaths were caused by norovirus (213,515; 95% UI 171,783–266,561), enteropathogenic E. coli (121,455; 95% UI 103,657–143,348), ETEC (73,041; 95% UI 55,474–96,984) and Shigella (64,993; 95% UI 48,966–92,357). There were marked regional differences in incidence and mortality for these nine diseases. Nearly 40% of cases and 43% of deaths caused by these nine diarrhoeal diseases occurred in children under five years of age. Conclusions Diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens are responsible for a large disease burden, particularly in children. These aetiology-specific burden estimates can inform efforts to reduce diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens commonly

  15. Geo-Specific disease and the Stroke Belt: Do soils play a role in stroke mortality?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concept of geo-specific disease is commonly associated with socio-economic factors, such as income and education that can affect the incidence of preventable diseases. However, geo-specific diseases may also be influenced by environmental factors, such as soil and water quality. Local soil and w...

  16. Air pollution and mortality: effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Pun, Vivian C; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2015-04-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m(3) increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥ ∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9-1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO2, and SO2. People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6-2.3% additional increase in PM and NO2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution.

  17. [Maternal mortality decrease at IMSS, 2000-2005. As a result of specific actions or by chance?].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; de la Cruz-Mejía, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    to assessment the epidemiological characteristics and evolution of maternal hospital deaths at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) on the years 2000-2005 and to analyze a possible relation with a specific program to reduce it, starting in 2001. we collected and studied data about 253 and 144 hospital maternal deaths between 2000 and 2005, respectively. We compared rates, causes, type of obstetrical death, age, parity, history of prenatal care and preventability at admission in hospitals were the women died. Data about live births in were obtained from the official Information Medical System of IMSS. The analysis was made with descriptive statistical measures and values of chi(2). the maternal mortality rate fell by 30.8 %, as result of a decline from 39 per 100,000 live births in 2000, to 27 in 2005; the proportion of direct obstetric deaths showed a reduction from 77.1 to 66.7 %; all the specific-age mortality rates felt too, but with some variability. Preeclampsia-eclampsia, hemorrhages and abortion were responsible for more of 50 % of total deaths in both years compared. We did not observe significant changes in other variables. the reduction in general rate of hospital maternal mortality, in percentage of direct obstetric causes of death and specific-age rates were chronologically coincidental with the development of a program to increase opportunity and quality of obstetric care at the whole institution. The results let us think there is a possible cause-effect relation. It is imperative to conduct a more long-term observation to confirm this epidemiological phenomenon.

  18. Site-specific solid cancer mortality following exposure to ionizing radiation: a cohort study of workers (INWORKS).

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; Haylock, Richard; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2017-10-04

    There is considerable scientific interest in associations between protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of specific types of cancer. Associations between ionizing radiation and site-specific solid cancer mortality were examined among 308,297 nuclear workers employed in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Workers were monitored for external radiation exposure and follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person-years. Radiation-mortality associations were estimated using a maximum likelihood method and using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, the latter used to fit a hierarchical regression model to stabilize estimates of association. The analysis included 17,957 deaths due to solid cancer, the most common being lung, prostate, and colon cancer. Using a maximum likelihood method to quantify associations between radiation dose and site-specific cancer, we obtained positive point estimates for oral, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, peritoneum, larynx, lung, pleura, bone and connective tissue, skin, ovary, testis, and thyroid cancer; in addition, we obtained negative point estimates for cancer of the liver and gallbladder, prostate, bladder, kidney, and brain. Most of these estimated coefficients exhibited substantial imprecision. Employing a hierarchical model for stabilization had little impact on the estimated associations for the most commonly observed outcomes, but for less frequent cancer types the stabilized estimates tended to take less extreme values and have greater precision than estimates obtained without such stabilization. The results provide further evidence regarding associations between low-dose radiation exposure and cancer.

  19. Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant: Part 2. Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bye, T.; Romundstad, P. R.; Ronneberg, A.; Hilt, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A Norwegian coke plant that operated from 1964 to 1988 was investigated to ascertain whether the male workers in this plant had increased morbidities of cancer or increased mortality from specific causes, particularly associated with specific exposures at the coke plant. METHODS: Personal data on all the employees of the plant were obtained from the plant's archives. With additional data from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics we identified 888 male former workers at the plant. Causes of death were obtained from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics, and cancer diagnoses from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The results were compared with national averages adjusted for age. Specific exposures were estimated with records of actual measurements done at the plant and interviews with former workers at the plant. RESULTS: A significant excess of stomach cancer (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01 to 4.21) was found. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to CO. When considering work in such areas the past 3 years before death, the association was significant (p = 0.01). The last result is based on only two deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the short follow up time and the small size of the cohort the results should be interpreted with a certain caution. The positive results would justify a re- examination of the cohort at a later date.   PMID:9861185

  20. Childhood cause-specific mortality in rural Western Kenya: application of the InterVA-4 model

    PubMed Central

    Amek, Nyaguara O.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Khagayi, Sammy; Moige, Hellen; Orwa, Gordon; Hamel, Mary J.; Van Eijk, Annemieke; Vulule, John; Slutsker, Laurence; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the progress in achieving the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals in terms of population health requires consistent and reliable information on cause-specific mortality, which is often rare in resource-constrained countries. Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) have largely used medical personnel to review and assign likely causes of death based on the information gathered from standardized verbal autopsy (VA) forms. However, this approach is expensive and time consuming, and it may lead to biased results based on the knowledge and experience of individual clinicians. We assessed the cause-specific mortality for children under 5 years old (under-5 deaths) in Siaya County, obtained from a computer-based probabilistic model (InterVA-4). Design Successfully completed VA interviews for under-5 deaths conducted between January 2003 and December 2010 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HDSS were extracted from the VA database and processed using the InterVA-4 (version 4.02) model for interpretation. Cause-specific mortality fractions were then generated from the causes of death produced by the model. Results A total of 84.33% (6,621) childhood deaths had completed VA data during the study period. Children aged 1–4 years constituted 48.53% of all cases, and 42.50% were from infants. A single cause of death was assigned to 89.18% (5,940) of cases, 8.35% (556) of cases were assigned two causes, and 2.10% (140) were assigned ‘indeterminate’ as cause of death by the InterVA-4 model. Overall, malaria (28.20%) was the leading cause of death, followed by acute respiratory infection including pneumonia (25.10%), in under-5 children over the study period. But in the first 5 years of the study period, acute respiratory infection including pneumonia was the main cause of death, followed by malaria. Similar trends were also reported in infants (29 days–11 months) and children aged 1

  1. Knock down of Whitefly Gut Gene Expression and Mortality by Orally Delivered Gut Gene-Specific dsRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad Yousaf; Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Brown, Judith K.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) agricultural pest and plant virus vector relies on the use of chemical insecticides. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent innate immune response in eukaryotes, including insects, which results in degradation of the corresponding transcript following its recognition by a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that shares 100% sequence homology. In this study, six whitefly ‘gut’ genes were selected from an in silico-annotated transcriptome library constructed from the whitefly alimentary canal or ‘gut’ of the B biotype of B. tabaci, and tested for knock down efficacy, post-ingestion of dsRNAs that share 100% sequence homology to each respective gene target. Candidate genes were: Acetylcholine receptor subunit α, Alpha glucosidase 1, Aquaporin 1, Heat shock protein 70, Trehalase1, and Trehalose transporter1. The efficacy of RNAi knock down was further tested in a gene-specific functional bioassay, and mortality was recorded in 24 hr intervals, six days, post-treatment. Based on qPCR analysis, all six genes tested showed significantly reduced gene expression. Moderate-to-high whitefly mortality was associated with the down-regulation of osmoregulation, sugar metabolism and sugar transport-associated genes, demonstrating that whitefly survivability was linked with RNAi results. Silenced Acetylcholine receptor subunit α and Heat shock protein 70 genes showed an initial low whitefly mortality, however, following insecticide or high temperature treatments, respectively, significantly increased knockdown efficacy and death was observed, indicating enhanced post-knockdown sensitivity perhaps related to systemic silencing. The oral delivery of gut-specific dsRNAs, when combined with qPCR analysis of gene expression and a corresponding gene-specific bioassay that relates knockdown and mortality, offers a viable approach for functional genomics analysis and the discovery of prospective dsRNA biopesticide targets. The

  2. Increased risk of death immediately after losing a spouse: Cause-specific mortality following widowhood in Norway.

    PubMed

    Brenn, Tormod; Ytterstad, Elinor

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines the short-term risk of cause-specific death following widowhood. We followed all individuals registered as married in Norway in 1975 for marital status and mortality until 2006. Widowed individuals were followed for mortality for 7years following widowhood. Causes of death were categorized into five cause-groups. Life tables were used in survival analyses. Deaths among the widowed were most frequent in the week following widowhood. In this week and compared to married individuals, there were more deaths including those from malignant cancer in men (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.89), from external causes in men (HR=3.64; 95% CI: 2.01, 5.28), and from respiratory diseases (HR=2.18; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.84 in men and HR=3.18; 95% CI: 2.26, 4.09 in women). A majority of respiratory deaths were from pneumonia. Thereafter excess mortality among the widowed dropped gradually. Although these numbers stabilized, they were still elevated in year 7. Excess mortality was particularly high in the youngest age group considered (55-64years) and decreased with age, though more so in men than in women. Only a few more widowed individuals than expected died of a condition in the same cause-group as their spouses. A novel finding was that excess deaths in the week following widowhood also were from cancer and respiratory diseases. Men in the youngest age group seemed most vulnerable. Prevention should be considered directly after the death of a spouse, and measures should be aimed at virtually all causes of death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of gender-specific mortality in patients < 70 years versus ≥ 70 years old with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaharu; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Shimatani, Yuji; Miura, Fumiharu; Nakama, Yasuharu; Dai, Kazuoki; Ootani, Takayuki; Ooi, Kuniomi; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Miki, Takashi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shinji; Sumimoto, Youji

    2011-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender-specific mortality after acute myocardial infarction in those aged < 70 years versus ≥ 70 years. The present study consisted of 2,677 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction who had undergone coronary angiography within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1,810 patients < 70 years old and 867 patients ≥ 70 years old. Women were older and had a greater incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and a lower incidence of current smoking and previous myocardial infarction in both groups. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly greater in women ≥ 70 years old age than in men ≥ 70 years old (16.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; p = 0.003) but was comparable between women and men in patients < 70 years old (5.7% vs 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.59). On multivariate analysis, the association between female gender and in-hospital mortality in patients ≥ 70 years old remained significant (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidential interval 1.05 to 3.00), but the gender difference was not observed in patients < 70 years old (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 2.24). In conclusion, female gender was associated with in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction in patients ≥ 70 years old but not in patients < 70 years old. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Coffee Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Graubard, Barry I; Guertin, Kristin A; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shebl, Fatma M; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at study baseline (1998-2001) or history of cardiovascular disease at study enrollment (1993-2001), 8,718 deaths occurred during 805,644 person-years of follow-up from 1998 through 2009. Following adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, coffee drinkers, as compared with nondrinkers, had lower hazard ratios for overall mortality (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.07); 1 cup/day: HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02); 2-3 cups/day: HR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88); 4-5 cups/day: HR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.86); ≥6 cups/day: HR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.95)). Similar findings were observed for decaffeinated coffee and coffee additives. Inverse associations were observed for deaths from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and intentional self-harm, but not cancer. Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-06-01

    Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear. We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies. Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality. Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Statistically tested comparisons of the accuracy of forecasting methods for age-specific and sex-specific mortality and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Shang, Han Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although there are continuing developments in the methods for forecasting mortality, there are few comparisons of the accuracy of the forecasts. The subject of the statistical validity of these comparisons, which is essential to demographic forecasting, has all but been ignored. We introduce Friedman's test statistics to examine whether the differences in point and interval forecast accuracies are statistically significant between methods. We introduce the Nemenyi test statistic to identify which methods give results that are statistically significantly different from others. Using sex-specific and age-specific data from 20 countries, we apply these two test statistics to examine the forecast accuracy obtained from several principal component methods, which can be categorized into coherent and non-coherent forecasting methods.

  7. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye Rin; Kim, Young Ae; Park, So Youn; Oh, Chang Mo; Kim, Young Eun; Oh, In Hwan

    2016-11-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010-2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010-2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease.

  8. Association of seasonal climate variability and age-specific mortality in northern Sweden before the onset of industrialization.

    PubMed

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-07-07

    Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00-1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95-1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97-1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3-9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts.

  9. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik

    2016-05-01

    In India, more than a billion population is at risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration exceeding World Health Organization air quality guideline, posing a serious threat to health. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure is poorly known for India. Here we develop a non-linear power law (NLP) function to estimate the relative risk associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure using satellite-based PM2.5 concentration (2001-2010) that is bias-corrected against coincident direct measurements. We show that estimate of annual premature death in India is lower by 14.7% (19.2%) using NLP (integrated exposure risk function, IER) for assumption of uniform baseline mortality across India (as considered in the global burden of disease study) relative to the estimate obtained by adjusting for state-specific baseline mortality using GDP as a proxy. 486,100 (811,000) annual premature death in India is estimated using NLP (IER) risk functions after baseline mortality adjustment. 54.5% of premature death estimated using NLP risk function is attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 24.0% to ischemic heart disease (IHD), 18.5% to stroke and the remaining 3.0% to lung cancer (LC). 44,900 (5900-173,300) less premature death is expected annually, if India achieves its present annual air quality target of 40μgm(-3). Our results identify the worst affected districts in terms of ambient PM2.5 exposure and resulting annual premature death and call for initiation of long-term measures through a systematic framework of pollution and health data archive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010–2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010–2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease. PMID:27775249

  11. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  12. Prospective Evaluation of the Association of Nut/Peanut Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N.; Blot, William J.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Signorello, Lisa; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Importance High intake of nuts has been linked to a reduced risk of mortality. Previous studies, however, were primarily conducted among people of European descent, particularly those of high socioeconomic status. Objective To examine the association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality in Americans of African and European descent who were predominantly of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in Chinese individuals in Shanghai, China. Design, Setting, and Participants Three large cohorts were evaluated in the study. One included 71 764 US residents of African and European descent, primarily of low SES, who were participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) in the southeastern United States (March 2002 to September 2009), and the other 2 cohorts included 134 265 participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) (December 1996 to May 2000) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) (January 2002 to September 2006) in Shanghai, China. Self-reported nut consumption in the SCCS (approximately 50% were peanuts) and peanut-only consumption in the SMHS/SWHS were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures Deaths were ascertained through linkage with the National Death Index and Social Security Administration mortality files in the SCCS and annual linkage with the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and by biennial home visits in the SWHS/SMHS. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results With a median follow-up of 5.4 years in the SCCS, 6.5 years in the SMHS, and 12.2 years in the SWHS, 14 440 deaths were identified. More than half of the women in the SCCS were ever smokers compared with only 2.8% in the SWHS. The ever-smoking rate for men was 77.1% in the SCCS and 69.6% in the SMHS. Nut intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in all 3 cohorts (all P < .001 for trend), with adjusted HRs associated with the highest

  13. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(3)-2 - Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Separate mortality tables must be established for each gender under the plan, and a substitute mortality table is permitted to be established for a gender only if the plan has credible mortality experience with respect to that gender. (ii) Credible mortality experience...

  14. Association Between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether caffeine intake is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99, 100 to 199, and 200 mg/d or more with those of participants with a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d. In total, 17,594 participants were included, and the mean ± SD and median (interquartile range) follow-up was 6.5±2.8 years and 6.4 (3.6-9.5) years, respectively; 17,568 participants (99.8%) completed the follow-up, and 1310 died. Compared with those who had a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d, HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.00; P=.05), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.78; P<.001), and 200 or more mg/d (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.83; P<.001). A similar association was observed in participants who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per week, and the HR was lowest in those with a caffeine intake of 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.93). There was no association between caffeine intake and cardiovascular mortality, whereas the HRs for noncardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in those with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P=.01), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77; P<.001), and 200 or more mg/d (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P<.001). Moderate caffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of coffee consumption. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-Specific Trends in Incidence, Mortality, and Comorbidities of Heart Failure in Denmark, 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Mia N; Køber, Lars; Weeke, Peter; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Smith, J Gustav; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Andersson, Charlotte

    2017-03-28

    The cumulative burden and importance of cardiovascular risk factors have changed over the past decades. Specifically, obesity rates have increased among younger people, whereas cardiovascular health has improved in the elderly. Little is known regarding how these changes have impacted the incidence and the mortality rates of heart failure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the age-specific trends in the incidence and 1-year mortality rates following a first-time diagnosis of heart failure in Denmark between 1995 and 2012. We included all Danish individuals >18 years of age with a first-time in-hospital diagnosis of heart failure. Data were collected from 3 nationwide Danish registries. Annual incidence rates of heart failure and 1-year standardized mortality rates were calculated under the assumption of a Poisson distribution. We identified 210 430 individuals with a first-time diagnosis of heart failure between 1995 and 2012; the annual incidence rates per 10 000 person-years declined among older individuals (rates in 1995 versus 2012: 164 versus 115 in individuals >74 years, 63 versus 35 in individuals 65-74 years, and 20 versus 17 in individuals 55-64 years; P<0.0001 for all) but increased among the younger (0.4 versus 0.7 in individuals 18-34 years, 1.3 versus 2.0 in individuals 35-44 years, and 5.0 versus 6.4 in individuals 45-54 years; P<0.0001 for all). The proportion of patients with incident heart failure ≤50 years of age doubled from 3% in 1995 to 6% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Sex- and age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for 2012 versus 1996 were 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.71; P<0.0001) among people >50 years of age, and 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.73; P<0.0001) among individuals ≤50 years of age; it remained essentially unchanged on additional adjustment for diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. Standardized 1-year mortality rates declined for middle-aged patients with heart failure but remained constant for

  16. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Sui; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2017-07-01

    Asian population-based data evaluating all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of all-cause mortality (stratified according to onset status, disease severity, and concomitant psoriatic arthritis) and cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis. Our study cohort consisted of 80,167 patients with newly diagnosed psoriasis between 2001 and 2012 in the National Health Insurance Database. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained from the National Death Registry of Taiwan. All-cause and cause-specific crude mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. A total of 7,198 deaths were identified during the follow-up period (508,505 person-years). The standardized mortality ratios were 1.53 for severe psoriasis (95% confidence interval = 1.45-1.60), 1.47 for early-onset psoriasis (95% confidence interval = 1.34-1.61), and 1.47 for patients with psoriatic arthritis (95% confidence interval = 1.36-1.58). In the cause-specific mortality analysis, the absolute and excess risks of death were highest for malignancies (3.6 and 1.57 deaths per 1,000 patient-years, respectively) and circulatory system diseases (3.0 and 1.44 deaths per 1,000 patient-years, respectively). Patients with severe psoriasis, early-onset psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis had higher all-cause mortality risks. In particular, patients with psoriasis had higher excess risks of mortality from malignancies and circulatory system diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders.

  18. Saharan dust and association between particulate matter and case-specific mortality: a case-crossover analysis in Madrid (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saharan dust intrusions are a common phenomenon in the Madrid atmosphere, leading induce exceedances of the 50 μg/m3- EU 24 h standard for PM10. Methods We investigated the effects of exposure to PM10 between January 2003 and December 2005 in Madrid (Spain) on daily case-specific mortality; changes of effects between Saharan and non-Saharan dust days were assessed using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Results Saharan dust affected 20% of days in the city of Madrid. Mean concentration of PM10 was higher during dust days (47.7 μg/m3) than non-dust days (31.4 μg/m3). The rise of mortality per 10 μg/m3 PM10 concentration were always largely for Saharan dust-days. When stratifying by season risks of PM10, at lag 1, during Saharan dust days were stronger for respiratory causes during cold season (IR% = 3.34% (95% CI: 0.36, 6.41) versus 2.87% (95% CI: 1.30, 4.47)) while for circulatory causes effects were stronger during warm season (IR% = 4.19% (95% CI: 1.34, 7.13) versus 2.65% (95% CI: 0.12, 5.23)). No effects were found for cerebrovascular causes. Conclusions We found evidence of strongest effects of particulate matter during Saharan dust days, providing a suggestion of effect modification, even though interaction terms were not statistically significant. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism by which Saharan dust increases mortality. PMID:22401495

  19. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among US youth: socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities and international patterns.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15-24 years. A county-level socioeconomic deprivation index and rural-urban continuum measure were linked to the 1999-2007 US mortality data. Mortality rates were calculated for each socioeconomic and rural-urban group. Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks of youth mortality by deprivation level and rural-urban residence. The USA has the highest youth homicide rate and 6th highest overall youth mortality rate in the industrialized world. Substantial socioeconomic and rural-urban gradients in youth mortality were observed within the USA. Compared to their most affluent counterparts, youth in the most deprived group had 1.9 times higher all-cause mortality, 8.0 times higher homicide mortality, 1.5 times higher unintentional-injury mortality, and 8.8 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality. Youth in rural areas had significantly higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts regardless of deprivation levels, with suicide and unintentional-injury mortality risks being 1.8 and 2.3 times larger in rural than in urban areas. However, youth in the most urbanized areas had at least 5.6 times higher risks of homicide and HIV/AIDS mortality than their rural counterparts. Disparities in mortality differed by race and sex. Socioeconomic deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to disparities in youth mortality among all sex and racial/ethnic groups, although the impact of deprivation was considerably greater. The USA ranks poorly in all-cause mortality, youth homicide, and unintentional-injury mortality rates when compared with other industrialized countries.

  20. Association between Six Minute Walk Test and All-Cause Mortality, Coronary Heart Disease-Specific Mortality, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanyar, Ali; Aziz, Michael M; Enright, Paul L; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Boudreau, Robert; Sutton-Tyrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis; Newman, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between six-minute walk test (6 MWT) performance and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, and incident coronary heart disease in older adults. Methods We conducted a time-to-event analysis of 1,665 Cardiovascular Health Study participants with a 6 MWT and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Results During a mean follow-up of 8 years, there were 305 incident coronary heart disease events, 504 deaths of which 100 were coronary heart disease-related deaths. The 6 MWT performance in the shortest two distance quintiles was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (290-338 meters: HR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; <290 meters: HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). The adjusted risk of coronary heart disease mortality incident events among those with a 6 MWT <290 meters was not significant. Discussion Performance on the 6 MWT is independently associated with all-cause mortality and is of prognostic utility in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24695552

  1. Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Xu, Min; Lee, Albert; Cho, Susan; Qi, Lu

    2015-03-24

    Intakes of whole grains and cereal fiber have been inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases; however, their relation with total and disease-specific mortality remain unclear. We aimed to prospectively assess the association of whole grains and cereal fiber intake with all causes and cause-specific mortality. The study included 367,442 participants from the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled in 1995 and followed through 2009). Participants with cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and self-reported end-stage renal disease at baseline were excluded. Over an average of 14 years of follow-up, a total of 46,067 deaths were documented. Consumption of whole grains were inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality and death from cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, respiratory disease, infections, and other causes. In multivariable models, as compared with individuals with the lowest intakes, those in the highest intake of whole grains had a 17% (95% CI, 14-19%) lower risk of all-cause mortality and 11-48% lower risk of disease-specific mortality (all P for trend <0.023); those in the highest intake of cereal fiber had a 19% (95% CI, 16-21%) lower risk of all-cause mortality and 15-34% lower risk of disease-specific mortality (all P for trend <0.005). When cereal fiber was further adjusted, the associations of whole grains with death from CVD, respiratory disease and infections became not significant; the associations with all-cause mortality and death from cancer and diabetes were attenuated but remained significant (P for trend <0.029). Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber was inversely associated with reduced total and cause-specific mortality. Our data suggest cereal fiber is one potentially protective component.

  2. Modelling determinants, impact, and space-time risk of age-specific mortality in rural South Africa: integrating methods to enhance policy relevance.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn

    2013-01-24

    There is a lack of reliable data in developing countries to inform policy and optimise resource allocation. Health and socio-demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) have the potential to address this gap. Mortality levels and trends have previously been documented in rural South Africa. However, complex space-time clustering of mortality, determinants, and their impact has not been fully examined. To integrate advanced methods enhance the understanding of the dynamics of mortality in space-time, to identify mortality risk factors and population attributable impact, to relate disparities in risk factor distributions to spatial mortality risk, and thus, to improve policy planning and resource allocation. Agincourt HDSS supplied data for the period 1992-2008. Advanced spatial techniques were used to identify significant age-specific mortality 'hotspots' in space-time. Multivariable Bayesian models were used to assess the effects of the most significant covariates on mortality. Disparities in risk factor profiles in identified hotspots were assessed. Increasing HIV-related mortality and a subsequent decrease possibly attributable to antiretroviral therapy introduction are evident in this rural population. Distinct space-time clustering and variation (even in a small geographic area) of mortality were observed. Several known and novel risk factors were identified, and population impact was quantified. Significant differences in the risk factor profiles of the identified 'hotspots' included ethnicity; maternal, partner, and household deaths; household head demographics; migrancy; education; and poverty. A complex interaction of highly attributable multilevel factors continues to demonstrate differential space-time influences on mortality risk (especially for HIV). High-risk households and villages displayed differential risk factor profiles. This integrated approach could prove valuable to decision makers. Tailored interventions for specific child and adult high

  3. Modelling determinants, impact, and space-time risk of age-specific mortality in rural South Africa: integrating methods to enhance policy relevance.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of reliable data in developing countries to inform policy and optimise resource allocation. Health and socio-demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) have the potential to address this gap. Mortality levels and trends have previously been documented in rural South Africa. However, complex space-time clustering of mortality, determinants, and their impact has not been fully examined. To integrate advanced methods enhance the understanding of the dynamics of mortality in space-time, to identify mortality risk factors and population attributable impact, to relate disparities in risk factor distributions to spatial mortality risk, and thus, to improve policy planning and resource allocation. Agincourt HDSS supplied data for the period 1992-2008. Advanced spatial techniques were used to identify significant age-specific mortality 'hotspots' in space-time. Multivariable Bayesian models were used to assess the effects of the most significant covariates on mortality. Disparities in risk factor profiles in identified hotspots were assessed. Increasing HIV-related mortality and a subsequent decrease possibly attributable to antiretroviral therapy introduction are evident in this rural population. Distinct space-time clustering and variation (even in a small geographic area) of mortality were observed. Several known and novel risk factors were identified, and population impact was quantified. Significant differences in the risk factor profiles of the identified 'hotspots' included ethnicity; maternal, partner, and household deaths; household head demographics; migrancy; education; and poverty. A complex interaction of highly attributable multilevel factors continues to demonstrate differential space-time influences on mortality risk (especially for HIV). High-risk households and villages displayed differential risk factor profiles. This integrated approach could prove valuable to decision makers. Tailored interventions for specific child and adult high

  4. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  5. Occupational class inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged men in 14 European populations during the early 2000s.

    PubMed

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000-2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30-59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations.

  6. Risk Factors for Cause-specific Mortality of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the Korean Neonatal Network.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Chang-Ryul

    2015-10-01

    This study attempted to assess the risk factors for mortality of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, n=2,386). Using data from the Korean Neonatal Network, we investigated infants with birth weights <1,500 g and gestational ages (GAs) of 22-31 weeks born between January 2013 and June 2014. Cases were defined as death at NICU discharge. Controls were randomly selected from live VLBW infants and frequency matched to case subjects by GA. Relevant variables were compared between the cases (n=236) and controls (n=236) by Cox proportional hazards regression to determine their associations with cause-specific mortality (cardiorespiratory, neurologic, infection, gastrointestinal, and others). In a Cox regression analysis, cardiorespiratory death were associated with a foreign mother (hazard ratio, HR, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, CI, 2.08-9.02), multiple gestation (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.54), small for gestational age (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.25-3.41), male gender (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10-2.60), Apgar score ≤3 at 5 min (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.18-3.31), and delivery room resuscitation (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.53-4.40). An Apgar score ≤3 at 5 min was also associated with neurological death (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.29-6.73). Death due to neonatal infection was associated with outborn delivery (HR, 5.09; 95% CI, 1.46-17.74). Antenatal steroid and preterm premature rupture of membranes reduced risk of cardiorespiratory death (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67) and gastrointestinal death (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70), respectively. In conclusion, foreign mother, multiple gestation, small gestation age, male gender, Apgar score ≤3 at 5 min, and resuscitation in the delivery room are associated with cardiorespiratory mortality of VLBW infants in NICU. An Apgar score ≤3 at 5 min and outborn status are associated with neurological and infection mortality, respectively.

  7. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Black and White Adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charles E.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Han, Xijing; Xiao, Qian; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40–79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs. <9.7 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had lower risks of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76. 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.85), cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.98), and cancer (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94). In whites, a higher physical activity level was associated with a lower risk of death from all causes (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.90) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.99) but not cancer (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.34). Spending more time being sedentary (>12 hours/day vs. <5.76 hours/day) was associated with a 20%–25% increased risk of all-cause mortality in blacks and whites. Blacks who reported the most time spent being sedentary (≥10.5 hours/day) and lowest level of physical activity (<12.6 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had a greater risk of death (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.71). Our study provides evidence that suggests that health promotion efforts to increase physical activity level and decrease sedentary time could help reduce mortality risk in black adults. PMID:25086052

  8. Socioeconomic factors and all cause and cause-specific mortality among older people in Latin America, India, and China: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Llibre-Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Gaona, Ciro; Liu, Zhaorui; Noriega-Fernandez, Lisseth; Jotheeswaran, A T; Prince, Martin J

    2012-02-01

    Even in low and middle income countries most deaths occur in older adults. In Europe, the effects of better education and home ownership upon mortality seem to persist into old age, but these effects may not generalise to LMICs. Reliable data on causes and determinants of mortality are lacking. The vital status of 12,373 people aged 65 y and over was determined 3-5 y after baseline survey in sites in Latin America, India, and China. We report crude and standardised mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios comparing mortality experience with that in the United States, and estimated associations with socioeconomic factors using Cox's proportional hazards regression. Cause-specific mortality fractions were estimated using the InterVA algorithm. Crude mortality rates varied from 27.3 to 70.0 per 1,000 person-years, a 3-fold variation persisting after standardisation for demographic and economic factors. Compared with the US, mortality was much higher in urban India and rural China, much lower in Peru, Venezuela, and urban Mexico, and similar in other sites. Mortality rates were higher among men, and increased with age. Adjusting for these effects, it was found that education, occupational attainment, assets, and pension receipt were all inversely associated with mortality, and food insecurity positively associated. Mutually adjusted, only education remained protective (pooled hazard ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98). Most deaths occurred at home, but, except in India, most individuals received medical attention during their final illness. Chronic diseases were the main causes of death, together with tuberculosis and liver disease, with stroke the leading cause in nearly all sites. Education seems to have an important latent effect on mortality into late life. However, compositional differences in socioeconomic position do not explain differences in mortality between sites. Social protection for older people, and the effectiveness of health systems in preventing and

  9. Strain-specific innate immune signaling pathways determine malaria parasitemia dynamics and host mortality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Tian, Linjie; Yu, Xiao; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Li, Jian; Wang, Mingjun; Yu, Weishi; Qi, Yanwei; Zeituni, Amir E; Nair, Sethu C; Crampton, Steve P; Orandle, Marlene S; Bolland, Silvia M; Qi, Chen-Feng; Long, Carole A; Myers, Timothy G; Coligan, John E; Wang, Rongfu; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2014-01-28

    Malaria infection triggers vigorous host immune responses; however, the parasite ligands, host receptors, and the signaling pathways responsible for these reactions remain unknown or controversial. Malaria parasites primarily reside within RBCs, thereby hiding themselves from direct contact and recognition by host immune cells. Host responses to malaria infection are very different from those elicited by bacterial and viral infections and the host receptors recognizing parasite ligands have been elusive. Here we investigated mouse genome-wide transcriptional responses to infections with two strains of Plasmodium yoelii (N67 and N67C) and discovered differences in innate response pathways corresponding to strain-specific disease phenotypes. Using in vitro RNAi-based gene knockdown and KO mice, we demonstrated that a strong type I IFN (IFN-I) response triggered by RNA polymerase III and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, not Toll-like receptors (TLRs), binding of parasite DNA/RNA contributed to a decline of parasitemia in N67-infected mice. We showed that conventional dendritic cells were the major sources of early IFN-I, and that surface expression of phosphatidylserine on infected RBCs might promote their phagocytic uptake, leading to the release of parasite ligands and the IFN-I response in N67 infection. In contrast, an elevated inflammatory response mediated by CD14/TLR and p38 signaling played a role in disease severity and early host death in N67C-infected mice. In addition to identifying cytosolic DNA/RNA sensors and signaling pathways previously unrecognized in malaria infection, our study demonstrates the importance of parasite genetic backgrounds in malaria pathology and provides important information for studying human malaria pathogenesis.

  10. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Peter A; Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Cardiac failure is associated with diminished activation of the transcription factor cyclic nucleotide regulatory element binding-protein (CREB), and heart-specific expression of a phosphorylation-deficient CREB mutant in transgenic mice [dominant negative CREB (dnCREB) mice] recapitulates the contractile phenotypes of cardiac failure (Fentzke RC, Korcarz CE, Lang RM, Lin H, Leiden JM. Dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transcription factor in the heart. J Clin Invest 101: 2415-2426, 1998). In the present study, we demonstrated significantly elevated mortality and contractile dysfunction in female compared with male dnCREB mice. Female dnCREB mice demonstrated a 21-wk survival of only 17% compared with 67% in males (P < 0.05) and exclusively manifest decreased cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and estrogen-related receptor-α content, suggesting sex-related effects on cardiac mitochondrial function. Hearts from 4-wk-old dnCREB mice of both sexes demonstrated diminished mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared with nontransgenic controls. However, by 12 wk of age, there was a significant decrease in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and deterioration of mitochondrial structure, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, in female dnCREB mice, which were not found in male transgenic littermates. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria isolated from hearts of female, but not male, dnCREB mice demonstrated increased ROS accompanied by decreases in the expression/activity of the mitochondrial antioxidants MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase. These results demonstrate that heart-specific dnCREB expression results in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in both sexes; however, increased oxidant burden, reduced antioxidant expression, and disrupted mitochondrial structure are exacerbated by the female sex, preceding and contributing to the greater contractile morbidity and

  11. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(3)-2 - Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mortality tables under section 430(h)(3)(C) and related matters. (b) Procedures for obtaining approval to... paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Separate mortality tables must be established for each gender under the plan, and a substitute mortality table is permitted to be established for a gender only if the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(3)-2 - Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mortality tables under section 430(h)(3)(C) and related matters. (b) Procedures for obtaining approval to... paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Separate mortality tables must be established for each gender under the plan, and a substitute mortality table is permitted to be established for a gender only if the...

  13. Soy and Soy Products Intake, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japan: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-07-01

    Soy and soy products are popular ingredients in the Japanese diet. This study aimed to determine whether soy or soy products intake was associated with all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort in Japan. A total of 11 066 participants were obtained from an annual community-based health examination program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning soy and soy products intake and potential confounding factors. Associations between soy and soy products intake and all-cause mortality were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs). After adjusting for all factors, morality was significantly higher in men with infrequent soy intake (HR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.07) and with almost daily intake (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.19-2.03) compared with intake 1 to 2 times per week. Cancer mortality was higher among men who reported rarely eating soy (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.08-2.79). Soy products intake was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in both sexes. © 2014 APJPH.

  14. A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific relative growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Christopher D; Dent, Daisy H; O’Brien, Michael J; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Nilus, Reuben; Philips, Sam; Reynolds, Glen; Saner, Philippe; Hector, Andy

    2014-01-01

    A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of Dipterocarpaceae planted into logged-over forest in Malaysian Borneo, and the relationships between these demographic rates and four key functional traits: wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass, and leaf C:N ratio. Species-specific differences in growth rates were separated from seedling size effects by fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models, to repeated measurements taken on individuals at multiple time points. Mortality data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions in a mixed-effects models framework. Growth increased and mortality decreased with increasing light availability. Species differed in both their growth and mortality rates, yet there was little evidence for a statistical interaction between species and light for either response. There was a positive relationship between growth rate and the predicted probability of mortality regardless of light environment, suggesting that this relationship may be driven by a general trade-off between traits that maximize growth and traits that minimize mortality, rather than through differential species responses to light. Our results indicate that wood density is an important trait that indicates both the ability of species to grow and resistance to mortality, but no other trait was correlated with either growth or mortality. Therefore, the growth mortality trade-off among species of dipterocarp appears to be general in being independent of species crossovers in performance in different light environments

  15. Disentangling contextual effects on cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal 23-year follow-up study: impact of population density or socioeconomic environment?

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Rosvall, Maria; Lynch, John; Merlo, Juan

    2006-06-01

    Various studies have investigated urban/rural differences in cause-specific mortality. A separate body of literature has analysed effects of socioeconomic environment on mortality. Almost no studies have attempted to disentangle effects of population density and socioeconomic environment on mortality, beyond the effects of individual characteristics. Considering all individuals living in the region of Scania, Sweden, from 1970-93, we performed 10 year mortality follow-ups on (i) individuals aged 55, (ii) individuals aged 65, and (iii) individuals aged 75 years at baseline. Cox multilevel models adjusted for individual factors allowed us to investigate the independent effects of population density and median income in the parish of residence on mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among individuals who had lived in the same parish for at least 10 years prior to mortality follow-up. In females, as in males, after adjustment for individual and contextual socioeconomic status, we found a dose-response association between population density and mortality from lung cancer and COPD in all age groups investigated, and from IHD especially in the youngest age group. Overall, the population density effect was the strongest on lung cancer mortality. Median income had an additional impact only in 2 out of 16 subgroups of age x gender x cause of death. In our region-wide study conducted at the parish level, contextual disparities in mortality were dominated by the population density effect. However, it may be unwise to conclude that truly contextual effects exist on mortality, before identification of plausible mediating processes through which urbanicity may influence mortality risk.

  16. Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. METHODS: Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. RESULTS: Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for

  17. Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Divine, B J; Hartman, C M; Wendt, J K

    1999-03-01

    To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for mesothelioma, any of these increases in

  18. Is Income Inequality a Determinant of Population Health? Part 2. U.S. National and Regional Trends in Income Inequality and Age- and Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey; Harper, Sam; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes U.S. income inequality and 100-year national and 30-year regional trends in age- and cause-specific mortality. There is little congruence between national trends in income inequality and age- or cause-specific mortality except perhaps for suicide and homicide. The variable trends in some causes of mortality may be associated regionally with income inequality. However, between 1978 and 2000 those regions experiencing the largest increases in income inequality had the largest declines in mortality (r= 0.81, p < 0.001). Understanding the social determinants of population health requires appreciating how broad indicators of social and economic conditions are related, at different times and places, to the levels and social distribution of major risk factors for particular health outcomes. PMID:15225332

  19. Month of birth and cause-specific mortality between 50 and 80 years: a population-based longitudinal cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Peter; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven

    2014-02-01

    Month of birth-a proxy for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures including nutritional status, ambient temperature and infections-has been linked to mortality risk in adult life. We assessed the relation between month of birth and cause-specific mortality risk from cardiovascular diseases, infections, tumors and external causes-in ages of more than 50-80 years. In this nation-wide Swedish study, 4,240,338 subjects were followed from 1991 to 2010, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth and cause-specific mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models with attained age as the underlying time scale. In models adjusted for sex and education, month of birth was associated with cardiovascular and infectious mortality, but not with deaths from tumors or external causes. Compared with subjects born in November, a higher cardiovascular mortality was seen in subjects born from January through August, peaking in March/April [hazard ratio (HR) 1.066 compared to November, 95 % CI 1.045-1.086]. The mortality from infections was lowest for the birth months November and December and a distinct peak was observed for September-born (HR 1.108 compared to November, 95 % CI 1.046-1.175). Month of birth is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and infections in ages of more than 50-80 years in Sweden. The mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated.

  20. Changes in cause-specific neonatal and 1-59-month child mortality in India from 2000 to 2015: a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    2017-09-19

    Documentation of the demographic and geographical details of changes in cause-specific neonatal (younger than 1 month) and 1-59-month mortality in India can guide further progress in reduction of child mortality. In this study we report the changes in cause-specific child mortality between 2000 and 2015 in India. Since 2001, the Registrar General of India has implemented the Million Death Study (MDS) in 1·3 million homes in more than 7000 randomly selected areas of India. About 900 non-medical surveyors do structured verbal autopsies for deaths recorded in these homes. Each field report is assigned randomly to two of 404 trained physicians to classify the cause of death, with a standard process for resolution of disagreements. We combined the proportions of child deaths according to the MDS for 2001-13 with annual UN estimates of national births and deaths (partitioned across India's states and rural or urban areas) for 2000-15. We calculated the annual percentage change in sex-specific and cause-specific mortality between 2000 and 2015 for neonates and 1-59-month-old children. The MDS captured 52 252 deaths in neonates and 42 057 deaths at 1-59 months. Examining specific causes, the neonatal mortality rate from infection fell by 66% from 11·9 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 4·0 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the rate from birth asphyxia or trauma fell by 76% from 9·0 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 2·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. At 1-59 months, the mortality rate from pneumonia fell by 63% from 11·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 4·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the rate from diarrhoea fell by 66% from 9·4 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 3·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 (with narrowing girl-boy gaps). The neonatal tetanus mortality rate fell from 1·6 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to less than 0·1 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the 1-59-month measles mortality rate fell from 3·3 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 0·3 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. By

  1. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950-1985: Part 1. Comparison of risk coefficients for site-specific cancer mortality based on the DS86 and T65DR shielded kerma and organ doses

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Schull, W.J.; Preston, D.L.; Fujita, S.; Pierce, D.A. )

    1989-06-01

    As a result of the reassessment of the A-bomb dosimetry, new (DS86) doses were calculated in 1986. In this paper, site-specific estimates of cancer mortality in the years 1950-1985, based on these new doses, are compared with those using the T65DR doses. The subjects of the study are 75,991 members of the Life Span Study sample for whom DS86 doses have been calculated. This reevaluation of the exposures does not change the list of radiation-related cancers. Most differences in dose response between Hiroshima and Nagasaki are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. The dose-response curve is closer to linear with the DS86 than the T65DR doses even for leukemia in the entire dose range, though, statistically, many other models cannot be excluded. However, in the low-dose range, the risk of leukemia remains nonlinear. Assuming a linear model at an RBE of 1, and using organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar, whereas those based on shielded kerma are about 40% higher with the new dosimetry. If RBE values larger than 1 are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65DR. At an RBE of 10, for the five specific cancers, i.e., female breast, colon, leukemia, lung, and stomach, the increase in excess number of deaths per 10(4) PYSv under the DS86 varies from 12% (colon) to 133% (female breast). The magnitude of the effects of such modifiers of radiation-induced cancer as age at time of bomb and sex do not differ between the two dose systems.

  2. Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS--A Rural Setting in Western India.

    PubMed

    Ingole, Vijendra; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Schumann, Barbara

    2015-12-02

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, <25 °C) over the period January 2003 to December 2012. Delays of 0 and 0-4 days were considered and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18-2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12-59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02-1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05-1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003-2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures.

  3. Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS—A Rural Setting in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Ingole, Vijendra; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Schumann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, <25 °C) over the period January 2003 to December 2012. Delays of 0 and 0–4 days were considered and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18–2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12–59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02–1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05–1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003–2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures. PMID:26633452

  4. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  5. Risk of All-Cause and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy in Men With Small Prostate Size

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming H.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Ross, Rudi; Salenius, Sharon A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-04-01

    Background: Brachytherapy for prostate cancer can be technically challenging in men with small prostates ({<=}20 cc), but it is unknown whether their outcomes are different than those of men with larger prostates. Methods and Materials: We studied 6,416 men treated with brachytherapy in one of 21 community-based practices. Cox regression and Fine and Gray's regression were used to determine whether volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), respectively, after adjustment for other known prognostic factors. Results: 443 patients (6.9%) had a prostate volume {<=}20 cc. After a median follow-up of 2.91 years (interquartile range, 1.06-4.79), volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a significantly higher risk of ACM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.65], p = 0.0085) with 3-year estimates of ACM for {<=}20 cc vs. >20 cc of 13.0% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.028). Only 23 men (0.36%) have died of prostate cancer, and no difference was seen in PCSM by volume (p = 0.4). Conclusion: Men with small prostates at the time of implant had a 33% higher risk of ACM, and the underlying cause of this remains uncertain. No increase in PCSM was observed in men with volume {<=}20cc, suggesting that a small prostate should not in itself be a contraindication for brachytherapy, but inasmuch as absolute rates of PCSM were small, further follow-up will be needed to confirm this finding.

  6. Lifetime Smoking History and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Cohort Study with 43 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, smoking increases the risk of mortality. However, it is less clear how the relative risk varies by cause of death. The exact impact of changes in smoking habits throughout life on different mortality risks is less studied. Methods We studied the impact of baseline and lifetime smoking habits, and duration of smoking on the risk of all-cause mortality, mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), any cancer and of the four most common types of cancer (lung, colorectal, prostate, and breast cancer) in a cohort study (Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen 1965–1990, with a follow-up on mortality status until 2009, n = 8,645). We used Cox regression models adjusted for age, BMI, sex, and place of residence. Since previous studies suggested a potential effect modification of sex, we additionally stratified by sex and tested for interactions. In addition, to determine which cause of death carried the highest risk we performed competing-risk analyses on mortality due to CVD, cancer, COPD and other causes. Results Current smoking (light, moderate, and heavy cigarette smoking) and lifetime persistent smoking were associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD, COPD, any cancer, and lung cancer mortality. Higher numbers of pack years at baseline were associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD, COPD, any cancer, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer mortality. Males who were lifetime persistent pipe/cigar smokers had a higher risk of lung cancer [HR (95% CI) = 7.72 (1.72–34.75)] as well as all-cause and any cancer mortality. A longer duration of smoking was associated with a higher risk of COPD, any and lung cancer [HR (95% CI) = 1.06 (1.00–1.12), 1.03 (1.00–1.06) and 1.10 (1.03–1.17) respectively], but not with other mortality causes. The competing risk analyses showed that ex- and current smokers had a higher risk of cancer, CVD, and COPD mortality compared to all other mortality causes. In

  7. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2017-06-16

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P < 0.0001). Only those with visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Overall and cause-specific excess mortality in HIV-positive persons compared with the general population: Role of HCV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Alejos, Belén; Hernando, Victoria; Iribarren, Jose; Gonzalez-García, Juan; Hernando, Asuncion; Santos, Jesus; Asensi, Victor; Gomez-Berrocal, Ana; Del Amo, Julia; Jarrin, Inma

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to estimate overall and cause-specific excess mortality of HIV-positive patients compared with the general population, and to assess the effect of risk factors.We included patients aged >19 years, recruited from January 1, 2004 to May 31, 2014 in Cohort of the Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research. We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to model excess mortality rates.In 10,340 patients, 368 deaths occurred. Excess mortality was 0.82 deaths per 100 person-years for all-cause mortality, 0.11 for liver, 0.08 for non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs), 0.08 for non-AIDS infections, and 0.02 for cardiovascular-related causes. Lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load, lower education, being male, and over 50 years were predictors of overall excess mortality. Short-term (first year follow-up) overall excess hazard ratio (eHR) for subjects with AIDS at entry was 3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 5.19) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.87, 2.15) for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected; medium/long-term eHR for AIDS at entry was 0.90 (95% CI 0.58, 1.39) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.37, 6.19) for HCV coinfection. Liver excess mortality was associated with low CD4 counts and HCV coinfection. Patients aged ≥50 years and HCV-coinfected showed higher NADM excess mortality, and HCV-coinfected patients showed increased non-AIDS infections excess mortality.Overall, liver, NADM, non-AIDS infections, and cardiovascular excesses of mortality associated with being HIV-positive were found, and HCV coinfection and immunodeficiency played significant roles. Differential short and medium/long-term effects of AIDS at entry and HCV coinfection were found for overall excess mortality.

  9. Associations of parity and age at first pregnancy with overall and cause-specific mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Carter, Brian D; Hildebrand, Janet S; Patel, Alpa V; Campbell, Peter T; Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association of parity, number of live births, and age at first birth with mortality using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Observational cohort. Not applicable. A total of 424,797 women. None. All-cause and cause-specific mortality. During median follow-up of 24.93 years, 238,324 deaths occurred. Parous, compared with nulliparous, women had lower rates of all-cause (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-0.96) mortality, driven by heart disease and overall cancer mortality. A linear trend was found for more births and diabetes mortality (P<.001) with having ≥6 births, compared with 2, associated with an HR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.15-1.43). Compared with age at first birth from 20-22 years, age at first birth <20 years was associated with higher mortality rates overall (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06), driven by heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality; whereas, ≥35 years was associated with higher overall cancer mortality (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20). Although parity was associated with a slight reduction in rates of all-cause mortality resulting in a minimal impact on average lifespan, the higher diabetes mortality in grand multiparous women might warrant continuous monitoring, particularly for abnormal glucose metabolism, among these women. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total and cause-specific mortality of Finnish military personnel following service in international peacekeeping operations 1990–2010: a comprehensive register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Laukkala, T; Parkkola, K; Henriksson, M; Pirkola, S; Kaikkonen, N; Pukkala, E; Jousilahti, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate total and cause-specific mortality after international peacekeeping deployments among the Finnish military peacekeeping personnel in comparison to the general population of similar age and sex. Design A register-based study of a cohort of military peacekeeping personnel in 1990–2010 followed for mortality until the end of 2013. Causes of death were obtained from the national Causes of Death Register. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total and cause-specific mortality was calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of deaths. Setting Finland (peacekeeping operations in different countries in Africa, Asia and in an area of former Yugoslavia in Europe). Participants 14 584 men and 418 women who had participated in international military peacekeeping operations ending between 1990 and 2010. Interventions Participation in military peacekeeping operations. Main outcome Total and cause-specific mortality. Results 209 men and 3 women died after their peacekeeping service. The SMR for all-cause mortality was 0.55 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.62). For the male peacekeeping personnel, the SMR for all diseases was 0.44 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.53) and for accidental and violent deaths 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.82). The SMR for suicides was 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92). Conclusions Even though military peacekeeping personnel are working in unique and often stressful conditions, their mortality after their service is lower compared with the general population. Military peacekeeping personnel appear to be a selected population group with low general mortality and no excess risk of any cause of death after peacekeeping service. PMID:27799241

  11. Psychological distress in relation to site specific cancer mortality: pooling of unpublished data from 16 prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Tom C; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of psychological distress (anxiety and depression) as a potential predictor of site specific cancer mortality. Design Pooling of individual participant data from 16 prospective cohort studies initiated 1994-2008. Setting Nationally representative samples drawn from the health survey for England (13 studies) and the Scottish health survey (three studies). Participants 163 363 men and women aged 16 or older at study induction, who were initially free of a cancer diagnosis, provided self reported psychological distress scores (based on the general health questionnaire, GHQ-12) and consented to health record linkage. Main outcome measure Vital status records used to ascertain death from 16 site specific malignancies; the three Scottish studies also had information on cancer registration (incidence). Results The studies collectively contributed an average of 9.5 years of mortality surveillance during which there were 16 267 deaths (4353 from cancer). After adjustment for age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI), and smoking and alcohol intake, and with reverse causality (by left censoring) and missing data (by imputation) taken into account, relative to people in the least distressed group (GHQ-12 score 0-6), death rates in the most distressed group (score 7-12) were consistently raised for cancer of all sites combined (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.48) and cancers not related to smoking (1.45, 1.23 to 1.71), as well as carcinoma of the colorectum (1.84, 1.21 to 2.78), prostate (2.42, 1.29 to 4.54), pancreas (2.76, 1.47 to 5.19), oesophagus (2.59, 1.34 to 5.00), and for leukaemia (3.86, 1.42 to 10.5). Stepwise associations across the full range of distress scores were observed for colorectal and prostate cancer. Conclusion This study contributes to the growing evidence that psychological distress might have some predictive capacity for selected cancer

  12. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S.; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac failure is associated with diminished activation of the transcription factor cyclic nucleotide regulatory element binding-protein (CREB), and heart-specific expression of a phosphorylation-deficient CREB mutant in transgenic mice [dominant negative CREB (dnCREB) mice] recapitulates the contractile phenotypes of cardiac failure (Fentzke RC, Korcarz CE, Lang RM, Lin H, Leiden JM. Dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transcription factor in the heart. J Clin Invest 101: 2415–2426, 1998). In the present study, we demonstrated significantly elevated mortality and contractile dysfunction in female compared with male dnCREB mice. Female dnCREB mice demonstrated a 21-wk survival of only 17% compared with 67% in males (P < 0.05) and exclusively manifest decreased cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and estrogen-related receptor-α content, suggesting sex-related effects on cardiac mitochondrial function. Hearts from 4-wk-old dnCREB mice of both sexes demonstrated diminished mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared with nontransgenic controls. However, by 12 wk of age, there was a significant decrease in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and deterioration of mitochondrial structure, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, in female dnCREB mice, which were not found in male transgenic littermates. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria isolated from hearts of female, but not male, dnCREB mice demonstrated increased ROS accompanied by decreases in the expression/activity of the mitochondrial antioxidants MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase. These results demonstrate that heart-specific dnCREB expression results in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in both sexes; however, increased oxidant burden, reduced antioxidant expression, and disrupted mitochondrial structure are exacerbated by the female sex, preceding and contributing to the greater contractile morbidity and

  13. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy Reduces Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: Results of a Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Godoi Bernardes da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), biochemical or clinical failure (BCF), and overall mortality (OM) in men with localized prostate cancer treated with conformal high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, Embase, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing conformal HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: Five randomized, controlled trials (2508 patients) that met the study criteria were identified. Pooled results from these randomized, controlled trials showed a significant reduction in the incidence of PCSM and BCF rates at 5 years in patients treated with HDRT (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively), with an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of PCSM and BCF at 5 years of 1.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Two trials evaluated PCSM with 10 years of follow up. The pooled results from these trials showed a statistical benefit for HDRT in terms of PCSM (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, trials that used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) showed an ARR for BCF of 12.9% (number needed to treat = 7.7, p < 0.00001), whereas trials without ADT had an ARR of 13.6% (number needed to treat = 7, p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the OM rate at 5 and 10 years (p = 0.99 and p = 0.11, respectively) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first study to show that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing disease progression and prostate cancer-specific death in trials that used conformational technique to increase the total dose. Despite the limitations of our study in evaluating the role of ADT and HDRT, our data show no benefit for HDRT arms in terms of BCF in trials with or without ADT.

  14. The Changing Body Mass-Mortality Association in the United States: Evidence of Sex-Specific Cohort Trends from Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) categories and mortality remains uncertain. Using three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys covering the 1971-2006 period for cohorts born between 1896 and 1968, this study estimates separately for men and women models for year-of-birth (cohort) and year-of-observation (period) trends in how age-specific mortality rates differ across BMI categories. Among women, relative to the normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), there are increasing trends in mortality rates for the overweight (BMI 25-29.9) or obese (BMI ≥ 30). Among men, mortality rates relative to the normal weight decrease for the overweight, do not change for the moderately obese (BMI 30-34.9), and increase for the severely obese (BMI ≥ 35). Period and cohort trends are similar, but the cohort trends are more consistent. In the latest cohorts, compared with the normal weight, mortality rates are 50 percent lower for overweight men, not different for moderately obese men, and 100-200 percent higher for severely obese men and for overweight or obese women. For U.S. cohorts born after the 1920s, a lower overweight than normal weight mortality is confined to men. I speculate on possible reasons why the mortality association with overweight and obesity varies by sex and cohort.

  15. Association between all-cause and cause-specific mortality and the GOLD stages 1-4: A 30-year follow-up among Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina; Vasankari, Tuula; Kanervisto, Merja; Laitinen, Tarja; Impivaara, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarelainen, Seppo; Puukka, Pauli; Heliövaara, Markku

    2015-08-01

    Mortality correlates with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria of airway obstruction. Yet, little data exist concerning the long-term survival of patients presenting with different levels of obstruction. We studied the association between all-cause and cause-specific mortality and GOLD stages 1-4 in a 30-year follow-up among 6636 Finnish men and women aged 30 or older participating in the Mini-Finland Health Study between 1978 and 1980. After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking history, the GOLD stage of the subject showed a strong direct relationship with all-cause mortality, mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios of death were 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.51), 1.40 (1.21-1.63), 1.55 (1.21-1.97) and 2.85 (1.65-4.94) for GOLD stages 1-4, respectively, with FEV1/FVC ≥70% as the reference. The association between GOLD stages 2-4 and mortality was strongest among subjects under 50 years of age at the baseline measurement. Cardiovascular mortality increased consistently for all GOLD stages. Airway obstruction indicates an increased risk for all-cause mortality according to the severity of the GOLD stage. We found that even stage 1 carries a risk for cardiovascular death independently of smoking history and other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Area-Level Deprivation and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality: 12 Years’ Observation on British Women and Systematic Review of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Santos, Maria T.; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Choi, Minkyoung; Nüesch, Eveline; Asunsolo-Del Barco, Angel; Amuzu, Antoinette; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Prieto-Merino, David; Casas, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have suggested a negative impact of area deprivation on overall mortality, but its effect on cause-specific mortality and the mechanisms that account for this association remain unclear. We investigate the association of area deprivation, using Index of Multiple deprivation (IMD), with overall and cause-specific mortality, contextualising findings within a systematic review. Methods And Findings We used data from 4,286 women from the British Women’s Heart Health Study (BWHHS) recruited at 1999-2001 to examine the association of IMD with overall and cause-specific mortality using Cox regression models. One standard deviation (SD) increase in the IMD score had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.13-1.30) for overall mortality after adjustment for age and lifecourse individual deprivation, which was attenuated to 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04-1.26) after further inclusion of mediators (health behaviours, biological factors and use of statins and blood pressure-lowering medications). A more pronounced association was observed for respiratory disease and vascular deaths. The meta-analysis, based on 20 published studies plus the BWHHS (n=21), yielded a summary relative risk (RR) of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.11-1.19) for area deprivation (top [least deprived; reference] vs. bottom tertile) with overall mortality in an age and sex adjusted model, which reduced to 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04-1.08) in a fully adjusted model. Conclusions Health behaviours mediate the association between area deprivation and cause-specific mortality. Efforts to modify health behaviours may be more successful if they are combined with measures that tackle area deprivation. PMID:24086262

  17. Higher baseline serum concentrations of vitamin E are associated with lower total and cause-specific mortality in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret E; Lawson, Karla A; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2006-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 19 trials suggested a small increase in the risk of all-cause mortality with high-dose vitamin E supplementation. Little is known, however, about the relation between mortality and circulating concentrations of vitamin E resulting from dietary intake, low-dose supplementation, or both. We examined whether baseline serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations are associated with total and cause-specific mortality. A prospective cohort study of 29 092 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 y who participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was carried out. Fasting serum alpha-tocopherol was measured at baseline by using HPLC. Only 10% of participants reported vitamin E supplement use at baseline, and thus serum concentrations of vitamin E mainly reflected dietary intake and other host factors. Risks of total and cause-specific mortality were estimated by using proportional hazards models. During up to 19 y of follow-up, 13 380 deaths (including 4518 and 5776 due to cancer and cardiovascular disease, respectively) were identified. Men in the higher quintiles of serum alpha-tocopherol had significantly lower risks of total and cause-specific mortality than did those in the lowest quintile [relative risk (RR) = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.86) for total mortality and 0.79 (0.72, 0.86), 0.81 (0.75, 0.88), and 0.70 (0.63, 0.79) for deaths due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes, respectively; P for trend for all < 0.0001]. Cubic regression spline analysis of continuous serum alpha-tocopherol values indicated greater risk reductions with increasing concentrations up to approximately 13-14 mg/L, after which no further benefit was noted. Higher circulating concentrations of alpha-tocopherol within the normal range are associated with significantly lower total and cause-specific mortality in older male smokers.

  18. Trends of Social Inequalities in the Specific Causes of Infant Mortality in a Nationwide Birth Cohort in Korea, 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; An, Soo Jeong; Kim, Young Ju

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between social disparity and specific causes of infant mortality has rarely been studied. The present study analyzed infant mortality trends according to the causes of death and the inequalities in specific causes of infant mortality between different parental social classes. We analyzed 8,209,836 births from the Statistics Korea between 1995 and 2009. The trends of disparity for cause-specific infant mortality according to parental education and employment were examined using the Cox proportional hazard model for the birth-year intervals of 1995-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated after adjusting for infants' gender, parents' age, maternal obstetrical history, gestational age, and birth weight. An increasing trend in social inequalities in all-cause infant mortality according to paternal education was evident. Social inequalities in infant mortality were greater for "Not classified symptoms, signs and findings" (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision [ICD-10]: R00-R99) and "Injury, poisoning and of external causes" (S00-T98), particularly for "Ill-defined and unspecified causes" (R990) and "Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)" (R950); and increased overtime for "Not classified symptoms, signs and findings" (R00-R99), "Injury, poisoning and of external causes" (S00-T98) and "Conditions in perinatal period" (P00-P96), particularly for "SIDS" (R950) and "Respiratory distress syndrome of newborns (RDS)" (P220). The specific causes of infant mortality, in particular the "Not classified causes" (R00-R99 coded deaths) should be investigated more thoroughly to reduce inequality in health. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Employment grade differences in cause specific mortality. A 25 year follow up of civil servants from the first Whitehall study

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, C. T M; Shipley, M.; van de Mheen, H.; Grobbee, D.; Marmot, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that the association between socioeconomic status and mortality rates cuts across the major causes of death for middle aged and elderly men.
DESIGN—25 year follow up of mortality in relation to employment grade.
SETTING—The first Whitehall study.
PARTICIPANTS—18 001 male civil servants aged 40-69 years who attended the initial screening between 1967 and 1970 and were followed up for at least 25 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Specific causes of death.
RESULTS—After more than 25 years of follow up of civil servants, aged 40-69 years at entry to the study, employment grade differences still exist in total mortality and for nearly all specific causes of death. Main risk factors (cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, glucose intolerance and diabetes) could only explain one third of this gradient. Comparing the older retired group with the younger pre-retirement group, the differentials in mortality remained but were less pronounced. The largest decline was seen for chronic bronchitis, gastrointestinal diseases and genitourinary diseases.
CONCLUSIONS—Differentials in mortality persist at older ages for almost all causes of death.


Keywords: mortality; socioeconomic factors; cause of death. PMID:10746111

  20. Impact of Increasing Age on Cause-Specific Mortality and Morbidity in Patients With Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Competing Risks Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Takashi; Bains, Sarina; Lee, Ming-Ching; Tan, Kay See; Hristov, Boris; Buitrago, Daniel H; Bains, Manjit S; Downey, Robert J; Huang, James; Isbell, James M; Park, Bernard J; Rusch, Valerie W; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2017-01-20

    Purpose To perform competing risks analysis and determine short- and long-term cancer- and noncancer-specific mortality and morbidity in patients who had undergone resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Of 5,371 consecutive patients who had undergone curative-intent resection of primary lung cancer at our institution (2000 to 2011), 2,186 with pathologic stage I NSCLC were included in the analysis. All preoperative clinical variables known to affect outcomes were included in the analysis, specifically, Charlson comorbidity index, predicted postoperative (ppo) diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and ppo forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Cause-specific mortality analysis was performed with competing risks analysis. Results Of 2,186 patients, 1,532 (70.1%) were ≥ 65 years of age, including 638 (29.2%) ≥ 75 years of age. In patients < 65, 65 to 74, and ≥ 75 years of age, 5-year lung cancer-specific cumulative incidence of death (CID) was 7.5%, 10.7%, and 13.2%, respectively (overall, 10.4%); noncancer-specific CID was 1.8%, 4.9%, and 9.0%, respectively (overall, 5.3%). In patients ≥ 65 years of age, for up to 2.5 years after resection, noncancer-specific CID was higher than lung cancer-specific CID; the higher noncancer-specific, early-phase mortality was enhanced in patients ≥ 75 years of age than in those 65 to 74 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that low ppo diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was an independent predictor of severe morbidity ( P < .001), 1-year mortality ( P < .001), and noncancer-specific mortality ( P < .001), whereas low ppo forced expiratory volume in 1 second was an independent predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality ( P = .002). Conclusion In patients who undergo curative-intent resection of stage I NSCLC, noncancer-specific mortality is a significant competing event, with an increasing impact as patient age increases.

  1. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(3)-2 - Plan-specific substitute mortality tables used to determine present value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tables under section 430(h)(3)(C) and related matters. (b) Procedures for obtaining approval to use... paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. Separate mortality tables must be established for each gender under the plan, and a substitute mortality table is permitted to be established for a gender only if the...

  2. Age-specific malaria mortality rates in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Khagayi, Sammy; Byass, Peter; Amek, Nyaguara; van Eijk, Annemieke; Slutsker, Laurence; Vulule, John; Odhiambo, Frank O; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Lindblade, Kimberly A; Laserson, Kayla F; Hamel, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003-2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003-2010, in children <5 years the malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5-14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003-2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions.

  3. Health Care Disparity and State-Specific Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; Dildy, Gary A; Brown, Haywood L; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Belfort, Michael A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Clark, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    To investigate factors associated with differential state maternal mortality ratios and to quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to such variation. In a population-level analysis study, we analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (P<.05) in the univariate analysis to deal with multicollinearity among the existing variables. The United States has experienced a continued increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2007 with rates of 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. This increase in mortality was most dramatic in non-Hispanic black women. There was a significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of non-Hispanic black deliveries, and four or less prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with increased maternal mortality ratio. Interstate differences in maternal mortality ratios largely reflect a different proportion of non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability, access, or utilization by underserved populations are an important issue faced by states in seeking to decrease maternal mortality.

  4. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality.

  5. Trends in cause specific mortality across occupations in Japanese men of working age during period of economic stagnation, 1980-2005: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Kondo, Naoki; Gilmour, Stuart; Ichida, Yukinobu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Toshihiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2012-03-06

    To assess the temporal trends in occupation specific all causes and cause specific mortality in Japan between 1980 and 2005. Longitudinal analysis of individual death certificates by last occupation before death. Data on population by age and occupation were derived from the population census. Government records, Japan. Men aged 30-59. Age standardised mortality rate for all causes, all cancers, cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Age standardised mortality rates for all causes and for the four leading causes of death (cancers, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and unintentional injuries) steadily decreased from 1980 to 2005 among all occupations except for management and professional workers, for whom rates began to rise in the late 1990s (P<0.001). During the study period, the mortality rate was lowest in other occupations such as production/labour, clerical, and sales workers, although overall variability of the age standardised mortality rate across occupations widened. The rate for suicide rapidly increased since the late 1990s, with the greatest increase being among management and professional workers. Occupational patterns in cause specific mortality changed dramatically in Japan during the period of its economic stagnation and resulted in the reversal of occupational patterns in mortality that have been well established in western countries. A significant negative effect on the health of management and professional workers rather than clerks and blue collar workers could be because of increased job demands and more stressful work environments and could have eliminated or even reversed the health inequality across occupations that had existed previously.

  6. Socioeconomic Factors and All Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Older People in Latin America, India, and China: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Cleusa P.; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Llibre-Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D.; Gaona, Ciro; Liu, Zhaorui; Noriega-Fernandez, Lisseth; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Prince, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Even in low and middle income countries most deaths occur in older adults. In Europe, the effects of better education and home ownership upon mortality seem to persist into old age, but these effects may not generalise to LMICs. Reliable data on causes and determinants of mortality are lacking. Methods and Findings The vital status of 12,373 people aged 65 y and over was determined 3–5 y after baseline survey in sites in Latin America, India, and China. We report crude and standardised mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios comparing mortality experience with that in the United States, and estimated associations with socioeconomic factors using Cox's proportional hazards regression. Cause-specific mortality fractions were estimated using the InterVA algorithm. Crude mortality rates varied from 27.3 to 70.0 per 1,000 person-years, a 3-fold variation persisting after standardisation for demographic and economic factors. Compared with the US, mortality was much higher in urban India and rural China, much lower in Peru, Venezuela, and urban Mexico, and similar in other sites. Mortality rates were higher among men, and increased with age. Adjusting for these effects, it was found that education, occupational attainment, assets, and pension receipt were all inversely associated with mortality, and food insecurity positively associated. Mutually adjusted, only education remained protective (pooled hazard ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.89–0.98). Most deaths occurred at home, but, except in India, most individuals received medical attention during their final illness. Chronic diseases were the main causes of death, together with tuberculosis and liver disease, with stroke the leading cause in nearly all sites. Conclusions Education seems to have an important latent effect on mortality into late life. However, compositional differences in socioeconomic position do not explain differences in mortality between sites. Social protection for older people, and the

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause and specific-cause mortality in Australia: 1985-1987 and 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Turrell, G; Mathers, C

    2001-04-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality have been repeatedly observed in Britain, the US, and Europe, and in some countries there is evidence that the differentials are widening. This study describes trends in socioeconomic mortality inequality in Australia for males and females aged 0-14, 15-24 and 25-64 years over the period 1985-1987 to 1995-1997. Socioeconomic status (SES) was operationalized using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage, an area-based measure developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Mortality differentials were examined using age-standardized rates, and mortality inequality was assessed using rate ratios, gini coefficients, and a measure of excess mortality. For both periods, and for each sex/age subgroup, death rates were highest in the most disadvantaged areas. The extent and nature of socioeconomic mortality inequality differed for males and females and for each age group: both increases and decreases in mortality inequality were observed, and for some causes, the degree of inequality remained unchanged. If it were possible to reduce death rates among the SES areas to a level equivalent to that of the least disadvantaged area, premature all-cause mortality for males in each age group would be lower by 22%, 28% and 26% respectively, and for females, 35%, 70% and 56%. The mortality burden in the Australian population attributable to socioeconomic inequality is large, and has profound and far-reaching implications in terms of the unnecessary loss of life, the loss of potentially economically productive members of society, and increased costs for the health care system.

  8. Cooking Coal Use and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study of Women in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hosgood, H Dean; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread. Kim C, Seow WJ, Shu XO, Bassig BA, Rothman N, Chen BE, Xiang YB, Hosgood HD III, Ji BT, Hu W, Wen C, Chow WH, Cai Q, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W, Lan Q. 2016. Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China. Environ

  9. Cooking Coal Use and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study of Women in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hosgood, H. Dean; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread. Citation: Kim C, Seow WJ, Shu XO, Bassig BA, Rothman N, Chen BE, Xiang YB, Hosgood HD III, Ji BT, Hu W, Wen C, Chow WH, Cai Q, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W, Lan Q. 2016. Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in

  10. Perineural invasion associated with increased cancer-specific mortality after external beam radiation therapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Clair . E-mail: cbeard@lroc.harvard.edu; Schultz, Delray; Loffredo, Marian; Cote, Kerri; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Hurwitz, Mark D.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To identify an association between perineural invasion (PNI) and cancer-specific survival in patients with prostate cancer after standard-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 517 consecutive patients who underwent RT (median dose, 70.5 Gy) between 1989 and 2003 for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were studied. A genitourinary pathologist (AAR) scored presence or absence of PNI on all prostate needle-biopsy specimens. A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to assess whether the presence of PNI was associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT when the recognized risk-group variables were factored into the model. Estimates of cancer-specific mortality were made using a cumulative incidence method. Comparisons of survival were made using a two-tailed log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 84 patients (16%) have died, 15 of 84 (18%) from prostate cancer. PNI was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT (p = 0.012). The estimated prostate cancer-specific mortality was 14% at 8 years for PNI+ patients vs. 5% for PNI- patients (p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have PNI on prostate needle biopsy have a significantly higher rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality after standard-dose radiation therapy than patients without PNI. Although this analysis is retrospective, this association argues for consideration of the use of more aggressive therapy, such as hormonal therapy with RT or dose escalation, in these select patients.

  11. Motor neuron disease mortality and lifetime petrol lead exposure: Evidence from national age-specific and state-level age-standardized death rates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Rowe, Dominic B; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2017-02-01

    The age standardized death rate from motor neuron disease (MND) for persons 40-84 years of age in the Australian States of New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland increased dramatically from 1958 to 2013. Nationally, age-specific MND death rates also increased over this time period, but the rate of the rise varied considerably by age-group. The historic use of lead (Pb) additives in Australian petrol is a candidate explanation for these trends in MND mortality (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 G12.2). Leveraging temporal and spatial variation in petrol lead exposure risk resulting from the slow rise and rapid phase-out of lead as a constituent in gasoline in Australia, we analyze relationships between (1) national age-specific MND death rates in Australia and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure, (2) annual between-age dispersions in age-specific MND death rates and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure; and (3) state-level age-standardized MND death rates as a function of age-weighted lifetime petrol lead exposure. Other things held equal, we find that a one percent increase in lifetime petrol lead exposure increases the MND death rate by about one-third of one percent in both national age-specific and state-level age-standardized models of MND mortality. Lending support to the supposition that lead exposure is a driver of MND mortality risk, we find that the annual between-age group standard deviation in age-specific MND death rates is strongly correlated with the between-age standard deviation in age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure. Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with age-specific MND death rates as well as state-level age-standardized MND death rates in Australia. Results indicate that we are approaching peak lead exposure-attributable MND mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morbid Obesity as an Independent Risk Factor for Disease-Specific Mortality in Women With Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Soliman, Pamela T.; Klopp, Ann H.; Schmeler, Kathleen; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether obesity is an independent predictor of mortality in women with cervical cancer. Methods This retrospective cohort study of patients with stages IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with curative intent at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1980 through 2007 categorized these women as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese according to National Institutes of Health definitions. In addition to weight category, known prognostic factors for survival after a diagnosis of cervical cancer were included in a multivariate model. These known prognostic factors included age, smoking status, race or ethnicity (self-reported), socioeconomic status, comorbidities, tumor histologic subtype, tumor stage, tumor size, presence or absence of hydronephrosis, radiologic evidence of nodal metastasis, and the addition of concurrent chemotherapy with definitive radiation. Results A total of 3,086 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median survival for the entire cohort was 81 months (range, 0–365). The presence of lymph node spread and advancing stage were the most significant predictors of survival. Compared to normal-weight women, morbidly obese women had a significantly higher hazard ratio for both all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10–1.45) and disease-specific death (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06–1.47). Underweight, overweight, and obese women did not have an increased risk for death compared to normal-weight women. Conclusions After controlling for all previously known prognostic factors, morbid obesity remains an independent risk factor for death from cervical cancer. Overweight and obese women have the same prognosis as normal-weight women. PMID:25415160

  13. Morbid obesity as an independent risk factor for disease-specific mortality in women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Soliman, Pamela T; Klopp, Ann H; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Eifel, Patricia J

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether obesity is an independent predictor of mortality in women with cervical cancer. This retrospective cohort study of patients with stages IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with curative intent at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1980 through 2007 categorized these women as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese according to National Institutes of Health definitions. In addition to weight category, known prognostic factors for survival after a diagnosis of cervical cancer were included in a multivariate model. These known prognostic factors included age, smoking status, race or ethnicity (self-reported), socioeconomic status, comorbidities, tumor histologic subtype, tumor stage, tumor size, presence or absence of hydronephrosis, radiologic evidence of nodal metastasis, and the addition of concurrent chemotherapy with definitive radiation. A total of 3,086 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median survival for the entire cohort was 81 months (range 0-365 months). The presence of lymph node spread and advancing stage were the most significant predictors of survival. Compared with normal-weight women, morbidly obese women had a significantly higher hazard ratio for both all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.45) and disease-specific death (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.47). Underweight, overweight, and obese women did not have an increased risk for death compared with normal-weight women. After controlling for all previously known prognostic factors, morbid obesity remains an independent risk factor for death from cervical cancer. Overweight and obese women have the same prognosis as normal-weight women.

  14. Daily aspirin use and prostate cancer-specific mortality in a large cohort of men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; Stevens, Victoria L; Campbell, Peter T; Freedland, Stephen J; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-11-20

    In a recent analysis of a large clinical database, postdiagnosis aspirin use was associated with 57% lower prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. However, information on this association remains limited. We assessed the association between daily aspirin use and PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2009. Aspirin use was reported at enrollment, in 1997, and every 2 years thereafter. During follow-up through 2010, there were 441 prostate cancer deaths among 8,427 prostate cancer cases with information on prediagnosis aspirin use and 301 prostate cancer deaths among 7,118 prostate cancer cases with information on postdiagnosis aspirin use. Compared with no aspirin use, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis daily aspirin use were statistically significantly associated with PCSM (prediagnosis use, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.17, postdiagnosis use, HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.29). However, among men diagnosed with high-risk cancers (≥ T3 and/or Gleason score ≥ 8), postdiagnosis daily aspirin use was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.97), with no clear difference by dose (low-dose, typically 81 mg per day, HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.92, higher dose, HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.34). A randomized trial of aspirin among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer was recently funded. Our results suggest any additional randomized trials addressing this question should prioritize enrolling men with high-risk cancers and need not use high doses. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol drinking and overall and cause-specific mortality in China: nationally representative prospective study of 220,000 men with 15 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zhou, Maigeng; Sherliker, Paul; Cai, Yue; Peto, Richard; Wang, Lijun; Millwood, Iona; Smith, Margaret; Hu, Yuehua; Yang, Gonghuan; Chen, Zhengming

    2012-08-01

    Regular alcohol drinking contributes both favourably and adversely to health in the Western populations, but its effects on overall and cause-specific mortality in China are still poorly understood. A nationally representative prospective cohort study included 220,000 men aged 40-79 years from 45 areas in China in 1990-91, and >40,000 deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to relate alcohol drinking to overall and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age, area, smoking and education. Overall, 33% of the participants reported drinking alcohol regularly at baseline, consuming mainly distilled spirits, with an estimated mean amount consumed of 372 g/week (46.5 units per week). After excluding all men with prior disease at baseline and the first 3 years of follow-up, there was a 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2-8] excess risk of overall mortality among regular drinkers. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratios among men who drank <140, 140-279, 280-419, 420-699 and ≥ 700 g/week were 0.97, 1.00, 1.02, 1.12 and 1.27, respectively (P < 0.0001 for trend). The strength of the relationship appeared to be greater in smokers than in non-smokers. There was a strong positive association of alcohol drinking with mortality from stroke, oesophageal cancer, liver cirrhosis or accidental causes, a weak J-shaped association with mortality from ischaemic heart disease, stomach cancer and lung cancer and no apparent relationship with respiratory disease mortality. Among Chinese men aged 40-79 years, regular alcohol drinking was associated with a small but definite excess risk of overall mortality, especially among smokers.

  17. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-06-24

    To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001-2009). Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). The study population consists of 1,397,699 male workers (18-65,years) with 72,074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385,046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10,476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos workers, demonstrating the current-day health repercussions of historical asbestos use

  18. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. Design This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001–2009). Setting Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). Participants The study population consists of 1 397 699 male workers (18–65 years) with 72 074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385 046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Outcome measures Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Results Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10 476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). Conclusions The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos

  19. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are

  20. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA < 10 ng/ml or T1c, Gleason 6, PSA > 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191

  1. Associations of Plasma Phospholipid SFAs with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Older Adults Differ According to SFA Chain Length1234

    PubMed Central

    Fretts, Amanda M; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Siscovick, David S; King, Irena B; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M; Rimm, Eric B; Sitlani, Colleen; Sacks, Frank M; Song, Xiaoling; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Spiegelman, Donna; Lemaitre, Rozenn N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the relations of circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs), which are influenced by both metabolic and dietary determinants, with total and cause-specific mortality. Objective: We examined the associations of plasma phospholipid SFAs with total and cause-specific mortality among 3941 older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥65 y who were followed from 1992 through 2011. Methods: The relations of total and cause-specific mortality with plasma phospholipid palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During 45,450 person-years of follow-up, 3134 deaths occurred. Higher concentrations of the plasma phospholipid SFAs 18:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were associated with a lower risk of total mortality [multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs)] for the top compared with the bottom quintile: 0.85 (0.75, 0.95) for 18:0; 0.85 (0.75, 0.95) for 22:0; and 0.80 (0.71, 0.90) for 24:0. In contrast, plasma 16:0 concentrations in the highest quintile were associated with a higher risk of total mortality compared with concentrations in the lowest quintile [1.25 (1.11, 1.41)]. We also found no association of plasma phospholipid 20:0 with total mortality. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the associations of plasma phospholipid SFAs with the risk of death differ according to SFA chain length and support future studies to better characterize the determinants of circulating SFAs and to explore the mechanisms underlying these relations. PMID:26701797

  2. Underlying and proximate determinants of diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the state of Céara, north-east Brazil: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A C; Petersont, K E; Cufino, E; do Amaral, M I; Gardner, J

    2001-04-01

    This ecological study examines the variations in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the State of Ceará, north-east Brazil, using data from a community health workers' programme. Diarrhoea is the main cause of postneonatal deaths in Ceará, and diarrhoea mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities, from 7 to 50 per thousand live births. To determine the inter-relationships between potential predictors of diarrhoea-specific infant mortality, eleven variables were classified into proximate determinants (i.e. adequate weight gain and exclusive breast-feeding in first 4 months) and underlying determinants (i.e. health services and socioeconomic variables). The health services variables included percentage with prenatal care up-to-date, participation in growth monitoring and immunization up-to-date, while the socioeconomic factors included female illiteracy rate, per capita gross municipality product and percentage of households with low income, percentage of households with inadequate water supply and inadequate sanitation, and urbanization. Using linear regression analysis variables were included from each group to build regression models. The significant determinants of variability in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality between municipalities were prevalence of infants exclusively breast-feeding, percentage of infants with adequate weight gain, percentage of pregnant women with prenatal care up-to-date, female illiteracy rate and inadequate water supply. These findings suggest that community-based promotion of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 4 months and care-giving behaviours that prevent weight faltering, including weaning practices and feeding during and following diarrhoea episodes, may further reduce municipality-level diarrhoea-specific mortality. Primary heath care strategies addressing these two proximate determinants provide only a partial solution to reducing diarrhoeal disease mortality. Improvements in

  3. Cell cycle progression score is a marker for five-year lung cancer-specific mortality risk in patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Takashi; Kadota, Kyuichi; Chaft, Jamie; Evans, Brent; Kidd, John; Tan, Kay See; Dycoco, Joe; Kolquist, Kathryn; Davis, Thaylon; Hamilton, Stephanie A; Yager, Kraig; Jones, Joshua T; Travis, William D; Jones, David R; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2016-06-07

    The goals of our study were (a) to validate a molecular expression signature (cell cycle progression [CCP] score and molecular prognostic score [mPS; combination of CCP and pathological stage {IA or IB}]) that identifies stage I lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with a higher risk of cancer-specific death following curative-intent surgical resection, and (b) to determine whether mPS stratifies prognosis within stage I lung ADC histological subtypes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded stage I lung ADC tumor samples from 1200 patients were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Prognostic discrimination of CCP score and mPS was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression, using 5-year lung cancer-specific mortality as the primary outcome. In multivariable analysis, CCP score was a prognostic marker for 5-year lung cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.6 per interquartile range; 95% CI, 1.14-2.24; P=0.006). In a multivariable model that included mPS instead of CCP, mPS was a significant prognostic marker for 5-year lung cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.18-2.66; P=0.006). Five-year lung cancer-specific survival differed between low-risk and high-risk mPS groups (96% vs 81%; P<0.001). In patients with intermediate-grade lung ADC of acinar and papillary subtypes, high mPS was associated with worse 5-year lung cancer-specific survival (P<0.001 and 0.015, respectively), compared with low mPS. This study validates CCP score and mPS as independent prognostic markers for lung cancer-specific mortality and provides quantitative risk assessment, independent of known high-risk features, for stage I lung ADC patients treated with surgery alone.

  4. Optimal Versus Realized Trajectories of Physiological Dysregulation in Aging and Their Relation to Sex-Specific Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Cohen, Alan A.; Arbeeva, Liubov S.; Milot, Emmanuel; Stallard, Eric; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Akushevich, Igor; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Christensen, Kaare; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2016-01-01

    While longitudinal changes in biomarker levels and their impact on health have been characterized for individual markers, little is known about how overall marker profiles may change during aging and affect mortality risk. We implemented the recently developed measure of physiological dysregulation based on the statistical distance of biomarker profiles in the framework of the stochastic process model of aging, using data on blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol, glucose, hematocrit, body mass index, and mortality in the Framingham original cohort. This allowed us to evaluate how physiological dysregulation is related to different aging-related characteristics such as decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity (which typically are not observed in the data and thus can be analyzed only indirectly), and, ultimately, to estimate how such dynamic relationships increase mortality risk with age. We found that physiological dysregulation increases with age; that increased dysregulation is associated with increased mortality, and increasingly so with age; and that, in most but not all cases, there is a decreasing ability to return quickly to baseline physiological state with age. We also revealed substantial sex differences in these processes, with women becoming dysregulated more quickly but with men showing a much greater sensitivity to dysregulation in terms of mortality risk. PMID:26835445

  5. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Long-term All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Rossouw, Jacques E; Anderson, Garnet L; Prentice, Ross L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Howard, Barbara V; Thomson, Cynthia A; Margolis, Karen L; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Jackson, Rebecca D; Johnson, Karen C; Martin, Lisa W; Shumaker, Sally A; Espeland, Mark A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-09-12

    Health outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin and Estrogen-Alone Trials have been reported, but previous publications have generally not focused on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. To examine total and cause-specific cumulative mortality, including during the intervention and extended postintervention follow-up, of the 2 Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials. Observational follow-up of US multiethnic postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years enrolled in 2 randomized clinical trials between 1993 and 1998 and followed up through December 31, 2014. Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/d) (n = 8506) vs placebo (n = 8102) for 5.6 years (median) or CEE alone (n = 5310) vs placebo (n = 5429) for 7.2 years (median). All-cause mortality (primary outcome) and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and other major causes of mortality) in the 2 trials pooled and in each trial individually, with prespecified analyses by 10-year age group based on age at time of randomization. Among 27 347 women who were randomized (baseline mean [SD] age, 63.4 [7.2] years; 80.6% white), mortality follow-up was available for more than 98%. During the cumulative 18-year follow-up, 7489 deaths occurred (1088 deaths during the intervention phase and 6401 deaths during postintervention follow-up). All-cause mortality was 27.1% in the hormone therapy group vs 27.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.03]) in the overall pooled cohort; with CEE plus MPA, the HR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96-1.08); and with CEE alone, the HR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01). In the pooled cohort for cardiovascular mortality, the HR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08 [8.9 % with hormone therapy vs 9.0% with placebo]); for total cancer mortality, the HR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.95-1.12 [8.2 % with hormone therapy vs 8.0% with placebo]); and for other causes, the

  6. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-10-08

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation

  7. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Background Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. Objective The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Data sources and eligibility Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. Setting High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. Methods The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Main outcome Consistency between studies. Results In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two ‘natural experiments’ found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female–male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. Conclusions These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the

  8. Cause-Specific Mortality Trends in a Large Population-Based Cohort With Long-Standing Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Secrest, Aaron M.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known concerning the primary cause(s) of mortality in type 1 diabetes responsible for the excess mortality seen in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) childhood-onset (age <18 years) type 1 diabetes registry (n = 1,075) with diagnosis from 1965 to 1979 was used to explore patterns in cause-specific mortality. Cause of death was determined by a mortality classification committee of at least three physician epidemiologists, based on the death certificate and additional records surrounding the death. RESULTS Vital status for 1,043 (97%) participants was ascertained as of 1 January 2008, revealing 279 (26.0%) deaths overall (141 females and 138 males). Within the first 10 years after diagnosis, the leading cause of death was acute diabetes complications (73.6%), while during the next 10 years, deaths were nearly evenly attributed to acute (15%), cardiovascular (22%), renal (20%), or infectious (18%) causes. After 20 years' duration, chronic diabetes complications (cardiovascular, renal, or infectious) accounted for >70% of all deaths, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death (40%). Women (P < 0.05) and African Americans (P < 0.001) have significantly higher diabetes-related mortality rates than men and Caucasians, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for non–diabetes-related causes do not significantly differ from the general population (violent deaths: SMR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6–1.8; cancer: SMR 1.2, 0.5–2.0). CONCLUSIONS The excess mortality seen in type 1 diabetes is almost entirely related to diabetes and its comorbidities but varies by duration of diabetes and particularly affects women and African Americans. PMID:20739685

  9. Age- and cause-specific childhood mortality in Lombok, Indonesia, as a factor for determining the appropriateness of introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C M; Sutanto, A; Gessner, B D; Suradana, I G; Steinhoff, M C; Arjoso, S

    2000-12-01

    Using age and cause-specific childhood mortality in Lombok, Indonesia, as a factor for determining the appropriateness of introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, the study describes a cross-sectional, hamlet-level mortality survey in 40 of 305 villages in Lombok Island, Indonesia. Causes of death were assessed with a standardized verbal-autopsy questionnaire. One thousand four hundred ninety-nine births and 141 deaths occurring among children aged less than 2 years were identified, with 43% of deaths occurring during the first 2 months of life. The infant mortality rate was 89 (95% CI: 75, 104) per 1,000 live-births. All mortality rates are reported per 1,000 live-births. To examine children whose deaths could potentially have been prevented through vaccination with Hib or pneumococcal vaccine, deaths due to acute respiratory infection (ARI) and central nervous system (CNS) infections among children, aged 2-23 months, were analyzed. ARI and CNS infections caused 58% (mortality rate: 31 per 1,000 live-births; 95% CI: 23, 41) and 17% (mortality rate: 9 per 1,000 live-births; 95% CI: 5, 16), respectively, of all deaths within this age group. Between the ages of 2 and 23 months, 5% of all babies born alive died of ARI, and another 1% died of CNS infections. Our results indicate that current efforts to reduce childhood mortality should focus on reducing ARI and meningitis. These efforts should include evaluating the impact of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines within the routine Expanded Programme on Immunization system.

  10. Age- and sex-specific spatio-temporal patterns of colorectal cancer mortality in Spain (1975-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, space-time patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality risks are studied by sex and age group (50-69, ≥70) in Spanish provinces during the period 1975-2008. Space-time conditional autoregressive models are used to perform the statistical analyses. A pronounced increase in mortality risk has been observed in males for both age-groups. For males between 50 and 69 years of age, trends seem to stabilize from 2001 onward. In females, trends reflect a more stable pattern during the period in both age groups. However, for the 50-69 years group, risks take an upward trend in the period 2006-2008 after the slight decline observed in the second half of the period. This study offers interesting information regarding CRC mortality distribution among different Spanish provinces that could be used to improve prevention policies and resource allocation in different regions. PMID:25136264

  11. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and cancer-specific mortality: Results from the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released eight recommendations related to body fatness, physical activity and diet aimed at preventing the most common cancers worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between meeting these recommendations and cancer-specific mortality. Methods We operationalized six recommendations (related to body fatness; physical activity; and consumption of foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, red and processed meat, and alcohol) and examined their association with cancer-specific mortality over 7.7 years of follow-up in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study cohort. Participants included 57,841 men and women ages 50–76 in 2000–2002 who had not been diagnosed with cancer prior to baseline. Cancer-specific deaths (n = 1,595) were tracked through the Washington State death file. Results Meeting the recommendations related to plant foods and foods that promote weight gain were most strongly associated with lower cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.00 and HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96, respectively). Cancer-specific mortality was 61% lower in respondents who met at least five recommendations compared to those who met none (HR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.62). Cancer-specific mortality was 10% lower on average with each additional recommendation met (per-recommendation HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.94; Ptrend <0.001). This association did not differ by sex or age but was stronger in non-smokers (HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) than in smokers (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98; Pinteraction = 0.086) Conclusion Adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations developed to reduce incidence of common cancers could substantially reduce cancer-specific mortality in older adults. PMID:24557428

  12. Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL) for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA). However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE) items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar

  13. Nondisease-Specific Problems and All-Cause Mortality in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, C. Barrett; Booth, John N.; Safford, Monika; Whitson, Heather E.; Ritchie, Christine; Wadley, Virginia G.; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia; Allman, Richard M.; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Problems that cross multiple domains of health are frequently assessed in older adults. We evaluated the association between six of these nondisease-specific problems and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort Setting U.S. population sample Participants Participants included 23,669 black and white US adults ≥ 45 years of age enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Measurements Nondisease-specific problems included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, falls, polypharmacy, impaired mobility and exhaustion. Age-stratified (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were calculated for each problem individually and by number of problems. Results Among participants < 65, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, one or more nondisease-specific problems occurred in 40%, 45% and 55% of participants, respectively. Compared to those with none of these problems the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality associated with each additional nondisease-specific problem was 1.34 (1.23–1.46), 1.24 (1.15–1.35) and 1.30 (1.21–1.39), among participants < 65, 65 – 74 years, ≥ 75 years of age, respectively. Conclusion Nondisease-specific problems were associated with mortality across a wide age spectrum. Future studies should determine if treating these problems will improve survival and identify innovative healthcare models to address multiple nondisease-specific problems simultaneously. PMID:23617688

  14. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae).

    PubMed

    Larson, Sam M; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen R; Williams, Lawrence; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males have been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales  = 70, NFemales  = 73) and captive (NMales  = 25, NFemales  = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting biparental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations were best fit by the logistic and Gompertz models, respectively, implying greater heterogeneity in the wild environment likely due to harsher conditions. We found that age patterns of mortality were similar between the sexes in both populations. We calculated life expectancy and disparity, the latter a measure of the steepness of senescence, for both sexes in each population. Males and females had similar life expectancies in both populations; the wild population overall having a shorter life expectancy than the captive one. Furthermore, captive females had a reduced life disparity relative to captive males and to both sexes in the wild. We interpret this pattern in light of the hazards associated with reproduction. In captivity, where reproduction is intensely managed, the risks associated with gestation and birth are tempered so that there is a reduction in the likelihood of captive females dying prematurely, decreasing their overall life disparity.

  15. Whole-grain products and whole-grain types are associated with lower all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Nina F; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Christensen, Jane; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Landberg, Rikard; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena M; Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-08-28

    No study has yet investigated the intake of different types of whole grain (WG) in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a healthy population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intake of WG products and WG types in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large Scandinavian HELGA cohort that, in 1992-8, included 120 010 cohort members aged 30-64 years from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, and the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study. Participants filled in a FFQ from which data on the intake of WG products were extracted. The estimation of daily intake of WG cereal types was based on country-specific products and recipes. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95 % CI were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 3658 women and 4181 men died during the follow-up (end of follow-up was 15 April 2008 in the Danish sub-cohort, 15 December 2009 in the Norwegian sub-cohort and 15 February 2009 in the Swedish sub-cohort). In the analyses of continuous WG variables, we found lower all-cause mortality with higher intake of total WG products (women: MRR 0·89 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91); men: MRR 0·89 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91) for a doubling of intake). In particular, intake of breakfast cereals and non-white bread was associated with lower mortality. We also found lower all-cause mortality with total intake of different WG types (women: MRR 0·88 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·92); men: MRR 0·88 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91) for a doubling of intake). In particular, WG oat, rye and wheat were associated with lower mortality. The associations were found in both women and men and for different causes of deaths. In the analyses of quartiles of WG intake in relation to all-cause mortality, we found lower mortality in the highest quartile compared with the lowest for breakfast cereals, non-white bread, total WG products, oat, rye (only men), wheat and total WG types. The MRR for highest v

  16. Age-Specific Trends From 2000-2011 in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of More Than One Million People.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Peeters, Anna; Davidson, Susan; Magliano, Dianna J

    2016-06-01

    To analyze changes by age-group in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates from 2000-2011 in people with diabetes. A total of 1,189,079 (7.3% with type 1 diabetes) Australians with diabetes registered on the National Diabetes Service Scheme between 2000 and 2011 were linked to the National Death Index. Mortality rates in the total population were age standardized to the 2001 Australian population. Mortality rates were calculated for the following age-groups: 0 to <40 years, ≥ 40 to <60 years, and ≥60 to ≤85 years. Annual mortality rates were fitted using a Poisson regression model including calendar year as a covariate and age and sex where appropriate, with Ptrend reported. For type 1 diabetes, all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) decreased each year by 0.61, 0.35, and 0.14 per 1,000 person-years (PY), respectively, between 2000 and 2011, Ptrend < 0.05, while cancer mortality remained unchanged. By age, significant decreases in all-cause, CVD, and diabetes mortality rates were observed in all age-groups, excluding diabetes mortality in age-group 0-40 years. For type 2 diabetes, all-cause, CVD, and diabetes ASMRs decreased per year by 0.18, 0.15, and 0.03 per 1,000 PY, respectively, Ptrend < 0.001, while cancer remained unchanged. By age, these decreases were observed in all age-groups, excluding 0-40 years, where significant increases in all-cause and cancer mortality were noted and no change was seen for CVD and diabetes mortality. All-cause, CVD, and diabetes ASMRs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes decreased between 2000 and 2011, while cancer ASMRs remained unchanged. However, younger populations are not benefiting from the same improvements as older populations. In addition, the absence of a decline in cancer mortality warrants urgent attention. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for

  17. Is diabetes mellitus associated with increased incidence and disease-specific mortality in endometrial cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Caiyun; Zhang, Dongyu; Mungo, Chemtai; Tompkins, D. Andrew; Zeidan, Amer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the incidence and disease-specific mortality of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference abstracts of the 2011–2013 Annual Meetings of Society of Gynecological Oncology were searched for reports of original cohort studies that enrolled diabetic and non-diabetic women who were free of EC at baseline to compare the incidence and disease-specific mortality of EC by DM status. The included reports were examined for demographic characteristics of study populations, study design, effect measures and risk of bias. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated with Chi-square test of the Cochrane Q statistics at the 0.05 significance level and I2 statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual examination of a funnel plot and the Egger’s test for small-study effects. Results Twenty-nine cohort studies (17 prospective, 12 retrospective) were eligible for this review, 23 of which reported EC incidence, five reported disease-specific mortality and one reported both. For incidence of EC among women with versus without DM, the summary relative risk (RR) was 1.89 (95%CI, 1.46–2.45; p < 0.001) and the summary incidence rate ratio was 1.61 (95%CI, 1.51–1.71; p < 0.001). The pooled RR of disease-specific mortality was 1.32 (95%CI, 1.10–1.60; p = 0.003), while results in the studies reporting standardized mortality ratios were inconsistent. There remains considerable amount of clinical and methodological heterogeneity among the included studies; moreover, the hazard ratios for incident EC showed significant statistical heterogeneity and therefore were not quantitatively synthesized. Conclusions There is consistent evidence for an independent association between DM and an increased risk of incident EC, while the association between DM and EC-specific mortality remains uncertain. Further studies with better considerations for selection bias, information bias and confounding will

  18. Whole grain, cereal fiber, bran, and germ intake and the risks of all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among women with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    He, Meian; van Dam, Rob M.; Rimm, Eric; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    Background Although whole grain consumption has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality in the general population, the association of whole grain with mortality in diabetic patients remain to be determined. This study investigated whole grain and its components cereal fiber, bran and germ in relation to all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results We followed 7,822 US women with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Dietary intakes and potential confounders were assessed with regularly administered questionnaires. We documented 852 all-cause deaths and 295 CVD-deaths during up to 26 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, the highest versus the lowest fifth of intakes of whole grain, cereal fiber, bran, and germ were associated with 16–31% lower all-cause mortality. After further adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, only the association for bran intake remained significant (P for trend = 0.01). The multivariate relative risks (RRs) across the fifths of bran intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.75–1.18), 0.80 (0.64–1.01), 0.82 (0.65–1.04), and 0.72 (0.56–0.92). Similarly, bran intake was inversely associated with CVD-specific mortality (P for trend = 0.04). The RRs across the fifths of bran intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.95 (0.66–1.38), 0.80 (0.55–1.16), 0.76 (0.51–1.14), and 0.65 (0.43–0.99). Similar results were observed for added bran alone. Conclusions Whole grain and bran intakes were associated with reduced all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in women with diabetes. These findings suggest a potential benefit of whole grain intake in reducing mortality and cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. PMID:20458012

  19. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Chang, Se-Jin; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL) with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.79), digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33–7.86), and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07–7.81) were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10–20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06–13.06). The RRs of females with 10–20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16–3.20) and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21–149.4). The RRs of females with BLL 10–20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74–62.93) and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69–147.86) was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender. PMID:26469177

  20. Does sickness absence due to psychiatric disorder predict cause-specific mortality? A 16-year follow-up of the GAZEL occupational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-09-15

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990-1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993-2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence-suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers' health.

  1. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for <1 cup/d, 0.85 (0.81-0.90) for 1-2 cups/d, 0.76 (0.70-0.83) for 3-4 cups/d, and 0.85 (0.75-0.98) for >5 cups/d (P-trend < 0.001). Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Does Sickness Absence Due to Psychiatric Disorder Predict Cause-specific Mortality? A 16-Year Follow-up of the GAZEL Occupational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E.; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990–1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993–2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence—suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers’ health. PMID:20732935

  3. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Allott, E H; Tse, C-K; Olshan, A F; Carey, L A; Moorman, P G; Troester, M A

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies report a protective association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer risk, a finding consistent with NSAID-mediated suppression of aromatase-driven estrogen biosynthesis. However, the association between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality is uncertain and it is unknown whether this relationship differs by hormone receptor status. This study comprised 935 invasive breast cancer cases, of which 490 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, enrolled between 1996 and 2001 in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Self-reported NSAID use in the decade prior to diagnosis was categorized by duration and regularity of use. Differences in tumor size, stage, node, and receptor status by NSAID use were examined using Chi-square tests. Associations between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality were examined using age- and race-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis. Tumor characteristics did not differ by NSAID use. Increased duration and regularity of NSAID use was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in women with ER-positive tumors (long-term regular use (≥8 days/month for ≥ 3 years) versus no use; hazard ratio (HR) 0.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.98), with a statistically significant trend with increasing duration and regularity (p-trend = 0.036). There was no association for ER-negative cases (HR 1.19; 95 %CI 0.50-2.81; p-trend = 0.891). Long-term, regular NSAID use in the decade prior to breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-positive cases. If confirmed, these findings support the hypothesis that potential chemopreventive properties of NSAIDs are mediated, at least in part, through suppression of estrogen biosynthesis.

  4. Association of Metformin Use With Cancer-Specific Mortality in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Curative Resection: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Seok; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Sook; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Sang Bum; Han, Chul Ju; Kim, Youn Joo; Jang, Won Il; Kang, Shin Hee; Tchoe, Ha Jin; Park, Chan Mi; Jo, Ae Jung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Jin A; Choi, Hyung Jin; Polak, Michael N; Ko, Min Jung

    2016-04-01

    Many preclinical reports and retrospective population studies have shown an anticancer effect of metformin in patients with several types of cancer and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this work, the anticancer effect of metformin was assessed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with T2DM who underwent curative resection.A population-based retrospective cohort design was used. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and Korea Center Cancer Registry in the Republic of Korea, identifying 5494 patients with newly diagnosed HCC who underwent curative resection between 2005 and 2011. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models to estimate effects. In the sensitivity analysis, we excluded patients who started metformin or other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) after HCC diagnosis to control for immortal time bias.From the patient cohort, 751 diabetic patients who were prescribed an OHA were analyzed for HCC-specific mortality and retreatment upon recurrence, comparing 533 patients treated with metformin to 218 patients treated without metformin. In the fully adjusted analyses, metformin users showed a significantly lower risk of HCC-specific mortality (HR 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.49) and retreatment events (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.33-0.52) compared with metformin nonusers. Risks for HCC-specific mortality were consistently lower among metformin-using groups, excluding patients who started metformin or OHAs after diagnosis.In this large population-based cohort of patients with comorbid HCC and T2DM, treated with curative hepatic resection, metformin use was associated with improvement of HCC-specific mortality and reduced occurrence of retreatment events.

  5. Effect of community-based newborn care on cause-specific neonatal mortality in Sylhet district, Bangladesh: findings of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baqui, A H; Williams, E; El-Arifeen, S; Applegate, J A; Mannan, I; Begum, N; Rahman, S M; Ahmed, S; Black, R E; Darmstadt, G L

    2016-01-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn intervention packages have been shown to reduce neonatal mortality in resource-constrained settings. This analysis uses data from a large community-based cluster-randomized trial to assess the impact of a community-based package on cause-specific neonatal mortality and draws programmatic and policy implications. In addition, the study shows that cause-specific mortality estimates vary substantially based on the hierarchy used in assigning cause of death, which also has important implications for program planning. Therefore, understanding the methods of assigning causes of deaths is important, as is the development of new methodologies that account for multiple causes of death. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of two service delivery strategies (home care and community care) for a community-based package of maternal and neonatal health interventions on cause-specific neonatal mortality rates in a rural district of Bangladesh. Within the general community of the Sylhet district in rural northeast Bangladesh. Pregnancy histories were collected from a sample of women in the study area during the year preceding the study (2002) and from all women who reported a pregnancy outcome during the intervention in years 2004 to 2005. All families that reported a neonatal death during these time periods were asked to complete a verbal autopsy interview. Expert algorithms with two different hierarchies were used to assign causes of neonatal death, varying in placement of the preterm/low birth weight category within the hierarchy (either third or last). The main outcome measure was cause-specific neonatal mortality. Deaths because of serious infections in the home-care arm declined from 13.6 deaths per 1000 live births during the baseline period to 7.2 during the intervention period according to the first hierarchy (preterm placed third) and from 23.6 to 10.6 according to the second hierarchy (preterm placed last). This

  6. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    PubMed

    Hecking, Manfred; Bieber, Brian A; Ethier, Jean; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Säemann, Marcus D; Ramirez, Sylvia P B; Gillespie, Brenda W; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Port, Friedrich K

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US) participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively) and mortality (via Cox regression) by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall), with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y), were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11) than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001). This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex-specific differences and does not provide information about

  7. Sex-Specific Differences in Hemodialysis Prevalence and Practices and the Male-to-Female Mortality Rate: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)

    PubMed Central

    Hecking, Manfred; Bieber, Brian A.; Ethier, Jean; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Säemann, Marcus D.; Ramirez, Sylvia P. B.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Port, Friedrich K.

    2014-01-01

    Background A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. Methods and Findings We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US) participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively) and mortality (via Cox regression) by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall), with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9±standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1±14.5 y), were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11) than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001). This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex-specific differences

  8. Does a Depression Management Program Decrease Mortality in Older Adults with Specific Medical Conditions in Primary Care? An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Hillary R; Joo, Jin H; Hwang, Seungyoung; Morales, Knashawn H; Bruce, Martha L; Reynolds, Charles F; Gallo, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether treating depression decreases mortality from various chronic medical conditions. Long-term follow-up of multisite-practice randomized controlled trial (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial). Twenty primary care practices randomized to intervention or usual care. Individuals aged 60 and older identified through depression screening of random patients (N=1,226). For 2 years, a depression care manager worked with primary care physicians in intervention practices to provide algorithm-based care for depression. Mortality risk based on a median follow-up of 98 months (range 0.8-116.4 months) through 2008; chronic medical conditions ascertained through self-report. For heart disease, persons with major depression were at greater risk of death, whether in usual-care or intervention practices. Older adults with major depression and diabetes mellitus in practices randomized to the intervention condition (hazard ratio=0.47, 95% confidence interval=0.24-0.91) were less likely to die. For other medical conditions, the point estimates for risk of death in persons with major depression were all in the direction of indicating lower risk in intervention practices but did not reach statistical significance. Older adults with depression and medical comorbidity pose a significant clinical and public health challenge. Evidence was found of a statistically significant intervention effect on mortality for diabetes mellitus in persons with major depression. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Combined associations of body weight and lifestyle factors with all cause and cause specific mortality in men and women: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Nicola; Li, Yanping; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the combined associations of diet, physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking with body weight on risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. Design Longitudinal study with up to 32 years of follow-up. Setting Nurses’ Health Study (1980-2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012). Participants 74 582 women from the Nurses’ Health Study and 39 284 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Main outcome measures Exposures included body mass index (BMI), score on the alternate healthy eating index, level of physical activity, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking while outcome was mortality (all cause, cardiovascular, cancer). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios of all cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality with their 95% confidence intervals across categories of BMI, with 22.5-24.9 as the reference. Results During up to 32 years of follow-up, there were 30 013 deaths (including 10 808 from cancer and 7189 from cardiovascular disease). In each of the four categories of BMI studied (18.5-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25-29.9, ≥30), people with one or more healthy lifestyle factors had a significantly lower risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality than individuals with no low risk lifestyle factors. A combination of at least three low risk lifestyle factors and BMI between 18.5-22.4 was associated with the lowest risk of all cause (hazard ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.43), cancer (0.40, 0.34 to 0.47), and cardiovascular (0.37, 0.29 to 0.46) mortality, compared with those with BMI between 22.5-24.9 and none of the four low risk lifestyle factors. Conclusion Although people with a higher BMI can have lower risk of premature mortality if they also have at least one low risk lifestyle factor, the lowest risk of premature mortality is in people in the 18

  10. Population-Based Long-Term Cardiac-Specific Mortality Among 34 489 Five-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Henson, Katherine; Kelly, Julie; Cutter, David; Levitt, Gill A; Frobisher, Clare; Winter, David L; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-03-07

    Increased risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality among childhood cancer survivors have been described previously. However, little is known about the very long-term risks of cardiac mortality and whether the risk has decreased among those more recently diagnosed. We investigated the risk of long-term cardiac mortality among survivors within the recently extended British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a population-based cohort of 34 489 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until February 28, 2014, and is the largest cohort to date to assess late cardiac mortality. Standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks were used to quantify cardiac mortality excess risk. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity and trends. Overall, 181 cardiac deaths were observed, which was 3.4 times that expected. Survivors were 2.5 times and 5.9 times more at risk of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure death, respectively, than expected. Among those >60 years of age, subsequent primary neoplasms, cardiac disease, and other circulatory conditions accounted for 31%, 22%, and 15% of all excess deaths, respectively, providing clear focus for preventive interventions. The risk of both overall cardiac and cardiomyopathy/heart failure mortality was greatest among those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989. Specifically, for cardiomyopathy/heart failure deaths, survivors diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 had 28.9 times the excess number of deaths observed for survivors diagnosed either before 1970 or from 1990 on. Excess cardiac mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer remains increased beyond 50 years of age and has clear messages in terms of prevention strategies. However, the fact that the risk was greatest in those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 suggests

  11. Population-Based Long-Term Cardiac-Specific Mortality Among 34 489 Five-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Henson, Katherine; Kelly, Julie; Cutter, David; Levitt, Gill A.; Frobisher, Clare; Winter, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increased risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality among childhood cancer survivors have been described previously. However, little is known about the very long-term risks of cardiac mortality and whether the risk has decreased among those more recently diagnosed. We investigated the risk of long-term cardiac mortality among survivors within the recently extended British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a population-based cohort of 34 489 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until February 28, 2014, and is the largest cohort to date to assess late cardiac mortality. Standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks were used to quantify cardiac mortality excess risk. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity and trends. Results: Overall, 181 cardiac deaths were observed, which was 3.4 times that expected. Survivors were 2.5 times and 5.9 times more at risk of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure death, respectively, than expected. Among those >60 years of age, subsequent primary neoplasms, cardiac disease, and other circulatory conditions accounted for 31%, 22%, and 15% of all excess deaths, respectively, providing clear focus for preventive interventions. The risk of both overall cardiac and cardiomyopathy/heart failure mortality was greatest among those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989. Specifically, for cardiomyopathy/heart failure deaths, survivors diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 had 28.9 times the excess number of deaths observed for survivors diagnosed either before 1970 or from 1990 on. Conclusions: Excess cardiac mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer remains increased beyond 50 years of age and has clear messages in terms of prevention strategies. However, the fact that the risk was greatest in

  12. [Association between body mass index and both total and cause-specific mortality in China: findings from data through the China Kadoorie Biobank].

    PubMed

    Wang, L X; Fan, M Y; Yu, C Q; Guo, Y; Bian, Z; Tan, Y L; Pei, P; Chen, J S; Lyu, J; Li, L M

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and both total and cause-specific mortality. Methods: After excluding participants with heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes at baseline study, 428 593 participants aged 30-79 in the China Kadoorie Biobank study were chosen for this study. Participants were categorized into 9 groups according to their BMI status. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality on BMI. Results: Among 3 085 054 person-years of the follow-up program between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 7 862 men and 6 315 women died. After adjusting for known or potential confounders, an increased risks of all-cause deaths were shown among participants with a BMI less than 18.5 (HR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.31-1.50), between 18.5-20.4 (HR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.05-1.17), and more than 35.0 (HR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.60-2.61), when compared to those with BMI between 20.5-22.4. Ranges of BMI with lower risk of cause-specific mortality were: 18.5-23.9 for ischemic heart disease, <26.0 for cerebro-vascular disease, 26.0-34.9 for cancers, and 24.0-25.9 for respiratory diseases. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, both underweight and obesity were associated with the increased total and certain cause-specific mortality, which were independent from other risk factors of death. Programs related to extensive follow-up, thorough analysis BMI and the risks of incidence on major chronic diseases all need to be developed, in order to better understand the impact of BMI on human health.

  13. Associations of specific types of sports and exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular-disease mortality: a cohort study of 80 306 British adults.

    PubMed

    Oja, Pekka; Kelly, Paul; Pedisic, Zeljko; Titze, Sylvia; Bauman, Adrian; Foster, Charlie; Hamer, Mark; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Evidence for the long-term health effects of specific sport disciplines is scarce. Therefore, we examined the associations of six different types of sport/exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in a large pooled Scottish and English population-based cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the associations between each exposure and all-cause and CVD mortality with adjustment for potential confounders in 80 306 individuals (54% women; mean±SD age: 52±14 years). Significant reductions in all-cause mortality were observed for participation in cycling (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.95), swimming (HR=0.72, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.80), racquet sports (HR=0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.69) and aerobics (HR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.85). No significant associations were found for participation in football and running. A significant reduction in CVD mortality was observed for participation in swimming (HR=0.59, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.75), racquet sports (HR=0.44, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83) and aerobics (HR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.92), but there were no significant associations for cycling, running and football. Variable dose-response patterns between the exposure and the outcomes were found across the sport disciplines. These findings demonstrate that participation in specific sports may have significant benefits for public health. Future research should aim to further strengthen the sport-specific epidemiological evidence base and understanding of how to promote greater sports participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-12-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards.

  15. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards. PMID:27910959

  16. A prospective cohort study on the relationship of sleep duration with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Yohwan; Ma, Seung Hyun; Park, Sue Kyung; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that sleep duration is associated with health outcomes. However, the relationship of sleep duration with long-term health is unclear. This study was designed to determine the relationship of sleep duration with mortality as a parameter for long-term health in a large prospective cohort study in Korea. The study population included 13 164 participants aged over 20 years from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study. Information on sleep duration was obtained through a structured questionnaire interview. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using a Cox regression model. The non-linear relationship between sleep duration and mortality was examined non-parametrically using restricted cubic splines. The HRs for all-cause mortality showed a U-shape, with the lowest point at sleep duration of 7 to 8 hours. There was an increased risk of death among persons with sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.41) and of ≥10 hours (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.72). In stratified analysis, this relationship of HR was seen in women and in participants aged ≥60 years. Risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality was associated with a sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.93). Risk of death from respiratory disease was associated with sleep duration at both extremes (≤5 and ≥10 hours). Sleep durations of 7 to 8 hours may be recommended to the public for a general healthy lifestyle in Korea.

  17. Using Functional Data Analysis Models to Estimate Future Time Trends in Age-Specific Breast Cancer Mortality for the United States and England–Wales

    PubMed Central

    Erbas, Bircan; Akram, Muhammed; Gertig, Dorota M; English, Dallas; Hopper, John L.; Kavanagh, Anne M; Hyndman, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality/incidence predictions are used for allocating public health resources and should accurately reflect age-related changes through time. We present a new forecasting model for estimating future trends in age-related breast cancer mortality for the United States and England–Wales. Methods We used functional data analysis techniques both to model breast cancer mortality-age relationships in the United States from 1950 through 2001 and England–Wales from 1950 through 2003 and to estimate 20-year predictions using a new forecasting method. Results In the United States, trends for women aged 45 to 54 years have continued to decline since 1980. In contrast, trends in women aged 60 to 84 years increased in the 1980s and declined in the 1990s. For England–Wales, trends for women aged 45 to 74 years slightly increased before 1980, but declined thereafter. The greatest age-related changes for both regions were during the 1990s. For both the United States and England–Wales, trends are expected to decline and then stabilize, with the greatest decline in women aged 60 to 70 years. Forecasts suggest relatively stable trends for women older than 75 years. Conclusions Prediction of age-related changes in mortality/incidence can be used for planning and targeting programs for specific age groups. Currently, these models are being extended to incorporate other variables that may influence age-related changes in mortality/incidence trends. In their current form, these models will be most useful for modeling and projecting future trends of diseases for which there has been very little advancement in treatment and minimal cohort effects (eg. lethal cancers). PMID:20139657

  18. Cancer-specific mortality, cure fraction, and noncancer causes of death among diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the immunochemotherapy era.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Nadia; Mariotto, Angela B; Besson, Caroline; Suneja, Gita; Robien, Kim; Younes, Naji; Engels, Eric A

    2017-09-01

    Survival after the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing since 2002 because of improved therapies; however, long-term outcomes for these patients in the modern treatment era are still unknown. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, this study first assessed factors associated with DLBCL-specific mortality during 2002-2012. An epidemiologic risk profile, based on clinical and demographic characteristics, was used to stratify DLBCL cases into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. The proportions of DLBCL cases that might be considered cured in these 3 risk groups was estimated. Risks of death due to various noncancer causes among DLBCL cases versus the general population were also calculated with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall, 8274 deaths were recorded among 18,047 DLBCL cases; 76% of the total deaths were attributed to DLBCL, and 24% were attributed to noncancer causes. The 10-year survival rates for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 80%, 60%, and 36%, respectively. The estimated cure proportions for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 73%, 49%, and 27%, respectively; however, these cure estimates were uncertain because of the need to extrapolate the survival curves beyond the follow-up time. Mortality risks calculated with SMRs were elevated for conditions including vascular diseases (SMR, 1.3), infections (SMR, 3.1), gastrointestinal diseases (SMR, 2.5), and blood diseases (SMR, 4.6). These mortality risks were especially high within the initial 5 years after the diagnosis and declined after 5 years. Some DLBCL patients may be cured of their cancer, but they continue to experience excess mortality from lymphoma and other noncancer causes. Cancer 2017;123:3326-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Gender- and Race-Specific Metabolic Score and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Adults: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach—United States, 1988–2006

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Carla I.; Yang, Quanhe; Ford, Earl S.; Gregg, Edward; Valderrama, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Consider all metabolic syndrome (MetS) components [systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and fasting glucose] and gender/race differential risk when assessing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods We estimated a gender- and race-specific continuous MetS score using structural equation modeling and tested its association with CVD mortality using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III linked with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard regression tested the association adjusted for sociodemographic and behavior characteristics. Results For men, continuous MetS components associated with CVD mortality were SBP (hazard ratio =1.50, 95% confidence interval =1.14–1.96), DBP (1.48, 1.16–1.90), and TG (1.15, 1.12–1.16). In women, SBP (1.44, 1.27–1.63) and DBP (1.24, 1.02–1.51) were associated with CVD mortality. MetS score was not significantly associated with CVD mortality in men; but significant associations were found for all women (1.34, 1.06–1.68), non-Hispanic white women (1.29, 1.01–1.64), non-Hispanic black women (2.03, 1.12–3.69), and Mexican-American women (3.57, 2.21–5.76). Goodness-of-fit and concordance were overall better for models with the MetS score than MetS (yes/no). Conclusions When assessing CVD mortality risk, MetS score provided additional information than MetS (yes/no). PMID:26308480

  20. The association between green space and cause-specific mortality in urban New Zealand: an ecological analysis of green space utility.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Elizabeth; Pearce, Jamie; Mitchell, Richard; Day, Peter; Kingham, Simon

    2010-05-11

    There is mounting international evidence that exposure to green environments is associated with health benefits, including lower mortality rates. Consequently, it has been suggested that the uneven distribution of such environments may contribute to health inequalities. Possible causative mechanisms behind the green space and health relationship include the provision of physical activity opportunities, facilitation of social contact and the restorative effects of nature. In the New Zealand context we investigated whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in green space exposure and whether green space exposure was associated with cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease and lung cancer). We subsequently asked what is the mechanism(s) by which green space availability may influence mortality outcomes, by contrasting health associations for different types of green space. This was an observational study on a population of 1,546,405 living in 1009 small urban areas in New Zealand. A neighbourhood-level classification was developed to distinguish between usable (i.e., visitable) and non-usable green space (i.e., visible but not visitable) in the urban areas. Negative binomial regression models were fitted to examine the association between quartiles of area-level green space availability and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (n = 9,484; 1996 - 2005) and from lung cancer (n = 2,603; 1996 - 2005), after control for age, sex, socio-economic deprivation, smoking, air pollution and population density. Deprived neighbourhoods were relatively disadvantaged in total green space availability (11% less total green space for a one standard deviation increase in NZDep2001 deprivation score, p < 0.001), but had marginally more usable green space (2% more for a one standard deviation increase in deprivation score, p = 0.002). No significant associations between usable or total green space and mortality were observed after adjustment for confounders. Contrary to

  1. The association between green space and cause-specific mortality in urban New Zealand: an ecological analysis of green space utility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is mounting international evidence that exposure to green environments is associated with health benefits, including lower mortality rates. Consequently, it has been suggested that the uneven distribution of such environments may contribute to health inequalities. Possible causative mechanisms behind the green space and health relationship include the provision of physical activity opportunities, facilitation of social contact and the restorative effects of nature. In the New Zealand context we investigated whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in green space exposure and whether green space exposure was associated with cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease and lung cancer). We subsequently asked what is the mechanism(s) by which green space availability may influence mortality outcomes, by contrasting health associations for different types of green space. Methods This was an observational study on a population of 1,546,405 living in 1009 small urban areas in New Zealand. A neighbourhood-level classification was developed to distinguish between usable (i.e., visitable) and non-usable green space (i.e., visible but not visitable) in the urban areas. Negative binomial regression models were fitted to examine the association between quartiles of area-level green space availability and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (n = 9,484; 1996 - 2005) and from lung cancer (n = 2,603; 1996 - 2005), after control for age, sex, socio-economic deprivation, smoking, air pollution and population density. Results Deprived neighbourhoods were relatively disadvantaged in total green space availability (11% less total green space for a one standard deviation increase in NZDep2001 deprivation score, p < 0.001), but had marginally more usable green space (2% more for a one standard deviation increase in deprivation score, p = 0.002). No significant associations between usable or total green space and mortality were observed after adjustment

  2. Glycated Hemoglobin and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Singaporean Chinese Without Diagnosed Diabetes: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bancks, Michael P.; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Pankow, James S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a robust biomarker of the preceding 2 to 3 months average blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HbA1c and mortality in a cohort of Southeast Asians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analysis of 7,388 men and women, mean age 62 years, from the Singapore Chinese Health Study who provided a blood sample at the follow-up I visit (1999–2004) and reported no history of diabetes, previous adverse cardiovascular events, or cancer. A total of 888 deaths were identified through 31 December 2011 via registry linkage. Participants represented a random study sample of potential control subjects for a nested case-control genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in the population. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality by six categories of HbA1c were estimated with Cox regression models. RESULTS Relative to participants with an HbA1c of 5.4–5.6% (36–38 mmol/mol), participants with HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol) had an increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality during an average of 10.1 years of follow-up; HRs (95% CIs) were 1.96 (1.56–2.46), 2.63 (1.77–3.90), and 1.51 (1.04–2.18), respectively. No level of HbA1c was associated with increased risk of respiratory mortality. Levels <6.5% HbA1c were not associated with mortality during follow-up. The results did not materially change after excluding observation of first 3 years post–blood draw. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c levels consistent with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (≥6.5%) are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese men and women. PMID:25216509

  3. Temporal and spatial relations between age specific mortality and ambient air quality in the United States: regression results for counties, 1960–97

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F; Morris, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate longitudinal and spatial relations between air pollution and age specific mortality for United States counties (except Alaska) from 1960 to the end of 1997. Methods: Cross sectional regressions for five specific periods using published data on mortality, air quality, demography, climate, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and diet. Outcome measures are statistical relations between air quality and county mortalities by age group for all causes of death, other than AIDS and trauma. Results: A specific regression model was developed for each period and age group, using variables that were significant (p<0.05), not substantially collinear (variance inflation factor <2), and had the expected algebraic sign. Models were initially developed without the air pollution variables, which varied in spatial coverage. Residuals were then regressed in turn against current and previous air quality, and dose-response plots were constructed. The validity of this two stage procedure was shown by comparing a subset of results with those obtained with single stage models that included air quality (correlation=0.88). On the basis of attributable risks computed for overall mean concentrations, the strongest associations were found in the earlier periods, with attributable risks usually less than 5%. Stronger relations were found when mortality and air quality were measured in the same period and when the locations considered were limited to those of previous cohort studies (for PM2.5 and SO42-). Thresholds were suggested at 100–130 µg/m3 for mean total suspended particulate (TSP), 7–10 µg/m3 for mean sulfate, 10–15 ppm for peak (95th percentile) CO, 20–40 ppb for mean SO2. Contrary to expectations, associations were often stronger for the younger age groups (<65 y). Responses to PM, CO, and SO2 declined over time; responses in elderly people to peak O3 increased over time as did responses to NO2 for the younger age groups. These results generally agreed

  4. Establishment of Definitions and Review Process for Consistent Adjudication of Cause-Specific Mortality After Allogeneic Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Preus, Leah; Zhu, Xiaochun; Hansen, John A.; Martin, Paul J.; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Spellman, Stephen; Tritchler, David; Clay, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials commonly use adjudication committees to refine endpoints, but observational research or genome-wide association studies rarely do. Our goals were to establish definitions of cause-specific death after unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-HCT), estimate discordance between reported and adjudicated cause-specific death, and identify factors contributing to inconsistency in cause-specific deathdetermination. A consensus panel adjudicated cause-specific deathin 1,484 patients who died within 1 year after HCT, derived from 3,532 acute leukemia or myelodysplasia patients after URD-HCT 2000-2011 reported by 151 U.S. transplant centers to CIBMTR. Deaths were classified as disease-related (DRM) or transplant-related (TRM). The panel agreed with >99% of deaths reported by centers as DRM and 80% reported as TRM. Year of transplant (cohort effect) and disease status significantly influenced agreement between panel and centers. Sensitivity analysis of deaths <100 days post-transplant yielded lowest agreement between the panel and centers for myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Standard pre-defined criteria for adjudicating cause-specific deathled to consistent application to similar clinical scenarios and clearer delineation of cause-specific deathcategories. Other studies of competing events like cancer-specific vs treatment-related mortality would benefit from our results. Our detailed algorithm should result in more consistent reporting of cause-specific deathby centers. PMID:26028504

  5. Histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-D related expression is specifically altered and predicts mortality in septic shock but not in other causes of shock.

    PubMed

    Caille, Vincent; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Nciri, Noureddine; Berton, Christine; Gibot, Sébastien; Boval, Bernadette; Payen, Didier; Mira, Jean-Paul; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2004-12-01

    Although the expression of monocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR has been shown to be decreased during human sepsis, its level of expression in other nonseptic critical conditions is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the level of HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes among patients with septic, hemorrhagic, and cardiogenic shocks and severe sepsis without shock. At admission, HLA-DR expression was exclusively decreased in patients with septic shock (n = 30; P < 0.001), whereas the expression was similar between the other studied groups: cardiogenic shock (n = 16), hemorrhagic shock (n = 11), severe sepsis without shock (n = 18), and healthy volunteers (n = 8). HLA-DR expression was not predictive for overall mortality, but at day 1, an HLA-DR expression of less than 14 of mean fluorescence intensity (that corresponds to 40% labeled monocytes) was predictive of mortality exclusively in patients with septic shock (odds ratio, 11.4 and 95% confidence interval, 1.7; 78.4; P < 0.008). Catecholamine infusion, mechanical ventilation, positive blood culture, and number of units of blood or plasma transfused did not correlate with decreased HLA-DR expression. Thus, the decrease in HLA-DR expression is specific to septic shock and is associated, in septic shock patients, with increased mortality risk.

  6. Use of Sex-Specific Clinical and Exercise Risk Scores to Identify Patients at Increased Risk for All-Cause Mortality.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Paul C; Wu, Yuping; Ahmed, Haitham M; Pierson, Lee M; Brennan, Danielle M; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J; Cho, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for exercise treadmill testing may have limited external validity. Cardiovascular mortality has decreased in recent decades, and women have been underrepresented in prior cohorts. To determine whether exercise and clinical variables are associated with differential mortality outcomes in men and women and to assess whether sex-specific risk scores better estimate all-cause mortality. This retrospective cohort study included 59 877 patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF cohort) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, and 49 278 patients seen at the Henry Ford Hospital (FIT cohort) from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2009. All patients were 18 years or older and underwent exercise treadmill testing. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2000, to October 27, 2011, in the CCF cohort and from January 1, 1991, to April 1, 2013, in the FIT cohort. The CCF cohort was divided randomly into derivation and validation samples, and separate risk scores were developed for men and women. Net reclassification, C statistics, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to compare the sex-specific risk scores with other tools that have all-cause mortality as the outcome. Discrimination and calibration were also evaluated with these sex-specific risk scores in the FIT cohort. The CCF cohort included 59 877 patients (59.4% men; 40.5% women) with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 54 (45-63) years and 2521 deaths (4.2%) during a median follow-up of 7 (IQR, 4.1-9.6) years. The FIT cohort included 49 278 patients (52.5% men; 47.4% women) with a median (IQR) age of 54 (46-64) years and 6643 deaths (13.5%) during a median (IQR) follow-up of 10.2 (7-13.4) years. C statistics for the sex-specific risk scores in the CCF validation sample were higher (0.79 in women and 0.81 in men) than C statistics using other tools in women (0.70 for Duke Treadmill Score; 0.74 for Lauer nomogram) and men (0.72 for Duke Treadmill Score

  7. Geographic disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Leni; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Liang, Juan; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Qi; Wang, Yanping

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) among and within three geographic regions in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015. Data were obtained from the national Under-Five Child Mortality Surveillance System and grouped into 2-year periods. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used to assess trends and differences in the pneumonia-specific U5MRs among and within geographic regions. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The pneumonia-specific U5MR decreased by 90.6%, 89.0%, and 83.5% in East, Middle, and West China, respectively, with a larger decrease in rural areas. The pneumonia-specific U5MR was highest in West China, and was 7.2 (95% CI 5.9-8.7) times higher than that in East China in 2014-2015. In 2014-2015, the RRs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.1), and 3.4 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) between rural and urban areas in East, Middle, and West China, respectively. Pneumonia-specific U5MRs decreased from 1996 to 2015 across China, particularly in rural areas. However, disparities remained among and within geographic regions. Additional strategies and interventions should be introduced in West China, especially the rural areas, to further reduce the pneumonia-specific U5MR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Nondisease-Specific Problems with Mortality, Long-Term Care, and Functional Impairment among Older Adults Who Require Skilled Nursing Care after Dialysis Initiation.

    PubMed

    Bowling, C Barrett; Plantinga, Laura; Hall, Rasheeda K; Mirk, Anna; Zhang, Rebecca; Kutner, Nancy

    2016-12-07

    The majority of older adults who initiate dialysis do so during a hospitalization, and these patients may require post-acute skilled nursing facility (SNF) care. For these patients, a focus on nondisease-specific problems, including cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, exhaustion, falls, impaired mobility, and polypharmacy, may be more relevant to outcomes than the traditional disease-oriented approach. However, the association of the burden of nondisease-specific problems with mortality, transition to long-term care (LTC), and functional impairment among older adults receiving SNF care after dialysis initiation has not been studied. We identified 40,615 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old who received SNF care after dialysis initiation between 2000 and 2006 by linking renal disease registry data with the Minimum Data Set. Nondisease-specific problems were ascertained from the Minimum Data Set. We defined LTC as ≥100 SNF days and functional impairment as dependence in all four essential activities of daily living at SNF discharge. Associations of the number of nondisease-specific problems (≤1, 2, 3, and 4-6) with 6-month mortality, LTC, and functional impairment were examined. Overall, 39.2% of patients who received SNF care after dialysis initiation died within 6 months. Compared with those with ≤1 nondisease-specific problems, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.26 (1.19 to 1.32), 1.40 (1.33 to 1.48), and 1.66 (1.57 to 1.76) for 2, 3, and 4-6 nondisease-specific problems, respectively. Among those who survived, 37.1% required LTC; of those remaining who did not require LTC, 74.7% had functional impairment. A higher likelihood of transition to LTC (among those who survived 6 months) and functional impairment (among those who survived and did not require LTC) was seen with a higher number of problems. Identifying nondisease-specific problems may help patients and families anticipate LTC needs and

  9. Time Course of Evolution of Disability and Cause-Specific Mortality After Ischemic Stroke: Implications for Trial Design.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Aravind; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Wharton, Rose M; Gutnikov, Sergei A; Silver, Louise E; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-06-11

    Outcome in stroke trials is often based on a 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS). How 3-month mRS relates to longer-term outcomes will depend on late recovery, delayed stroke-related deaths, recurrent strokes, and nonstroke deaths. We evaluated 3-month mRS and death/disability at 1 and 5 years in a population-based cohort study. In 3-month survivors of ischemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2014), we related 3-month mRS to disability (defined as mRS >2) at 1 and 5 years and/or death rates (age/sex adjusted). Accrual of disability and index-stroke-related and nonstroke deaths in each poststroke year was categorized according to 3-month mRS. Among 1606 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 181 died within 3 months, but 126 index-stroke-related deaths and 320 other deaths occurred during the subsequent 4866 patient-years of follow-up up to 5 years. Although 69/126 (54.8%) post-3-month index-stroke-related deaths occurred after 1 year, mRS>2 at 1 year strongly predicted these deaths (adjusted hazard ratio=21.94, 95%CI 7.88-61.09, P<0.0001). Consequently, a 3-month mRS >2 was a strong independent predictor of death at both 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio=6.67, 95%CI 4.16-10.69, P<0.0001) and 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio=2.93, 95%CI 2.38-3.60, P<0.0001). Although mRS improved by ≥1 point from 3 months to 1 year in 317/1266 (25.0%) patients with 3-month mRS ≥1, improvement in mRS after 1 year was limited (improvement by ≥1 point: 91/858 [10.6%]; improvement to mRS ≤2: 13/353 [3.7%]). Our results reaffirm use of the 3-month mRS outcome in stroke trials. Although later recovery does occur, extending follow-up to 1 year would capture most long-term stroke-related disability. However, administrative mortality follow-up beyond 1 year has the potential to demonstrate translation of early disability gains into additional reductions in long-term mortality without much erosion by non-stroke-related deaths. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  10. Kidney function and specific mortality in 60-80 years old post-myocardial infarction patients: A 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Stijnen, Theo; Kromhout, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent among older post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. It is not known whether CKD is an independent risk factor for mortality in older post-MI patients with optimal cardiovascular drug-treatment. Therefore, we studied the relation between kidney function and all-cause and specific mortality among older post-MI patients, without severe heart failure, who are treated with state-of-the-art pharmacotherapy. From 2002–2006, 4,561 Dutch post-MI patients were enrolled and followed until death or January 2012. We estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) with cystatin C (cysC) and creatinine (cr) using the CKD-EPI equations and analyzed the relation with any and major causes of death using Cox models and restricted cubic splines. Mean (SD) for age was 69 years (5.6), 79% were men, 17% smoked, 21% had diabetes, 90% used antihypertensive drugs, 98% used antithrombotic drugs and 85% used statins. Patients were divided into four categories of baseline eGFRcysC: ≥90 (33%; reference), 60–89 (47%), 30–59 (18%), and <30 (2%) ml/min/1.73m2. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. During follow-up, 873 (19%) patients died: 370 (42%) from cardiovascular causes, 309 (35%) from cancer, and 194 (22%) from other causes. After adjustment for age, sex and classic cardiovascular risk factor, hazard ratios (95%-confidence intervals) for any death according to the four eGFRcysC categories were: 1 (reference), 1.4 (1.1–1.7), 2.9 (2.3–3.6) and 4.4 (3.0–6.4). The hazard ratios of all-cause and cause-specific mortality increased linearly below kidney functions of 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. Weaker results were obtained for eGFRcr. To conclude, we found in optimal cardiovascular drug-treated post-MI patients an inverse graded relation between kidney function and mortality for both cardiovascular as well as non-cardiovascular causes. Risk of mortality increased linearly below kidney function of about 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:28182761

  11. All-Cause and Specific-Cause Mortality Risk After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Patients With and Without Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lent, Michelle R; Benotti, Peter N; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Gerhard, Glenn S; Strodel, William E; Petrick, Anthony T; Gabrielsen, Jon D; Rolston, David D; Still, Christopher D; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Zubair, Fahad; Cook, Adam; Carey, David J; Wood, G Craig

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed all-cause and specific-cause mortality after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and in matched control subjects, stratified by diabetes status. RYGB patients were matched by age, BMI, sex, and diabetes status at time of surgery to nonsurgical control subjects using data from the electronic health record. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to assess differences in all-cause and specific-cause mortality between RYGB patients and control subjects with and without diabetes. Of the 3,242 eligible RYGB patients enrolled from January 2004 to December 2015, control subjects were identified for 2,428 (n = 625 with diabetes and n = 1,803 without diabetes). Median postoperative follow-up was 5.8 years for patients with diabetes and 6.7 years for patients without diabetes. All-cause mortality was reduced in RYGB patients compared with control subjects only for those with diabetes at the time of surgery (adjusted hazard ratio 0.44; P < 0.0001). Mortality was not significantly improved in RYGB patients without diabetes compared with control subjects without diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio 0.84; P = 0.37). Deaths from cardiovascular diseases (P = 0.011), respiratory conditions (P = 0.017), and diabetes P = 0.011) were more frequent in control subjects with diabetes than in RYGB patients with diabetes. RYGB patients without diabetes were less likely to die of cancer (P = 0.0038) and respiratory diseases (P = 0.046) than control subjects without diabetes but were at higher risk of death from external causes (P = 0.012), including intentional self-harm (P = 0.025), than control subjects without diabetes. All-cause mortality benefits of RYGB are driven predominantly by patients with diabetes at the time of surgery. RYGB patients with diabetes were less likely to die of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and respiratory conditions than their counterparts without RYGB. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward; Fadnes, Lars T; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenwood, Darren C; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2016-06-14

     To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality.  PubMed and Embase searched up to 3 April 2016.  Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality.  Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model.  45 studies (64 publications) were included. The summary relative risks per 90 g/day increase in whole grain intake (90 g is equivalent to three servings-for example, two slices of bread and one bowl of cereal or one and a half pieces of pita bread made from whole grains) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.87; I(2)=9%, n=7 studies) for coronary heart disease, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03; I(2)=56%, n=6) for stroke, and 0.78 (0.73 to 0.85; I(2)=40%, n=10) for cardiovascular disease, with similar results when studies were stratified by whether the outcome was incidence or mortality. The relative risks for morality were 0.85 (0.80 to 0.91; I(2)=37%, n=6) for total cancer, 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90; I(2)=83%, n=11) for all causes, 0.78 (0.70 to 0.87; I(2)=0%, n=4) for respiratory disease, 0.49 (0.23 to 1.05; I(2)=85%, n=4) for diabetes, 0.74 (0.56 to 0.96; I(2)=0%, n=3) for infectious diseases, 1.15 (0.66 to 2.02; I(2)=79%, n=2) for diseases of the nervous system disease, and 0.78 (0.75 to 0.82; I(2)=0%, n=5) for all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. Reductions in risk were observed up to an intake of 210-225 g/day (seven to seven and a half servings per day) for most of the outcomes. Intakes of specific types of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total bread and total breakfast cereals were also associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular

  13. Impact of Preexisting Mental Illness on All-Cause and Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Iglay, Kristy; Santorelli, Melissa L; Hirshfield, Kim M; Williams, Jill M; Rhoads, George G; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw

    2017-09-21

    Purpose Limited data are available on the survival of patients with breast cancer with preexisting mental illness, and elderly women are of special interest because they experience the highest incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, we compared all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with breast cancer with and without mental illness. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using SEER-Medicare data, including 19,028 women ≥ 68 years of age who were diagnosed with stage I to IIIa breast cancer in the United States from 2005 to 2007. Patients were classified as having severe mental illness if an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification code for bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder was recorded on at least one inpatient or two outpatient claims during the 3 years before breast cancer diagnosis. Patients were followed for up to 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis to assess survival outcomes, which were then compared with those of patients without mental illness. Results Nearly 3% of patients had preexisting severe mental illness. We observed a two-fold increase in the all-cause mortality hazard between patients with severe mental illness compared with those without mental illness after adjusting for age, income, race, ethnicity, geographic location, and marital status (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.84 to 2.60). A 20% increase in breast cancer-specific mortality hazard was observed, but the association was not significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.74). Patients with severe mental illness were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and aggressive tumor characteristics. They also had increased tobacco use and more comorbidities. Conclusion Patients with severe mental illness may need assistance with coordinating medical services.

  14. Impact of cervical screening on cervical cancer mortality: estimation using stage-specific results from a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Castañón, Alejandra; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that screening can prevent cervical cancer, but the magnitude of the impact of regular screening on cervical cancer mortality is unknown. Methods: Population-based case–control study using prospectively recorded cervical screening data, England 1988–2013. Case women had cervical cancer diagnosed during April 2007–March 2013 aged 25–79 years (N=11 619). Two cancer-free controls were individually age matched to each case. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of developing stage-specific cancer for women regularly screened or irregularly screened compared with women not screened in the preceding 15 years. Mortality was estimated from excess deaths within 5 years of diagnosis using stage-specific 5-year relative survival from England with adjustment for age within stage based on SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, USA) data. Results: In women aged 35–64 years, regular screening is associated with a 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62–73%) reduction in stage 1A cancer and a 95% (95% CI: 94–97%) reduction in stage 3 or worse cervical cancer: the estimated OR comparing regular (⩽5.5yearly) screening to no (or minimal) screening are 0.18 (95% CI: 0.16–0.19) for cancer incidence and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07–0.09) for mortality. It is estimated that in England screening currently prevents 70% (95% CI: 66–73%) of cervical cancer deaths (all ages); however, if everyone attended screening regularly, 83% (95% CI: 82–84%) could be prevented. Conclusions: The association between cervical cancer screening and incidence is stronger in more advanced stage cancers, and screening is more effective at preventing death from cancer than preventing cancer itself. PMID:27632376

  15. Life Expectancy and Cause-Specific Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Quantifying Relationships in Ethnic Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison K; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Emsley, Richard; Buchan, Iain; Sattar, Naveed; Rutter, Martin K; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2017-03-01

    This study 1) investigated life expectancy and cause-specific mortality rates associated with type 2 diabetes and 2) quantified these relationships in ethnic subgroups. This was a cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink data from 383 general practices in England with linked hospitalization and mortality records. A total of 187,968 patients with incident type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2015 were matched to 908,016 control subjects. Abridged life tables estimated years of life lost, and a competing risk survival model quantified cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 40,286 deaths occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes. At age 40, white men with diabetes lost 5 years of life and white women lost 6 years compared with those without diabetes. A loss of between 1 and 2 years was observed for South Asians and blacks with diabetes. At age older than 65 years, South Asians with diabetes had up to 1.1 years' longer life expectancy than South Asians without diabetes. Compared with whites with diabetes, South Asians with diabetes had lower adjusted risks for mortality from cardiovascular (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.75, 0.89), cancer (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.36, 0.51), and respiratory diseases (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.48, 0.76). A similar pattern was observed in blacks with diabetes compared with whites with diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was associated with more years of life lost among whites than among South Asians or blacks, with older South Asians experiencing longer life expectancy compared with South Asians without diabetes. The findings support optimized cardiovascular disease risk factor management, especially in whites with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Trajectory of body shape in early and middle life and all cause and cause specific mortality: results from two prospective US cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank B; Wu, Kana; Must, Aviva; Chan, Andrew T; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess body shape trajectories in early and middle life in relation to risk of mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Population 80 266 women and 36 622 men who recalled their body shape at ages 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years and provided body mass index at age 50, followed from age 60 over a median of 15-16 years for death. Main outcome measures All cause and cause specific mortality. Results Using a group based modeling approach, five distinct trajectories of body shape from age 5 to 50 were identified: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable/increase, and heavy-stable/increase. The lean-stable group was used as the reference. Among never smokers, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for death from any cause was 1.08 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.14) for women and 0.95 (0.88 to 1.03) for men in the lean-moderate increase group, 1.43 (1.33 to 1.54) for women and 1.11 (1.02 to 1.20) for men in the lean-marked increase group, 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) for women and 1.01 (0.94 to 1.09) for men in the medium-stable/increase group, and 1.64 (1.49 to 1.81) for women and 1.19 (1.08 to 1.32) for men in the heavy-stable/increase group. For cause specific mortality, participants in the heavy-stable/increase group had the highest risk, with a hazard ratio among never smokers of 2.30 (1.88 to 2.81) in women and 1.45 (1.23 to 1.72) in men for cardiovascular disease, 1.37 (1.14 to 1.65) in women and 1.07 (0.89 to 1.30) in men for cancer, and 1.59 (1.38 to 1.82) in women and 1.10 (0.95 to 1.29) in men for other causes. The trajectory-mortality association was generally weaker among ever smokers than among never smokers (for all cause mortality: P for interaction <0.001 in women and 0.06 in men). When participants were classified jointly according to trajectories and history of type 2 diabetes, the increased risk of death associated with heavier

  17. HIV cause-specific deaths, mortality, risk factors, and the combined influence of HAART and late diagnosis in Zhejiang, China, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Ma, Qiaoqin; Yang, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Zheng, Jinlei; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tingting; Jiang, Jun; He, Lin; Jiang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    To examine patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause-specific deaths, risk factors, and the effect of interactions on mortality, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Zhejiang, China, from 2006 to 2013. All data were downloaded from the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Prevention and Control Information System. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess predictors of cause-specific death. The relative excess risk due to interaction and ratio of hazard ratios (RHR) were calculated for correlations between HAART, late diagnosis, and age. A total of 13,812 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled with 31,553 person-years (PY) of follow-up. The leading causes of death of HIV patients were accidental death and suicide (21.5%), and the leading cause of death for those with AIDS was AIDS-defining disease (76.4%). Both additive and multiplicative scale correlations were found between receiving HAART and late diagnosis, with RERI of 5.624 (95% CI: 1.766–9.482) and RHR of 2.024 (95% CI: 1.167–2.882). The effects of HAART on AIDS-related mortalities were affected by late diagnosis. Early detection of HIV infection and increased uptake of HAART are important for greater benefits in terms of lives saved. PMID:28198390

  18. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H.; Cleary, Sean D.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Graubard, Barry I.; Cook, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer–specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971–1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25–74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26764224

  19. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Graubard, Barry I; Cook, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer-specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971-1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25-74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms.

  20. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I infection, antibody titers and cause-specific mortality among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, K; Soda, M; Akahoshi, M; Matsuo, T; Nakashima, E; Tomonaga, M; Saito, H

    1998-08-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the long-term health effects of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection. The authors performed a cohort study of HTLV-I infection and cause-specific mortality in 3,090 atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, Japan, who were followed from 1985-1987 to 1995. The prevalence of HTLV-I seropositivity in men and women was 99/1,196 (8.3%) and 171/1,894 (9.0%), respectively. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 448 deaths occurred. There was one nonfatal case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (incidence rate = 0.46 cases/1,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-2.6). After adjustment for sex, age and other potential confounders, significantly increased risk among HTLV-I carriers was observed for deaths from all causes (rate ratio [RR] = 1.41), all cancers (RR = 1.64), liver cancer (RR = 3.04), and heart diseases (RR = 2.22). The association of anti-HTLV-I seropositivity with mortality from all non-neoplastic diseases (RR = 1.40) and chronic liver diseases (RR = 5.03) was of borderline significance. Possible confounding by blood transfusions and hepatitis C/B (HCV/HBV) viral infections could not be precluded in this study. However, even after liver cancer and chronic liver diseases were excluded, mortality rate was still increased among HTLV-I carriers (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.99-1.78), especially among those with high antibody titers (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.99-2.46, P for trend = 0.04). These findings may support the idea that HTLV-I infection exerts adverse effects on mortality from causes other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Further studies on confounding by HCV/HBV infections and the interaction between HCV/HBV and HTLV-I may be required to analyze the increased mortality from liver cancer and chronic liver diseases.

  1. Influence of advections of particulate matter from biomass combustion on specific-cause mortality in Madrid in the period 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Linares, C; Carmona, R; Tobías, A; Mirón, I J; Díaz, J

    2015-05-01

    Approximately, 20 % of particulate and aerosol emissions into the urban atmosphere are of natural origin (including wildfires and Saharan dust). During these natural episodes, PM10 and PM2.5 levels usually exceed World Health Organisation (WHO) health protection thresholds. This study sought to evaluate the possible effect of advections of particulate matter from biomass fuel combustion on daily specific-cause mortality among the general population and the segment aged ≥ 75 years in Madrid. Ecological time-series study in the city of Madrid from January 01, 2004 to December 31, 2009. The dependent variable analysed was daily mortality due to natural (ICD-10:A00-R99), circulatory (ICD-10:I00-I99), and respiratory (ICD-10:J00-J99) causes in the population, both general and aged ≥ 75 years. The following independent and control variables were considered: a) daily mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations; b) maximum daily temperature; c) daily mean O3 and NO2 concentrations; d) advection of particulate matter from biomass combustion ( http://www.calima.ws/ ), using a dichotomous variable and e) linear trend and seasonalities. We conducted a descriptive analysis, performed a test of means and, to ascertain relative risk, fitted a model using autoregressive Poisson regression and stratifying by days with and without biomass advection, in both populations. Of the 2192 days analysed, biomass advection occurred on 56, with mean PM2.5 and PM10 values registering a significant increase during these days. PM10 had a greater impact on organic mortality with advection (RRall ages = 1.035 [1.011-1.060]; RR  ≥  75 years = 1.066 [1.031-1.103]) than did PM2.5 without advection (RRall ages = 1.017 [1.009-1.025]; RR  ≥  75 years = 1.012 [1.003-1.022]). Among specific causes, respiratory-though not circulatory-causes were associated with PM10 on days with advection in ≥ 75 year age group. PM10, rather than PM2.5, were associated with an increase in natural

  2. Cardiomyocyte specific expression of Acyl-coA thioesterase 1 attenuates sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Congying; Dong, Ruolan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Hong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2015-12-25

    Compromised cardiac fatty acid oxidation (FAO) induced energy deprivation is a critical cause of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis. Acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 (ACOT1) is involved in regulating cardiac energy production via altering substrate metabolism. This study aims to clarify whether ACOT1 has a potency to ameliorate septic myocardial dysfunction via enhancing cardiac FAO. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1 (αMHC-ACOT1) and their wild type (WT) littermates were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg i.p.) and myocardial function was assessed 6 h later using echocardiography and hemodynamics. Deteriorated cardiac function evidenced by reduction of the percentage of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening after LPS administration was significantly attenuated by cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1. αMHC-ACOT1 mice exhibited a markedly increase in glucose utilization and cardiac FAO compared with LPS-treated WT mice. Suppression of cardiac peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa) and PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC1a) signaling observed in LPS-challenged WT mice was activated by the presence of ACOT1. These results suggest that ACOT1 has potential therapeutic values to protect heart from sepsis mediated dysfunction, possibly through activating PPARa/PGC1a signaling. - Highlights: • ACOT1 has potential therapeutic values to protect heart from sepsis mediated dysfunction. • ACOT1 can regulate PPARa/PGC1a signaling pathway. • We first generate the transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1.

  3. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Biddulph, Jane P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the suitability of age specific limits for alcohol consumption and to explore the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in different age groups. Design Population based data from Health Survey for England 1998-2008, linked to national mortality registration data and pooled for analysis using proportional hazards regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and age group (50-64 and ≥65 years). Setting Up to 10 waves of the Health Survey for England, which samples the non-institutionalised general population resident in England. Participants The derivation of two analytical samples was based on the availability of comparable alcohol consumption data, covariate data, and linked mortality data among adults aged 50 years or more. Two samples were used, each utilising a different variable for alcohol usage: self reported average weekly consumption over the past year and self reported consumption on the heaviest day in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the former sample comprised Health Survey for England years 1998-2002, 18 368 participants, and 4102 deaths over a median follow-up of 9.7 years, whereas the latter comprised Health Survey for England years 1999-2008, 34 523 participants, and 4220 deaths over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Main outcome measure All cause mortality, defined as any death recorded between the date of interview and the end of data linkage on 31 March 2011. Results In unadjusted models, protective effects were identified across a broad range of alcohol usage in all age-sex groups. These effects were attenuated across most use categories on adjustment for a range of personal, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. After the exclusion of former drinkers, these effects were further attenuated. Compared with self reported never drinkers, significant protective associations were limited to younger men (50-64 years) and older women (≥65 years). Among younger men, the range of protective effects was

  4. Daytime napping and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a 13-year follow-up of a British population.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between daytime napping and mortality risk, and there are few data on the potential association in the British population. We investigated the associations between daytime napping and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk study, a British population-based cohort study. Among the 16,374 men and women who answered questions on napping habits between 1998 and 2000, a total of 3,251 died during the 13-year follow-up. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (for napping less than 1 hour per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.27; for napping 1 hour or longer per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.68), independent of age, sex, social class, educational level, marital status, employment status, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol intake, depression, self-reported general health, use of hypnotic drugs or other medications, time spent in bed at night, and presence of preexisting health conditions. This association was more pronounced for death from respiratory diseases (for napping less than 1 hour, hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.05; for napping 1 hour or more, hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.34, 4.86) and in individuals 65 years of age or younger. Excessive daytime napping might be a useful marker of underlying health risk, particularly of respiratory problems, especially among those 65 years of age or younger. Further research is required to clarify the nature of the observed association.

  5. Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers: II. Total and cause-specific mortality excluding central nervous system neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Youk, Ada O; Cunningham, Michael A; Lieberman, Frank S; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Lacey, Steven E; Hancock, Roger P; Esmen, Nurtan A

    2008-10-01

    As part of an exploratory investigation of an unusual occurrence of glioblastoma at one jet engine manufacturing facility located in North Haven, Connecticut (CT), we examined total and cause-specific (excluding central nervous system neoplasms) mortality rates at eight of the company's CT facilities. Subjects were 223,894 workers ever employed in one or more of the manufacturing facilities from 1952 to 2001. Vital status was determined through 2004 for 99% of subjects and cause of death for 95% of 68,701 deaths. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) based on US and CT state rates and modeled internal cohort rates. We observed overall deficits in deaths based on national and state comparisons from all causes, all cancers and most of the cause of death categories examined. State comparisons revealed statistically significant excesses in deaths greater than 25% for kidney cancer (68 deaths, SMR = 1.30, CI = 1.01-1.65) and "other non-malignant respiratory disease" (291 deaths, SMR = 1.27, CI = 1.13-1.42) among subjects employed only at North Haven, and for bronchitis (713 deaths, SMR = 1.28, CI = 1.18-1.37) among all hourly workers. These excesses occurred mainly among short-term workers and hourly workers. We found no evidence of elevated mortality risks for all causes combined, all cancers combined and most of the causes of death categories examined. The pattern of findings for kidney cancer, bronchitis and other non-malignant respiratory disease, based on currently available data, suggests these excesses may be due to non-occupational risk factors or to external occupational factors. We will investigate these excesses further when detailed work history and exposure data from the companion exposure assessment project become available.

  6. Denervated Myocardium Is Preferentially Associated With Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: A Pilot Competing Risks Analysis of Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Fallavollita, James A; Dare, Jonathan D; Carter, Randolph L; Baldwa, Sunil; Canty, John M

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified multiple risk factors that are associated with total cardiac mortality. Nevertheless, identifying specific factors that distinguish patients at risk of arrhythmic death versus heart failure could better target patients likely to benefit from implantable cardiac defibrillators, which have no impact on nonsudden cardiac death. We performed a pilot competing risks analysis of the National Institutes of Health-sponsored PAREPET trial (Prediction of Arrhythmic Events with Positron Emission Tomography). Death from cardiac causes was ascertained in subjects with ischemic cardiomyopathy (n=204) eligible for an implantable cardiac defibrillator for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest after baseline clinical evaluation and imaging at enrollment (positron emission tomography and 2-dimensional echo). Mean age was 67±11 years with an ejection fraction of 27±9%, and 90% were men. During 4.1 years of follow-up, there were 33 sudden cardiac arrests (arrhythmic death or implantable cardiac defibrillator discharge for ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia >240 bpm) and 36 nonsudden cardiac deaths. Sudden cardiac arrest was correlated with a greater volume of denervated myocardium (defect of the positron emission tomography norepinephrine analog (11)C-hydroxyephedrine), lack of angiotensin inhibition therapy, elevated B-type natriuretic peptide, and larger left ventricular end-diastolic volume index. In contrast, nonsudden cardiac death was associated with a higher resting heart rate, older age, elevated creatinine, larger left atrial volume index, and larger left ventricular end-diastolic volume index. Distinct clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables are associated with cause-specific cardiac mortality in primary-prevention candidates with ischemic cardiomyopathy. If prospectively validated, these multivariable associations may help target specific therapies to those at the greatest risk of sudden and nonsudden cardiac

  7. Impact of tumor architecture on disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality of upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo; Hu, Bin; Yuan, Qingmin; Wen, Shuang; Liu, Tianqing; Bai, Shanshan; Qi, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xin; Yang, Deyong; Sun, Xiuzhen; Song, Xishuang

    2017-07-01

    Upper tract urinary carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively uncommon but aggressive disease. Recent publications have assessed the prognostic significance of tumor architecture in UTUC, but there is still controversy regarding the significance and importance of tumor architecture on disease recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 101 patients with clinical UTUC who had undergone surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to