Science.gov

Sample records for specification release procedure

  1. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release procedure. 142.48 Section 142.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.48 Release procedure. (a) General. When the Customs officer...

  2. 48 CFR 405.404-1 - Release procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval of the Information Security Staff, Personnel and Document Security Division, Office of Procurement... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release procedures. 405.404-1 Section 405.404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 32 CFR 806.17 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 806.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.17 Release and processing procedures. (a) Individuals seeking Air Force information should address requests to an address listed in § 806.26....

  4. 32 CFR 806.17 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 806.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.17 Release and processing procedures. (a) Individuals seeking Air Force information should address requests to an address listed in § 806.26....

  5. 32 CFR 806.17 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 806.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.17 Release and processing procedures. (a) Individuals seeking Air Force information should address requests to an address listed in § 806.26....

  6. 32 CFR 806.17 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 806.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.17 Release and processing procedures. (a) Individuals seeking Air Force information should address requests to an address listed in § 806.26....

  7. 32 CFR 806.17 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 806.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.17 Release and processing procedures. (a) Individuals seeking Air Force information should address requests to an address listed in § 806.26....

  8. Photoacoustic monitoring of circulating tumor cells released during medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    Many cancer deaths are related to metastasis to distant organs due to dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor. For many years, oncologists believed some medical procedures may provoke metastasis; however, no direct evidence has been reported. We have developed a new, noninvasive technology called in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC), which provides ultrasensitive detection of CTCs. When CTCs with strongly light-absorbing intrinsic melanin pass through a laser beam aimed at a peripheral blood vessel, laser-induced acoustic waves from CTCs were detected using an ultrasound transducer. We focused on melanoma as it is one of the most metastatically aggressive malignancies. The goal of this research was to determine whether melanoma manipulation, like compression, incisional biopsy, or tumor excision, could enhance penetration of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system. The ears of nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cells. Blood vessels were monitored for the presence of CTCs using in vivo PAFC. We discovered some medical procedures, like compression of the tumor, biopsy, and surgery may either initiate CTC release in the blood which previously contained no CTCs, or dramatically increased (10-30-fold) CTC counts above the initial level. Our results warn oncologists to use caution during physical examination, and surgery. A preventive anti-CTC therapy during or immediately after surgery, by intravenous drug administration could serve as an option to treat the resulting release of CTCs.

  9. 49 CFR 701.6 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOIA request. The FOIA also does not require that a new computer program be developed to extract the... PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.6 Release and...

  10. 49 CFR 701.6 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOIA request. The FOIA also does not require that a new computer program be developed to extract the... PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.6 Release and...

  11. 49 CFR 701.6 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOIA request. The FOIA also does not require that a new computer program be developed to extract the... PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.6 Release and...

  12. 49 CFR 701.6 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOIA request. The FOIA also does not require that a new computer program be developed to extract the... PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.6 Release and...

  13. Aptamer-based liposomes improve specific drug loading and release.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Kevin; Derbali, Rabeb Mouna; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Dubath, Céline; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Leblond, Jeanne

    2017-04-10

    Aptamer technology has shown much promise in cancer therapeutics for its targeting abilities. However, its potential to improve drug loading and release from nanocarriers has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we employed drug-binding aptamers to actively load drugs into liposomes. We designed a series of DNA aptamer sequences specific to doxorubicin, displaying multiple binding sites and various binding affinities. The binding ability of aptamers was preserved when incorporated into cationic liposomes, binding up to 15equivalents of doxorubicin per aptamer, therefore drawing the drug into liposomes. Optimization of the charge and drug/aptamer ratios resulted in ≥80% encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin, ten times higher than classical passively-encapsulating liposomal formulations and similar to a pH-gradient active loading strategy. In addition, kinetic release profiles and cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells demonstrated that the release and therapeutic efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin could be controlled by the aptamer's structure. Our results suggest that the aptamer exhibiting a specific intermediate affinity is the best suited to achieve high drug loading while maintaining efficient drug release and therapeutic activity. This strategy was successfully applied to tobramycin, a hydrophilic drug suffering from low encapsulation into liposomes, where its loading was improved six-fold using aptamers. Overall, we demonstrate that aptamers could act, in addition to their targeting properties, as multifunctional excipients for liposomal formulations.

  14. 27 CFR 41.86 - Procedure for release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, Imported Into or Returned to the United States Release from Customs Custody of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and...

  15. 27 CFR 41.86 - Procedure for release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, Imported Into or Returned to the United States Release from Customs Custody of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and...

  16. 27 CFR 41.86 - Procedure for release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, Imported Into or Returned to the United States Release from Customs Custody of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and...

  17. 31 CFR 510.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 510.501 Section 510.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 510.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 510.501 Section 510.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 510.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 510.501 Section 510.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 510.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 510.501 Section 510.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 586.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 586.501 Section 586.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  2. 31 CFR 543.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 543.501 Section 543.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 542.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 542.501 Section 542.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 542.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 542.501 Section 542.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 542.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 542.501 Section 542.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 542.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 542.501 Section 542.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 542.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 542.501 Section 542.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 548.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 548.501 Section 548.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 548.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 548.501 Section 548.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 548.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 548.501 Section 548.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 548.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 548.501 Section 548.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 548.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General and specific licensing procedures. 548.501 Section 548.501 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  13. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-10-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children's Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  14. 49 CFR 1244.9 - Procedures for the release of waybill data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures for the release of waybill data identify five classes of users of the STB Waybill Sample, define the waybill information or data that each class of users may obtain, and set forth the applicable... of waybill data to other users to protect against the inappropriate release of confidential data....

  15. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... public. A launch operator must include the toxic release hazard analysis results in the ground safety... release scenario: (i) Chemical name; (ii) Physical state; (iii) Basis of results (provide model name if... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL...

  16. 76 FR 68328 - Commercial Driver's License Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0 AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Administrators, Inc.'s (AAMVA) Commercial Driver's License Information System (CDLIS) State Procedures Manual... information system that serves as the clearinghouse and depository of information about the...

  17. 76 FR 19023 - Commercial Driver's License Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0 AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Driver's License Information System (CDLIS) State Procedures Manual (the Manual). All State driver... to maintain an information system that serves as the clearinghouse and depository of...

  18. NIF Anti-Reflective Coating Solutions: Preparation, Procedures and Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T; Carman, L; Thomas, I

    2003-07-01

    The following document contains a detailed description of the preparation procedures for the antireflective coating solutions used for NIF optics. This memo includes preparation procedures for the coating solutions (sections 2.0-4.0), specifications and vendor information of the raw materials used and on all equipment used (section 5.0), and QA specifications (section 6.0) and procedures (section 7.0) to determine quality and repeatability of all the coating solutions. There are different five coating solutions that will be used to coat NIF optics. These solutions are listed below: (1) Colloidal silica (3%) in ethanol (2) Colloidal silica (2%) in sec-butanol (3) Colloidal silica (9%) in sec-butanol (deammoniated) (4) HMDS treated silica (10%) in decane (5) GR650 (3.3%) in ethanol/sec-butanol The names listed above are to be considered the official name for the solution. They will be referred to by these names in the remainder of this document. Table 1 gives a summary of all the optics to be coated including: (1) the surface to be coated; (2) the type of solution to be used; (3) the coating method (meniscus, dip, or spin coating) to be used; (4) the type of coating (broadband, 1?, 2?, 3?) to be made; (5) number of optics to be coated; and (6) the type of post processing required (if any). Table 2 gives a summary of the batch compositions and measured properties of all five of these solutions.

  19. Isomer-Specific Analysis of Released N-Glycans by LC-ESI MS/MS with Porous Graphitized Carbon.

    PubMed

    Kolarich, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Alagesan, Kathirvel; Altmann, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The combination of porous graphitized carbon (PGC) liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection probably constitutes the most elaborate single stage analysis for isomer-specific N-glycan analysis. Here, we describe sample preparation and analysis procedures for the identification of released N-glycans using PGC-LC-ESI-MS and MS/MS.

  20. Percutaneous Ultrasonic Fasciotomy for Refractory Plantar Fasciopathy After Failure of a Partial Endoscopic Release Procedure.

    PubMed

    Pourcho, Adam M; Hall, Mederic M

    2015-11-01

    Plantar fasciopathy is a painful, degenerative condition of the plantar fascia that affects 2 million people annually and has an estimated 10% lifetime prevalence. When both nonoperative and operative management fails, patients have limited therapeutic options. We present a case of an active 47-year-old male runner who was successfully treated with songraphically guided percutaneous ultrasonic fasciotomy after undergoing a prolonged course of nonoperative management and an endoscopic plantar fascia release procedure. Percutaneous ultrasonic fasciotomy may be considered in patients with chronic, refractory plantar fasciopathy, including those for whom a prior operative release procedure has failed.

  1. Benchmarking Procedures for High-Throughput Context Specific Reconstruction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Maria P.; Pfau, Thomas; Sauter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput data acquisition has shifted the focus from data generation to processing and understanding of how to integrate collected information. Context specific reconstruction based on generic genome scale models like ReconX or HMR has the potential to become a diagnostic and treatment tool tailored to the analysis of specific individuals. The respective computational algorithms require a high level of predictive power, robustness and sensitivity. Although multiple context specific reconstruction algorithms were published in the last 10 years, only a fraction of them is suitable for model building based on human high-throughput data. Beside other reasons, this might be due to problems arising from the limitation to only one metabolic target function or arbitrary thresholding. This review describes and analyses common validation methods used for testing model building algorithms. Two major methods can be distinguished: consistency testing and comparison based testing. The first is concerned with robustness against noise, e.g., missing data due to the impossibility to distinguish between the signal and the background of non-specific binding of probes in a microarray experiment, and whether distinct sets of input expressed genes corresponding to i.e., different tissues yield distinct models. The latter covers methods comparing sets of functionalities, comparison with existing networks or additional databases. We test those methods on several available algorithms and deduce properties of these algorithms that can be compared with future developments. The set of tests performed, can therefore serve as a benchmarking procedure for future algorithms. PMID:26834640

  2. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... using an analysis method, such as a failure mode and effects analysis or fault tree analysis. (2... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... using an analysis method, such as a failure mode and effects analysis or fault tree analysis. (2... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... using an analysis method, such as a failure mode and effects analysis or fault tree analysis. (2... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... using an analysis method, such as a failure mode and effects analysis or fault tree analysis. (2... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  6. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR.

  7. Sequence-specific procedural learning deficits in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy VM

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children’s performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger typically developing children matched for receptive grammar (n = 28). In a serial reaction time task, the children with SLI performed at the same level as the grammar-matched children, but poorer than age-matched controls in learning motor sequences. When tested with a motor procedural learning task that did not involve learning sequential relationships between discrete elements (i.e. pursuit rotor), the children with SLI performed comparably with age-matched children and better than younger grammar-matched controls. In addition, poor implicit learning of word sequences in a verbal memory task (the Hebb effect) was found in the children with SLI. Together, these findings suggest that SLI might be characterized by deficits in learning sequence-specific information, rather than generally weak procedural learning. PMID:24410990

  8. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  9. A systematic review on diagnostic procedures for specific language impairment: The sensitivity and specificity issues

    PubMed Central

    Shahmahmood, Toktam Maleki; Jalaie, Shohreh; Soleymani, Zahra; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Nemati, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identification of children with specific language impairment (SLI) has been viewed as both necessity and challenge. Investigators and clinicians use different tests and measures for this purpose. Some of these tests/measures have good psychometric properties, but it is not sufficient for diagnostic purposes. A diagnostic procedure can be used for identification a specific population with confidence only when its sensitivity and specificity are acceptable. In this study, we searched for tests/measures with predefined sensitivity and specificity for identification of preschool children with SLI from their typically developing peers. Materials and Methods: A computerized search in bibliographic databases from 2000 to August 2015 was performed with the following keywords: “specific language impairment” or SLI” and “primary language impairment” or ‘PLI’ with at least one of the followings: “diagnosis,” “identification,” “accuracy,” “sensitivity,” and “specificity.” In addition, the related citations and reference lists of the selected articles were considered. Results: The results of reviewing 23 included studies show that the index measures used in studies vary in accuracy with the sensitivity ranging from 16% to 100% and the specificity ranging from 14% to 100%. Conclusion: These varieties in sensitivity and specificity of different tests/measures confirm the necessity of attention to the diagnostic power of tests/measures before their use as diagnostic tool. Further, the results indicate there are some promising tests/measures that the available evidence supports their performances in the diagnosis of SLI in preschool-aged children, yet the place of a reference standard for the diagnosis of SLI is vacant among investigations. PMID:27904612

  10. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-07

    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program.

  11. Stabilization of spontaneous neurotransmitter release at ribbon synapses by ribbon-specific subtypes of complexin.

    PubMed

    Vaithianathan, Thirumalini; Zanazzi, George; Henry, Diane; Akmentin, Wendy; Matthews, Gary

    2013-05-08

    Ribbon synapses of tonically releasing sensory neurons must provide a large pool of releasable vesicles for sustained release, while minimizing spontaneous release in the absence of stimulation. Complexins are presynaptic proteins that may accomplish this dual task at conventional synapses by interacting with the molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle fusion at the active zone to retard spontaneous vesicle exocytosis yet facilitate release evoked by depolarization. However, ribbon synapses of photoreceptor cells and bipolar neurons in the retina express distinct complexin subtypes, perhaps reflecting the special requirements of these synapses for tonic release. To investigate the role of ribbon-specific complexins in transmitter release, we combined presynaptic voltage clamp, fluorescence imaging, electron microscopy, and behavioral assays of photoreceptive function in zebrafish. Acute interference with complexin function using a peptide derived from the SNARE-binding domain increased spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion at ribbon synapses of retinal bipolar neurons without affecting release triggered by depolarization. Knockdown of complexin by injection of an antisense morpholino into zebrafish embryos prevented photoreceptor-driven migration of pigment in skin melanophores and caused the pigment distribution to remain in the dark-adapted state even when embryos were exposed to light. This suggests that loss of complexin function elevated spontaneous release in illuminated photoreceptors sufficiently to mimic the higher release rate normally associated with darkness, thus interfering with visual signaling. We conclude that visual system-specific complexins are required for proper illumination-dependent modulation of the rate of neurotransmitter release at visual system ribbon synapses.

  12. Stabilization of spontaneous neurotransmitter release at ribbon synapses by ribbon-specific subtypes of Complexin

    PubMed Central

    Vaithianathan, Thirumalini; Zanazzi, George; Henry, Diane; Akmentin, Wendy; Matthews, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Ribbon synapses of tonically releasing sensory neurons must provide a large pool of releasable vesicles for sustained release, while minimizing spontaneous release in the absence of stimulation. Complexins are presynaptic proteins that may accomplish this dual task at conventional synapses, by interacting with the molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle fusion at the active zone to retard spontaneous vesicle exocytosis yet facilitate release evoked by depolarization. However, ribbon synapses of photoreceptor cells and bipolar neurons in the retina express distinct Complexin subtypes, perhaps reflecting the special requirements of these synapses for tonic release. To investigate the role of ribbon-specific Complexins in transmitter release, we combined presynaptic voltage-clamp, fluorescence imaging, electron microscopy, and behavioral assays of photoreceptive function in zebrafish. Acute interference with Complexin function using a peptide derived from the SNARE-binding domain increased spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion at ribbon synapses of retinal bipolar neurons without affecting release triggered by depolarization. Knockdown of Complexin by injection of an antisense morpholino into zebrafish embryos prevented photoreceptor-driven migration of pigment in skin melanophores and caused the pigment distribution to remain in the dark-adapted state even when embryos were exposed to light. This suggests that loss of Complexin function elevated spontaneous release in illuminated photoreceptors sufficiently to mimic the higher release rate normally associated with darkness, thus interfering with visual signaling. We conclude that visual system-specific Complexins are required for proper illumination-dependent modulation of the rate of neurotransmitter release at visual system ribbon synapses. PMID:23658160

  13. Procedure for detecting underground utilities with specific shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Aleksandar; Vrtunski, Milan; Govedarica, Miro; Bugarinovic, Zeljko

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays GPR technology is acknowledged as a reliable, fast, non-destructive remote sensing technology whose area of applications is wider every day. One of its most common applications is underground utility detection. Not only it is possible to detect the utility in the field, but using certain algorithms utilities which haven't been detected in the field can be detected in radargrams. There is a number of procedures for automated detection of utility in the radargrams. Further, there are procedures that can estimate certain parameters such as propagation velocity, diameter or even characteristics of the material. However, the majority of these procedures is designed to detect cylindrical shape utilities, which, in a radargram, are represented with hyperbolic reflection. According to geometry of hyperbola, utility parameters can be estimated. In this paper we present a procedure that is designed to estimate characteristics of non-cylindrical utilities. It is worth mentioning that these utilities are not so rare. Some underground tanks and sewage collectors are among them. Heat line is consisted of two insulated pipes of the same diameter, often placed in a concrete channel and covered with plates made from reinforced concrete. Therefore, it can be considered as non-cylindrical utility and such structure has characteristic signature in a radargram. The main idea of the proposed procedure is to detect this signature, and then, based on standardized parameters for the heat lines, to estimate the diameter of the pipes. The proposed procedure is based on artificial neural network. As a training set we made a number of radargrams collected on different locations which contain heat lines of various dimensions. Pipe diameters were in a range from 65 to 250 mm. 400MHz antenna was used since the depth hasn't exceeded 2m. After the network is trained it is validated using radargrams that haven't been used in the training set. Further tests were done with radargrams that

  14. Site-Specific, Sustained Release of Drugs to the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodor, Nicholas; Farag, Hassan H.; Brewster, Marcus E.

    1981-12-01

    A dihydropyridine-pyridinium salt type of redox system is used in a general and flexible method for site-specific or sustained delivery (or both) of drugs to the brain. A biologically active compound linked to a lipoidal dihydropyridine carrier easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Oxidation of the carrier part in vivo to the ionic pyridinium salt prevents its elimination from the brain, while elimination from the general circulation is accelerated. Subsequent cleavage of the quaternary carrier-drug species results in sustained delivery of the drug in the brain and facile elimination of the carrier part.

  15. High Voltage Testing. Volume 2. Specifications and Test Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    as tested to 4.7.12 shall exhibit no evidence of mechanical damage. 103 °o. . .. 3.16 Salt spray (corrosion) (metal surfaces only, see 3.1). When...of the surfaces shall be affected by flaking, peeling, or blistering of paint. There shall be no evidence of unwrapping of or mechanical damage to...Profile 48 A6 Typical Mechanical Release Fixture 50 A7 Suggested Method for Making Cable Ends Corona Free 56 BI Solder Contact (Pin and Socket

  16. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Verissimo, Joao; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have…

  17. Fluorescence nanoscopy of platelets resolves platelet-state specific storage, release and uptake of proteins, opening up future diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Rönnlund, Daniel; Yang, Yang; Blom, Hans; Auer, Gert; Widengren, Jerker

    2012-11-01

    Dysregulation of how platelets store, sequester and release specific proteins seems to be implicated in many disease states, including cancer. Dual-color immunofluorescence stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy with 40 nm resolution is used to map pro-angiogenic VEGF, anti-angiogenic PF-4 and fibrinogen in >300 individual platelets. This reveals that these proteins are stored in a segmented, zonal manner within regional clusters, significantly smaller than the size of an α-granule. No colocalization between the different proteins is observed. Upon platelet activation by thrombin or ADP, the proteins undergo significant spatial rearrangements, including alterations in the size and number of the protein clusters, and specific for a certain protein and the type of activation induced. Following these observations, a simple assignment procedure is used to show that the three distinct states of platelets (non-, ADP- and thrombin-activated) can be identified based on the average size, number and peripheral localization profiles of the regional protein clusters within the platelets. Thus, high-resolution spatial mapping of specific proteins is a useful procedure to detect and characterize deviations in the selective storage, release and uptake of these proteins in the platelets. Since these deviations seem to be specific for, and may even underlie, certain patophysiological states, these findings may have interesting diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  18. 33 CFR 157.420 - Vessel specific watch policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel specific watch policy and procedures. 157.420 Section 157.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 157.420 Vessel specific watch policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1, 1997, the owner...

  19. 33 CFR 157.420 - Vessel specific watch policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel specific watch policy and procedures. 157.420 Section 157.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 157.420 Vessel specific watch policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1, 1997, the owner...

  20. 10 CFR 32.110 - Acceptance sampling procedures under certain specific licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance sampling procedures under certain specific licenses. 32.110 Section 32.110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Quality Control Sampling Procedures §...

  1. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 2: Review and specification of test procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Harlacher, B. L.; Mathews, D.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. A review and critical evaluation of possible approaches to qualify spacecraft against space electron-induced discharges (EID) is presented. A variety of possible schemes to simulate EID electromagnetic effects produced in spacecraft was studied. These techniques form the principal element of a provisional, recommended set of test procedures for the EID qualification spacecraft. Significant gaps in our knowledge about EID which impact the final specification of an electrical test to qualify spacecraft against EID are also identified.

  2. Using Decision Procedures to Build Domain-Specific Deductive Synthesis Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a class of decision procedures that we have found useful for efficient, domain-specific deductive synthesis. These procedures are called closure-based ground literal satisfiability procedures. We argue that this is a large and interesting class of procedures and show how to interface these procedures to a theorem prover for efficient deductive synthesis. Finally, we describe some results we have observed from our implementation. Amphion/NAIF is a domain-specific, high-assurance software synthesis system. It takes an abstract specification of a problem in solar system mechanics, such as 'when will a signal sent from the Cassini spacecraft to Earth be blocked by the planet Saturn?', and automatically synthesizes a FORTRAN program to solve it.

  3. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be...

  4. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be...

  5. Improving consent form documentation and introduction of procedure-specific labels in a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bajada, Stefan; Dwamena, Samuel; Abdul, Zabihullah; Williams, Rhodri; Ennis, Owain

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is an important aspect in patient care. Failings in this area may result in patient dissatisfaction or litigation. The aim of this project was to assess our practice in consenting and institute changes to maintain best practice. A consecutive series of 140 patients undergoing elective and trauma procedures were randomly identified over a nine-month period. The consent forms were reviewed and the following information collected: patient/ consenter details, procedure, legibility, if copy was offered/ given to patient and adequacy of procedure-specific complications listed (scored 0-3). The issues identified included: 25% of consents were not fully legible particularly in the complications section. 62% were noted to have inadequate complications listed (score 0 [>5 risks missing]) when compared to an accepted standard. None of the consent form copies were offered or given to the patients. Focused teaching to juniors as well as procedure-specific complication stickers were implemented to improve the documentation of complications. Following several improvement cycles all consents (100%) were fully legible and had the adequate procedure-specific labels with all complications listed. There was an increase to 38% of consent forms offered to patients. We have asked surgeons in the department to comment on which consent method they prefer and all consenters felt that the procedure-specific labels where easier to read and understand. Departmental education as well as introduction of simple procedure-specific complication stickers has resulted in significant improvements in practice. PMID:28243444

  6. Substrate specificity of the agonist-stimulated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Garcia, M.C.; Sprecher, H. )

    1989-11-01

    Stimulation of vascular endothelial cells with agonists such as histamine and thrombin results in release of arachidonic acid from membrane lipids and subsequent eicosanoid synthesis. As shown previously, the agonist-stimulated deacylation is specific for arachidonate, eicosapentaenoate, and 5,8,11-eicosatrienoate. This study has utilized radiolabeled fatty acids differing in chain length and position of double bonds to further elucidate the fatty acyl specificity of agonist-stimulated deacylation. Replicate wells of confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 14C-labeled fatty acids and then challenged with histamine, thrombin, or the calcium ionophore A23187. Comparison of the results obtained with isomeric eicosatetraenoic fatty acids with initial double bonds at carbons 4, 5, or 6 indicated that the deacylation induced by all three agonists exhibited marked specificity for the cis-5 double bond. Lack of stringent chain length specificity was indicated by agonist-stimulated release of 5,8,11,14- tetraenoic fatty acids with 18, 19, 20, and 21 carbons. Release of 5,8,14-(14C)eicosatrienoate was two-to threefold that of 5,11,14-(14C)eicosatrienoate, thus indicating that the cis-8 double bond may also contribute to the stringent recognition by the agonist-sensitive phospholipase. The present study has also demonstrated that histamine, thrombin, and A23187 do not stimulate release of docosahexaenoate from endothelial cells.

  7. Development of Floating-Mucoadhesive Microsphere for Site Specific Release of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Md. Lutful; Ahmed, Tajnin; Mannan, Md. Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate metronidazole loaded floating-mucoadhesive microsphere for sustained drug release at the gastric mucosa. Methods: Alginate gastroretentive microspheres containing metronidazole were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium bicarbonate as gas forming agent, guar gum as mucoadhesive polymer, and Eudragit L100 as drug release modifier. Carbopol was used for increasing the bead strength. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by means of drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro buoyancy, and swelling studies. In vitro mucoadhesion and drug release studies were carried out in order to evaluate site specific sustained drug release. Results: All formulations showed 100% buoyancy in vitro for a prolonged period of time. Amount of guar gum influenced the properties of different formulations. The formulation containing drug and guar gum at a ratio of 1:0.5 showed the best results with 76.3% drug entrapment efficiency, 61.21% mucoadhesion, and sustained drug release. Carbopol was found to increase surface smoothness of the microspheres. Conclusion: Metronidazole mucoadhesive-floating microspheres can be effectively used for sustained drug release to the gastric mucosa in treatment of upper GIT infection. PMID:27478781

  8. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that the optimum separation performances achieved by multiple stage cleaning using various column flotation technologies and single stage cleaning using a Packed-Flotation Column are superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure, especially in terms of pyritic sulfur rejection. This superior performance is believed to be the result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation technologies. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a suitable process utilizing the advanced froth flotation mechanisms to characterize the true flotation response of a coal sample. This investigation resulted in the development of a modified coal flotation characterization procedure, termed as the Advanced Flotation Washability (AFW) technique. The apparatus used for this procedure is a batch operated Packed-Column device which provides enhanced selectivity due to a plug-flow environment and a deep froth zone. The separation performance achieved by the AFW procedure was found to be superior to those produced by the conventional tree and release procedures for three nominally -100 mesh coal samples and two micronized samples. The largest difference in separation performance was obtained on the basis of product pyritic sulfur content. A comparison conducted between the AFW and the release procedures at an 80% recovery value showed that the AFW technique provided a 19% improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur. For an Illinois No. 5 coal sample, this improvement corresponded to a reduction in pyritic sulfur content from 1.38% to 0.70% or a total rejection of 66%. Micronization of the sample improved the pyritic sulfur rejection to 85% while rejecting 92% of the ash-bearing material. In addition, the separation performance provided by the AFW procedure was superior to that obtained from multiple cleaning stages using a continuous Packed-Column under both kinetic and carrying-capacity limiting conditions.

  9. 14 CFR 151.27 - Procedures: Application, plans, specifications, and appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., specifications, and appraisals. 151.27 Section 151.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Development Projects § 151.27 Procedures: Application, plans, specifications, and appraisals. (a) Except as... makes or obtains an appraisal of the interest. If the appraised value is less than the value placed...

  10. 7 CFR 1486.303 - What specific contracting procedures must be adhered to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Program Operations § 1486.303 What specific contracting procedures must be adhered to? (a... an open manner. Individuals who develop or draft specifications, requirements, statements of...

  11. Enzymatic Triggered Release of an HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor from Prostate Specific Antigen Degradable Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Aliyar, Hyder A.; Lee, Chang-won; Jay, Julie I.; Gupta, Kavita M.; Watson, Karen M.; Stewart, Russell J.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered to release its contents in the presence of human semen. Microgel particles were synthesized with a crosslinker containing a peptide substrate for the seminal serine protease prostate specific antigen (PSA) and were loaded with the HIV-1 entry inhibitor sodium poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (pSS). The particles were composed of N-2-hydroxyproplymethacrylamide and bis-methacrylamide functionalized peptides based on the PSA substrates GISSFYSSK and GISSQYSSK. Exposure to human seminal plasma (HSP) degraded the microgel network and triggered the release of the entrapped antiviral polymer. Particles with the crosslinker composed of the substrate GISSFYSSK showed 17 times faster degradation in seminal plasma than that of the crosslinker composed of GISSQYSSK. The microgel particles containing 1 mol% GISSFYSSK peptide crosslinker showed complete degradation in 30 hours in the presence of HSP at 37 °C and pSS released from the microgels within 30 minutes reached a concentration of 10 µg/mL, equivalent to the published IC90 for pSS. The released pSS inactivated HIV-1 in the presence of HSP. The solid phase synthesis of the crosslinkers, preparation of the particles by inverse microemulsion polymerization, HSP-triggered release of pSS and inactivation of HIV-1 studies are described. PMID:21511017

  12. Literature Review of Cosmetic Procedures in Men: Approaches and Techniques are Gender Specific.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Wysong, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    The proportion of men receiving non-surgical cosmetic procedures has risen substantially in recent years. Various physiologic, anatomic, and motivational considerations differentiate the treatments for male and female patients. Nevertheless, research regarding approaches to the male cosmetic patient is scarce. We sought to provide an overview and sex-specific discussion of the most popular cosmetic dermatologic procedures pursued by men by conducting a comprehensive literature review pertaining to non-surgical cosmetic procedures in male patients. The most common and rapidly expanding non-surgical interventions in men include botulinum toxin, filler injection, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing, laser hair removal, hair transplantation, and minimally invasive techniques for adipose tissue reduction. Important sex-specific factors associated with each of these procedures should be considered to best serve the male cosmetic patient.

  13. Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S

    2013-10-01

    Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits.

  14. Measurement of acetylcholine released from rabbit detrusor smooth muscle using HPLC with electro-chemical detection coupled with microdialysis procedure.

    PubMed

    Inadome, A; Yoshida, M; Takahashi, W; Wada, Y; Kitani, K; Kikukawa, H; Yono, M; Seshita, H; Ueda, S

    1998-01-01

    We measured the amount of acetylcholine (ACh) released from rabbit detrusor smooth muscles induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) using microdialysis procedure. The dialysis probe was inserted through the detrusor muscle strip and was continuously perfused with a Ringer solution containing physostigmine sulfate, at a rate of 2 microl/min. The strip was suspended in an organ bath filled with the modified Krebs-Henseleit solution and then EFS was delivered. The isometric force was recorded and monitored in each muscle preparation. The dialysates were collected every 10 min. ACh was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection. The contraction of the muscle strip and ACh release induced by EFS were increased in a frequency and duration dependent manner. There were some differences between frequency response curves of contraction and frequency dependent ACh release. In the contractile response, the maximum contractions were observed at lower frequencies, while ACh releases reached the maximum at higher frequencies. There was a significant, but not simple correlation between EFS-induced contraction and ACh release. The results suggest that this new method is useful to investigate the ACh release from rabbit detrusor smooth muscles, and that other neurotransmitters than ACh possibly contribute to EFS-induced contraction.

  15. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to reinvestigate the release analysis procedure, which is traditionally conducted using a laboratory Denver cell, and to develop a modified process that can be used for all froth flotation technologies. Recent studies have found that the separation performance achieved by multiple stage cleaning and, in some cases, single stage cleaning using column flotation is superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure. These findings are a result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation, which will be incorporated into a modified release analysis procedure developed in this study. A fundamental model of an open column has been developed which incorporates the effects of system hydrodynamics, froth drop-back, selective and non-selective detachment, operating parameters, feed solids content, and feed component flotation kinetics. Simulation results obtained during this reporting period indicate that the ultimate separation that can be achieved by a column flotation process can only be obtained in a single cleaning stage if the detachment mechanism in the froth phase is highly selective, which does not appear to occur in practice based on experimental results. Two to three cleaning stages were found to be required to obtain the ultimate performance if non-selective detachment or kinetic limiting conditions are assumed. this simulated finding agrees well with the experimental results obtained from the multiple stage cleaning of an Illinois No. 5 seam coal using the Packed-Column. Simulated results also indicate that the separation performance achieved by column flotation improves with increasing feed solids content after carrying-capacity limiting conditions are realized. These findings will be utilized in the next reporting period to modify the traditional release analysis procedure.

  16. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms: Technical report, March 1, 1996-May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q., Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that the optimum separation performances achieved by multiple stage cleaning using various column flotation technologies and single stage cleaning using a Packed-Flotation Column are superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure, especially in terms of pyritic sulfur rejection. This superior performance is believed to be the result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation technologies. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a suitable process utilizing the advanced froth flotation mechanisms to characterize the true flotation response of a coal sample. Work in this reporting period concentrated on developing a modified coal flotation characterization procedure, termed as Advanced Flotation Washability (AFW) technique. The new apparatus used for this procedure is essentially a batch operated packed-column device equipped with a controlled wash water system. Several experiments were conducted using the AFW technique on a relatively high sulfur, -100 mesh Illinois No. 5 run-of-mine coal sample collected from a local coal preparation plant. Similar coal characterization experiments were also conducted using the traditional release and tree analysis procedures. The best performance curve generated using the AFW technique was found to be superior to the optimum curve produced by the traditional procedures. For example, at a combustible recovery of 80%, a 19% improvement in the reduction of the pyritic sulfur content was achieved by the AFW method while the ash reduction was also enhanced by 4%. Several tests are on-going to solidify the AFW procedure and verify the above finding by conducting Anova analyses to evaluate the repeatability of the AFW method and the statistical significance of the difference in the performance achieved from the traditional and modified coal characterization procedures.

  17. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Possible applications include CNTs incorporated in epoxy or other polymer matrices and TiO2 embedded in concrete . The particle number/mass concentration...i.e., epoxy test samples, CNT reinforced epoxy test samples, commercially available CNTs, concrete disks, plates painted with ENM-containing...show possible release of 30 nm TiO2 particles from self-cleaning concrete . ERDC SR-16-2 13 Figure 3. Total particle concentration released

  18. A framework to investigate drug release variability arising from hypromellose viscosity specifications in controlled release matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shawn A; Balwinski, Karen M

    2008-06-01

    Substitution level, particle size, and molecular weight are key properties of hypromellose (HPMC) known to be important to its performance in pharmaceutical-controlled release applications. The hypromellose monographs indirectly specify acceptable ranges for the molecular weight of HPMC products, expressed as the apparent viscosity of a 2% aqueous solution. The purpose of this study was to provide a framework to systematically investigate the amount of drug release variability that might be expected for typical controlled release formulations over the monograph viscosity ranges for hypromellose. An approach to estimate the expected drug release variability was developed based on scaling laws in the literature. New experimental data were generated with pentoxifylline, theophylline, and hydrochlorothiazide as model drugs to explore the applicability of this approach to a range of formulations. This methodology predicted that drug release variability over the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) viscosity ranges would be greatest for the lower viscosity grades of hypromellose, such as E50 and K100 LV. Drug release variability due to hypromellose viscosity variations is expected to be larger for formulations having substantial contributions from erosional drug release, and smaller for formulations with a predominantly diffusional drug release mechanism. These predictions need to be validated experimentally.

  19. Target-specific suppression of GABA release from parvalbumin interneurons in the basolateral amygdala by dopamine.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hong-Yuan; Ito, Wataru; Li, Jiayang; Morozov, Alexei

    2012-10-17

    Dopamine (DA) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) promotes fear learning by disinhibiting principal neurons (PNs) and enabling synaptic plasticity in their sensory inputs. While BLA interneurons (INs) are heterogeneous, it is unclear which interneuron subtypes decrease GABAergic input to PNs in the presence of DA. Here, using cell type-selective photostimulation by channelrhodopsin 2 in BLA slices from mouse brain, we examined the role of parvalbumin-positive INs (PV-INs), the major interneuronal subpopulation in BLA, in the disinhibitory effect of DA. We found that DA selectively suppressed GABAergic transmission from PV-INs to PNs by acting on presynaptic D(2) receptors, and this effect was mimicked by Rp-cAMP, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent signaling. In contrast, DA did not alter GABA release from PV-INs to INs. Furthermore, neither suppressing cAMP-dependent signaling by Rp-cAMP nor enhancing it by forskolin altered GABA release from PV-INs to BLA INs. Overall, DA disinhibits BLA, at least in part, by suppressing GABA release from PV-INs in the target cell-specific manner that results from differential control of this release by cAMP-dependent signaling.

  20. Murine macrophage interleukin-1 release by capsularlike serotype-specific polysaccharide antigens of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, T; Nishihara, T; Ishihara, Y; Amano, K; Shibuya, N; Moro, I; Koga, T

    1991-01-01

    Serotype-specific polysaccharide antigens (SPAs) were extracted from whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 (serotype a), Y4 (serotype b), and NCTC 9710 (serotype c) by autoclaving and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephacryl S-300 columns. Y4 SPA induced interleukin-1 (IL-1) release by P388D1 murine macrophages. Polymyxin B had virtually no effect on the release of IL-1. Rabbit anti-murine IL-1 serum strongly suppressed the proliferation of C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes induced with the culture supernatants of Y4 SPA-stimulated P388D1 cells and a submitogenic dose of concanavalin A. Gel filtration of the culture supernatants of Y4 SPA-stimulated macrophages on Sephacryl S-200 showed that an IL-1 peak at a point corresponding to approximately 16.5 kDa was eluted. The ability of SPAs from strains ATCC 29523 and NCTC 9710 to induce the release of IL-1 was lower than that of Y4 SPA. The IL-1-releasing ability of serotype a and c antigens was enhanced by deacetylation of both polysaccharides, suggesting that acetyl groups of these antigens might hinder the interaction between the antigens and macrophages. PMID:1987032

  1. 50 CFR Appendix F to Part 622 - Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements F Appendix F to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries... 622—Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements...

  2. 50 CFR Appendix F to Part 622 - Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements F Appendix F to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries...—Specifications for Sea Turtle Mitigation Gear and Sea Turtle Handling and Release Requirements A. Sea...

  3. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary specific procedural... stoves. 200.936 Section 200.936 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7521 - What fuel analyses, fuel specification, and procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel specification analyses for hydrogen sulfide and mercury according to the procedures in paragraphs... expected minimum detection levels, to be used for the measurement of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. (v) If... mercury, in units of microgram per cubic meter, and of hydrogen sulfide, in units of parts per million,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7521 - What fuel analyses, fuel specification, and procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fuel specification analyses for hydrogen sulfide and mercury according to the procedures in paragraphs... expected minimum detection levels, to be used for the measurement of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. (v) If... mercury, in units of microgram per cubic meter, and of hydrogen sulfide, in units of parts per million,...

  6. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures? 1484.35 Section 1484.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP...

  7. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures? 1484.35 Section 1484.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP...

  8. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures? 1484.35 Section 1484.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP...

  9. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  10. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall be affixed to each plastic bathroom fixture. (c) Periodic tests and quality control inspections... control inspections, the frequency of testing for a product shall be described in the specific building.... (3) The administrator shall also review quality control procedures at each visit to determine...

  11. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be affixed to each plastic bathroom fixture. (c) Periodic tests and quality control inspections... control inspections, the frequency of testing for a product shall be described in the specific building.... (3) The administrator shall also review quality control procedures at each visit to determine...

  12. Ohio Guidelines for the Identification of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities (Including Differentiated Referral Procedures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyahoga Special Education Service Center, Maple Heights, OH.

    The guidelines focus on procedures for determining eligibility for services of children with specific learning disabilities. A 13-step process is delineated from the classroom teacher's response to individual learner needs through multifactored evaluation team function to annual review and reevaluation. Throughout the process, special emphasis is…

  13. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Martínez, M; Matarranz, J L M; Ramos, L

    2008-11-01

    Residues from industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may cause radiation exposures to members of the public, particularly when NORM-affected land is brought into residential use. To provide an adequate protection against radiation in such situations, the following limiting criteria are currently required in Spain for releasing NORM-affected land: (i) no more than a 300 microSv yr(-1) increase (excluding radon doses) over the natural background; (ii) (222)Rn concentrations in hypothetical future dwellings lower than 200 Bq m(-3); and (iii) reduction of all radiation exposures to as low as reasonable achievable. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the (222)Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them.

  14. A Smart Capsule With GI-Tract-Location-Specific Payload Release.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wuyang; Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Ziaie, Babak

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a smart capsule for location-specific drug release in the gastrointestinal tract. Once activated through a magnetic proximity fuse, the capsule opens up and releases its powdered payload in a location specified by an implanted miniature magnetic marker or an externally worn larger magnet. The capsule (9 mm × 26 mm) comprises of two compartments: one contains a charged capacitor and a reed switch, while the second one houses the drug reservoir capped by a taut nylon thread intertwined with a nichrome wire. The nichrome wire is connected to the capacitor through the reed switch. The capacitor is charged to 2.7 V before ingestion and once within the proximity of the permanent magnet; the reed switch closes, discharging the capacitor through the nichrome wire, melting the nylon thread, detaching the cap, and emptying the drug reservoir.

  15. Evidence for specific secretion rather than autolysis in the release of some Helicobacter pylori proteins.

    PubMed

    Vanet, A; Labigne, A

    1998-03-01

    We investigated whether Helicobacter pylori cells actively secrete proteins such as the urease subunits UreA and UreB and the GroES and GroEL homologs HspA and HspB or whether these proteins were present in the extracellular compartment as a consequence of autolysis. Using a subcellular fractionation approach associated with quantitative Western blot analyses, we showed that the supernatant protein profiles were very different from those of the cell pellets, even for bacteria harvested in the late growth phase; this suggests that the release process is selective. A typical cytoplasmic protein, a beta-galactosidase homolog, was found exclusively associated with the pellet of whole-cell extracts, and no traces were found in the supernatant. In contrast, UreA, UreB, HspA, and HspB were mostly found in the pellet but significant amounts were also present in the supernatant. HspA and UreB were released into the supernatant at the same rate throughout the growth phase (3%), whereas large portions of HspB and UreA were released during the stationary phase (over 30 and 20%, respectively) rather than during the early growth phase (20% and 6, respectively). The profiles of protein obtained after water extraction of the bacteria with those of the proteins naturally released within the liquid culture supernatants demonstrated that water extraction led to the release of a large amount of protein due to artifactual lysis. Our data support the conclusion that a specific and selective mechanism(s) is involved in the secretion of some H. pylori antigens. A programmed autolysis process does not seem to make a major contribution.

  16. 49 CFR 1244.9 - Procedures for the release of waybill data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director of the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall be responsible for... Board's Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration. (3) Objections to release. (i... copies of each objection shall be filed with the Director, Office of Economics, Environmental...

  17. 49 CFR 1244.9 - Procedures for the release of waybill data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Director of the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall be responsible for... Board's Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration. (3) Objections to release. (i... copies of each objection shall be filed with the Director, Office of Economics, Environmental...

  18. A review of 105 consecutive uniport endoscopic plantar fascial release procedures for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Troy N; Zimmerman, Jeffrey P; Lee, Michael; Schaber, John D

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in the U.S. Army soldier, resulting in a significant loss of man hours. Given the heavy operations tempo of the U.S. military, successful treatment options need to be considered and used as quickly as possible. Plantar fasciitis can be successfully treated in up to 90% of patients using conservative measures. Operative intervention might need to be considered for those in whom conservative measures have failed. The present report is a review of 105 consecutive uniport endoscopic plantar fascial release procedures performed by the principal investigator during a 9-year period. The following data were collected and analyzed: gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, medical treatment facility, procedure laterality, preoperative pain levels, postoperative pain levels at 3 months, first ambulatory day in the controlled ankle motion boot, return to activity as tolerated, and complications. Three major points were of interest: evidence of improvement in chronic plantar fasciitis when treated with uniport endoscopic procedures; the patient attributes associated with self-reported pain levels 90 days postoperatively; and the patient attributes associated with the average time until patients were able to return to activities as tolerated in a controlled ankle motion boot. It was noted that 44.5% of those with a body mass index of 29.80 kg/m(2) or greater reported a postoperative pain level of 0; and 96.3% of those with a body mass index of 25.53 kg/m(2) or less reported postoperative pain levels of 0. The analyzed data were used to characterize the clinical outcomes of the procedure, identify changes in outcome with surgeon experience, and identify whether certain patient subgroups have better outcomes, allowing surgeons to identify which patient might be the best candidates for an endoscopic release procedure.

  19. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI. PMID:26284013

  20. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  1. Diazepam-induced release of behavior in an extinction procedure: its reversal by Ro 15-1788.

    PubMed

    Thiébot, M H; Childs, M; Soubrié, P; Simon, P

    1983-03-18

    The effects of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788, an imidazobenzodiazepine derivative, were studied with respect to three pharmacological activities exerted by diazepam in rats. Two of these, release of shock-induced suppression of drinking and attenuation of non-reward-induced cessation of responding for food, reflect the anxiolytic property of benzodiazepines. The amnesic-like effect of diazepam was also investigated. Ro 15-1788 (in doses ranging from 4 to 16 mg/kg p.o.) completely reversed diazepam (2 mg/kg)-induced release of behavior in both punishment and non-reward procedures. In contrast, Ro 15-1788 reduced but did not completely abolish diazepam-induced amnesia. These data suggest that the anticonflict and anti-frustration effects of benzodiazepines probably involve similar receptor types which nevertheless differ from those chiefly implicated in the amnesic-like activity of benzodiazepines.

  2. Release of vanadium from oxidized sediments: insights from different extraction and leaching procedures.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, V; Swennen, R

    2014-02-01

    Although the attention for vanadium (V) as a potentially harmful element is growing and some countries adopted threshold values for V in soils, sediments, groundwater, or surface water, V is generally of little importance in environmental legislation and the knowledge about the behavior of V in the environment is still limited. In the present study, the release of V from oxidized sediments, sediment-derived soils, and certified reference materials was investigated by means of several types of leaching tests and extractions that are frequently used for soil and sediment characterization. The pHstat leaching tests and single and sequential extractions applied in this study show that V generally displays a very limited actual and potential mobility in sediment. "Mobile" V concentrations, as estimated by the amount of V released by a single extraction with CaCl2 0.01 mol L(-1), were low, even in the most contaminated sediment samples. Only under strongly acidifying conditions (pH 2), such as in the case of ingestion of soil or sediment or in accidental spills, a substantial release of V can be expected.

  3. 32 CFR 1656.16 - Early release-grounds and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... based on a physical or mental examination at a MEPS or other location designated by Selective Service... Section 1656.16 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.16 Early release—grounds and procedures. (a) General Rule of Service Completion....

  4. Developing patient-specific anatomic models for validation of cardiac ablation guidance procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David, III; Rettmann, Maryam; Cameron, Bruce; Camp, Jon; Robb, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Image-guided cardiac ablation has the potential to decrease procedure times and improve clinical outcome for patients with cardiac arrhythmias. There are several proposed methods for integrating patient-specific anatomy into the cardiac ablation procedure; however, these methods require thorough validation. One of the primary challenges in validation is determining ground truth as a standard for comparison. Some validation protocols have been developed for animals models and even in patients; however, these methods can be costly to implement and may increase the risk to patients. We have developed an approach to building realistic patient-specific anatomic models at a low-cost in order to validate the guidance procedure without introducing additional risk to the patients. Using a pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography scan, the blood pool of the left and right atria of a patient are segmented semi-manually. In addition, several anatomical landmarks are identified in the image data. The segmented atria and landmarks are converted into a polygonalized model which is used to build a thin-walled patient-specific blood pool model in a stereo-lithography system. Thumbscrews are inserted into the model at the landmarks. The entire model is embedded in a platinum silicone material which has been shown to have tissue-mimicking properties relative to ultrasound. Once the pliable mold has set, the blood pool model is extracted by dissolving the rigid material. The resulting physical model correctly mimics a specific patient anatomy with embedded fiducals which can be used for validation experiments. The patient-specific anatomic model approach may also be used for pre-surgical practice and training of new interventionalists.

  5. National Trends in Carpal Tunnel Release and Hand Fracture Procedures Performed During Orthopaedic Residency: An Analysis of ACGME Case Logs

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Richard M.; Gottschalk, Michael B.; Capo, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Mastery in performing carpal tunnel release (CTR) and hand fracture procedures is an essential component of orthopaedic residency training. Objective  To assess orthopaedic resident case log data for temporal trends in CTR and hand fracture cases and to determine the degree of variability in case volume among residents. Methods  Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education orthopaedic surgery resident case logs were reviewed for graduation years 2007 through 2014. Annual data regarding the mean number of CTR and hand fracture/dislocation procedures were recorded, as well as the median number of procedures reported by the top and bottom 10% of residents (by case volume). Temporal trends were assessed using linear regression modeling. Results  There was no change in the mean number of CTRs performed per resident. Over the 8-year period, the top 10% of residents performed a significantly greater number of CTRs than the bottom 10% (62.1 versus 9.3, P < .001). Similarly, no change was noted in the mean number of total hand fracture/dislocation cases performed, with the top 10% of residents performing significantly more hand fracture cases than the bottom 10% (47.1 versus 9.3, P < .001). Conclusions  Our results indicate no change in CTR and hand fracture caseload for orthopaedic residents. However, as resident experience performing both procedures varies significantly, this variability likely has important educational implications. PMID:26913105

  6. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  7. Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The routinely used microbiological diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is time consuming and often requires invasive methods for collection of human specimens (e.g. bronchoscopy). Therefore, it is of utmost interest to develop a non-invasive method for the early detection of bacterial infection in ventilated patients, preferably allowing the identification of the specific pathogens. The present work is an attempt to identify pathogen-derived volatile biomarkers in breath that can be used for early and non- invasive diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). For this purpose, in vitro experiments with bacteria most frequently found in VAP patients, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were performed to investigate the release or consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results Headspace samples were collected and preconcentrated on multibed sorption tubes at different time points and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As many as 32 and 37 volatile metabolites were released by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Distinct differences in the bacteria-specific VOC profiles were found, especially with regard to aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal), which were taken up only by P. aeruginosa but released by S. aureus. Differences in concentration profiles were also found for acids (e.g. isovaleric acid), ketones (e.g. acetoin, 2-nonanone), hydrocarbons (e.g. 2-butene, 1,10-undecadiene), alcohols (e.g. 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-butanol), esters (e.g. ethyl formate, methyl 2-methylbutyrate), volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide) and volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs, e.g. 3-methylpyrrole). Importantly, a significant VOC release was found already 1.5 hours after culture start, corresponding to cell numbers of ~8*106 [CFUs/ml]. Conclusions The results obtained provide strong evidence that the detection and perhaps even identification of bacteria

  8. [Recommendations for Releasing the Pelvic Binder After a Non-Invasive Pelvic Stabilisation Procedure Under Emergency Room Conditions].

    PubMed

    Schweigkofler, U; Wohlrath, B; Paffrath, T; Flohé, S; Wincheringer, D; Hoffmann, R; Trentzsch, H

    2016-10-01

    kinematics. 2) Assessment of the haemodynamic status. 3) Check of the need to open the pelvic binder for diagnostic/therapeutic measures before completing all diagnostic tests. 4) Assessment of the radiology diagnostic testing and release of the pelvic region. The result is a so-called "clear the pelvis algorithm" which describes a structured approach according to specific criteria and which specifies the circumstances under which the pelvic binder can be opened. Additional studies are necessary to analyse the applicability and safety of this algorithm in a clinical context. Our advice is not to "clear" the pelvis if no X-rays or CT scans of the pelvis have been carried out without (or with an opened) pelvic binder.

  9. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David S.H.; Johnson, Russell N.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK10, containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(l)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(d)K10, containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(d)-lysine, and (iii) pH(d)Cath(d)K10, containing all (d) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK10 and pHCath(d)K10 within one hour while no degradation of pH(d)Cath(d)K10 was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK10 copolymers show DNA release by 4 hrs of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(d)K10 and pH(d)Cath(d)K10 show no DNA release within 8 hrs. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK10 was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. PMID:22036879

  10. Doxorubicin hydrochloride-oleic acid conjugate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for tumor specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangni; Minh, Le Van; Li, Na; Garamus, Vasil M; Handge, Ulrich A; Liu, Jianwen; Zhang, Rongguang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Zou, Aihua

    2016-09-01

    The hydrophilic drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) paired with oleic acid (OA) was successfully incorporated into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) by a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) method. Drug nanovehicles with proper physico-chemical characteristics (less than 200nm with narrow size distribution, spherical shape, layered internal organization, and negative electrical charge) were prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency of DOX-OA/NLCs were 4.09% and 97.80%, respectively. A pH-dependent DOX release from DOX-OA/NLCs, i.e., fast at pH 3.8 and 5.7 and sustained at pH 7.4, was obtained. A cytotoxicity assay showed that DOX-OA/NLCs had comparable cytotoxicity to pure DOX and were favorably taken up by HCT 116 cells. The intracellular distribution of DOX was also studied using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All of these results demonstrated that DOX-OA/NLCs could be a promising drug delivery system with tumor-specific DOX release for cancer treatment.

  11. Improving the quality of procedure-specific operation reports in orthopaedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barritt, Andrew W; Clark, Laura; Cohen, Adam MM; Hosangadi-Jayedev, Naveen; Gibb, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess whether handwritten operation reports for hip hemi-arthroplasties adhere to The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSE) guidelines on surgical documentation; (ii) improve adherence to these guidelines with procedure-specific computerised operation reports; and (iii) improve the quality of documentation in surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Thirty-three parameters based on RCSE guidelines were used to score hip hemi-arthroplasty operation reports. The first audit cycle was performed retrospectively to assess 50 handwritten operation reports, and the second cycle prospectively to assess 30 new computerised procedure-specific operation reports produced for hip hemi-arthroplasties. Eighty patients undergoing hip hemi-arthroplasty in a department of orthopaedic surgery within a UK hospital between September 2007 and August 2008 formed the study cohort. RESULTS The main outcome measure was the average scores attained by handwritten versus computerised operation reports. Handwritten reports scored an average of 58.7%, rising significantly (P < 0.01) to 92.8% following the introduction of detailed, computerised proformas for the operation note. Adherence to each RCSE parameter was improved. CONCLUSIONS Computerised proformas reduce variability between different operation reports for the same procedure and increase their content in line with RCSE recommendations. The proformas also constitute a more robust means of operative documentation. PMID:19995491

  12. Scalable Imprinting of Shape-Specific Polymeric Nanocarriers Using a Release Layer of Switchable Water Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rachit; Singh, Vikramjit; Jurney, Patrick; Shi, Li; Sreenivasan, S. V.; Roy, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in fabricating shape-specific polymeric nano and microparticles for efficient delivery of drugs and imaging agents. The size and shape of these particles could significantly influence their transport properties and play an important role in in vivo biodistribution, targeting and cellular uptake. Nanoimprint lithography methods, such as Jet-and-flash imprint lithography (J-FIL), provide versatile top-down processes to fabricate shape-specific, biocompatible nanoscale hydrogels that can deliver therapeutic and diagnostic molecules in response to disease-specific cues. However, the key challenges in top-down fabrication of such nanocarriers are scalable imprinting with biological and biocompatible materials, ease of particle-surface modification using both aqueous and organic chemistry as well as simple yet biocompatible harvesting. Here we report that a biopolymer-based sacrificial release layer in combination with improved nanocarrier-material formulation can address these challenges. The sacrificial layer improves scalability and ease of imprint-surface modification due to its switchable solubility through simple ion exchange between monovalent and divalent cations. This process enables large-scale bio-nanoimprinting and efficient, one-step harvesting of hydrogel nanoparticles in both water- and organic-based imprint solutions. PMID:22385068

  13. Specific disgust sensitivities differentially predict interest in careers of varying procedural-intensity among medical students.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Windsor, John A

    2014-05-01

    Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and lesser degrees of procedural content. In the study, 294 students completed measures assessing: (1) demographics, (2) career interest or intention regarding emergency medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatric medicine, (3) traditional determinants of career intention/interest, and (4) core/bodily product, animal reminder, contamination, and sexual/moral disgust sensitivity. As predicted, logistic regressions controlling for demographics and traditional career predictors, showed that greater animal reminder disgust predicted reduced interest in emergency medicine but greater interest in pediatric medicine. Conversely, greater core/bodily product disgust predicted lower interest in obstetrics/gynecology and pediatric medicine; greater contamination and sexual/moral disgust both predicted increased odds of interest in internal medicine. Overall, specific disgust sensitivities were the best predictors of specialization intention in multivariate models. Specific disgust sensitivities appear to differentially deter and/or predispose self-selection into specific trajectories varying in procedural content. Such findings may permit the early identification of specialty fit and provide guidance in career counseling.

  14. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  15. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  16. New procedure for isolation of Rous sarcoma virus-specific RNA from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, P A; Spahr, P F; Darlix, J L

    1979-01-01

    The use of mercurated "strong stop" complementary DNA (complementary to the 5'-terminal 101 nucleotides of Rous sarcoma virus RNA) in the isolation of virus-specific RNA from infected chicken embryo fibroblasts is described. Strong stop Rous sarcoma virus complementary DNA was mercurated chemically, and, as a result of the low complexity of this DNA, short hybridization times (up to 15 min) and heating in the absence of formamide were found to be adequate conditions for the isolation of virus-specific RNA. The purity of the isolated RNA was demonstrated by analysis of labeled RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated RNA could be translated in the in vitro protein synthesis system derived from rabbit reticulocytes, and an analysis of polypeptides programmed by isolated RNA before and after immunoprecipitation further demonstrated both the purity of the isolated mRNA and the quantitative nature of the isolation procedure. Images PMID:228062

  17. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    PubMed

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-03

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group.

  18. RE-PERG, a new procedure for electrophysiologic diagnosis of glaucoma that may improve PERG specificity

    PubMed Central

    Mavilio, Alberto; Sisto, Dario; Ferreri, Paolo; Cardascia, Nicola; Alessio, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A significant variability of the second harmonic (2ndH) phase of steady-state pattern electroretinogram (SS-PERG) in intrasession retest has been recently described in glaucoma patients (GP), which has not been found in healthy subjects. To evaluate the reliability of phase variability in retest (a procedure called RE-PERG or REPERG) in the presence of cataract, which is known to affect standard PERG, we tested this procedure in GP, normal controls (NC), and cataract patients (CP). Methods The procedure was performed on 50 GP, 35 NC, and 27 CP. All subjects were examined with RE-PERG and SS-PERG and also with spectral domain optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry. Standard deviation of phase and amplitude value of 2ndH were correlated by means of one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation, with the mean deviation and pattern standard deviation assessed by standard automated perimetry and retinal nerve fiber layer and the ganglion cell complex thickness assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Receiver operating characteristics were calculated in cohort populations with and without cataract. Results Standard deviation of phase of 2ndH was significantly higher in GP with respect to NC (P<0.001) and CP (P<0.001), and it correlated with retinal nerve fiber layer (r=−0.5, P<0.001) and ganglion cell complex (r=−0.6, P<0.001) defects in GP. Receiver operating characteristic evaluation showed higher specificity of RE-PERG (86.4%; area under the curve 0.93) with respect to SS-PERG (54.5%; area under the curve 0.68) in CP. Conclusion RE-PERG may improve the specificity of SS-PERG in clinical practice in the discrimination of GP. PMID:28176965

  19. Specific CD4+ T-Cell Reactivity and Cytokine Release in Different Clinical Presentations of Leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Moos, Verena; Allers, Kristina; Luge, Enno; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Nöckler, Karsten; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Jansen, Andreas; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Clinical manifestations of leptospirosis are highly variable: from asymptomatic to severe and potentially fatal. The outcome of the disease is usually determined in the immunological phase, beginning in the second week of symptoms. The underlying mechanisms, predictive factors, and individual immune responses that contribute to clinical variations are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specifics of CD4(+) T-cell reactivity and cytokine release after stimulation with leptospiral antigens in patients with leptospirosis of different disease severities (patients with mild and severe symptoms) and in control subjects (with and without proven exposure to Leptospira). Whole-blood specimens were stimulated with Leptospira antigens in vitro. Subsequently, intracellular staining of cytokines was performed, and flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by CD4(+) T cells. The production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α by CD4(+) T cells after stimulation with leptospiral antigens was highest in patients with severe disease. In contrast, the ratio of IL-10 production to TNF-α production was higher in exposed subjects than in patients with mild and severe disease. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α may be useful markers of the severity of the immunological phase of leptospirosis. IL-10 production by T cells after antigen-specific stimulation may indicate a more successful downregulation of the inflammatory response and may contribute to an asymptomatic course of the disease.

  20. Functional specificity of amino acid at position 246 in the tRNA mimicry domain of bacterial release factor 2.

    PubMed

    Uno, M; Ito, K; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    The termination of protein synthesis in bacteria requires codon-specific polypeptide release factors RF-1 (UAG/UAA specific) and RF-2 (UGA/UAA specific). We have proposed that release factors mimic tRNA and recognize the stop codon for polypeptide release (Nakamura et al (1996) Cell 87, 147-150). In contrast to the textbook view, genetic experiments have indicated that Escherichia coli RF-2 terminates translation very weakly at UAA while Salmonella RF-2 decodes this signal efficiently. Moreover, an excess of E coli RF-2 was toxic to cells while an excess of Salmonella RF-2 was not. These two RF-2 proteins are identical except for 16 out of 365 amino acids. Fragment swap experiments and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a residue at position 246 is solely responsible for these two phenotypes. Upon substituting Ala (equivalent to Salmonella RF-2) for Thr-246 of E coli RF-2, the protein acquired increased release activity for UAA as well as for UGA. These results led us to conclude that E coli RF-2 activity is potentially weak and that the amino acid at position 246 plays a crucial role, not for codon discrimination, but for stop codon recognition or polypeptide release, presumably constituting an essential moiety of tRNA mimicry or interacting with peptidyltransferase centers of the ribosome.

  1. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  2. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core–shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-15

    This paper reported a core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1, 4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV–vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of “on” and “off” states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Graphical abstract: A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by yellow light was constructed. Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Highlights: • A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system was constructed. • It consisted of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and MCM-41 shell grafted with light switch. • This delivery system was triggered by low energy light. • Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7521 - What fuel analyses, fuel specification, and procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... composite fuel samples for each fuel type according to the procedures in paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this... subpart. Gaseous and liquid fuels are exempt from the sampling requirements in paragraphs (c) and (d) of... procedures to be used for collecting and preparing the composite samples if your procedures are...

  4. Tunable Controlled Release of Bioactive SDF-1α via Protein Specific Interactions within Fibrin/Nanoparticle Composites

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, D.; Fauer, C.; Mulleneux, H.L.; Stabenfeldt, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), is a key regulator of the endogenous neural progenitor/stem cell-mediated regenerative response after neural injury. Increased and sustained bioavailability of SDF-1α in the peri-injury region is hypothesized to modulate this endogenous repair response. Here, we describe poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles capable of releasing bioactive SDF-1α in a sustained manner over 60days after a burst of 23%. Moreover, we report a biphasic cellular response to SDF-1α concentrations thus the large initial burst release in an in vivo setting may result in supratherapeutic concentrations of SDF-1α. Specific protein-protein interactions between SDF-1α and fibrin (as well as its monomer, fibrinogen) were exploited to control the magnitude of the burst release. Nanoparticles embedded in fibrin significantly reduced the amount of SDF-1α released after 72 hrs as a function of fibrin density. Therefore, the nanoparticle/fibrin composites represented a means to independently tune the magnitude of the burst phase release from the nanoparticles while perserving a bioactive depot of SDF-1α for release over 60days. PMID:26660666

  5. Tunable Controlled Release of Bioactive SDF-1α via Protein Specific Interactions within Fibrin/Nanoparticle Composites.

    PubMed

    Dutta, D; Fauer, C; Mulleneux, H L; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-10-31

    The chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), is a key regulator of the endogenous neural progenitor/stem cell-mediated regenerative response after neural injury. Increased and sustained bioavailability of SDF-1α in the peri-injury region is hypothesized to modulate this endogenous repair response. Here, we describe poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles capable of releasing bioactive SDF-1α in a sustained manner over 60days after a burst of 23%. Moreover, we report a biphasic cellular response to SDF-1α concentrations thus the large initial burst release in an in vivo setting may result in supratherapeutic concentrations of SDF-1α. Specific protein-protein interactions between SDF-1α and fibrin (as well as its monomer, fibrinogen) were exploited to control the magnitude of the burst release. Nanoparticles embedded in fibrin significantly reduced the amount of SDF-1α released after 72 hrs as a function of fibrin density. Therefore, the nanoparticle/fibrin composites represented a means to independently tune the magnitude of the burst phase release from the nanoparticles while perserving a bioactive depot of SDF-1α for release over 60days.

  6. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  7. Fatty acyl specificity of the receptor-mediated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.

    1987-05-01

    Histamine and bradykinin appear to exhibit the same fatty acid specificity as thrombin. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 ..mu..M histamine for 10 min in buffered saline containing 50 ..mu..M fat-free albumin stimulates the release of previously incorporated (/sup 14/C)arachidonate but not (/sup 14/C)22:4(n-6) or (/sup 14/C)20:3(n-6). Similarly calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells release (/sup 14/C)arachidonate but not (/sup 14/C)22:4(n-6) in response to either bradykinin (1 /sup +/g/ml) or histamine (10..mu..M). In both types of endothelial cells, the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 ..mu..M) exhibits the same pattern of fatty acyl specificity as the receptor-mediated agonists. By contrast, mellitin (2-4 ..mu..g/ml) stimulates the release of free 22:4(n-6) and oleate in addition to arachidonate; release of 22:4(n-6) is 30-70% that of arachidonate. These results suggest that histamine, bradykinin and thrombin stimulate a common calcium-dependent fatty acyl-specific phospholipase activity.

  8. Surgical site infection following cesarean delivery: patient, provider and procedure specific risk factors

    PubMed Central

    SHREE, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H.; Dunn, Shannon L.; Krans, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). Study Design Retrospective analysis of 2739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSI’s were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square and t tests were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Results Of 2739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an ASA class of ≥3, chorioamnionitis, use tobacco and labor prior to CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (2.35;1.65–3.38), chorioamnionitis (2.24;1.25–3.83), resident teaching service (2.15;1.54–3.00), tobacco use (1.70; 1.04–2.70), ASA class ≥3 (1.61; 1.06–2.39) and CDs performed for non-reassuring fetal status (0.43; 0.26–0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Conclusion Multiple patient, provider and procedure specific-risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection control efforts. PMID:26344010

  9. An augmented reality system for patient-specific guidance of cardiac catheter ablation procedures.

    PubMed

    De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Ector, Joris; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbüchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2005-11-01

    We present a system to assist in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias by catheter ablation. A patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical model, constructed from magnetic resonance images, is merged with fluoroscopic images in an augmented reality environment that enables the transfer of electrocardiography (ECG) measurements and cardiac activation times onto the model. Accurate mapping is realized through the combination of: a new calibration technique, adapted to catheter guided treatments; a visual matching registration technique, allowing the electrophysiologist to align the model with contrast-enhanced images; and the use of virtual catheters, which enable the annotation of multiple ECG measurements on the model. These annotations can be visualized by color coding on the patient model. We provide an accuracy analysis of each of these components independently. Based on simulation and experiments, we determined a segmentation error of 0.6 mm, a calibration error in the order of 1 mm and a target registration error of 1.04 +/- 0.45 mm. The system provides a 3-D visualization of the cardiac activation pattern which may facilitate and improve diagnosis and treatment of the arrhytmia. Because of its low cost and similar advantages we believe our approach can compete with existing commercial solutions, which rely on dedicated hardware and costly catheters. We provide qualitative results of the first clinical use of the system in 11 ablation procedures.

  10. A sensitive and specific assay for superoxide anion released by neutrophils or macrophages based on bioluminescence of polynoidin.

    PubMed

    Colepicolo, P; Camarero, V C; Nicolas, M T; Bassot, J M; Karnovsky, M L; Hastings, J W

    1990-02-01

    Using the luminescent protein polynoidin, present in the bioluminescent system isolated from the marine annelid Harmothoe lunulata, we have developed a new method to measure, specifically, superoxide anion (O2-) released by macrophages or neutrophils. A small quantity of an aqueous crude extract of polynoidin is used to detect O2- released by stimulated cells. Light emission is linearly dependent on the number of cells over a wide range (10(3) to 10(7) cells), and the assay is thus more sensitive than either luminol or ferricytochrome c reduction. Luminescence is enhanced 20% by mannitol, 80% by catalase, and is totally quenched by superoxide dismutase. For the same number of cells, neutrophils showed a threefold higher release of O2- and a twofold faster first-order light decay than stimulated macrophages, in accordance with data obtained by other methods.

  11. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  12. Target-specific regulation of presynaptic release properties at auditory nerve terminals in the avian cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the auditory brain stem, the divergent pathways that encode acoustic timing and intensity information express differential STP. To investigate what factors determine the plasticity expressed at different terminals, we tested whether presynaptic release probability differed in the auditory nerve projections to the two divisions of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Estimates of release probability were made with an open-channel blocker of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Activity-dependent blockade of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with application of 20 μM (+)-MK801 maleate was more rapid in NM than in NA, indicating that release probability was significantly higher at terminals in NM. Paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was tightly correlated with the blockade rate at terminals in NA, suggesting that PPR was a reasonable proxy for relative release probability at these synapses. To test whether release probability was similar across convergent inputs onto NA neurons, PPRs of different nerve inputs onto the same postsynaptic NA target neuron were measured. The PPRs, as well as the plasticity during short trains, were tightly correlated across multiple inputs, further suggesting that release probability is coordinated at auditory nerve terminals in a target-specific manner. This highly specific regulation of STP in the auditory brain stem provides evidence that the synaptic dynamics are tuned to differentially transmit the auditory information in nerve activity into parallel ascending pathways. PMID:26719087

  13. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  14. Presynaptically located CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate GABA release from axon terminals of specific hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Katona, I; Sperlágh, B; Sík, A; Käfalvi, A; Vizi, E S; Mackie, K; Freund, T F

    1999-06-01

    To understand the functional significance and mechanisms of action in the CNS of endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids, it is crucial to identify the neural elements that serve as the structural substrate of these actions. We used a recently developed antibody against the CB1 cannabinoid receptor to study this question in hippocampal networks. Interneurons with features typical of basket cells showed a selective, intense staining for CB1 in all hippocampal subfields and layers. Most of them (85.6%) contained cholecystokinin (CCK), which corresponded to 96.9% of all CCK-positive interneurons, whereas only 4.6% of the parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells expressed CB1. Accordingly, electron microscopy revealed that CB1-immunoreactive axon terminals of CCK-containing basket cells surrounded the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, whereas PV-positive basket cell terminals in similar locations were negative for CB1. The synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (0.01-3 microM) reduced dose-dependently the electrical field stimulation-induced [3H]GABA release from superfused hippocampal slices, with an EC50 value of 0. 041 microM. Inhibition of GABA release by WIN 55,212-2 was not mediated by inhibition of glutamatergic transmission because the WIN 55,212-2 effect was not reduced by the glutamate blockers AP5 and CNQX. In contrast, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A (1 microM) prevented this effect, whereas by itself it did not change the outflow of [3H]GABA. These results suggest that cannabinoid-mediated modulation of hippocampal interneuron networks operate largely via presynaptic receptors on CCK-immunoreactive basket cell terminals. Reduction of GABA release from these terminals is the likely mechanism by which both endogenous and exogenous CB1 ligands interfere with hippocampal network oscillations and associated cognitive functions.

  15. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Design Specifications Document Including Specifications for Product and Course Design System Management and Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The design specifications for the United States Naval Academy leadership course developed by Westinghouse Learning Corporation are presented in this report, covering course system design, management, and evaluation. EM 010 418 through EM 010 447 and EM 010 451 through EM 010 512 are related documents, with the final report appearing under EM 010…

  16. Specific features of sensorimotor cerebral cortex activity modulation by dopamine releaser amantadine.

    PubMed

    Storozhuk, Viktor M; Zinyuk, Larissa E

    2007-09-01

    The modulatory effects of amantadine (1-adamantanamine) on the activity of sensorimotor cerebral cortex neurones during microiontophoretic application of agonists of glutamatergic and GABA-ergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transmission were studied. In non-anaesthetised cats, dopamine (DA) released by amantadine application in a small area of the neocortex increased baseline and evoked neuronal activity, providing stabilization and optimum course of both the neuronal and the conditioned responses of the animal. Amantadine eliminates a decrease in the level of neuronal baseline and evoked activity and marked increase in the latency of neuronal activation and conditioned movement mediated by D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride ((S)-5-aminosulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-2-methoamantadineybenzamide) or GABA. This is reflected by a proportionate decrease in the onset of neuronal impulse reaction and latency of conditioned movement. Combined NMDA (N-methyl-D: -aspartate) and amantadine application also caused a considerable increase in baseline and evoked activity, but produced a slightly weaker effect than that evoked by NMDA application alone. A decrease in the baseline and evoked neuronal activity after NMDA withdrawn lasted during next control session (up to 40 min). The ability of DA releaser amantadine to alleviate significant increase in the latency of neuronal responses and conditioned movement induced by sulpiride or GABA suggests that dopamine modulates the activity of GABA-ergic inhibitory fast spike interneurons in the cat sensorimotor cortex during conditioning.

  17. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field affects proliferation, tissue-specific gene expression, and cytokines release of human tendon cells.

    PubMed

    de Girolamo, L; Stanco, D; Galliera, E; Viganò, M; Colombini, A; Setti, S; Vianello, E; Corsi Romanelli, M M; Sansone, V

    2013-07-01

    Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has proven to be effective in the modulation of bone and cartilage tissue functional responsiveness, but its effect on tendon tissue and tendon cells (TCs) is still underinvestigated. PEMF treatment (1.5 mT, 75 Hz) was assessed on primary TCs, harvested from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons of eight patients, under different experimental conditions (4, 8, 12 h). Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted to identify the possible effect of PEMF on tendon-specific gene transcription (scleraxis, SCX and type I collagen, COL1A1); the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also assessed. Our findings show that PEMF exposure is not cytotoxic and is able to stimulate TCs' proliferation. The increase of SCX and COL1A1 in PEMF-treated cells was positively correlated to the treatment length. The release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in TCs treated with PEMF for 8 and 12 h was significantly higher in comparison with untreated cells, while the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected. A dramatically higher increase of VEGF-A mRNA transcription and of its related protein was observed after PEMF exposure. Our data demonstrated that PEMF positively influence, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation, tendon-specific marker expression, and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factor in a healthy human TCs culture model.

  18. Target cell-specific modulation of transmitter release at terminals from a single axon.

    PubMed

    Scanziani, M; Gähwiler, B H; Charpak, S

    1998-09-29

    In the hippocampus, a CA3 pyramidal cell forms excitatory synapses with thousands of other pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. By using sequential paired recordings from three connected cells, we show that the presynaptic properties of CA3 pyramidal cell terminals, belonging to the same axon, differ according to the type of target cell. Activation of presynaptic group III metabotropic glutamate receptors decreases transmitter release only at terminals contacting CA1 interneurons but not CA1 pyramidal cells. Furthermore, terminals contacting distinct target cells show different frequency facilitation. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the pharmacological and physiological properties of presynaptic terminals are determined, at least in part, by the target cells.

  19. Target Cell-Specific Modulation of Transmitter Release at Terminals from a Single Axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanziani, Massimo; Gahwiler, Beat H.; Charpak, Serge

    1998-09-01

    In the hippocampus, a CA3 pyramidal cell forms excitatory synapses with thousands of other pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. By using sequential paired recordings from three connected cells, we show that the presynaptic properties of CA3 pyramidal cell terminals, belonging to the same axon, differ according to the type of target cell. Activation of presynaptic group III metabotropic glutamate receptors decreases transmitter release only at terminals contacting CA1 interneurons but not CA1 pyramidal cells. Furthermore, terminals contacting distinct target cells show different frequency facilitation. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the pharmacological and physiological properties of presynaptic terminals are determined, at least in part, by the target cells.

  20. A scalable architecture for incremental specification and maintenance of procedural and declarative clinical decision-support knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hatsek, Avner; Shahar, Yuval; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Shalom, Erez; Klimov, Denis; Lunenfeld, Eitan

    2010-01-01

    Clinical guidelines have been shown to improve the quality of medical care and to reduce its costs. However, most guidelines exist in a free-text representation and, without automation, are not sufficiently accessible to clinicians at the point of care. A prerequisite for automated guideline application is a machine-comprehensible representation of the guidelines. In this study, we designed and implemented a scalable architecture to support medical experts and knowledge engineers in specifying and maintaining the procedural and declarative aspects of clinical guideline knowledge, resulting in a machine comprehensible representation. The new framework significantly extends our previous work on the Digital electronic Guidelines Library (DeGeL) The current study designed and implemented a graphical framework for specification of declarative and procedural clinical knowledge, Gesher. We performed three different experiments to evaluate the functionality and usability of the major aspects of the new framework: Specification of procedural clinical knowledge, specification of declarative clinical knowledge, and exploration of a given clinical guideline. The subjects included clinicians and knowledge engineers (overall, 27 participants). The evaluations indicated high levels of completeness and correctness of the guideline specification process by both the clinicians and the knowledge engineers, although the best results, in the case of declarative-knowledge specification, were achieved by teams including a clinician and a knowledge engineer. The usability scores were high as well, although the clinicians' assessment was significantly lower than the assessment of the knowledge engineers.

  1. VERIFICATION OF SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR SITE- SPECIFIC SO2 AND NOX CONTROL COST ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents results of an evaluation to verify the accuracy of simplified procedures for estimating sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) retrofit control costs and performance for 200 502-emitting coal-fired power plants in the 31-state eastern region. nitially...

  2. Specific Effects of Test Anxiety on Reading Comprehension as Measured by the Cloze Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Charles Curtis

    This study was designed to determine the effects of test anxiety level and defensiveness (lie scale) level on reading comprehension of fourth grade boys as measured by the cloze procedure. The subjects, 253 male fourth graders, were administered Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children and the lie scale of the General Anxiety Scale for Children.…

  3. 50 CFR 648.90 - NE multispecies assessment, framework procedures and specifications, and flexible area action...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; survey results; stock status; current estimates of fishing mortality and overfishing levels; social and... that may result in overfishing for a particular stock. Any adjustments to the ACLs in year two will be... of aquaculture projects in the EEZ. This procedure may also be used to modify FMP...

  4. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic...

  5. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic...

  6. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic...

  7. 24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... less than one foot from the edge. (c) Periodic tests and quality control inspections. (1) Five samples... quality control procedures continue to be followed. ... Testing Pile Yarn Floor Covering Construction; and (xii) National Bureau of Standards DOC FF 1-70....

  8. 24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... less than one foot from the edge. (c) Periodic tests and quality control inspections. (1) Five samples... quality control procedures continue to be followed. ... Testing Pile Yarn Floor Covering Construction; and (xii) National Bureau of Standards DOC FF 1-70....

  9. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Helton, J C; Shiver, A W

    1996-02-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with importance sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over importance sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  10. ABCA1-dependent sterol release: sterol molecule specificity and potential membrane domain for HDL biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells synthesize various sterol molecules, including the C30 sterol, lanosterol, as cholesterol precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum. The build-up of precursor sterols, including lanosterol, displays cellular toxicity. Precursor sterols are found in plasma HDL. How these structurally different sterols are released from cells is poorly understood. Here, we show that newly synthesized precursor sterols arriving at the plasma membrane (PM) are removed by extracellular apoA-I in a manner dependent on ABCA1, a key macromolecule for HDL biogenesis. Analysis of sterol molecules by GC-MS and tracing the fate of radiolabeled acetate-derived sterols in normal and mutant Niemann-Pick type C cells reveal that ABCA1 prefers newly synthesized sterols, especially lanosterol, as the substrates before they are internalized from the PM. We also show that ABCA1 resides in a cholesterol-rich membrane domain resistant to the mild detergent, Brij 98. Blocking ACAT activity increases the cholesterol contents of this domain. Newly synthesized C29/C30 sterols are transiently enriched within this domain, but rapidly disappear from this domain with a half-life of less than 1 h. Our work shows that substantial amounts of precursor sterols are transported to a certain PM domain and are removed by the ABCA1-dependent pathway. PMID:26497474

  11. Ion-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon collisions: kinetic energy releases for specific fragmentation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, G.; Zettergren, H.; Boschman, L.; Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.

    2013-12-01

    We report on 30 keV He2 + collisions with naphthalene (C10H8) molecules, which leads to very extensive fragmentation. To unravel such complex fragmentation patterns, we designed and constructed an experimental setup, which allows for the determination of the full momentum vector by measuring charged collision products in coincidence in a recoil ion momentum spectrometer type of detection scheme. The determination of fragment kinetic energies is found to be considerably more accurate than for the case of mere coincidence time-of-flight spectrometers. In fission reactions involving two cationic fragments, typically kinetic energy releases of 2-3 eV are observed. The results are interpreted by means of density functional theory calculations of the reverse barriers. It is concluded that naphthalene fragmentation by collisions with keV ions clearly is much more violent than the corresponding photofragmentation with energetic photons. The ion-induced naphthalene fragmentation provides a feedstock of various small hydrocarbonic species of different charge states and kinetic energy, which could influence several molecule formation processes in the cold interstellar medium and facilitates growth of small hydrocarbon species on pre-existing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. Acute Effect of Manganese on Hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Secretion in Adult Male Rats: Involvement of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prestifilippo, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Solari, Javier; De Laurentiis, Andrea; Mohn, Claudia Ester; de la Cal, Carolina; Reynoso, Roxana; Dees, W. Les; Rettori, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    Manganese chloride (MnCl2) is capable of stimulating luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats through the activation of the hypothalamic nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G pathway. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of specific neurotransmitters involved in this action. Our results indicate that dopamine, but not glutamic acid and prostaglandinds, mediates the MnCl2 stimulated secretion of LHRH from medial basal hypothalami in vitro, as well as increases the activity of nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, a biphasic response was observed in that gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release was also increased, which acts to attenuate the MnCl2 action to stimulate LHRH secretion. Although it is clear that manganese (Mn+2) can acutely induce LHRH secretion in adult males, we suggest that the additional action of MnCl2 to release GABA, a LHRH inhibitor, may ultimately contribute to suppressed reproductive function observed in adult animals following exposure to high chromic levels of Mn+2. PMID:18603625

  13. Negligible particle-specific toxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles: the role of Ag+ ion release in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Valeria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Galeone, Antonio; Brunetti, Virgilio; De Luca, Elisa; Kote, Sachin; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Sabella, Stefania; Bardi, Giuseppe; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is supported by many observations in literature, but no mechanism details have been proved yet. Here we confirm and quantify the toxic potential of fully characterized AgNPs in HeLa and A549 cells. Notably, through a specific fluorescent probe, we demonstrate the intracellular release of Ag(+) ions in living cells after nanoparticle internalization, showing that in-situ particle degradation is promoted by the acidic lysosomal environment. The activation of metallothioneins in response to AgNPs and the possibility to reverse the main toxic pathway by Ag(+) chelating agents demonstrate a cause/effect relationship between ions and cell death. We propose that endocytosed AgNPs are degraded in the lysosomes and the release of Ag(+) ions in the cytosol induces cell damages, while ions released in the cell culture medium play a negligible effect. These findings will be useful to develop safer-by-design nanoparticles and proper regulatory guidelines of AgNPs. From the clinical editor: The authors describe the toxic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in human cancer cell lines. Cell death following the application of AgNPs is dose-dependent, and it is mostly due to Ag+ ions. Further in vivo studies should be performed to gain a comprehensive picture of AgNP-toxicity in mammals.

  14. Specific Adsorption via Peptide Tags: Oriented Grafting and Release of Growth Factors for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Murschel, Frederic; Zaimi, Aldo; Noel, Samantha; Jolicoeur, Mario; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2015-11-09

    Numerous strategies have been proposed to decorate biomaterials with growth factors (GFs) for tissue engineering applications; their practicability as clinical tools, however, remains uncertain. We previously presented two complementary amphipathic peptides, namely, E5 and K5, which could be utilized as tags to direct GF capture onto organic materials via E5/K5 coiled-coil interactions. We here investigated their potential as mediators of GF physical adsorption. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays highlighted that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could contribute to the adsorption process, without interfering with the peptides propensity for coiled-coil interactions. E5-tagged vascular endothelial growth factor, in particular, was efficiently adsorbed to poly(allylamine)-functionalized polystyrene, was maintained in a bioactive state and was steadily liberated over several days with little initial burst. This simple immobilization procedure was successfully applied to poly(ethylene terephthalate) films. Altogether, our data demonstrated that coil-tag-directed adsorption is a tunable, versatile and straightforward strategy to decorate biomaterials with GFs.

  15. A Simple and Rapid Procedure for the Detection of Genes Encoding Shiga Toxins and Other Specific DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A novel procedure for the detection of specific DNA sequences has been developed. This procedure is based on the already known method employing PCR with appropriate primers and a sequence-specific DNA probe labeled with the fluorescent agent 6-carboxylfluorescein (FAM) at the 5′ end and the fluorescence quencher BHQ-1 (black hole quencher) at the 3′ end. However, instead of the detection of the fluorescence signal with the use of real-time PCR cyclers, fluorescence/luminescence spectrometers or fluorescence polarization readers, as in all previously-reported procedures, we propose visual observation of the fluorescence under UV light directly in the reaction tube. An example for the specific detection of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, by detecting Shiga toxin genes, is demonstrated. This method appears to be specific, simple, rapid and cost effective. It may be suitable for use in research laboratories, as well as in diagnostic units of medical institutions, even those equipped only with a thermocycler and a UV transilluminator, particularly if rapid identification of a pathogen is required. PMID:26580652

  16. A simple and rapid procedure for the detection of genes encoding Shiga toxins and other specific DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2015-11-13

    A novel procedure for the detection of specific DNA sequences has been developed. This procedure is based on the already known method employing PCR with appropriate primers and a sequence-specific DNA probe labeled with the fluorescent agent 6-carboxylfluorescein (FAM) at the 5' end and the fluorescence quencher BHQ-1 (black hole quencher) at the 3' end. However, instead of the detection of the fluorescence signal with the use of real-time PCR cyclers, fluorescence/luminescence spectrometers or fluorescence polarization readers, as in all previously-reported procedures, we propose visual observation of the fluorescence under UV light directly in the reaction tube. An example for the specific detection of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, by detecting Shiga toxin genes, is demonstrated. This method appears to be specific, simple, rapid and cost effective. It may be suitable for use in research laboratories, as well as in diagnostic units of medical institutions, even those equipped only with a thermocycler and a UV transilluminator, particularly if rapid identification of a pathogen is required.

  17. Impact of Technique-Specific Operative Videos on First-Year Dental Students' Performance of Restorative Procedures.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shalizeh A; Barros, Juliana A; Clark, Christina M; Frey, Gary N; Streckfus, Charles F; Quock, Ryan L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychomotor operative video demonstrations on first-year dental students who are performing specific procedures for the first time in a preclinical setting. The class was randomly divided into two groups, and three restorative procedures were selected. On the date on which each procedure was to be performed in the preclinical laboratory for the first time, one group (experimental, n=50) was shown a technique video for that specific procedure immediately before commencing the exercise; the control cohort (n=50) did not view the video. Technical performance on procedures was evaluated by students and two calibrated and blinded examiners. The students' perceptions of the experience were also collected in a survey. All first-year students participated in the study, for a 100% response rate. A Mann-Whitney U test did not show any group differences in technical performance (mean values on preparation: 77.1 vs. 77.8; amalgam: 82.7 vs. 82.8; composite: 79.7 vs. 78.0). A Spearman rho test revealed a significantly higher correlation in 13 out of 25 evaluation categories between student self-assessment and blinded examiner assessment for the experimental group. A chi-square test of questionnaire responses revealed a positive student perception of administering these videos for the preparation (X(2)=4.8, p<0.03), the amalgam restoration (X(2)=12.4, p<0.001), and the composite restoration (X(2)=11.3, p<0.001). The psychomotor video demonstrations did not immediately improve student performance on preclinical operative procedures, but they were well received by students and augmented self-assessment ability. These findings suggest that videos can be a useful teaching aid in a preclinical environment, especially regarding comprehension of concepts.

  18. Changes in antibody specificities and cytokine release after infection with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, José L; Saxena, Anubha; Coutelier, Jean-Paul; Van Snick, Jacques; Retegui, Lilia A

    2013-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) is an apparently innocuous and persistent virus that can modify mouse immune reactions. We have shown that LDV-infected mice immunized with human growth hormone (hGH) showed a deep modification of the specificity of the anti-hGH antibodies (Ab) in CBA/Ht mice but not BALB/c animals. The aim of this work was to extend the previous observations to another mouse strain, C57BL/6, as well as to an antigen unrelated to hGH, ovalbumin (OVA), and to explore at the same time the production of various cytokines at serum and cellular levels. The amount of Ab directed to hGH or OVA native antigenic determinants versus the concentration of Ab to cryptic epitopes was evaluated by ELISA competition experiments. Results indicated that LDV infection affected Ab specificity solely in CBA/Ht mice. In CBA/Ht the virus infection was associated with a reduction of the Ab titers to hGH native epitopes and with a decrease of IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels, but Ab to native OVA epitopes were increased with a simultaneous increase of IL-17. Accordingly, only lymph node cells from infected CBA/Ht mice immunized with OVA were found to produce INF-γ, IL-13 and IL-17. Thus, a correlation of cytokine production with a change in Ab specificity after a viral infection was found, although this phenomenon was restricted to a given antigen and to the genetic background of immunized animals. These observations suggest that an apparent harmless virus can affect some immunological mechanisms, which could lead, for example, to inflammatory or autoimmune disorders.

  19. Tissue-specific hormonal profiling during dormancy release in macaw palm seeds.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Garcia, Queila S; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the control exerted by hormones in specific tissues during germination and post-germinative development in monocot seeds, whose embryos have complex structures and can remain dormant for long periods of time. Here the tissue-specific hormonal profile of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) seeds overcoming dormancy and seedling during initial development was examined. Endogenous hormonal concentrations were determined in the cotyledonary petiole, haustorium, operculum, endosperm adjacent to the embryo and peripheral endosperm of dry dormant seeds, imbibed seeds trapped in phase I of germination, and germinating (phase 2 and phase 3) seeds 2, 5, 10 and 15 days after sowing. Evaluations were performed on seeds treated for overcoming dormancy by removal of the operculum and by immersion in a gibberellic acid (GA3 ) solution. Removal of the operculum effectively helped in overcoming dormancy, which was associated with the synthesis of active gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs), as well as reductions of abscisic acid (ABA) in the cotyledonary petiole. In imbibed seeds trapped in phase I of germination, exogenous GA3 caused an increase in active GAs in the cotyledonary petiole and operculum and reduction in ABA in the operculum. Initial seedling development was associated with increases in the CK/auxin ratio in the haustorium and GA levels in the endosperm which is possibly related to the mobilization of metabolic reserves. Increases in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were associated with the development of the vegetative axis. Hormones play a crucial tissue-specific role in the control of dormancy, germination and initial development of seedlings in macaw palm, including a central role not only for GAs and ABA, but also for CKs and other hormones.

  20. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  1. Influence of drying procedure and of low degree of substitution on the structural and drug release properties of carboxymethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of drying methods and low range of degrees of substitution (DS) on the structural, physicochemical, and drug-release properties of carboxymethyl high-amylose starch (CMS). CMS with three DS of 0.03, 0.14, and 0.25 was synthesized and dried by either solvent precipitation (SP), spray drying (SD), or lyophilization (Ly). DS had an influence on the crystalline structure of CMS. It was found that a DS of 0.14 or higher induced a modification of polymorphism. The drying method and the DS had both an impact on the physical properties of the CMS powder which can further influence the formulation characteristics and drug-release properties from monolithic tablets. The CMS with DS of 0.14 and 0.25 dried by SP or SD presented good excipient properties in terms of compressibility. With acetaminophen (20%) as tracer, the monolithic CMS tablets showed controlled drug release over 17 h for DS of 0.14 and 10 h for DS of 0.25, almost independent of pH, suggesting interesting properties for sustained release applications.

  2. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  3. Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-23

    For the delivery of bioactive components to the colon, an oral colon-specific controlled release system coated with a resistant starch-based film through aqueous dispersion coating process was developed. Starch was modified by a high-temperature-pressure reaction, enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in the resistibility against enzymatic digestion (meaning the formation of resistant starch, specifically RS3). This increase could be associated with an increase in the relative crystallinity, a greater amount of starch molecular aggregation structure, and the formation of a compact mass fractal structure, resulting from the treatment. The microparticles coated with this RS3 film showed an excellent controlled release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the RS3 film-coated insulin-loaded microparticles exhibited the ability to steadily decrease the plasma glucose level initially and then maintain the plasma glucose level within the normal range for total 14-22 h with different insulin dosages after oral administration; no glycopenia or glycemic fluctuation was observed. Therefore, the potential of this new RS3 film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated for the accurate delivery of bioactive polypeptides or protein to the colon.

  4. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core-shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b‧]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of "on" and "off" states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity).

  5. Longitudinal and transverse magnetic field program procedure and detailed specification for Sigma 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program and procedure for plotting the contour of the data transferred from the Marshall Space Flight Center solar magnetography is presented. The plotted data then can be easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission. From the data file for circular polarization the longitudinal program plots the contours for filtered longitudinal plot and intensity plot by choosing the positive and negative contour levels, intensity levels, and also X,Y plotting ranges which need to be used. In a similar manner the transverse program generates the transverse contour plot, azimuth plot, and intensity plot from the linear polarization data files.

  6. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Amei, Amei; Young, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003). However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  7. Site-specific cation release drives actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; Cao, Wenxiang; Zhou, Kaifeng; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Michelot, Alphée; Sindelar, Charles V.; Hochstrasser, Mark; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2014-01-01

    Actin polymerization powers the directed motility of eukaryotic cells. Sustained motility requires rapid filament turnover and subunit recycling. The essential regulatory protein cofilin accelerates network remodeling by severing actin filaments and increasing the concentration of ends available for elongation and subunit exchange. Although cofilin effects on actin filament assembly dynamics have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanism of cofilin-induced filament severing is not understood. Here we demonstrate that actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin is driven by the linked dissociation of a single cation that controls filament structure and mechanical properties. Vertebrate cofilin only weakly severs Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin filaments lacking this “stiffness cation” unless a stiffness cation-binding site is engineered into the actin molecule. Moreover, vertebrate cofilin rescues the viability of a S. cerevisiae cofilin deletion mutant only when the stiffness cation site is simultaneously introduced into actin, demonstrating that filament severing is the essential function of cofilin in cells. This work reveals that site-specific interactions with cations serve a key regulatory function in actin filament fragmentation and dynamics. PMID:25468977

  8. Association between polymorphisms in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter and release of PSA.

    PubMed

    Sävblom, C; Giwercman, A; Malm, J; Halldén, C; Lundin, K; Lilja, H; Giwercman, Y

    2009-10-01

    Variations in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been ascribed to A/G nucleotide polymorphisms located at -158 bp (rs266882) and -4643 bp (rs925013), relative to the transcription start site within the promoter of the PSA gene. PSA is also an androgen receptor target (AR) gene and polymorphisms in AR gene are known to affect AR function. Our objective was to compare the impact of these A/G polymorphisms separately or in combination with AR CAG micro satellite on regulation of PSA secretion into seminal plasma and blood in young men. Leukocyte DNA was extracted from 291 conscripts and genotyping performed with the Sequenom Mass Array System. PSA was measured with an immunofluorometric assay. Linear regression analysis was used to test the association of polymorphism frequencies with serum and seminal plasma levels of PSA. PSA gene polymorphisms at -158 bp or -4643 bp did not alone influence total PSA (tPSA) levels in seminal plasma or in blood. Homozygotes for the A-allele at -158 bp in combination with CAG > 22 had significantly higher serum levels of tPSA than subjects carrying the G-allele (p = 0.01). In conclusion, the PSA gene polymorphisms did not importantly influence the levels of tPSA in seminal plasma or in blood. tPSA in serum was influenced by interactions between PSA promoter variants and AR CAG polymorphism.

  9. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binds to a specific receptor and releases microsomal calcium in the arterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemette, G.; Balla, T.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    The properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) receptor sites in the anterior pituitary were evaluated by binding studies with InsP/sub 3/ labeled with /sup 32/P to high specific radioactivity. Specific binding of Ins(/sup 32/P)P/sub 3/ was demonstrable in pituitary membrane preparations and was linearly proportional to the amount of membrane added over the range 0.5-2 mg of protein. Kinetic studies showed that specific InsP/sub 3/ binding was half-maximal in about 40 sec and reached a plateau after 15 min at 0/sup 0/C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data was consistent with a single set of high affinity sites. The specificity of Ins(/sup 32/P)P/sub 3/ binding to these sites was illustrated by the much weaker affinity for structural analogs such as inositol 1-phosphate, phytic acid, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. To assess the functional relevance of the InsP/sub 3/ binding sites, the Ca/sup 2 +/-releasing activity of InsP/sub 3/ was measured in pituitary membrane preparations. Under physiological conditions within the cytosol, the high-affinity InsP/sub 3/ binding sites characterized in pituitary membranes could serve as the putative receptors through which InsP/sub 3/ triggers Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in the anterior pituitary gland.

  10. Gender-specific differences in biomarkers responses to acute coronary syndromes and revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Voudris, Vassilis

    2011-09-01

    A growing body of gender-related research in coronary artery disease is beginning to gradually elucidate differences between women and men. In patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), these sex differences include varying risk factor profiles, accuracy of diagnostic testing, clinical presentations, treatment practices and outcomes. There is also a differential expression of cardiac biomarkers by sex, which remains unexplained. This paper reviews all the available information on the effect of gender on cardiac biomarkers by search of MEDLINE using the terms gender differences, biomarkers, ACS and revascularization procedures. A better understanding of the sex disparities in biomarkers along with all other clinical information is essential to optimal management and patient care in the future.

  11. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Program Operations § 1484.35 Must Cooperators...) Conduct all contracting in an open manner. Individuals who develop or draft specifications, requirements...; (5) Perform some form of price or cost analysis, such as a comparison of price quotations to...

  12. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Program Operations § 1484.35 Must Cooperators...) Conduct all contracting in an open manner. Individuals who develop or draft specifications,...

  13. Minimizing soil remediation volume through specification of excavation and materials handling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Oresik, W.L.S.; Otten, M.T.; Nelson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The technologies currently available for treating soils contaminated with the explosives 2,4,6-trinitroluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX) are both limited and expensive. Therefore, an important consideration in soils remediation is the preparation of construction specifications and contract drawings which limit the volume of soil that will be required to undergo treatment. Construction specifications and contract drawings were developed for the Contaminated Soil Remediation of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) with the following primary objectives: (1) limit the volume of soil excavated from the Explosives Washout Lagoons and Explosives Washout Plant Areas, (2) minimize materials handling, and (3) reduce the excavated volume of soil which will undergo treatment.

  14. High neuropeptide Y release associates with Ewing sarcoma bone dissemination - in vivo model of site-specific metastases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Tilan, Jason U; Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Polk, Taylor; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; Jenkins, Shari; Acree, Rachel; Connors, Katherine; Ledo, Phuong; Lu, Congyi; Lee, Yi-Chien; Rodriguez, Olga; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Albanese, Chris; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2015-03-30

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) develops in bones or soft tissues of children and adolescents. The presence of bone metastases is one of the most adverse prognostic factors, yet the mechanisms governing their formation remain unclear. As a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1, the fusion protein driving ES transformation, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed and released from ES tumors. Hypoxia up-regulates NPY and activates its pro-metastatic functions. To test the impact of NPY on ES metastatic pattern, ES cell lines, SK-ES1 and TC71, with high and low peptide release, respectively, were used in an orthotopic xenograft model. ES cells were injected into gastrocnemius muscles of SCID/beige mice, the primary tumors excised, and mice monitored for the presence of metastases. SK-ES1 xenografts resulted in thoracic extra-osseous metastases (67%) and dissemination to bone (50%) and brain (25%), while TC71 tumors metastasized to the lungs (70%). Bone dissemination in SK-ES1 xenografts associated with increased NPY expression in bone metastases and its accumulation in bone invasion areas. The genetic silencing of NPY in SK-ES1 cells reduced bone degradation. Our study supports the role for NPY in ES bone invasion and provides new models for identifying pathways driving ES metastases to specific niches and testing anti-metastatic therapeutics.

  15. A fast and efficient procedure to produce scFvs specific for large macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Ke, Ailong; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-01-10

    We have expanded the application of antibody phage display to a new type of antigen: ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We describe a simple and efficient method for screening antibodies specific for large intact RNPs and individual components. We also describe a fast and easy method to overcome the abundance of amber stop codons in the positive phage clones. The resulting antibodies have been used in ELISA and Western blot analysis.

  16. Specific mesenchymal/epithelial induction of olfactory receptor, vomeronasal, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, N.E; Lischka, F. W.; Yee, K.K.; Peters, A.Z.; Tucker, E.S.; Meechan, D.W.; Zirlinger, M.; Maynard, T.M.; Burd, G.B.; Dulac, C.; Pevny, L.; LaMantia, A-S.

    2013-01-01

    We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons—the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated neurogenesis, we compared the influence of frontonasal mesenchyme on frontonasal epithelium, which becomes the OE, with that of the forelimb bud. Despite differences in position, morphogenetic and cytogenic capacity, both mesenchymal tissues support neurogenesis, expression of several signaling molecules and neurogenic transcription factors in the frontonasal epithelium. Only frontonasal mesenchyme, however, supports OE-specific patterning and activity of a subset of signals and factors associated with OE differentiation. Moreover, only appropriate pairing of frontonasal epithelial and mesenchymal partners yields ORNs, VRNs, and GnRH neurons. Accordingly, the position and molecular identity of specialized frontonasal epithelia and mesenchyme early in gestation and subsequent inductive interactions, specifies the genesis and differentiation of peripheral chemosensory and neuroendocrine neurons. PMID:20503368

  17. Assessing the adequacy of procedure-specific consent forms in orthopaedic surgery against current methods of operative consent

    PubMed Central

    Barritt, Andrew W; Clark, Laura; Teoh, Victoria; Cohen, Adam MM; Gibb, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This is an audit of patient understanding following their consent for orthopaedic procedures and uses information on new Orthoconsent forms endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association as the set standard. The objectives were to: (i) assess whether patients& understanding of knee arthroscopy (KA) and total knee replacement (TKR) at the point of confirming their consent reaches the set standard; and (ii) to ascertain whether issuing procedure-specific Orthoconsent forms to patients can improve this understanding. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This was a prospective audit using questionnaires consisting of 26 (for KA) or 35 (for TKR) questions based on the appropriate Orthoconsent form in a department of orthopaedic surgery within a UK hospital. Participants were 100 patients undergoing KA and 60 patients undergoing TKR between February and July 2008. Participants were identified from sequential operating lists and all had capacity to give consent. During the first audit cycle, consent was discussed with the patient and documented on standard yellow NHS Trust approved generic consent forms. During the second audit cycle, patients were additionally supplied with the appropriate procedure-specific consent form downloaded from which they were required to read at home and sign on the morning of surgery. RESULTS Knee arthroscopy patients consented with only the standard yellow forms scored an average of 56.7%, rising to 80.5% with use of Orthoconsent forms. Similarly, total knee replacement patients& averages rose from 57.6% to 81.6%. CONCLUSIONS Providing patients with an Orthoconsent form significantly improves knowledge of their planned procedure as well as constituting a more robust means of information provision and consent documentation. PMID:20412675

  18. Toward a consolidation of the CPV-specific-test procedures for inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarino, Philippe; Dominguez, César; Bier, Anthony; Roujol, Yannick; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    The inverter in a photovoltaic system assures two essential functions. The first is to track the maximum power point of the system IV curve throughout variable environmental conditions. The second is to convert DC power delivered by the PV panels into AC power. Nowadays, in order to qualify inverters, manufacturers and certifying organisms use mainly European and/or CEC efficiency standards. The question arises if these are still representative of CPV system behaviour. We propose to use a set of CPV - specific weighted average and a representative dynamic response to have a better determination of the static and dynamic MPPT efficiencies. Four string-sized commercial inverters used in real CPV plants have been tested.

  19. Curtailing patient-specific IMRT QA procedures from 2D dose error distribution

    PubMed Central

    Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Otani, Yuki; Oda, Michio; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) test is conducted to verify the accuracy of dose delivery. It generally consists of three verification processes: the absolute point dose difference, the planar dose differences at each gantry angle, and the planar dose differences by 3D composite irradiation. However, this imposes a substantial workload on medical physicists. The objective of this study was to determine whether our novel method that predicts the 3D delivered dose allows certain patient-specific IMRT QAs to be curtailed. The object was IMRT QA for the pelvic region with regard to point dose and composite planar dose differences. We compared measured doses, doses calculated in the treatment planning system, and doses predicted by in-house software. The 3D predicted dose was reconstructed from the per-field measurement by incorporating the relative dose error distribution into the original dose grid of each beam. All point dose differences between the measured and the calculated dose were within ±3%, whereas 93.3% of them between the predicted and the calculated dose were within ±3%. As for planar dose differences, the gamma passing rates between the calculated and the predicted dose were higher than those between the calculated and the measured dose. Comparison and statistical analysis revealed a correlation between the predicted and the measured dose with regard to both point dose and planar dose differences. We concluded that the prediction-based approach is an accurate substitute for the conventional measurement-based approach in IMRT QA for the pelvic region. Our novel approach will help medical physicists save time on IMRT QA. PMID:26661854

  20. Curtailing patient-specific IMRT QA procedures from 2D dose error distribution.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Otani, Yuki; Oda, Michio; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) test is conducted to verify the accuracy of dose delivery. It generally consists of three verification processes: the absolute point dose difference, the planar dose differences at each gantry angle, and the planar dose differences by 3D composite irradiation. However, this imposes a substantial workload on medical physicists. The objective of this study was to determine whether our novel method that predicts the 3D delivered dose allows certain patient-specific IMRT QAs to be curtailed. The object was IMRT QA for the pelvic region with regard to point dose and composite planar dose differences. We compared measured doses, doses calculated in the treatment planning system, and doses predicted by in-house software. The 3D predicted dose was reconstructed from the per-field measurement by incorporating the relative dose error distribution into the original dose grid of each beam. All point dose differences between the measured and the calculated dose were within ±3%, whereas 93.3% of them between the predicted and the calculated dose were within ±3%. As for planar dose differences, the gamma passing rates between the calculated and the predicted dose were higher than those between the calculated and the measured dose. Comparison and statistical analysis revealed a correlation between the predicted and the measured dose with regard to both point dose and planar dose differences. We concluded that the prediction-based approach is an accurate substitute for the conventional measurement-based approach in IMRT QA for the pelvic region. Our novel approach will help medical physicists save time on IMRT QA.

  1. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  2. Simple procedure for the synthesis of high specific activity tritiated (6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, R.G.; Colman, P.D.

    1982-05-01

    The 5-position of tetrahydrofolate was found to be unusually reactive with low concentrations of formic acid in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide. The product of this reaction has neutral and acid ultraviolet spectra and chromatographic behavior consistent with its identity as 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (leucovoriun). When enzymatically synthesized (6S)-tetrahydrofolate was used as starting material, the product supported the growth of folate-depleted L1210 cells at one-half the concentration required for authentic (6R,S)-leucovorin. This reaction has been used to produce high specific activity (44 Ci/mmol) (/sup 3/H)(6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate in high yield. Experiments with (/sup 14/C)formic acid indicate that 1 mol of formate reacted per mol of tetrahydrofolate but that no reaction occurred with a variety of other folate compounds. (6S)-5-Formyltetrahydrofolate, labeled in the formyl group with /sup 14/C, has also been synthesized using this reaction. These easily produced, labeled folates should allow close examination of the transport and utilization of leucovorin and of the mechanism of reversal of methotrexate toxicity by reduced folate cofactors.

  3. Reliability of procedures used in the physical examination of non-specific low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    May, Stephen; Littlewood, Chris; Bishop, Annette

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of the research and to assess the reliability of different types of physical examination procedures used in the assessment of patients with non-specific low back pain. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PEDro, AMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL) up to August 2005 identified 48 relevant studies which were analysed for quality and reliability. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of the studies and satisfactory reliability, and conclusions emphasised high quality studies (> or = 60% methods score). The mean quality score of the studies was 52% (range 0 to 88%), indicating weak to moderate methodology. Based on the upper threshold used (kappa/ICC > 0.85) most procedures demonstrated either conflicting evidence or moderate to strong evidence of low reliability. When the lower threshold was used (kappa/ICC > 0.70) evidence about pain response to repeated movements changed from contradictory to moderate evidence for high reliability. Most procedures commonly used by clinicians in the examination of patients with back pain demonstrate low reliability.

  4. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Christoffer; Sund, Johan; Åqvist, Johan

    2013-12-01

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

  5. Several Human Liver Cell Expressed Apolipoproteins Complement HCV Virus Production with Varying Efficacy Conferring Differential Specific Infectivity to Released Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Doepke, Mandy; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Todt, Daniel; Wölk, Benno; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Geffers, Robert; Lauber, Chris; Kaderali, Lars; Penin, François; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production of infectious HCV progeny is incompletely defined. Therefore, we quantified mRNA expression of human apolipoproteins in primary human hepatocytes. Subsequently, cDNAs encoding apolipoproteins were expressed in 293T/miR-122 cells to explore if they complement HCV virus production in cells that are non-permissive due to limiting endogenous levels of human apolipoproteins. Primary human hepatocytes expressed high mRNA levels of ApoA1, A2, C1, C3, E, and H. ApoA4, A5, B, D, F, J, L1, L2, L3, L4, L6, M, and O were expressed at intermediate levels, and C2, C4, and L5 were not detected. All members of the ApoA and ApoC family of lipoproteins complemented HCV virus production in HCV transfected 293T/miR-122 cells, albeit with significantly lower efficacy compared with ApoE. In contrast, ApoD expression did not support production of infectious HCV. Specific infectivity of released particles complemented with ApoA family members was significantly lower compared with ApoE. Moreover, the ratio of extracellular to intracellular infectious virus was significantly higher for ApoE compared to ApoA2 and ApoC3. Since apolipoproteins complementing HCV virus production share amphipathic alpha helices as common structural features we altered the two alpha helices of ApoC1. Helix breaking mutations in both ApoC1 helices impaired virus assembly highlighting a critical role of alpha helices in apolipoproteins supporting HCV assembly. In summary, various liver expressed apolipoproteins with amphipathic alpha helices complement HCV virus production in human non liver cells. Differences in the efficiency of virus assembly, the specific infectivity of released particles, and the ratio between extracellular and intracellular infectivity point to

  6. 46 CFR 160.062-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-6 Procedure for approval. General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must...

  7. 46 CFR 160.062-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-6 Procedure for approval. General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must...

  8. 46 CFR 160.062-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-6 Procedure for approval. General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must...

  9. 46 CFR 160.062-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-6 Procedure for approval. General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must...

  10. 46 CFR 160.062-6 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-6 Procedure for approval. General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must...

  11. Specific Association of Growth-associated Protein 43 with Calcium Release Units in Skeletal Muscles of Lower Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, G.A.; Perni, S.; Morabito, C.; Mariggiò, M.A.; Guarnieri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs) and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes), and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species. PMID:25578978

  12. Copper retention, calcium release and ultrastructural evidence indicate specific Cuprolinic Blue uptake and peculiar modifications in mineralizing aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, F; Tubaro, F; Petrelli, L; Gandaglia, A; Spina, M; Marchini, M

    2002-01-01

    Previously, reactions with copper phthalocyanines at 0.05 M critical electrolyte concentration were found to cause demineralization in calcifying porcine aortic valves after subdermal implantation in rat, as well as simultaneous visualization of peculiar phthalocyanine-positive layers around cells and cell-derived matrix vesicles. In the present investigation, an appraisal was made of the mechanism and specificity of reactions with Cuprolinic Blue by comparing quantitatively calcium release and copper retention by calcified aortic valves reacted with this phthalocyanine under different critical electrolyte concentration conditions, and the corresponding ultrastructural patterns. It was found that (i) decalcifying properties are inversely proportional to salt molarity; (ii) reactivity to Cuprolinic Blue is critical electrolyte concentration-dependent, since the greatest copper retention occurred in 0.05 M critical electrolyte concentration Cuprolinic Blue-reacted samples, the only ones that also exhibited phthalocyanine-positive layers; (iii) the appearance of phthalocyanine-positive layers depends on Cuprolinic Blue uptake, revealing pericellular clustering of calcium-binding, anionic molecules; and (iv) minor Cuprolinic Blue uptake occurs by residual proteoglycans which still remain in the extracellular matrix after 6-week-long subdermal implantation. The present results indicate that this method is appropriate for the study of mineralized tissues and illustrate peculiar tissue modifications occurring at least in the experimental conditions used here.

  13. Simple dual-spotting procedure enhances nLC-MALDI MS/MS analysis of digests with less specific enzymes.

    PubMed

    Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Rohmer, Marion; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Mueller, Benjamin F; Beckhaus, Tobias; Bahr, Ute; Barka, Guenes; Karas, Michael

    2011-06-03

    The beneficial effect of high mass accuracy in mass spectrometry is especially pronounced when using less specific enzymes as the number of theoretically possible peptides increases dramatically without any cleavage specificity defined. Together with a preceding chromatographic separation, high-resolution mass spectrometers such as the MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap are therefore well suited for the analysis of protein digests with less specific enzymes. A combination with fast, automated, and informative MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis has already been shown to yield increased total peptide and protein identifications. Here, a simple method for nLC separation and subsequent alternating spotting on two targets for both a MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap and a MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument is introduced. This allows for simultaneous measurements on both instruments and subsequent combination of both data sets by an in-house written software tool. The performance of this procedure was evaluated using a mixture of four standard proteins digested with elastase. Three replicate runs were examined concerning repeatability and the total information received from both instruments. A cytosolic extract of C. glutamicum was used to demonstrate the applicability to more complex samples. Database search results showed that an additional 32.3% of identified peptides were found using combined data sets in comparison to MALDI-TOF/TOF data sets.

  14. Serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen after diagnostic procedures and transurethral microwave thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Daehlin, L; Frugård, J; Farstad, M

    1996-05-01

    The objective was to study the effects of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration. Urethrocystoscopy in combination with digital rectal examination was followed by a moderate increase of serum PSA for 7-10 days. At 1 day after transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), an acute and pronounced effect on PSA was observed, which returned to baseline level after 4 weeks. The initial rise in serum PSA corresponded to a PSA density of 1.11, compared to 0.07 at baseline. The present data should be taken into consideration in conjunction with endoscopic evaluation of the lower urinary tract. Additionally, the acute effect on PSA after TUMT strongly suggests the ability of thermotherapy to induce cellular injury and death. One-year follow-up, however, was associated with increased PSA levels, indicating that only a minor part of the PSA-producing compartment was lost in the acute phase.

  15. Preparation and characterization of luteinising-hormone releasing hormone nanoliposomal microbubbles specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyi; Liu, Sisun; Zhu, Yuanfang; Zhang, Liping; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Fen; Huang, Shuying

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) nanoliposomal microbubbles specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells. The lyophilization/sonication method was used to prepare non-targeting nanoliposomal microbubbles (N-N-Mbs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, conjugated LHRH antibodies to N-N-Mbs generated LHRH nanoliposomal microbubbles (LHRH-N-Mbs) specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the microbubbles was detected using an optical microscope and zeta detector. The binding affinity between the secondary antibody and LHRH-N-Mbs or N-N-Mbs was determined by flow cytometry. The binding of LHRH-N-Mb to human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3) was detected by light microscopy. The rounded and uniformly distributed N-N-Mbs and LHRH-N-Mbs were successfully generated. The particle size ranged from 295-468 nm with a mean of 360 nm for N-N-Mbs or 369-618 nm with a mean of 508 nm for LHRH-N-Mbs. There was a significant difference in size between the two groups (P<0.05), although the surface potential of the two microbubbles remained the same (-14.6 mV). Following being kept at room temperature for 14 days, no significant difference in the physicochemical properties of the LHRH-N-Mbs was detected compared with that of freshly prepared microbubbles. The secondary antibody binding rate of LHRH-N-Mbs and N-N-Mbs was 75.6 and 0.83%, respectively. Furthermore, the formation of a rosette-like structure surrounding OVCAR-3 cells was observed after the cells were incubated with LHRH-N-Mbs, whereas pre-incubation with LHRH antibody blocked this rosette formation. In conclusion, LHRH-N-Mbs specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells were successfully prepared through biotin-avidin mediation and the lyophilization/sonication method. The key feature of LHRH-N-Mbs is their small size, stability and high efficiency in targeting human OVCAR-3 cells in vitro.

  16. Blockade of the growth hormone (GH) receptor unmasks rapid GH-releasing peptide-6-mediated tissue-specific insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Muller, A F; Janssen, J A; Hofland, L J; Lamberts, S W; Bidlingmaier, M; Strasburger, C J; van der Lely, A J

    2001-02-01

    The roles of GH and its receptor (GHR) in metabolic control are not yet fully understood. We studied the roles of GH and the GHR using the GHR antagonist pegvisomant for metabolic control of healthy nonobese men in fasting and nonfasting conditions. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of pegvisomant on GHRH and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion before and after 3 days of fasting and under nonfasting conditions (n = 5). Under the condition of GHR blockade by pegvisomant in the nonfasting state, GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg) caused a increase in serum insulin (10.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 81.3 +/- 25.4 mU/L; P < 0.001) and glucose (4.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 6.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; P < 0.05) concentrations. In this group, a rapid decrease in serum free fatty acids levels was also observed. These changes were not observed under GHR blockade during fasting or in the absence of pegvisomant. We conclude that although these results were obtained from an acute study, and long-term administration of pegvisomant could render different results, blockade of the GHR in the nonfasting state induces tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, resulting in an increase in glucose and insulin levels (indicating insulin resistance of liver/muscle), but probably also in an increase in lipogenesis (indicating normal insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue). These GHRP-6-mediated changes indicate that low GH bioactivity on the tissue level can induce changes in metabolic control, which are characterized by an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean body mass. As a mechanism of these GHRP-6-mediated metabolic changes in the nonfasting state, direct nonpituitary-mediated GHRP-6 effects on the gastroentero-hepatic axis seem probable.

  17. Polymeric drugs with prolonged sustained delivery of specific anti-aggregant agents for platelets: kinetic analysis of the release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Alberto; Rodríguez, Gema; Fernández, Mar; Aguilar, María Rosa; San Román, Julio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro aqueous behaviour of a metacryloyloxyethyl [2-(acetyloxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)]benzoate (THEMA)/N,N'-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymer with a THEMA molar content of 39% (labeled THDMA39) has been investigated. This composition has been selected to achieve a system able to keep both the non-water solubility during the release and the resorbability (and the water solubility) after the completion of the drug release. This copolymer exhibited, at pH 7.4, a constant release during several months, very interesting for a long term treatments required for the application of some cardiovascular devices. A kinetic model has been developed to explain the pseudo-zero-order kinetics of the release process. This model, which considers (from the aqueous studies) a linear increase with time of the amount of water present in the polymeric matrix, has been able to fit adequately the experimental data.

  18. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  19. Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

    2015-05-01

    Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, λ = 10,600 nm; Ho:YAG, λ = 2100 nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size-specific

  20. Lexical training through modeling and elicitation procedures with late talkers who have specific language impairment and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and developmental disabilities. Children were randomly assigned to either a mand-elicited imitation (MEI) condition in which elicitations and imitative prompts were used or to a modeling with auditory bombardment (Mod-AB) condition in which auditory bombardment and play modeling were incorporated with no response demands on participants. Lexical production of target vocabulary words already comprehended was measured during a 10-session training period and then during two 50-min play interactions with a parent/caretaker in the home after treatment was completed. Results indicated that the MEI procedure was relatively more effective in facilitating frequency and rate of target word learning in the treatment setting, but no significant differences were found between conditions in the number or percentage of target words generalized to the home setting. Mod-AB children produced more target words that were limited to the home setting than did MEI children, whose productivity was more balanced across settings. Treatment by aptitude regression analyses indicated that none of the preintervention language, cognitive, or total development aptitude scores were predictive of child performance in 1 treatment condition or the other, although Battelle Developmental Inventory communication scores and sizes of preintervention lexicons were predictive of child performance across conditions. Empirical and clinical issues pertaining to the efficacy of modeling- and elicitation-based procedures for late-talking preschoolers are discussed.

  1. Cell type-specific release of matrix-metallo-proteinase-9 by bacterial chemoattractant in human blood phagocytic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Astrid M; Chen, Ling-Yu; Ye, Richard D; Yong, Jiang; Huang, Shuang; Pan, Zhixing K

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation of phagocytic leukocytes with bacterial chemoattractant resulted in the release of matrix metal-loproteinases (MMPs). Little is known about the mechanisms of bacterial chemoattractant regulation of MMP in phagocytic leukocytes. We report here that the mechanisms of the bacterial chemotactic peptidefMLP-induced MMP -9 release in monocytes appeared to be different from fMLP-stimulated MMP-9 release in neutrophils. In freshly prepared peripheral blood monocytes, fMLP induces MMP-9 release, starting at 8 h after stimulation. These functions of fMLP is accompanied by an increase in TNFα expression, and mediated through the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in monocytes. However, neutrophil preparations that responded to fMLP with MMP-9 release did not require activation of ERK1/2 and TNFα expression. These results suggest a different role of fMLP in MMP-9 expression in neutrophils and monocytes, and the signal molecules involved in mediating this effect in human blood monocytes stimulated by bacterial chemoattractant.

  2. Delay-specific stimuli and genotype interact to determine temporal discounting in a rapid-acquisition procedure.

    PubMed

    Pope, Derek A; Newland, M Christopher; Hutsell, Blake A

    2015-05-01

    The importance of delay discounting to many socially important behavior problems has stimulated investigations of biological and environmental mechanisms responsible for variations in the form of the discount function. The extant experimental research, however, has yielded disparate results, raising important questions regarding Gene X Environment interactions. The present study determined the influence of stimuli that uniquely signal delays to reinforcement on delay discounting in two inbred mouse strains using a rapid-acquisition procedure. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice responded under a six-component, concurrent-chained schedule in which the terminal-link delays preceding the larger-reinforcer were presented randomly across components of an individual session. Across conditions, components were presented either with or without delay-specific auditory stimuli, i.e., as multiple or mixed schedules. A generalized matching-based model was used to incorporate the impact of current and previous component reinforcer-delay ratios on current component response allocation. Sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delay were higher for BALB/c mice, but within-component preference reached final levels faster for C57Bl/6 mice. For BALB/c mice, acquisition of preference across blocks of a component was faster under the multiple than the mixed schedule, but final levels of sensitivity to reinforcement were unaffected by schedule. The speed of acquisition of preference was not different across schedules for C57Bl/6 mice, but sensitivity to reinforcement was higher under the multiple than the mixed schedule. Overall, differences in the acquisition and final form of the discount function were determined by a Gene X Environment interaction, but the presence of delay-specific stimuli attenuated genotype-dependent differences in magnitude and delay sensitivity.

  3. Nanospheres Encapsulating Anti-Leishmanial Drugs for Their Specific Macrophage Targeting, Reduced Toxicity, and Deliberate Intracellular Release

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anil Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current work focuses on the study of polymeric, biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) for the encapsulation of doxorubicin and mitomycin C (anti-leishmanial drugs), and their efficient delivery to macrophages, the parasite's home. The biodegradable polymer methoxypoly-(ethylene glycol)-b-poly (lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) was used to prepare polymeric NPs encapsulating doxorubicin and mitomycin C. The morphology, mean diameter, and surface area of spherical NPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and BET surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction was performed to validate drug encapsulation. An in vitro release profile of the drugs suggested a fairly slow release. These polymeric NPs were efficiently capable of releasing drug inside macrophages at a slower pace than the free drug, which was monitored by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Encapsulation of doxorubicin and mitomycin C into NPs also decreases cellular toxicity in mouse macrophages (J774.1A). PMID:22925019

  4. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs.

  5. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

    1987-07-01

    This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals and provides guidance to industry and communities. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature, rapidly absorbs moisture to form highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 20 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of hydrogen fluoride involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use hydrogen fluoride in the SCAQMD. The manual identifies examples of potential causes as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk.

  6. Does preoperative abduction value affect functional outcome of combined muscle transfer and release procedures in obstetrical palsy patients with shoulder involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Atakan; Ozkan, Turker; Onel, Defne

    2004-01-01

    Background Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb function because of functional limitations, bony deformities and joint contractures. Shoulder is the most frequently affected joint with internal rotation contracture causing limitation of abduction, external rotation. The treatment comprises muscle release procedures such as posterior subscapularis sliding or anterior subscapularis tendon lengtening and muscle transfers to restore the missing external rotation and abduction function. Methods We evaluated whether the preoperative abduction degree affects functional outcome. Between 1998 and 2002, 46 children were operated on to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation. The average age at surgery was 7.6 years and average follow up was 40.8 months. We compared the postoperative results of the patients who had preoperative abduction less than 90° (Group I: n = 37) with the patients who had preoperative abduction greater than 90° (Group II: n = 9), in terms of abduction and external rotation function with angle measurements and Mallet classification. We inquired whether patients in Group I needed another muscle transfer along with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfers. Results In Group I the average abduction improved from 62.5° to 131.4° (a 68.9° ± 22.9°gain) and the average external rotation improved from 21.4° to 82.6° (a 61.1° ± 23°gain). In Group II the average abduction improved from 99.4°to 140°(a40.5° ± 16°gain) and the average external rotation improved from 33.2°to 82.7° (a 49.5° ± 23.9° gain). Although there was a significant difference between Group I and II for preoperative abduction (p = 0.000) and abduction gain in degrees (p = 0.001), the difference between postoperative values of both groups was not significant (p = 0.268). There was also no significant

  7. Release-independent depression at pyramidal inputs onto specific cell targets: dual recordings in slices of rat cortex

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alex M; Bannister, A Peter

    1999-01-01

    Paired intracellular recordings were performed in slices of adult rat neocortex and hippocampus to examine presynaptic depression. A novel form of depression that occurs even in the absence of transmitter release during conditioning activity was observed at a subset of synaptic connections. In each pair studied, a pyramidal neurone was presynaptic and inputs onto a range of morphologically identified postsynaptic target cells were analysed; high probability connections exhibiting the more traditional forms of release-dependent depression, as well as low probability connections exhibiting facilitation, were tested (n = 35). Connections were tested with presynaptic spike pairs and trains of spikes with a range of interspike intervals. Sweeps in which the first action potential elicited no detectable response (apparent failures of transmission) and sweeps in which the first action potential elicited large EPSPs were selected. Second EPSPs that followed apparent failures were then compared with second EPSPs that followed large first EPSPs. Release-independent depression was apparent when second EPSPs at brief interspike intervals (< 10–15 ms) were on average smaller than second EPSPs at longer interspike intervals, even following apparent failures and when the second EPSP amplitude at these short intervals was independent of the amplitude of the first EPSP. Release-independent depression appeared selectively expressed. Depressing inputs onto some interneurones, such as CA1 basket-like and bistratified cells, and facilitating inputs onto others, such as some fast spiking neocortical interneurones, exhibited this phenomenon. In contrast, depressing inputs onto 10/10 neocortical pyramids and facilitating inputs onto 7/7 oriens-lacunosum moleculare and 5/5 burst firing, sparsely spiny neocortical interneurones did not. PMID:10432339

  8. A Novel Endo-β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Releases Specific N-Glycans Depending on Different Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Frese, Steven A.; Liu, Yan; Mills, David A.; Block, David E.; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Milk glycoproteins are involved in different functions and contribute to different cellular processes, including adhesion and signaling, and shape the development of the infant micro-biome. Methods have been developed to study the complexities of milk protein glycosylation and understand the role of N-glycans in protein functionality. Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) isolated from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 is a recently isolated heat-stable enzyme that cleaves the N-N′-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core. The effects of different processing conditions (pH, temperature, reaction time, and enzyme/protein ratio) were evaluated for their ability to change EndoBI-1 activity on bovine colostrum whey glycoproteins using advanced mass spectrometry. This study shows that EndoBI-1 is able to cleave a high diversity of N-glycan structures. Nano-LC-Chip–Q-TOF MS data also revealed that different reaction conditions resulted in different N-glycan compositions released, thus modifying the relative abundance of N-glycan types. In general, more sialylated N-glycans were released at lower temperatures and pH values. These results demonstrated that EndoBI-1 is able to release a wide variety of N-glycans, whose compositions can be selectively manipulated using different processing conditions. PMID:26101185

  9. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rettmann, Maryam E. Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A.; Kwartowitz, David M.; Gunawan, Mia; Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L.; Dalegrave, Charles; Kolasa, Mark W.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  10. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  11. 43 CFR 11.36 - May the authorized official use both type A and type B procedures for the same release?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the authorized official and/or from population losses; (8) For the type A procedure for coastal and... bordering the provinces in which the population losses occurred. For the type A procedure for Great Lakes... (10) For the type A procedure for Great Lakes environments, lost boating due to closure. (c) If...

  12. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Laser Surgery Recovery Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  13. The olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is specifically and acutely sensitive to unique bile acids released by conspecific larvae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Larval sea lamprey inhabit freshwater streams and migrate to oceans or lakes to feed after a radical metamorphosis; subsequently, mature adults return to streams to spawn. Previous observations suggested that lamprey utilize the odor of conspecific larvae to select streams for spawning. Here we report biochemical and electrophysiological evidence that this odor is comprised of two unique bile acids released by larvae. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated that larval sea lamprey produce and release two unique bile acids, allocholic acid (ACA) and petromyzonol sulfate (PS). Electro-olfactogram (EOG) recording also demonstrated that the olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey is acutely and specifically sensitive to ACA and PS; detection thresholds for these compounds were approximately 10(-12) M. ACA and PS were the most potent of 38 bile acids tested and cross-adaptation experiments suggested that adult sea lamprey have specific olfactory receptor sites associated with independent signal transduction pathways for these bile acids. These receptor sites specifically recognize the key substituents of ACA and PS such as a 5 alpha-hydrogen, three axial hydroxyls, and a C-24 sulfate ester or carboxyl. In conclusion, the unique lamprey bile acids, ACA and PS, are potent and specific stimulants of the adult olfactory system, strongly supporting the hypothesis that these unique bile acids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey. PMID:7658193

  14. Postprandial stimulation of insulin release by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Effect of a specific glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor antagonist in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C C; Kieffer, T J; Jarboe, L A; Usdin, T B; Wolfe, M M

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid peptide produced by K cells of the mammalian proximal small intestine and is a potent stimulant of insulin release in the presence of hyperglycemia. However, its relative physiological importance as a postprandial insulinotropic agent is unknown. Using LGIPR2 cells stably transfected with rat GIP receptor cDNA, GIP (1-42) stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GIP (7-30)-NH2. Competition binding assays using stably transfected L293 cells demonstrated an IC50 for GIP receptor binding of 7 nmol/liter for GIP (1-42) and 200 nmol/liter for GIP (7-30)-NH2, whereas glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) binding to its receptor on ++betaTC3 cells was minimally displaced by GIP (7-30)-NH2. In fasted anesthetized rats, GIP (1-42) stimulated insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect abolished by the concomitant intraperitoneal administration of GIP (7-30)-NH2 (100 nmol/ kg). In contrast, glucose-, GLP-1-, and arginine-stimulated insulin release were not affected by GIP (7-30)-NH2. In separate experiments, GIP (7-30)-NH2 (100 nmol/kg) reduced postprandial insulin release in conscious rats by 72%. It is concluded that GIP (7-30)-NH2 is a GIP-specific receptor antagonist and that GIP plays a dominant role in mediating postprandial insulin release. PMID:8958204

  15. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  16. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  17. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  18. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  19. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  20. Meeting report: applied biopharmaceutics and quality by design for dissolution/release specification setting: product quality for patient benefit.

    PubMed

    Selen, Arzu; Cruañes, Maria T; Müllertz, Anette; Dickinson, Paul A; Cook, Jack A; Polli, James E; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Crison, John; Johnson, Kevin C; Muirhead, Gordon T; Schofield, Timothy; Tsong, Yi

    2010-09-01

    A biopharmaceutics and Quality by Design (QbD) conference was held on June 10-12, 2009 in Rockville, Maryland, USA to provide a forum and identify approaches for enhancing product quality for patient benefit. Presentations concerned the current biopharmaceutical toolbox (i.e., in vitro, in silico, pre-clinical, in vivo, and statistical approaches), as well as case studies, and reflections on new paradigms. Plenary and breakout session discussions evaluated the current state and envisioned a future state that more effectively integrates QbD and biopharmaceutics. Breakout groups discussed the following four topics: Integrating Biopharmaceutical Assessment into the QbD Paradigm, Predictive Statistical Tools, Predictive Mechanistic Tools, and Predictive Analytical Tools. Nine priority areas, further described in this report, were identified for advancing integration of biopharmaceutics and support a more fundamentally based, integrated approach to setting product dissolution/release acceptance criteria. Collaboration among a broad range of disciplines and fostering a knowledge sharing environment that places the patient's needs as the focus of drug development, consistent with science- and risk-based spirit of QbD, were identified as key components of the path forward.

  1. The specific monomer/dimer equilibrium of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 is established in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Anke; Gibert, Arthur; Lampe, André; Grzesik, Paul; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Schmoranzer, Jan; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2014-08-29

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most important drug targets. Although the smallest functional unit of a GPCR is a monomer, it became clear in the past decades that the vast majority of the receptors form dimers. Only very recently, however, data were presented that some receptors may in fact be expressed as a mixture of monomers and dimers and that the interaction of the receptor protomers is dynamic. To date, equilibrium measurements were restricted to the plasma membrane due to experimental limitations. We have addressed the question as to where this equilibrium is established for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1. By developing a novel approach to analyze single molecule fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy data for intracellular membrane compartments, we show that the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 has a specific monomer/dimer equilibrium that is already established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It remains constant at the plasma membrane even following receptor activation. Moreover, we demonstrate for seven additional GPCRs that they are expressed in specific but substantially different monomer/dimer ratios. Although it is well known that proteins may dimerize in the ER in principle, our data show that the ER is also able to establish the specific monomer/dimer ratios of GPCRs, which sheds new light on the functions of this compartment.

  2. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to ‘in vitro’ capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function. PMID:26931070

  3. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2016-03-02

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function.

  4. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  5. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Men Released From State Prison, 1980–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David L.; Wohl, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We compared mortality of ex-prisoners and other state residents to identify unmet health care needs among former prisoners. Methods. We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1980 to 2005 to estimate the number of overall and cause-specific deaths among male ex-prisoners aged 20 to 69 years and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the number of expected deaths had they experienced the same age-, race-, and cause-specific death rates as other state residents. Results. All-cause mortality among White (SMR = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04, 2.13) and Black (SMR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05) ex-prisoners was greater than for other male NC residents. Ex-prisoners' deaths from homicide, accidents, substance use, HIV, liver disease, and liver cancer were greater than the expected number of deaths estimated using death rates among other NC residents. Deaths from cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes were at least 30% greater than expected for White ex-prisoners, but less than expected for Black ex-prisoners. Conclusions. Ex-prisoners experienced more deaths than would have been expected among other NC residents. Excess deaths from injuries and medical conditions common to prison populations highlight ex-prisoners' medical vulnerability and the need to improve correctional and community preventive health services. PMID:18923131

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M; McGaugh, James L; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-09-23

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. Significance statement: Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  7. 46 CFR 160.062-1 - Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-1 Applicable specifications, and referenced material. (a) Specifications and...: MIL-R-15041C—Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual. MIL-STD-105—Sample procedures...

  8. 46 CFR 160.062-1 - Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-1 Applicable specifications, and referenced material. (a) Specifications and...: MIL-R-15041C—Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual. MIL-STD-105—Sample procedures...

  9. 46 CFR 160.062-1 - Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-1 Applicable specifications, and referenced material. (a) Specifications and...: MIL-R-15041C—Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual. MIL-STD-105—Sample procedures...

  10. 46 CFR 160.062-1 - Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-1 Applicable specifications, and referenced material. (a) Specifications and...: MIL-R-15041C—Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual. MIL-STD-105—Sample procedures...

  11. 46 CFR 160.062-1 - Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-1 Applicable specifications, and referenced material. (a) Specifications and...: MIL-R-15041C—Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual. MIL-STD-105—Sample procedures...

  12. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary. Documentation about the current access methods for products described in this document can be found on the GEOS-5 Nature Run portal: http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/projects/G5NR. Information on the scientific quality of this simulation will appear in a forthcoming NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation to be available from http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/pubs/tm/.

  13. Double-blotting: a solution to the problem of non-specific binding of secondary antibodies in immunoblotting procedures.

    PubMed

    Lasne, F

    2001-07-01

    "Double-blotting" (DB) was developed to overcome the problem of non-specific binding of secondary antibodies in immunoblotting (IB). After it had been probed by the primary antibody, the membrane with the blotted proteins was assembled with a second blank membrane and submitted to a second blotting under acidic conditions. The primary antibody molecules were thus desorbed from their corresponding antigen and transferred onto the second membrane, whereas the antigen and the interfering proteins remained bound to the first one. The second membrane could then be probed by the secondary antibodies without the risk of non-specific binding. This method was developed for the study of erythropoietin (EPO) in concentrated urine since a strong non-specific binding of biotinylated secondary antibodies to some urinary proteins had been observed using classical IB protocols.

  14. An S-phase specific release from a transcriptional block regulates the expression of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, S; Skogman, E; Thelander, L

    1992-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) activity in mammalian cells is closely linked to DNA synthesis. The RR enzyme is composed of two non-identical subunits, proteins R1 and R2. Both proteins are required for holoenzyme activity, which is regulated by S-phase specific de novo synthesis and breakdown of the R2 subunit. In quiescent cells stimulated to proliferate and in elutriated cell populations enriched in the various cell cycle phases the R2 protein levels are correlated to R2 mRNA levels that are low in G0/G1-phase cells but increase dramatically at the G1/S border. Using an R2 promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct we demonstrate an unexpected early activation of the R2 promoter as cells pass from quiescence to proliferation. However, due to a transcriptional block, this promoter activation only results in very short R2 transcripts until cells enter the S-phase, when full-length R2 transcripts start to appear. The position for the transcriptional block was localized to a nucleotide sequence approximately 87 bp downstream from the first exon/intron boundary by S1 nuclease mapping of R2 transcripts from modified in vitro nuclear run-on experiments. These results identify blocking of transcription as a mechanism to control cell cycle regulated gene expression. Images PMID:1464320

  15. Analog specificity of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the central nervous system: possible clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, E.F.; Engel, W.K.

    1985-02-11

    TRH has rapid-onset (30 sec), slow-offset (1-12 days) clinical benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron disorders. This benefit is probably receptor-mediated and may have at least 2 components. To obtain a better understanding of the various responses to TRH of the spinal lower motor neurons (LMNs) in patients, and possibly to help guide selection of additional therapeutic agents, the authors utilized rat CNS (spinal-cord and brain membranes) to analyze the ability of certain molecules to inhibit specific binding of (/sup 3/H)methyl TRH ((/sup 3/H)MeTRH) to the TRH receptor. They found: a) lack of high-affinity binding of the TRH-analog DN-1417 by spinal-cord and brain TRH receptor, despite its known strong TRH-like action physiologically on LMNs; b) lack of high-affinity binding of the TRH-product cyclo(His-Pro) by spinal cord and brain TRH receptor despite its having some strong TRH-like physiologic actions on the CNS; and c) lack of any identifiable high-affinity receptor for cyclo(His-Pro) in spinal cord and brain. From these data the authors hypothesize that the acute transmitter-like action of DN-1417, TRH, and possibly other TRH-analogs and products on LMNs is via a non-TRH receptor, such as an amine or amino acid neurotransmitter receptor, e.g. a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor. They further postulate that the CNS TRH-receptor may modulate a trophic-like influence of TRH on LMNs.

  16. Phylogenetic Footprinting Reveals Evolutionarily Conserved Regions of the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene that Enhance Cell-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    GIVENS, MARJORY L.; KUROTANI, REIKO; RAVE-HAREL, NAAMA; MILLER, NICHOL L. G.; MELLON, PAMELA L.

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive function is controlled by the hypothalamic neuropeptide, GnRH, which serves as the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH expression is limited to a small population of neurons in the hypothalamus. Targeting this minute population of neurons (as few as 800 in the mouse) requires regulatory elements upstream of the GnRH gene that remain to be fully characterized. Previously, we have identified an evolutionarily conserved promoter region (−173 to −1) and an enhancer (−1863 to −1571) in the rat gene that targets a subset of the GnRH neurons in vivo. In the present study, we used phylogenetic sequence comparison between human and rodents and analysis of the transcription factor clusters within conserved regions in an attempt to identify additional upstream regulatory elements. This approach led to the characterization of a new upstream enhancer that regulates expression of GnRH in a cell-specific manner. Within this upstream enhancer are nine binding sites for Octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (OCT1), known to be an important transcriptional regulator of GnRH gene expression. In addition, we have identified nuclear factor I (NF1) binding to multiple elements in the GnRH-regulatory regions, each in close proximity to OCT1. We show that OCT1 and NF1 physically and functionally interact. Moreover, the OCT1 and NF1 binding sites in the regulatory regions appear to be essential for appropriate GnRH gene expression. These findings indicate a role for this upstream enhancer and novel OCT1/NF1 complexes in neuron-restricted expression of the GnRH gene. PMID:15319450

  17. Use of Piezoelectric Immunosensors for Detection of Interferon-Gamma Interaction with Specific Antibodies in the Presence of Released-Active Forms of Antibodies to Interferon-Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Don, Elena; Farafonova, Olga; Pokhil, Suzanna; Barykina, Darya; Nikiforova, Marina; Shulga, Darya; Borshcheva, Alena; Tarasov, Sergey; Ermolaeva, Tatyana; Epstein, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In preliminary ELISA studies where released-active forms (RAF) of antibodies (Abs) to interferon-gamma (IFNg) were added to the antigen-antibody system, a statistically significant difference in absorbance signals obtained in their presence in comparison to placebo was observed. A piezoelectric immunosensor assay was developed to support these data and investigate the effects of RAF Abs to IFNg on the specific interaction between Abs to IFNg and IFNg. The experimental conditions were designed and optimal electrode coating, detection circumstances and suitable chaotropic agents for electrode regeneration were selected. The developed technique was found to provide high repeatability, intermediate precision and specificity. The difference between the analytical signals of RAF Ab samples and those of the placebo was up to 50.8%, whereas the difference between non-specific controls and the placebo was within 5%–6%. Thus, the piezoelectric immunosensor as well as ELISA has the potential to be used for detecting the effects of RAF Abs to IFNg on the antigen-antibody interaction, which might be the result of RAF’s ability to modify the affinity of IFNg to specific/related Abs. PMID:26791304

  18. Use of Piezoelectric Immunosensors for Detection of Interferon-Gamma Interaction with Specific Antibodies in the Presence of Released-Active Forms of Antibodies to Interferon-Gamma.

    PubMed

    Don, Elena; Farafonova, Olga; Pokhil, Suzanna; Barykina, Darya; Nikiforova, Marina; Shulga, Darya; Borshcheva, Alena; Tarasov, Sergey; Ermolaeva, Tatyana; Epstein, Oleg

    2016-01-20

    In preliminary ELISA studies where released-active forms (RAF) of antibodies (Abs) to interferon-gamma (IFNg) were added to the antigen-antibody system, a statistically significant difference in absorbance signals obtained in their presence in comparison to placebo was observed. A piezoelectric immunosensor assay was developed to support these data and investigate the effects of RAF Abs to IFNg on the specific interaction between Abs to IFNg and IFNg. The experimental conditions were designed and optimal electrode coating, detection circumstances and suitable chaotropic agents for electrode regeneration were selected. The developed technique was found to provide high repeatability, intermediate precision and specificity. The difference between the analytical signals of RAF Ab samples and those of the placebo was up to 50.8%, whereas the difference between non-specific controls and the placebo was within 5%-6%. Thus, the piezoelectric immunosensor as well as ELISA has the potential to be used for detecting the effects of RAF Abs to IFNg on the antigen-antibody interaction, which might be the result of RAF's ability to modify the affinity of IFNg to specific/related Abs.

  19. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand release by substrate-specific a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) involves different protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes depending on the stimulus.

    PubMed

    Dang, Michelle; Dubbin, Karen; D'Aiello, Antonio; Hartmann, Monika; Lodish, Harvey; Herrlich, Andreas

    2011-05-20

    The dysregulation of EGF family ligand cleavage has severe consequences for the developing as well as the adult organism. Therefore, their production is highly regulated. The limiting step is the ectodomain cleavage of membrane-bound precursors by one of several a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) metalloproteases, and understanding the regulation of cleavage is an important goal of current research. We have previously reported that in mouse lung epithelial cells, the pro-EGF ligands TGFα, neuregulin 1β (NRG), and heparin-binding EGF are differentially cleaved depending on the cleavage stimulus (Herrlich, A., Klinman, E., Fu, J., Sadegh, C., and Lodish, H. (2008) FASEB J.). In this study in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack different ADAMs, we show that induced cleavage of EGF ligands can involve the same substrate-specific metalloprotease but does require different stimulus-dependent signaling pathways. Cleavage was stimulated by phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a mimic of diacylglycerol and PKC activator), hypertonic stress, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced G protein-coupled receptor activation, or by ionomycin-induced intracellular calcium release. Although ADAMs showed substrate preference (ADAM17, TGFα and heparin-binding EGF; and ADAM9, NRG), substrate cleavage differed substantially with the stimulus, and cleavage of the same substrate depended on the presence of different, sometimes multiple, PKC isoforms. For instance, classical PKC was required for TPA-induced but not hypertonic stress-induced cleavage of all EGF family ligands. Inhibition of PKCζ enhanced NRG release upon TPA stimulation, but it blocked NRG release in response to hypertonic stress. Our results suggest a model in which substantial regulation of ectodomain cleavage occurs not only on the metalloprotease level but also on the level of the substrate or of a third protein.

  20. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    SciTech Connect

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems.

  2. Enhanced Blood Suspensibility and Laser-Activated Tumor-specific Drug Release of Theranostic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles by Functionalizing with Erythrocyte Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jinghan; Sun, Huiping; Meng, Qingshuo; Zhang, Pengcheng; Yin, Qi; Li, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), with their large surface area and tunable pore sizes, have been widely applied for anticancer therapeutic cargos delivery with a high loading capacity. However, easy aggregation in saline buffers and limited blood circulation lifetime hinder their delivery efficiency and the anticancer efficacy. Here, new multifunctional MSNs-supported red-blood-cell (RBC)-mimetic theranostic nanoparticles with long blood circulation, deep-red light-activated tumor imaging and drug release were reported. High loading capacities were achieved by camouflaging MSNs with RBC membrane to co-load an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) (39.1 wt%) and a near-infrared photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) (21.1 wt%). The RBC membrane-coating protected drugs from leakage, and greatly improved the colloidal stability of MSNs, with negligible particle size change over two weeks. Upon an external laser stimuli, the RBC membrane could be destroyed, resulting in 10 times enhancement of Dox release. In a 4T1 breast cancer mouse model, the RBC-mimetic MSNs could realize in vivo tumor imaging with elongated tumor accumulation lifetime for over 24 h, and laser-activated tumor-specific Dox accumulation. The RBC-mimetic MSNs could integrate the Ce6-based photodynamic therapy and Dox-based chemotherapy, completely suppress the primary tumor growth and inhibit metastasis of breast cancer, which could provide a new strategy for optimization of MSNs and efficient anticancer drug delivery. PMID:28255347

  3. An efficient procedure for marker-free mutagenesis of S. coelicolor by site-specific recombination for secondary metabolite overproduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Dai, Ruixue; Yu, Meiying; Zhao, Guoping; Ding, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are known for producing important natural compounds by secondary metabolism, especially antibiotics with novel biological activities. Functional studies of antibiotic-biosynthesizing gene clusters are generally through homologous genomic recombination by gene-targeting vectors. Here, we present a rapid and efficient method for construction of gene-targeting vectors. This approach is based on Streptomyces phage φBT1 integrase-mediated multisite in vitro site-specific recombination. Four 'entry clones' were assembled into a circular plasmid to generate the destination gene-targeting vector by a one-step reaction. The four 'entry clones' contained two clones of the upstream and downstream flanks of the target gene, a selectable marker and an E. coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector. After targeted modification of the genome, the selectable markers were removed by φC31 integrase-mediated in vivo site-specific recombination between pre-placed attB and attP sites. Using this method, part of the calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA) and actinorhodin (Act) biosynthetic gene clusters were deleted, and the rrdA encoding RrdA, a negative regulator of Red production, was also deleted. The final prodiginine production of the engineered strain was over five times that of the wild-type strain. This straightforward φBT1 and φC31 integrase-based strategy provides an alternative approach for rapid gene-targeting vector construction and marker removal in streptomycetes.

  4. The pH-dependent Client Release from the Collagen-specific Chaperone HSP47 Is Triggered by a Tandem Histidine Pair.

    PubMed

    Oecal, Sinan; Socher, Eileen; Uthoff, Matthias; Ernst, Corvin; Zaucke, Frank; Sticht, Heinrich; Baumann, Ulrich; Gebauer, Jan M

    2016-06-10

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident collagen-specific chaperone and essential for proper formation of the characteristic collagen triple helix. It preferentially binds to the folded conformation of its clients and accompanies them from the ER to the Golgi compartment, where it releases them and is recycled back to the ER. Unlike other chaperones, the binding and release cycles are not governed by nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, but presumably the dissociation of the HSP47-procollagen complex is triggered by the lower pH in the Golgi (pH 6.3) compared with the ER (pH 7.4). Histidine residues have been suggested as triggers due to their approximate textbook pKa value of 6.1 for their side chains. We present here an extensive theoretical and experimental study of the 14 histidine residues present in canine HSP47, where we have mutated all histidine residues in the collagen binding interface and additionally all of those that were predicted to undergo a significant change in protonation state between pH 7 and 6. These mutants were characterized by biolayer interferometry for their pH-dependent binding to a collagen model. One mutant (H238N) loses binding, which can be explained by a rearrangement of the Arg(222) and Asp(385) residues, which are crucial for specific collagen recognition. Most of the other mutants were remarkably silent, but a double mutant with His(273) and His(274) exchanged for asparagines exhibits a much less pronounced pH dependence of collagen binding. This effect is mainly caused by a lower koff at the low pH values.

  5. 43 CFR 11.36 - May the authorized official use both type A and type B procedures for the same release?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and/or from population losses; (7) Lost recreational harvests resulting from any closures specified by the authorized official and/or from population losses; (8) For the type A procedure for coastal and marine environments, lost wildlife viewing, resulting from population losses, by residents of the...

  6. Release of palladium from biomechanical prostheses in body fluids can induce or support PD-specific IFNgamma T cell responses and the clinical setting of a palladium hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, A; Bordignon, V; Petrucci, F; Caimi, S; De Rocco, M; Picardo, M; Cordiali Fei, P; Ensoli, F

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of Palladium (Pd) for biomedical applications, which has more than doubled in the last ten years, appears to be associated with an increased frequency of adverse reactions to Pd. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the implant of a biomechanical apparatus containing Pd and the setting of a hypersensitivity to Pd by determining the levels of the metal released in biological fluids, assessing the effects of Pd on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production and exploring the clinical setting of skin sensitization. Of a total of 3,093 subjects examined in 2006, sensitization to Pd alone or in association with nickel (Ni) was observed in 1.6% and 13.03% of the individuals, respectively. Of these, a group of six subjects positive to Pd and negative to Ni at patch testing were selected on the basis of the oral clinical symptoms in order to measure both the levels of Pd in biological fluids and the degradation of the dental prostheses. Specific Pd measurements were carried out on salivary fluid, urine and serum samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. In addition, the degradation of the dental prostheses was assessed by both a leaching test and an analysis of the micro morphology of orthodontic prostheses. The induction of IFN-gamma production by Pd was assessed in PBMC by the ELISpot assay. Skin sensitization to Pd was evaluated by patch testing and clinical examination. Ten healthy subjects were comparatively tested as controls. We found a specific induction of an IFN-gamma response by Pd in PBMC collected from all the subjects positive to Pd at patch testing. On the contrary, control subjects did not show any response to Pd as assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay or by skin testing. Remarkably, the levels of Pd in all biological samples (saliva, sera, urine) were significantly higher in Pd-sensitized patients than in those collected from controls, reaching the highest

  7. Most-probable-number loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based procedure enhanced with K antigen-specific immunomagnetic separation for quantifying tdh(+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan Shellfish.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Natsuko; Iwade, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Wataru; Gondaira, Fumio; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2014-07-01

    Although thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (tdh(+)) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, the enumeration of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus remains challenging due to its low densities in the environment. In this study, we developed a most-probable-number (MPN)-based procedure designated A-IS(1)-LAMP, in which an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique targeting as many as 69 established K antigens and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were applied in an MPN format. Our IMS employed PickPen, an eight-channel intrasolution magnetic particle separation device, which enabled a straightforward microtiter plate-based IMS procedure (designated as PickPen-IMS). The ability of the procedure to quantify a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels was evaluated by testing shellfish samples in Japan and southern Thailand, where shellfish products are known to contain relatively low and high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The Japanese and Thai shellfish samples showed, respectively, relatively low (< 3 to 11 MPN/10 g) and considerably higher (930 to 110,000 MPN/10 g) levels of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, raising concern about the safety of Thai shellfish products sold to domestic consumers at local morning markets. LAMP showed similar or higher performance than conventional PCR in the detection and quantification of a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. Whereas a positive effect of PickPen-IMS was not observed in MPN determination, PickPen-IMS was able to concentrate tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus 32-fold on average from the Japanese shellfish samples at an individual tube level, suggesting a possibility of using PickPen-IMS as an optional tool for specific shellfish samples. The A-IS(1)-LAMP procedure can be used by any health authority in the world to measure the tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in

  8. Correlation of ADCC activity with cytokine release induced by the stably expressed, glyco-engineered humanized Lewis Y-specific monoclonal antibody MB314.

    PubMed

    Kircheis, Ralf; Halanek, Nicole; Koller, Iris; Jost, Wolfgang; Schuster, Manfred; Gorr, Gilbert; Hajszan, Klaus; Nechansky, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is their reduced in vivo efficacy compared with the high efficacy measured in vitro. Effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) are dramatically reduced in vivo by the presence of high amounts of endogenous IgG in the serum. Recent studies have shown that modification of the glycosylation moieties attached to the Fc part of the mAb can enhance binding affinity to FcγRIIIα receptors on natural killer cells and thus may counteract the reduced in vivo efficacy. In the present study, a humanized IgG1/κ monoclonal antibody recognizing the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Lewis Y was stably produced in a moss expression system that allows glyco-engineering. The glyco-modified mAb (designated MB314) showed a highly homogeneous N-glycosylation pattern lacking core-fucose. A side-by-side comparison to its parental counterpart produced in conventional mammalian cell-culture (MB311, formerly known as IGN311) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed that the target specificity of MB314 is similar to that of MB311. In contrast, ADCC effector function of MB314 was increased up to 40-fold whereas complement dependent cytotoxicity activity was decreased 5-fold. Notably, a release of immunostimulatory cytokines, including interferon γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was particularly induced with the glyco-modified antibody. TNF release was associated with CD14 (+) cells, indicating activation of monocytes.

  9. An oocyte-specific astacin family protease, alveolin, is released from cortical granules to trigger egg envelope hardening during fertilization in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yasushi; Iwamatsu, Takashi; Suzuki, Norio; Young, Graham; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu

    2012-12-15

    It has long been hypothesized that in fishes the contents of cortical granules are involved in the hardening of egg envelope following fertilization. We previously purified the egg envelope hardening initiation factor from the exudates released from activated medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs and tentatively termed this protein alveolin. Alveolin is a member of the astacin metalloprotease family and was proposed to be a protease which hydrolyzes ZPB at one restricted position to allow starting cross-linking with ZPC. Here, we investigated the complete pathway from biosynthesis and accumulation to secretion of alveolin. A single alveolin transcript was detected only in ovarian preparations, confirming the specific expression of alveolin in the ovary. In situ hybridization indicated that the alveolin mRNA is already expressed in the very early previtellogenic oocytes. However, immunocytochemical studies revealed that the appearance of alveolin protein was delayed until the beginning of the vitellogenic stage. The cortical granules isolated from unfertilized eggs contained a high molecular weight form of glycosylated alveolin with a 50kDa relative molecular mass. Hypotonic treatment burst isolated granules in vitro and transformed alveolin to a 21.5kDa form, which is the same size as that of natural alveolin released from eggs upon fertilization. This transformation was inhibited in the presence of leupeptin and 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF), suggesting that a serine protease is involved in alveolin activation upon fertilization. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of alveolin with other vertebrate astacin family members was analyzed. The result shows that alveolin and its teleostean homologs make a new group which is separate from either the hatching enzyme, meprin and BMP1/tolloid groups.

  10. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: a combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P C; Hillier, S; Wall, A J

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 (+/-1) % of ripidolite, 19 (+/-1) % of saponite, and 19 (+/-3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  11. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  12. Modular Integration of Upconverting Nanocrystal-Dendrimer Composites for Folate Receptor-Specific NIR Imaging and Light-Triggered Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pamela T; Chen, Dexin; Tang, Shengzhuang; Yanik, Sean; Payne, Michael; Mukherjee, Jhindan; Coulter, Alexa; Tang, Kenny; Tao, Ke; Sun, Kang; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-02

    Upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) display near-infrared (NIR)-responsive photoluminescent properties for NIR imaging and drug delivery. The development of effective strategies for UCN integration with other complementary nanostructures for targeting and drug conjugation is highly desirable. This study reports on a core/shell-based theranostic system designed by UCN integration with a folate (FA)-conjugated dendrimer for tumor targeting and with photocaged doxorubicin as a cytotoxic agent. Two types of UCNs (NaYF4:Yb/Er (or Yb/Tm); diameter = ≈50 to 54 nm) are described, each displaying distinct emission properties upon NIR (980 nm) excitation. The UCNs are surface modified through covalent attachment of photocaged doxorubicin (ONB-Dox) and a multivalent FA-conjugated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G5(FA)6 to prepare UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA). Surface plasmon resonance experiments performed with G5(FA)6 dendrimer alone show nanomolar binding avidity (KD = 5.9 × 10(-9) M) to the folate binding protein. This dendrimer binding corresponds with selective binding and uptake of UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA) by FAR-positive KB carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA) treatment of FAR(+) KB cells inhibits cell growth in a light dependent manner. These results validate the utility of modularly integrated UCN-dendrimer nanocomposites for cell type specific NIR imaging and light-controlled drug release, thus serving as a new theranostic system.

  13. Development of an integrated procedure for the detection of central nervous tissue in meat products using cholesterol and neuron-specific enolase as markers.

    PubMed

    Lücker, E; Eigenbrodt, E; Wenisch, S; Failing, K; Leiser, R; Bülte, M

    1999-03-01

    The emergence of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic has focused attention on the use of tissue from the central nervous system (CNS) in food. So far, the banning of CNS tissue could not be effectively controlled because procedures for detection were missing. With regard to preventive health protection and labeling law enforcement, we have developed an integrated procedure for the detection of CNS tissue in meat products. Herein, we show that antigenic characteristics of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) quantitatively survive technological treatment including severe homogenization and pressure heating. Using both poly- and monoclonal antibodies against NSE in the Western blot, bovine and porcine brain could be detected in sausages, albeit with varying sensitivity (1 to 4%). Sensitivity was increased after reduction of fat content (30 to 40%) of the samples by means of a soxhlet extraction. This made possible the detection of brain addition as low as 0.25% when using monoclonal antibodies. Immunohistology showed distribution of CNS tissue in heat-treated meat products to be homogeneous. Immunoreaction was not found to be bound to morphologically intact histological or cytological structures; however, it proved to be highly specific. The quantification of cholesterol provides a low-cost screening method for the rapid identification of meat products, suspicious with regard to CNS tissue addition. Cholesterol content increased by 26 mg per 100 g of fresh substance for each percentage of brain added to internally produced reference material. Using three different approaches (internal reference material, raw material, and field samples), a provisional cutoff point of normal cholesterol content was calculated for emulsion-type cooked sausages to be 115 mg/100 g (P < 0.05).

  14. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  15. Computational replication of the patient-specific stenting procedure for coronary artery bifurcations: From OCT and CT imaging to structural and hemodynamics analyses.

    PubMed

    Chiastra, Claudio; Wu, Wei; Dickerhoff, Benjamin; Aleiou, Ali; Dubini, Gabriele; Otake, Hiromasa; Migliavacca, Francesco; LaDisa, John F

    2016-07-26

    The optimal stenting technique for coronary artery bifurcations is still debated. With additional advances computational simulations can soon be used to compare stent designs or strategies based on verified structural and hemodynamics results in order to identify the optimal solution for each individual's anatomy. In this study, patient-specific simulations of stent deployment were performed for 2 cases to replicate the complete procedure conducted by interventional cardiologists. Subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were conducted to quantify hemodynamic quantities linked to restenosis. Patient-specific pre-operative models of coronary bifurcations were reconstructed from CT angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Plaque location and composition were estimated from OCT and assigned to models, and structural simulations were performed in Abaqus. Artery geometries after virtual stent expansion of Xience Prime or Nobori stents created in SolidWorks were compared to post-operative geometry from OCT and CT before being extracted and used for CFD simulations in SimVascular. Inflow boundary conditions based on body surface area, and downstream vascular resistances and capacitances were applied at branches to mimic physiology. Artery geometries obtained after virtual expansion were in good agreement with those reconstructed from patient images. Quantitative comparison of the distance between reconstructed and post-stent geometries revealed a maximum difference in area of 20.4%. Adverse indices of wall shear stress were more pronounced for thicker Nobori stents in both patients. These findings verify structural analyses of stent expansion, introduce a workflow to combine software packages for solid and fluid mechanics analysis, and underscore important stent design features from prior idealized studies. The proposed approach may ultimately be useful in determining an optimal choice of stent and position for each patient.

  16. Serum levels of prostate-specific antigen and androgens after nasal administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone-agonist in hirsute women.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Muberra; Tarcan, Aytül; Beydilli, Gülay; Koç, Sevgi; Haberal, Ali

    2004-04-01

    We aimed to determine whether ovarian suppression affects the production rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in hirsute women. A total of 34 hirsute women who had a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) score of > or = 7 and 14, non-hirsute women as the control group were recruited for this prospective controlled study. Serum samples for evaluation of basal hormones and PSA concentration were collected and were analyzed by commercial kits and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The hirsute women were given 400 microg/day nafarelin acetate for 3 months. Basal hormones, PSA levels and FG scores were then assessed. ANOVA and Tukey test were used to compare differences in means between the hirsute and the non-hirsute group at the beginning of the study. Student's t test, Tukey test and repeated measures variance analysis were used to evaluate differences in the study group and between the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and idiopathic hirsutism after gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist administration. Statistical significance was assumed with a value of p < 0.05. PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism were diagnosed in 58.8% and 41.2% of 34 hirsute women, respectively. Age and body mass index (BMI) were similar in the hirsute and the control group (p > 0.05). FG scores in the PCOS group (20.3 +/- 1.7) were statistically similar to those of the group with idiopathic hirsutism (17.6 +/- 1.7) (p > 0.05). The non-hirsute women had significantly lower serum PSA concentrations than the hirsute group (p < 0.001). The basal mean level of PSA was 0.095 +/- 0.001 in the PCOS, 0.0061 +/- 0.009 in the idiopathic hirsute and 0.0040 +/- 0.004 ng/ml in the control group. No significant difference in the mean PSA levels was noted between the PCOS and the idiopathic hirsute subgroups before and after GnRH agonist treatment (0.0096 +/- 0.01 and 0.0051 +/- 0.032 ng/ml, respectively) (p > 0.05). FG scores, testosterone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone

  17. Dose- and tissue-specific interaction of monoterpenes with the gibberellin-mediated release of potato tuber bud dormancy, sprout growth and induction of α-amylases and β-amylases.

    PubMed

    Rentzsch, Sonja; Podzimska, Dagmara; Voegele, Antje; Imbeck, Madeleine; Müller, Kerstin; Linkies, Ada; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) are involved in bud dormancy release in several species. We show here that GA-treatment released bud dormancy, initiated bud sprouting and promoted sprout growth of excised potato tuber bud discs ('eyes'). Monoterpenes from peppermint oil (PMO) and S-(+)-carvone (CAR) interact with the GA-mediated bud dormancy release in a hormesis-type response: low monoterpene concentrations enhance dormancy release and the initiation of bud sprouting, whereas high concentrations inhibit it. PMO and CAR did, however, not affect sprout growth rate after its onset. We further show that GA-induced dormancy release is associated with tissue-specific regulation of α- and β-amylases. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that potato α-amylases cluster into two distinct groups: α-AMY1 and α-AMY2. GA-treatment induced transcript accumulation of members of both α-amylase groups, as well as α- and β-amylase enzyme activity in sprout and 'sub-eye' tissues. In sprouts, CAR interacts with the GA-mediated accumulation of α-amylase transcripts in an α-AMY2-specific and dose-dependent manner. Low CAR concentrations enhance the accumulation of α-AMY2-type α-amylase transcripts, but do not affect the α-AMY1-type transcripts. Low CAR concentrations also enhance the accumulation of α- and β-amylase enzyme activity in sprouts, but not in 'sub-eye' tissues. In contrast, high CAR concentrations have no appreciable effect in sprouts on the enzyme activities and the α-amylase transcript abundances of either group. The dose-dependent effects on the enzyme activities and the α-AMY2-type α-amylase transcripts in sprouts are specific for CAR but not for PMO. Different monoterpenes therefore may have specific targets for their interaction with hormone signalling pathways.

  18. Tissue-specific effects of in vitro fertilization procedures on genomic cytosine methylation levels in overgrown and normal sized bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Wirtz, Michaela; Mund, Cora; Klempt, Martina; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Weppert, Myriam; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Elmlinger, Martin; Lyko, Frank; Schmitz, Oliver J; Wolf, Eckhard

    2006-07-01

    Epigenetic perturbations are assumed to be responsible for phenotypic abnormalities of fetuses and offspring originating from in vitro embryo techniques. We studied 29 viable Day-80 bovine fetuses to assess the effects of two in vitro fertilization protocols (IVF1 and IVF2) on fetal phenotype and genomic cytosine methylation levels in liver, skeletal muscle, and brain. The IVF1 protocol employed 0.01 U/ml of FSH and LH in oocyte maturation medium and 5% estrous cow serum (ECS) in embryo culture medium, whereas the IVF2 protocol employed 0.2 U/ml of FSH and no LH for oocyte maturation and 10% ECS for embryo culture. Comparisons with in vivo-fertilized controls (n=14) indicated an apparently normal phenotype for IVF1 fetuses (n=5), but IVF2 fetuses (n=10) were significantly heavier (19.9%) and longer (4.7%), with increased heart (25.2%) and liver (27.9%) weights, and thus displayed an overgrowth phenotype. A clinicochemical screen of 18 plasma parameters revealed significantly increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (40.8%) and creatinine (37.5%) in IVF2, but not in IVF1, fetuses. Quantification of genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by capillary electrophoresis indicated that both IVF1 and IVF2 fetuses differed from controls. We observed significant DNA hypomethylation in liver and muscle of IVF1 fetuses (-16.1% and -9.3%, respectively) and significant hypermethylation in liver of IVF2 fetuses (+11.2%). The 5mC level of cerebral DNA was not affected by IVF protocol. Our data indicate that bovine IVF procedures can affect fetal genomic 5mC levels in a protocol- and tissue-specific manner and show that hepatic hypermethylation is associated with fetal overgrowth and its correlated endocrine changes.

  19. Trials based on specific fracture configuration and surgical procedures likely to be more relevant for decision making in the management of fractures of the proximal humerus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, N. K.; Griffiths, D.; Athanasiou, T.; Gupte, C. M.; Reilly, P.

    2016-01-01

    . Griffiths, T. Athanasiou, C. M. Gupte, P. Reilly. Trials based on specific fracture configuration and surgical procedures likely to be more relevant for decision making in the management of fractures of the proximal humerus: Findings of a meta-analysisBone Joint Res 2016;5:470–480. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.510.2000638. PMID:27756738

  20. 28 CFR 572.31 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Parole and Mandatory Release Violator Reports § 572.31 Procedures. Staff shall prepare the Violator... and district; (b) Description of release procedure; (c) Alleged violation(s) of parole or...

  1. 28 CFR 572.31 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Parole and Mandatory Release Violator Reports § 572.31 Procedures. Staff shall prepare the Violator... and district; (b) Description of release procedure; (c) Alleged violation(s) of parole or...

  2. 28 CFR 572.31 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Parole and Mandatory Release Violator Reports § 572.31 Procedures. Staff shall prepare the Violator... and district; (b) Description of release procedure; (c) Alleged violation(s) of parole or...

  3. 28 CFR 572.31 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Parole and Mandatory Release Violator Reports § 572.31 Procedures. Staff shall prepare the Violator... and district; (b) Description of release procedure; (c) Alleged violation(s) of parole or...

  4. 28 CFR 572.31 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Parole and Mandatory Release Violator Reports § 572.31 Procedures. Staff shall prepare the Violator... and district; (b) Description of release procedure; (c) Alleged violation(s) of parole or...

  5. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3).

  6. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  7. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media.

    PubMed

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade "A" honey. Approximately 10(10)-10(11) colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials' community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery.

  8. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade “A” honey. Approximately 1010–1011 colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials’ community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery. PMID:27051284

  9. Designing Flightdeck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Mauro, Robert; Degani, Asaf; Loukopoulou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this document is to provide guidance on how to design, implement, and evaluate flight deck procedures. It provides a process for developing procedures that meet clear and specific requirements. This document provides a brief overview of: 1) the requirements for procedures, 2) a process for the design of procedures, and 3) a process for the design of checklists. The brief overview is followed by amplified procedures that follow the above steps and provide details for the proper design, implementation and evaluation of good flight deck procedures and checklists.

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  11. A COMPARISON OF THE SPECIFICITY OF INHIBITION BY PHOSPHONATE ESTERS OF THE FIRST COMPONENT OF COMPLEMENT AND THE ANTIGEN-INDUCED RELEASE OF HISTAMINE FROM GUINEA PIG LUNG

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Elmer L.; Austen, K. Frank

    1964-01-01

    The ability of a number p-nitrophenylethyl alkyl, phenyl alkyl, chloroalkyl, and aminoalkyl phosphonates to inhibit the activated first component (C'1a) of guinea pig complement, and the antigen-induced release of histamine from sliced, perfused guinea pig lung has been compared. C'1a in its reactivity with these phosphonates is distinctly more similar to trypsin than to any of the other enzymes studied previously. It is suggested that both trypsin and C'1a possess an anionic group in the active center of the respective enzyme, but the distance between the anionic and esteratic site in C'1a might be less than in trypsin. The pattern of inhibition of histamine relase by the alkyl, phenyl alkyl, and chloroalkyl phosphonates is similar to the inhibition of C'1a by these compounds, although distinct differences are apparent. The aminoalkyl phosphonates are distinctly less active inhibitors of histamine release than the corresponding alkyl phosphonates, whereas the reverse is true of the inhibition of C'1a. On the basis of these differences, it is tentatively concluded that the organophosphorus-inhibitable enzymes in the guinea pig systems studied here are similar but not identical. PMID:14212115

  12. Comparison of plasma exchange performances between Spectra Optia and COBE Spectra apheresis systems in repeated procedures considering variability and using specific statistical models.

    PubMed

    Hequet, O; Stocco, V; Assari, S; Drillat, P; Le, Q H; Kassir, A; Rigal, D; Bouzgarrou, R

    2014-08-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures using centrifugation techniques became a standard therapy in some diseases. As the new device Spectra Optia (SPO; Terumo BCT) was available, we studied its performances in repeated procedures in 20 patients in three apheresis units. First we analysed the performance results obtained by SPO. Second we compared the performances of the SPO device to a standard device, COBE Spectra (CSP; Terumo BCT) in the same patients using statistical method of mixed effects linear regression that considers variability between patients, centres and apheresis procedures. The performances analysed were classified according to plasma removal performances and their consequences on patients whose blood disturbances were assessed. Primary outcome was plasma removal efficiency (PRE) and PRE-anticoagulant corrected which was a more accurate parameter. Secondary outcomes corresponded to the volume of ACD-A consumed, platelets content in waste bag, procedure duration and status of coagulation system observed after TPE sessions. Before comparing the performances of both devices we compared the plasma volumes (PVs) processed in both techniques which showed that the PVs processed in SPO procedures were lower than in CSP procedures. In these conditions the statistical analysis revealed similar performances in both apheresis devices in PRE (p = ns) but better performances with SPO when considering higher PRE corrected by anticoagulant volume used (p < 0.05). Comparison of secondary outcomes showed no difference after SPO and CSP. After verifying that pre-apheresis patients' coagulation blood levels were identical before SPO and CSP, we showed identical haemostasis disturbances after SPO and CSP but lower platelet losses and higher fibrinogen post-apheresis blood levels after SPO (p < 0.05). No side effects or technical complications occurred during and after SPO and CSP. This study demonstrated that the Spectra Optia device is an

  13. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  14. California School Lighting Design and Evaluation. A Procedure for the Prediction, Specification, and Evaluation of Visual Comfort and Visual Performance in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This guide is intended to help school administrators, members of school district governing boards, architects, and engineers objectively evaluate school lighting systems. The California school lighting design and evaluation procedure described provides a step-by-step design method that, when used properly, results in balanced lighting for school…

  15. Periprocedural management of anticoagulation in patients taking novel oral anticoagulants: Review of the literature and recommendations for specific populations and procedures.

    PubMed

    Mar, Philip L; Familtsev, Dmitry; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Gopinathannair, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals are on novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for anticoagulation instead of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and roughly 10% of these individuals will require interruption of these agents for procedures annually. Recent evidence surrounding bridging as well as the FDA approval of a new NOAC call for a comprehensive review and update regarding periprocedural NOAC management. The periprocedural management of NOACs involves striking a balance between the risks of bleeding and thromboembolism associated with interruption, bridging, and reinitiation of anticoagulation. NOACs have a distinct pharmacokinetic advantage in this setting with their quick onset and elimination from the body. Procedures at low risk for bleeding do not require interruption and can be scheduled at the start of the next dosing interval. Procedures at moderate-high risk of bleeding require interruption of NOAC for 5 half lives prior to the procedure to allow for adequate elimination of the drug. In light of new evidence highlighting the risks of bleeding, and given shorter "unprotected" times with NOAC interruption versus VKA, patients at low-moderate risk for thromboembolism should not be bridged when "unprotected" time is less than 96 h. For patients at high risk for thromboembolism, individual patient and surgical factors need to be considered before the decision to bridge is made. The benefit of bridging these patients who have a considerable risk of bleeding may not outweigh the benefits. Focused randomized studies on periprocedural management of NOACs are urgently needed.

  16. Neurovascular Compression After the Latarjet Procedure.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Joseph W; Romanowski, James R; Boykin, Robert E; Eichinger, Josef K; Lafosse, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    The Latarjet procedure is an established and effective option for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Symptomatic compression of the vasculature around the shoulder and adjacent brachial plexus is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this report is to describe a patient with neurovascular compression of the axillary artery and brachial plexus after an open Latarjet procedure. This is the first known report of documented combined vascular and neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome after a Latarjet procedure. Evaluation of this suspected problem requires a detailed clinical examination and a dynamic angiogram to verify which neurovascular structures are compressed. Treatment includes decompression of the brachial plexus and axillary vasculature by releasing tethering scar tissue or the remaining pectoralis minor that is creating a constricting sling effect. An arthroscopic approach provides for a careful and specific decompression. Additionally, the authors provide a review of the literature for neurologic complications and management for these complications.

  17. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  18. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  19. Justification of Drug Product Dissolution Rate and Drug Substance Particle Size Specifications Based on Absorption PBPK Modeling for Lesinurad Immediate Release Tablets.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Xavier J H; Flanagan, Talia R; Holt, David J; Eidelman, Anna; Treacy, Don; Rowlings, Colin E

    2016-09-06

    In silico absorption modeling has been performed, to assess the impact of in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for ZURAMPIC (lesinurad) tablets. The dissolution profiles of lesinurad tablets generated using the quality control method were used as an input to a GastroPlus model to estimate in vivo dissolution in the various parts of the GI tract and predict human exposure. A model was set up, which accounts for differences of dosage form transit, dissolution, local pH in the GI tract, and fluid volumes available for dissolution. The predictive ability of the model was demonstrated by confirming that it can reproduce the Cmax observed for independent clinical trial. The model also indicated that drug product batches that pass the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min are anticipated to be bioequivalent to the clinical reference batch. To further explore the dissolution space, additional simulations were performed using a theoretical dissolution profile below the proposed specification. The GastroPlus modeling indicates that such a batch will also be bioequivalent to standard clinical batches despite having a dissolution profile, which would fail the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min. This demonstrates that the proposed dissolution specification sits comfortably within a region of dissolution performance where bioequivalence is anticipated and is not near an edge of failure for dissolution, providing additional confidence to the proposed specifications. Finally, simulations were performed using a virtual drug substance batch with a particle size distribution at the limit of the proposed specification for particle size. Based on these simulations, such a batch is also anticipated to be bioequivalent to clinical reference, demonstrating that the proposed specification limits for particle size distribution would give products bioequivalent to the pivotal clinical batches.

  20. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  1. A sequence-specific DNA binding small molecule triggers the release of immunogenic signals and phagocytosis in a model of B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, JeenJoo S.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Means to cause an immunogenic cell death could lead to significant insight into how cancer escapes immune control. In this study, we screened a library of five pyrrole–imidazole polyamides coding for different DNA sequences in a model of B-cell lymphoma for the upregulation of surface calreticulin, a pro-phagocytosis signal implicated in immunogenic cell death. We found that hairpin polyamide 1 triggers the release of the damage-associated molecular patterns calreticulin, ATP and HMGB1 in a slow necrotic-type cell death. Consistent with this signaling, we observed an increase in the rate of phagocytosis by macrophages after the cancer cells were exposed to polyamide 1. The DNA sequence preference of polyamide 1 is 5′-WGGGTW-3′ (where W = A/T), indicated by the pairing rules and confirmed by the Bind-n-Seq method. The close correspondence of this sequence with the telomere-repeat sequence suggests a potential mechanism of action through ligand binding at the telomere. This study reveals a chemical means to trigger an inflammatory necrotic cell death in cancer cells. PMID:26537405

  2. Colocalization properties of elementary Ca(2+) release signals with structures specific to the contractile filaments and the tubular system of intact mouse skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Tihomir; Zapiec, Bolek; Förderer, Moritz; Fink, Rainer H A; Vogel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Ca(2+) regulates several important intracellular processes. We combined second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) to simultaneously record the SHG signal of the myosin filaments and localized elementary Ca(2+) release signals (LCSs). We found LCSs associated with Y-shaped structures of the myosin filament pattern (YMs), so called verniers, in intact mouse skeletal muscle fibers under hypertonic treatment. Ion channels crucial for the Ca(2+) regulation are located in the tubular system, a system that is important for Ca(2+) regulation and excitation-contraction coupling. We investigated the tubular system of intact, living mouse skeletal muscle fibers using 2PFM and the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 dissolved in the external solution or the membrane dye di-8-ANEPPS. We simultaneously measured the SHG signal from the myosin filaments of the skeletal muscle fibers. We found that at least a subset of the YMs observed in SHG images are closely juxtaposed with Y-shaped structures of the transverse tubules (YTs). The distances of corresponding YMs and YTs yield values between 1.3 μm and 4.1 μm including pixel uncertainty with a mean distance of 2.52±0.10 μm (S.E.M., n=41). Additionally, we observed that some of the linear-shaped areas in the tubular system are colocalized with linear-shaped areas in the SHG images.

  3. Transmitter release modulation by intracellular Ca2+ buffers in facilitating and depressing nerve terminals of pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 of the rat neocortex indicates a target cell-specific difference in presynaptic calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, A; Burnashev, N; Sakmann, B; Neher, E

    2001-01-01

    also abolished facilitation. Frequency-dependent depression of EPSPs in multipolar cells was not significantly reduced by EGTA. With BAPTA, the depression decreased at concentrations > 0.5 mm, concomitant with a reduction in amplitude of the first EPSP in a train. An analysis is presented that interprets the effects of EGTA and BAPTA on synaptic efficacy and its short-term modification during paired-pulse stimulation in terms of changes in [Ca2+] at the release site ([Ca2+]RS) and that infers the affinity of the Ca2+ sensor from the dependence of unitary EPSPs on [Ca2+]o. The results suggest that the target cell-specific difference in release from the terminals on bitufted or multipolar cells can be explained by a longer diffusional distance between Ca2+ channels and release sites and/or lower Ca2+ channels density in the terminals that contact bitufted cells. This would lead to a lower [Ca2+] at release sites and would also explain the higher apparent KD of the Ca2+ sensor in facilitating terminals. PMID:11251060

  4. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA(+) solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  5. Long-stored soil carbon released by prehistoric land use: Evidence from compound-specific radiocarbon analysis on Soppensee lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierga, Merle; Hajdas, Irka; van Raden, Ulrike J.; Gilli, Adrian; Wacker, Lukas; Sturm, Michael; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Smittenberg, Rienk H.

    2016-07-01

    Compound-specific radiocarbon (14C) analyses allow studying the fate of individual biomarkers in ecosystems. In lakes with small catchments, terrestrial biomarkers have the potential to be used for the dating of sediments that lack the traditionally targeted terrestrial macrofossils, if the specific organic compounds are deposited soon after production. On the other hand, if the biomarkers have been stored for a significant amount of time in the soils of the catchment before transported to the lake, their age can be used to reconstruct changes in average residence time of organic material on land through time. Here we present a study based on compound-specific 14C analysis of the sedimentary record of Lake Soppensee, Switzerland, targeting long-chain n-alkanes of exclusive terrigenous origin, and comparing them with sediment ages obtained by high-resolution macrofossil dating. Additionally, we measured 14C ages of bulk organic matter and carbonate samples to assess the hard water effect. Prior to 3100 cal BP n-alkanes had about the same age as the sediment or they were slightly older, indicating that the vast majority of the terrestrial organic carbon transported to the lake had a short residence time on land. In the samples younger than 3100 cal BP an increasing offset is observed, indicating liberation of old buried soil organic matter that must have accumulated over the previous millennia. Our results indicate that as long as stable ecosystem conditions have prevailed, the distribution and isotopic composition of the n-alkanes can be used as environmental proxies in small catchments with limited surface runoff, confirming a few earlier studies.

  6. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA+ solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens. PMID:27757303

  7. [A specific feature of the procedure for determination of optical properties of turbid biological tissues and media in calculation tasks of medical noninvasive spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Rogatkin, D A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to discuss the problems of accuracy and reliability of the procedure for determination of optical per-unit-length properties of light-scattering biological tissues and media in medical noninvasive spectrophotometry. The determination procedure is based on the two-flux Kubelka-Munk approach. A simple one-dimensional model problem is formulated. The accurate solution of this problem is compared to its solution based on the Kubelka-Munk approach in various approximations. It is shown that in the general case of light-scattering and absorbing medium use of two independent transport coefficients (for scattering and absorption processes), as suggested in the conventional Kubelka-Munk approach, leads to errors of direct calculation of properties of backscattered and transmitted radiation in biological tissues. More valid and accurate expressions for transport coefficients can be obtained on the basis of a particular solution of the problem for a surface element of the model medium with known photometrical properties. This method makes it possible to determine accurately the radiation flux at the external boundary of the medium using the Kubelka-Munk approach. It is expected that solution of the inverse problem would make it possible to reconstruct accurately the optical properties of biological tissues from the experimental data.

  8. Time for considering constraints on procedural memory consolidation processes: Comment on Pan and Rickard (2015) with specific reference to developmental changes.

    PubMed

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi

    2016-05-01

    In the acquisition of some motor skills, sleep may be necessary for the completion of procedural memory consolidation processes, as expressed in delayed "offline" performance gains. Pan and Rickard (2015) conducted an original meta-analysis of the literature on performing an explicitly instructed finger movement sequence and tested the role of sleep versus wake in the enhancement of performance over posttraining delay periods. In this comment we propose that a more-biological, process-oriented framework is needed, allowing for more than a yes-no answer to the question addressed, and suggest methodological issues that may affect the target meta-analysis. We argue that different task demands, task conditions, and developmental differences should be considered a priori rather than expected to emerge from pooled data. For example, several recent studies have indicated that there is a qualitative change in the time course of procedural memory consolidation processes at puberty, between the ages of 12 and 17. Before puberty, consolidation processes are reflected in enhancement of task performance over sleep and wake periods alike. In their extensive set of relevant empirical data the authors included a number of developmental studies comparing children with adults (expecting "child status" effects) but did not fully consider developmental changes. We show that the inclusion of the 6 studies of childhood, comprising 13 groups, biases the meta-analysis toward the conclusion that skill enhancement is similar across wake and sleep periods. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug releasing 5-aminosalicylic acid and benzocaine, ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joon; Kim, Wooseong; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics have beneficial effects on colitis. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester (Dex-5-ESA), designed as a polymeric colon-specific prodrug liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the large intestine, was prepared and its therapeutic activity against colitis was evaluated using a TNBS-induced rat colitis model. Dex-5-ESA liberated 5-ASA and benzocaine in the cecal contents while (bio)chemically stable in the small intestinal contents and mucosa. Oral administration of Dex-5-ESA (equivalent to 10 mg 5-ASA/kg, twice a day) alleviated colonic injury and reduced MPO activity in the inflamed colon. In parallel, pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2, iNOS and CINC-3, elevated by TNBS-induced colitis, were substantially diminished in the inflamed colon. Dex-5-ESA was much more effective for the treatment of colitis than 5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ESA) that may not deliver benzocaine to the large intestine. Our data suggest that Dex-5-ESA is a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the target site (large intestine), probably exerting anti-colitic effects by combined action of 5-ASA and benzocaine.

  10. Development of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Immediate-Release Suvorexant Tablets and Application to Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications and In-Process Controls.

    PubMed

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Hermans, Andre; Neu, Colleen; Yee, Ka Lai; Palcza, John; Miller, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Although in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) are commonly pursued for modified-release products, there are limited reports of successful IVIVCs for immediate-release (IR) formulations. This manuscript details the development of a Multiple Level C IVIVC for the amorphous solid dispersion formulation of suvorexant, a BCS class II compound, and its application to establishing dissolution specifications and in-process controls. Four different 40 mg batches were manufactured at different tablet hardnesses to produce distinct dissolution profiles. These batches were evaluated in a relative bioavailability clinical study in healthy volunteers. Although no differences were observed for the total exposure (AUC) of the different batches, a clear relationship between dissolution and Cmax was observed. A validated Multiple Level C IVIVC against Cmax was developed for the 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 min dissolution time points and the tablet disintegration time. The relationship established between tablet tensile strength and dissolution was subsequently used to inform suitable tablet hardness ranges within acceptable Cmax limits. This is the first published report for a validated Multiple Level C IVIVC for an IR solid dispersion formulation demonstrating how this approach can facilitate Quality by Design in formulation development and help toward clinically relevant specifications and in-process controls.

  11. 46 CFR 160.133-13 - Approval inspections and tests for prototype release mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Release Mechanisms... welding is part of the construction process, is constructed by the welding procedure and materials as per... materials for the purpose of— (i) Conducting inspections as necessary to determine that the prototype—...

  12. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  13. Syndactyly Release.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tara L; Trost, Jeffrey G; Pederson, William C

    2016-11-01

    Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital hand anomalies treated by pediatric plastic surgeons. Established principles of syndactyly separation dictate the timing and order of syndactyly release, with the goals of surgery being the creation of an anatomically normal webspace, tension-free closure of soft tissue, and return of function to the fingers. Numerous surgical methods have been described, many of which involve the use of local flaps to reconstruct the commissure and full-thickness skin grafts for coverage of raw areas. Recently, reconstructive techniques without the use of skin grafts have been devised, which work well for certain indications. Special considerations are described for complete, complex, and syndromic syndactylies. Outcomes for simple syndactyly release are typically good when surgical principles are followed, whereas complex syndactyly release tends to have less-favorable outcomes and more complications.

  14. Procedural pediatric dermatology.

    PubMed

    Metz, Brandie J

    2013-04-01

    Due to many factors, including parental anxiety, a child's inability to understand the necessity of a procedure and a child's unwillingness to cooperate, it can be much more challenging to perform dermatologic procedures in children. This article reviews pre-procedural preparation of patients and parents, techniques for minimizing injection-related pain and optimal timing of surgical intervention. The risks and benefits of general anesthesia in the setting of pediatric dermatologic procedures are discussed. Additionally, the surgical approach to a few specific types of birthmarks is addressed.

  15. Detection of fuel release in a nuclear accident: a method for preconcentration and isolation of reactor-borne (239)Np using ion-specific extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Brett L; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Although actinides are the most informative elements with respect to the nature of a nuclear accident, plutonium analysis is complicated by the background created by fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Therefore, we propose (239)Np, a short-lived actinide that emits several γ rays, as a preferred proxy. The aim of this study was to screen ion specific extraction chromatography resins (RE-, TEVA-, UTEVA-, TRU-, and Actinide-Resin) for the highest possible recovery and separation of trace amounts of (239)Np from samples with large activities of fission products such as radiocesium, radioiodine, and, most importantly, radiotellurium, the latter of which causes spectral interference in gamma spectrometry through overlapping peaks with (239)Np. The investigated environmental media for these separations were aqueous solutions simulating rainwater and soil. Spiked samples containing (239)Np and the aforementioned volatile radionuclides were separated through extraction chromatographic columns to ascertain the most effective means of separating (239)Np from other fission products for detection by gamma spectroscopy. We propose a method for nuclear accident preparedness based on the use of Eichrom's RE-Resin. The proposed method was found most effective for isolating (239)Np from interfering radionuclides in both aqueous solution and soil using 8 M HNO3 as the loading solution and H2O as the eluent. The RE-Resin outperforms the more commonly used TEVA-Resin because the TEVA-Resin showed a higher affinity for interfering radiotellurium and radioiodine.

  16. Artemin, a diapause-specific chaperone, contributes to the stress tolerance of Artemia franciscana cysts and influences their release from females.

    PubMed

    King, Allison M; Toxopeus, Jantina; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-05-15

    Females of the crustacean Artemia franciscana produce either motile nauplii or gastrula stage embryos enclosed in a shell impermeable to nonvolatile compounds and known as cysts. The encysted embryos enter diapause, a state of greatly reduced metabolism and profound stress tolerance. Artemin, a diapause-specific ferritin homolog in cysts has molecular chaperone activity in vitro. Artemin represents 7.2% of soluble protein in cysts, approximately equal to the amount of p26, a small heat shock protein. However, there is almost twice as much artemin mRNA in cysts as compared with p26 mRNA, suggesting that artemin mRNA is translated less efficiently. RNA interference employing the injection of artemin double-stranded RNA into the egg sacs of A. franciscana females substantially reduced artemin mRNA and protein in cysts. Decreasing artemin diminished desiccation and freezing tolerance of cysts, demonstrating a role for this protein in stress resistance. Knockdown of artemin increased the time required for complete discharge of a brood of cysts carried within a female from a few hours up to 4 days, an effect weakened in successive broods. Artemin, an abundant molecular chaperone, contributes to stress tolerance of A. franciscana cysts while influencing their development and/or exit from females.

  17. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  18. Prohormone convertases 1/3 and 2 together orchestrate the site-specific cleavages of progastrin to release gastrin-34 and gastrin-17.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Zhu, Xiaorong; Norrbom, Christina; Bundgaard, Jens R; Johnsen, Anders H; Nielsen, John E; Vikesaa, Jonas; Stein, Jeffrey; Dey, Arunangsu; Steiner, Donald F; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2008-10-01

    Cellular synthesis of peptide hormones requires PCs (prohormone convertases) for the endoproteolysis of prohormones. Antral G-cells synthesize the most gastrin and express PC1/3, 2 and 5/6 in the rat and human. But the cleavage sites in progastrin for each PC have not been determined. Therefore, in the present study, we measured the concentrations of progastrin, processing intermediates and alpha-amidated gastrins in antral extracts from PC1/3-null mice and compared the results with those in mice lacking PC2 and wild-type controls. The expression of PCs was examined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization of mouse G-cells. Finally, the in vitro effect of recombinant PC5/6 on progastrin and progastrin fragments containing the relevant dibasic cleavage sites was also examined. The results showed that mouse G-cells express PC1/3, 2 and 5/6. The concentration of progastrin in PC1/3-null mice was elevated 3-fold. Chromatography showed that cleavage of the Arg(36)Arg(37) and Arg(73)Arg(74) sites were grossly decreased. Accordingly, the concentrations of progastrin products were markedly reduced, alpha-amidated gastrins (-34 and -17) being 25% of normal. Lack of PC1/3 was without effect on the third dibasic site (Lys(53)Lys(54)), which is the only processing site for PC2. Recombinant PC5/6 did not cleave any of the dibasic processing sites in progastrin and fragments containing the relevant dibasic processing sites. The complementary cleavages of PC1/3 and 2, however, suffice to explain most of the normal endoproteolysis of progastrin. Moreover, the results show that PCs react differently to the same dibasic sequences, suggesting that additional structural factors modulate the substrate specificity.

  19. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  20. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Leary, Emily; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release.

  1. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  2. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-05-24

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions.

  3. TMACS Test Procedure TP002: Trending

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-08-29

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Trending functions.

  4. Site-specific PEGylation for high-yield preparation of Lys(21)-amine PEGylated growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) (1-29) using a GRF(1-29) derivative FMOC-protected at Tyr(1) and Lys(12).

    PubMed

    Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-01-01

    PEGylation has been viewed as an effective means of overcoming the therapeutic restriction of growth hormone-releasing factor (1-29) (GRF(1-29)) due to its short biological lifetime caused by severe proteolysis and rapid glomerular filtration. Of three isomers according to the PEGylation sites (Tyr1, Lys12, or Lys21), PEGylated GRF(1-29) at Lys21-amine (Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29)) was shown to have the highest bioactivity. In this report, we propose a unique two-step site-specific PEGylation method capable of producing only Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) with a single composition in high yield using a GRF(1-29) derivative protected at Tyr1 and Lys12 and remained available at Lys21 (FMOC1,12-GRF(1-29)). The first step of this reaction involved the PEG attachment to FMOC1,12-GRF(1-29), and the second step involved the removal of FMOC moieties. This PEGylation process was optimized at the following conditions: 0.2-0.3% (v/v) triethylamine concentration, 5.0-6.0-fold molar amount of PEG, reaction temperature of 25-45 degrees C, and reaction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) produced was ca. approximately 95%, 6.3-fold higher than that by nonspecific PEGylation at pH 8.5. Significantly, this site-specific Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) was found to have greatly increased resistance to rat plasma, liver, and kidney homogenates, with 7.0-, 25.4-, and 16.4-fold longer half-lives vs GRF(1-29), respectively. Furthermore, 125I-Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) displayed significantly reduced liver and kidney distributions and extended blood presence vs 125I-GRF(1-29) in rats. Due to these benefits, Lys21-PEG-GRF(1-29) displayed an enhanced initial growth hormone release in vivo despite having 15% remaining activity in vitro. This devised PEGylation method using an FMOC-protection/deprotection strategy would provide great usefulness for PEGylating bioactive peptides in terms of improved biological potency, elevated production yield, and a uniform composition.

  5. 7 CFR 356.5 - Bonded release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bonded release. 356.5 Section 356.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.5 Bonded release. (a) The Deputy Administrator...

  6. Specific Learning Outcomes Attributable to Study Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy

    The amount and structure of prose learning derived from vocabulary definition and graphic post-organizer construction methods of independent study tasks is examined. Undergraduate subjects (n=144) read a 2000-word passage in a 20-minute reading period. Two subject groups performed text information tasks while a third acted as a control to measure…

  7. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  8. A procedure for culturing astrocytes from white matter and the application of the siRNA technique for silencing the expression of their specific marker, S100A4.

    PubMed

    Kozlova, Elena N; Takenaga, Keizo

    2005-07-01

    White matter astrocytes have physiological functions which are distinct from those of astrocytes in gray matter. White matter becomes highly non-permissive to neurite growth after injury, but the role of white matter astrocytes in this process is incompletely understood. Current protocols for making primary astroglial cultures are inadequate for exploring the specific properties of white matter astrocytes in vitro. We describe a procedure for obtaining cultures of white matter astrocytes from the rodent corpus callosum. In this procedure, we take advantage of our previous finding that white, but not gray matter astrocytes express the calcium-binding protein S100A4. S100A4 expressing astrocytes are abundant in the corpus callosum, and we show that cultures, highly enriched in S100A4 expressing white matter astrocytes, can be reproducibly generated from this area. Key factors for successful cultures are (i) meticulous dissection of the corpus callosum from 4-day-old rats, and (ii) Percoll density gradient centrifugation to purify astrocytes. As a means of exploring the possible role of S100A4 in white matter astrocytes, we describe the use of the siRNA technique to eliminate the expression of S100A4 in our in vitro system.

  9. Response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts to pulsating fluid flow: nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 release and expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    van der Pauw, M T; Klein-Nulend, J; van den Bos, T; Burger, E H; Everts, V; Beertsen, W

    2000-12-01

    The capacity of the periodontal ligament to alter its structure and mass in response to mechanical loading has long been recognized. However, the mechanism by which periodontal cells can detect physical forces and respond to them is largely unknown. Besides transmission of forces via cell-matrix or cell-cell interactions, the strain-derived flow of interstitial fluid through the periodontal ligament may mechanically activate the periodontal cells, as well as ensure transport of cell signaling molecules, nutrients and waste products. Mechanosensory cells, such as endothelial and bone cells, are reported to respond to a flow of fluid with stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide production. Therefore, we examined the PGE2 and nitric oxide response of human periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts to pulsating fluid flow and assessed the expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts were subjected to a pulsating fluid flow (0.7 +/- 0.02 Pa, 5 Hz) for 60 min. PGE2 and nitric oxide concentrations were determined in the conditioned medium after 5, 10, 30 and 60 min of flowing. After fluid flow the cells were cultured for another 60 min without mechanical stress. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts, but not gingival fibroblasts, responded to fluid flow with significantly elevated release of nitric oxide and decreased expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. In both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts, PGE2 production was significantly increased after 60 min of flowing. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts, but not gingival fibroblasts, produced significantly higher levels of PGE2 during the postflow culture period. We conclude that human periodontal ligament fibroblasts are more responsive to pulsating fluid flow than gingival fibroblasts. The similarity of the early nitric oxide and PGE2 responses to fluid flow in periodontal fibroblasts with bone cells and

  10. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  11. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior.

    PubMed

    Bredewold, R; Schiavo, J K; van der Hart, M; Verreij, M; Veenema, A H

    2015-10-29

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline conditions and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males vs. females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 μl, 250 ng/0.5 μl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5+CNQX (2mM+0.4mM/0.5 μl, 30 mM+3mM/0.5 μl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile social

  12. 48 CFR 2942.1503 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... at least annually for submission to the Past Performance Information Retrieval System (PPIRS), and... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contractor Performance Information 2942.1503 Procedures. (a) In accordance with... criteria within their contracting activities. (d) Release of contractor performance evaluation...

  13. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  14. 32 CFR 1285.5 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOUO markings will be removed from the requester's copy prior to release. In cases where a person seeks... containing classification markings. The procedures in paragraph (h)(1) of this section apply to classified... whited out. The classification markings on the requester's copy will be deleted prior to release....

  15. Quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma by a sensitive and specific UPLC-tandem mass-spectrometry procedure for a clinical study on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Maria; Choong, Eva; Noetzli, Muriel; Cornuz, Jacques; Ansermot, Nicolas; Eap, Chin B

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, its metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and varenicline in human plasma was developed and validated. Sample preparation was realized by solid phase extraction of the target compounds and of the internal standards (nicotine-d4, cotinine-d3, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-d3 and CP-533,633, a structural analog of varenicline) from 0.5 mL of plasma, using a mixed-mode cation exchange support. Chromatographic separations were performed on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC BEH 2.1×100 mm, 1.7 μm). A gradient program was used, with a 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3/acetonitrile mobile phase at a flow of 0.4 mL/min. The compounds were detected on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with an electrospray interface in positive ionization mode and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. Matrix effects were quantitatively evaluated with success, with coefficients of variation inferior to 8%. The procedure was fully validated according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines and to Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques. The concentration range was 2-500 ng/mL for nicotine, 1-1000 ng/mL for cotinine, 2-1000 ng/mL for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and 1-500 ng/mL for varenicline, according to levels usually measured in plasma. Trueness (86.2-113.6%), repeatability (1.9-12.3%) and intermediate precision (4.4-15.9%) were found to be satisfactory, as well as stability in plasma. The procedure was successfully used to quantify nicotine, its metabolites and varenicline in more than 400 plasma samples from participants in a clinical study on smoking cessation.

  16. Study on novel galantaminehydrobromide sustained-release capsules and itsin vitro releasing property.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yang, Shuoye

    2014-09-01

    In present study, we prepared a novel galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules with the new manufacturing technology, extrusion-spheronization method, and the optimized preparative formulation. A simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the quantification and release evaluation of galantamine hydro bromide. Experimental results showed that the method was specific, sensitive and reliable, could be effectively applied to the in vitro release study of galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules. Our resulting samples had superior properties, worked better as sustained-release carriers and lasted longer hours to release drugs compared with the marketed control, Razadyne ER. The in vitro releasing characteristics of different batches of preparations are quite similar with each other, the total release proportions of galantamine hydro bromide from sustained-release capsules reached higher than 90 % within 12 h. The testing sustained-release preparation may be a promising new product for curing the related diseases.

  17. Development of preventive maintenance procedures.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, S

    1984-01-01

    A large number of in-house preventive maintenance (PM) programs, which call for varying degrees of thoroughness in the checkout of patient care instrumentation, are currently in existence throughout the country. This paper discusses the types of preventive maintenance, or PM procedures, which can be used by a clinical engineering department; the rationale for drafting different types of PM procedures in-house; and some long-term considerations affecting hospital-based inspection programs. Three types of PM procedures are described and compared: general checks; generic procedures; and, specific procedures. An outline is provided for writing a PM procedure; and, a call is made for a national guideline for writing preventive maintenance procedures.

  18. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  19. 21 CFR 1402.5 - Appeal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal procedure. 1402.5 Section 1402.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.5 Appeal procedure... and is otherwise releasable. If continued classification is required, the requester shall be...

  20. Performance of Children With Developmental Dyslexia on Two Skill Learning Tasks-Serial Reaction Time and Tower of Hanoi Puzzle: A Test of the Specific Procedural Learning Difficulties Theory.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Eli; Lowe, Michal; Goldfus, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Among the various theories proposed to explain developmental dyslexia (DD), the theory of specific procedural learning difficulties has gained certain support and is the framework for the current research. This theory claims that an inability to achieve skill automaticity explains the difficulties experienced by individuals with DD. Previous research on automaticity and DD has exhibited methodological issues such as a failure to test a range of skills. The current study broadens previous findings by delineating various reading skills correlated with several aspects of skill acquisition. Furthermore, the study utilizes two nonverbal tasks that reflect distinct types of skills: Serial Reaction Time (SRT) and the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle (TOHP). A total of 53 children aged 11 to 13 participated in the study, of whom 23 were children with DD and 30 were controls. Participants completed a test battery that consisted of reading tests, the SRT, and the TOHP. Results show no differences in learning rate between individuals with or without DD, although individuals with DD performed both tasks at a slower rate. Correlations were identified between a number of reading measures and measures of skill acquisition, expressed primarily in individuals with DD. Implications are examined in the discussion.

  1. Model for TCLP Releases from Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2003-05-01

    A first-order property model for normalized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) release as a function of glass composition was developed using data collected from various studies. The normalized boron release is used to estimate the release of toxic elements based on the observation that the boron release represents the conservative release for those constituents of interest. The current TCLP model has two targeted application areas: (1) delisting of waste-glass product as radioactive (not mixed) waste and (2) designating the glass wastes generated from waste-glass research activities as hazardous or non-hazardous. This report describes the data collection and model development for TCLP releases and discusses the issues related to the application of the model.

  2. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  3. Synapsins Differentially Control Dopamine and Serotonin Release

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Brian M.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Venton, B. Jill; Wetsel, William C.; Augustine, George J.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knockout (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  4. WHO expert committee on specifications for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: Release procedure for International Chemical Reference Substances; WHO guidelines on quality risk management; WHO guidelines on variations to a prequalified product; and the Collaborative procedure between the World Health Organization Prequalification of Medicines Programme and national medicines regulatory authorities in the assessment and accelerated national registration of WHO-prequalified pharmaceutical products.

  5. Region-specific roles of the prelimbic cortex, the dorsal CA1, the ventral DG and ventral CA1 of the hippocampus in the fear return evoked by a sub-conditioning procedure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juan; Xing, Xiaoli; Han, Mengfi; Xu, Na; Piao, Chengji; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Xigeng

    2016-02-01

    The return of learned fear is an important issue in anxiety disorder research since an analogous process may contribute to long-term fear maintenance or clinical relapse. A number of studies demonstrate that mPFC and hippocampus are important in the modulation of post-extinction re-expression of fear memory. However, the region-specific role of these structures in the fear return evoked by a sub-threshold conditioning (SC) is not known. In the present experiments, we first examined specific roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL), the dorsal hippocampus (DH, the dorsal CA1 area in particular), the ventral hippocampus (the ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) and the ventral CA1 area in particular) in this fear return process. Then we examined the role of connections between PL and vCA1 with this behavioral approach. Rats were subjected to five tone-shock pairings (1.0-mA shock) to induce conditioned fear (freezing), followed by three fear extinction sessions (25 tone-alone trials each session). After a post-test for extinction memory, some rats were retrained with the SC procedure to reinstate tone-evoked freezing. Rat groups were injected with low doses of the GABAA agonist muscimol to selectively inactivate PL, DH, vDG, or vCA1 120 min before the fear return test. A disconnection paradigm with ipsilateral or contralateral muscimol injection of the PL and the vCA1 was used to examine the role of this pathway in the fear return. We found that transient inactivation of these areas significantly impaired fear return (freezing): inactivation of the prelimbic cortex blocked SC-evoked fear return in particular but did not influence fear expression in general; inactivation of the DH area impaired fear return, but had no effect on the extinction retrieval process; both ventral DG and ventral CA1 are required for the return of extinguished fear whereas only ventral DG is required for the extinction retrieval. These findings suggest that PL, DH, vDG, and vCA1 all contribute to the fear

  6. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  7. Procedures to share treatment information among mental health providers, consumers, and families.

    PubMed

    Bogart, T; Solomon, P

    1999-10-01

    Although practice guidelines for the treatment of persons with severe mental illness recommend involving family members in all phases of the treatment process, in many states unclear confidentiality statutes and regulations may present a barrier. This paper describes approaches used by a few locales to clarify confidentiality procedures for releasing information to families. It presents a model of steps that regional systems or local agencies may take to manage this barrier to provider-family collaboration. Policy guidelines must clearly state that release of information to family members requires client consent. A specific form for release of information to families indicating the types of information that may be released is then developed. Verbal release of information and a one-year time limit on release are recommended. The form, which should comply with state statutes and regulations, can then be integrated into routine clinical practice. Providers should be trained to discuss and explore issues about the release of information with both consumers and family members.

  8. Delayed simultaneous release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, X. W.; Webb, J. B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The disclosed appendage release mechanism is particularly adapted for use with spacecraft operating with despin mechanisms and releasable appendages. It includes a flexible loop and a number of appendage releasing devices which are attached to the flexible loop. The appendage releasing devices are made up of piston-cams and ball latches which hold the appendages as long as the flexible loop is maintained in a taut condition, but which release the appendages upon relaxation of the flexible loop. The flexible loop remains taut as long as the despin weights remain attached, but relaxes when the despin weights are released.

  9. Capture and release of cancer cells using electrospun etchable MnO2 nanofibers integrated in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-qin; Yu, Xiao-lei; Cai, Bo; You, Su-jian; He, Zhao-bo; Huang, Qin-qin; Rao, Lang; Li, Sha-sha; Liu, Chang; Sun, Wei-wei; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shi-shang; Zhao, Xing-zhong

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a cancer cell capture/release microchip based on the self-sacrificed MnO2 nanofibers. Through electrospinning, lift-off and soft-lithography procedures, MnO2 nanofibers are tactfully fabricated in microchannels to implement enrichment and release of cancer cells in liquid samples. The MnO2 nanofiber net which mimics the extra cellular matrix can lead to high capture ability with the help of a cancer cell-specific antibody bio-conjugation. Subsequently, an effective and friendly release method is carried out by using low concentration of oxalic acid to dissolve the MnO2 nanofiber substrate while keeping high viability of those released cancer cells at the same time. It is conceivable that our microchip may have potentials in realizing biomedical analysis of circulating tumor cells for biological and clinical researches in oncology.

  10. 49 CFR 701.6 - Release and processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requests will be handled according to the date that the FOIA request was initially received. (d) Creating a... existing records. The cost of creating or compiling such a record may not be charged to the requester unless the fee for creating the record is equal to or less than the fee that would be charged...

  11. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  12. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  13. Administrative Procedures for Small Institutions. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Keith W., Ed.

    This guide offers sample administrative procedures and policies that can be used by small colleges and universities to prepare or revise administrative procedures manuals. The sample procedures and policies offered here have been compiled from a review of many manuals from many different institutions, and vary from the general to the specific.…

  14. [Euthanasia: medications and medical procedures].

    PubMed

    Lossignol, D

    2008-09-01

    The Belgian law relative to euthanasia has been published in 2002. A physician is allowed to help a patient with intractable suffering (physical or psychological). Legal conditions are clear. However, nothing is said about medical procedures or medications to be used. The present paper will present specific clinical situations at the end of life, practical procedures and medications. A special focus is made on psychological impact of euthanasia.

  15. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  16. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

  17. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  18. Multiplexed programmable release of captured DNA.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Holden, Matthew T; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M

    2014-11-03

    Nucleic-acid hybridization is widely used for the specific capture of complementary sequences from complex samples. It is useful for both analytical methodologies, such as array hybridization (e.g. transcriptome analysis, genetic-variation analysis), and preparative strategies such as exome sequencing and sequence-specific proteome capture and analysis (PICh, HyCCAPP). It has not generally been possible to selectively elute particular captured subsequences, however, as the conditions employed for disruption of a duplex can lack the specificity needed to discriminate between different sequences. We show here that it is possible to bind and selectively release multiple sets of sequences by using toehold-mediated DNA branch migration. The strategy is illustrated for simple mixtures of oligonucleotides, for the sequence-specific capture and specific release of crosslinked yeast chromatin, and for the specific release of oligonucleotides hybridized to DNA microarrays.

  19. PRN 98-6: Flammability Labeling Requirements for Total Release Fogger Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes new labeling requirements for total release foggers and provides the procedures and time frame for compliance. It ONLY affects total release foggers containing a propellant with a flash point at or below 20 degrees Fahrenheit.

  20. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  2. A Single N-Linked Glycosylation Site in the Japanese Encephalitis Virus prM Protein Is Critical for Cell Type-Specific prM Protein Biogenesis, Virus Particle Release, and Pathogenicity in Mice ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Hahn, Youn-Soo; Lee, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Young-Min

    2008-01-01

    The prM protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) contains a single potential N-linked glycosylation site, N15-X16-T17, which is highly conserved among JEV strains and closely related flaviviruses. To investigate the role of this site in JEV replication and pathogenesis, we manipulated the RNA genome by using infectious JEV cDNA to generate three prM mutants (N15A, T17A, and N15A/T17A) with alanine substiting for N15 and/or T17 and one mutant with silent point mutations introduced into the nucleotide sequences corresponding to all three residues in the glycosylation site. An analysis of these mutants in the presence or absence of endoglycosidases confirmed the addition of oligosaccharides to this potential glycosylation site. The loss of prM N glycosylation, without significantly altering the intracellular levels of viral RNA and proteins, led to an ≈20-fold reduction in the production of extracellular virions, which had protein compositions and infectivities nearly identical to those of wild-type virions; this reduction occurred at the stage of virus release, rather than assembly. This release defect was correlated with small-plaque morphology and an N-glycosylation-dependent delay in viral growth. A more conservative mutation, N15Q, had the same effect as N15A. One of the four prM mutants, N15A/T17A, showed an additional defect in virus growth in mosquito C6/36 cells but not human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y or hamster BHK-21 cells. This cell type dependence was attributed to abnormal N-glycosylation-independent biogenesis of prM. In mice, the elimination of prM N glycosylation resulted in a drastic decrease in virulence after peripheral inoculation. Overall, our findings indicate that this highly conserved N-glycosylation motif in prM is crucial for multiple stages of JEV biology: prM biogenesis, virus release, and pathogenesis. PMID:18524814

  3. A single N-linked glycosylation site in the Japanese encephalitis virus prM protein is critical for cell type-specific prM protein biogenesis, virus particle release, and pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Hahn, Youn-Soo; Lee, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Young-Min

    2008-08-01

    The prM protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) contains a single potential N-linked glycosylation site, N(15)-X(16)-T(17), which is highly conserved among JEV strains and closely related flaviviruses. To investigate the role of this site in JEV replication and pathogenesis, we manipulated the RNA genome by using infectious JEV cDNA to generate three prM mutants (N15A, T17A, and N15A/T17A) with alanine substituting for N(15) and/or T(17) and one mutant with silent point mutations introduced into the nucleotide sequences corresponding to all three residues in the glycosylation site. An analysis of these mutants in the presence or absence of endoglycosidases confirmed the addition of oligosaccharides to this potential glycosylation site. The loss of prM N glycosylation, without significantly altering the intracellular levels of viral RNA and proteins, led to an approximately 20-fold reduction in the production of extracellular virions, which had protein compositions and infectivities nearly identical to those of wild-type virions; this reduction occurred at the stage of virus release, rather than assembly. This release defect was correlated with small-plaque morphology and an N-glycosylation-dependent delay in viral growth. A more conservative mutation, N15Q, had the same effect as N15A. One of the four prM mutants, N15A/T17A, showed an additional defect in virus growth in mosquito C6/36 cells but not human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y or hamster BHK-21 cells. This cell type dependence was attributed to abnormal N-glycosylation-independent biogenesis of prM. In mice, the elimination of prM N glycosylation resulted in a drastic decrease in virulence after peripheral inoculation. Overall, our findings indicate that this highly conserved N-glycosylation motif in prM is crucial for multiple stages of JEV biology: prM biogenesis, virus release, and pathogenesis.

  4. Groundwater technical procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    A series of groundwater technical procedures documents (GWPDs) has been released by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Discipline, for general use by the public. These technical procedures were written in response to the need for standardized technical procedures of many aspects of groundwater science, including site and measuring-point establishment, measurement of water levels, and measurement of well discharge. The techniques are described in the GWPDs in concise language and are accompanied by necessary figures and tables derived from cited manuals, reports, and other documents. Because a goal of this series of procedures is to remain current with the state of the science, and because procedures change over time, this report is released in an online format only. As new procedures are developed and released, they will be linked to this document.

  5. Intensity of activation and timing of deactivation modulate elastic energy storage and release in a pennate muscle and account for gait-specific initiation of limb protraction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Lichtwark, Glen A; Watson, Johanna C; Mavrommatis, Sophia; Wilson, Alan M

    2009-08-01

    The equine biceps brachii (biceps) initiates rapid limb protraction through a catapult mechanism. Elastic strain energy is slowly stored in an internal tendon and is then rapidly released to protract the forelimb. The muscle fibres are short, have little scope for length change and can therefore only shorten slowly compared with the speed at which the whole muscle must shorten, which makes them poor candidates for driving rapid limb protraction. We suggest that the muscle fibres in the biceps act to modulate the elastic energy output of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) to meet the demands of locomotion under different conditions. We hypothesise that more elastic strain energy is stored and released from the biceps MTU during higher speed locomotion to accommodate the increase in energy required to protract the limb and that this can be achieved by varying the length change and activation conditions of the muscle. We examined the work performed by the biceps during trot and canter using an inverse dynamics analysis (IDA). We then used excised biceps muscles to determine how much work could be performed by the muscle in active and passive stretch-shorten cycles. A muscle model was developed to investigate the influence of changes in activation parameters on energy storage and energy return from the biceps MTU. Increased biceps MTU length change and increased work performed by the biceps MTU were found at canter compared with at trot. More work was performed by the ex vivo biceps MTU following activation of the muscle and by increasing muscle length change. However, the ratio of active to passive work diminished with increasing length change. The muscle model demonstrated that duration and timing of activation during stretch-shorten cycles could modulate the elastic energy storage and return from the biceps. We conclude that the equine biceps MTU acts as a tuneable spring and the contractile component functions to modulate the energy required for rapid forelimb

  6. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  7. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery). The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric ...

  8. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  9. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  10. Dendritic Release of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Mike; Apps, David; Menzies, John; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E

    2016-12-06

    Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:235-252, 2017.

  11. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  12. 32 CFR 97.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Whether the disclosure, including release in camera, is appropriate under the rules of procedure governing... camera, is appropriate or necessary under the relevant substantive law concerning privilege; (5) Whether the disclosure, except when in camera and necessary to assert a claim of privilege, would...

  13. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  14. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  15. The vectorial release of nascent immunoglobulin peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bevan, Michael J.

    1971-01-01

    A microsomal preparation from a mouse plasmacytoma, MOPC 47A, that secretes immunoglobulin A was used to study the release of nascent immunoglobulin peptides in vitro. Nascent chains were released with puromycin and characterized with specific antiserum against the immunoglobulin product of the tumour. When the tissue had been prelabelled with [3H]leucine the experiments were complicated by the large background of completed radioactive polypeptides in the microsomal preparation. Up to one-third of the released radioactivity in the microsomal preparation could be recognized as immunoglobulin. With [3H]-puromycin as the radioactive label, however, the results are much easier to interpret, although the proportion of released radioactivity that can be identified as immunoglobulin is lower (up to one-tenth). Both types of experiment demonstrate that all of the recognizable nascent immunoglobulin chains remain in association with the microsomal vesicles after release from the ribosomes. PMID:5124814

  16. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: (1) fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, (2) the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, (3) over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety (4) the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain's incentive-motivational circuitry. PMID:23759871

  17. 28 CFR 2.50 - Revocation hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revocation hearing procedure. 2.50 Section 2.50 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT... whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his release and, if so, whether his parole or...

  18. 28 CFR 2.50 - Revocation hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revocation hearing procedure. 2.50 Section 2.50 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT... whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his release and, if so, whether his parole or...

  19. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  20. Consent procedures in pediatric biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Giesbertz, Noor AA; Bredenoord, Annelien L; van Delden, Johannes JM

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of children's samples in biobanks brings forward specific ethical issues. Guidelines indicate that children should be involved in the consent procedure. It is, however, unclear how to allocate an appropriate role for children. Knowledge of current practice will be helpful in addressing this issue. Therefore, we conducted an international multiple-case study on the child's role in consent procedures in pediatric biobanks. Four biobanks were included: (1) LifeLines, (2) Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA), (3) Young-HUNT3 and (4) the Oxford Radcliffe Biobank contribution to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group tissue bank (ORB/CCLG). Four themes linked to the child's role in the consent procedure emerged from the multiple-case study: (1) motives to involve the child, (2) informing the child, (3) the role of dissent, assent and consent and (4) voluntariness of children to participate. We conclude that biobank characteristics influence the biobank's motives to include children in the consent procedure. Moreover, the motives to include children influence how the children are involved in the consent procedure, and the extent to which children are able to make voluntary decisions as part of the consent procedure. This insight is valuable when designing pediatric biobank governance. PMID:25537361

  1. Controlling protein release using biodegradable microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Benjamin Patrick

    Research in the field of protein therapeutics has exploded over the past decade and continues to grow in both academia and in industry. Protein drugs have advantages of being highly specific and highly active making them coveted targets for high profile disease states like cancer and multiple sclerosis. Unfortunately, their many advantages are complemented by their obstacles. Because proteins are highly active and highly specific, the window between efficacy and toxicity is very narrow and drug development can be long and arduous. In addition, protein activity is dependent on its specific folding conformation that is easily disrupted by a variety of development processes. This research aimed to identify microparticle formulations to control protein release and also to determine which formulation parameters affected burst release, encapsulation, and steady-state release the most. It was found that polymer type and composition were two of the most important factors. Long-term controlled release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was achieved as well as a wide variety of release profiles. A method was identified for micronizing protein at low cost to retain activity and coacervation was evaluated as a method for preparing protein loaded microspheres. This research provides a basis from which researchers can create better controlled release formulations for future protein therapeutics.

  2. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  3. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  4. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records....

  5. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records....

  6. 28 CFR 2.216 - Revocation hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation hearing procedure. 2.216....216 Revocation hearing procedure. (a) The purpose of the revocation hearing shall be to determine... the term should be revoked or the releasee restored to supervised release. (b) At a local...

  7. 28 CFR 2.103 - Revocation hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation hearing procedure. 2.103... Parolees § 2.103 Revocation hearing procedure. (a) The purpose of the revocation hearing shall be to... mandatory release should be revoked or reinstated. (b) At a local revocation hearing, the alleged...

  8. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  9. How fit are children and adolescents with haemophilia in Germany? Results of a prospective study assessing the sport-specific motor performance by means of modern test procedures of sports science.

    PubMed

    Seuser, A; Boehm, P; Ochs, S; Trunz-Carlisi, E; Halimeh, S; Klamroth, R

    2015-07-01

    There are a lot of publications on the physical fitness of patients with haemophilia (PWH), however, most studies only reflect individual sport-specific motor capacities or focus on a single fitness ability. They involve small patient populations. In this respect principal objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness in all respects and the body composition of young PWH to healthy peers based on the most valid data we could get. Twenty-one German haemophilia treatment centres were visited from 2002 to 2009. PWH between 8 and 25 years were included. They performed a five-stage fitness test covering the sport-specific motor capacities for coordination, measured by one leg stand, strength, aerobic fitness and mobility as well as body composition. The patients' results were compared with age- and gender-specific reference values of healthy subjects. Two hundred and eighty-five PWH (mean age 13.2 ± 4.5 years, 164 PWH with severe disease) were included prospectively in the study. PWH are significantly below the reference values of healthy subjects in the one-leg stand test, the mobility of the lower extremity, the strength ratio of chest and back muscles and the endurance test. In body composition, the back strength and the mobility of the upper extremity PWH are significantly above the reference values. There are no significant differences in abdominal strength. In conclusion we found specific differences in different fitness abilities between PWH and healthy subjects. Knowing this, we are able to work out exercise programmes to compensate the diminished fitness abilities for our PWH.

  10. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  11. Commensalism in Teaching: Parliamentary Procedure and Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botan, Carl H.; Ziegelmueller, George W.

    Parliamentary procedure might best be taught in a context specific format; it would be better understood by students if not taught as a "stand alone" subject. Since the basic concepts of argumentation theory--propositions, stasis, and presumption and burden of proof--are reinforced by the rules of parliamentary procedure, instructors can…

  12. National Home Start Evaluation: Field Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Marrit J.

    This field procedures manual for community interviewers and site coordinators, one of a series of documents on the evaluation of the National Home Start program (NHS), describes specific testing procedures for collecting family data. A federally funded demonstration program, NHS is aimed at providing home-based services (such as health, education,…

  13. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  14. Student Loan Collection Procedures. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlvey, Warren C.; Price, Anne J.

    Guidelines for loan collection staff who award/service college student loans are presented. Attention is directed to sound collection procedures, three specific loan programs, suing a defaulted borrower, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and the use of credit bureaus, and student loan borrower bankruptcy. Loan collection procedures for…

  15. Release of LNG vapor from large-volume, low-pressure LNG storage. Letter report, September 30, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project involves development of practical release prevention measures by developing design and operating procedures beyond current practice. The objective of the program is to obtain the quantitative field data necessary to model the physics of the tank vapor space pressure response to boil-off compressor operation and atmospheric pressure changes. This work will lead to the development of guides to LNG storage tank operation and equipment specification that will limit the possibility of vapor venting or rollover of the stored LNG.

  16. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  17. Safeguards management inspection procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes.

  18. Deconvolution procedure of the UV-vis spectra. A powerful tool for the estimation of the binding of a model drug to specific solubilisation loci of bio-compatible aqueous surfactant-forming micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Merli, Marcello; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2015-05-01

    UV-vis-spectra evolution of Nile Red loaded into Tween 20 micelles with pH and [Tween 20] have been analysed in a non-conventional manner by exploiting the deconvolution method. The number of buried sub-bands has been found to depend on both pH and bio-surfactant concentration, whose positions have been associated to Nile Red confined in aqueous solution and in the three micellar solubilisation sites. For the first time, by using an extended classical two-pseudo-phases-model, the robust treatment of the spectrophotometric data allows the estimation of Nile Red binding constant to the available loci. Hosting capability towards Nile Red is exalted by the pH enhancement. Comparison between binding constant values classically evaluated and those estimated by the deconvolution protocol unveiled that overall binding values perfectly match with the mean values of the local binding sites. This result suggests that deconvolution procedure provides more precise and reliable values, which are more representative of drug confinement.

  19. Deconvolution procedure of the UV-vis spectra. A powerful tool for the estimation of the binding of a model drug to specific solubilisation loci of bio-compatible aqueous surfactant-forming micelle.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Merli, Marcello; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2015-05-05

    UV-vis-spectra evolution of Nile Red loaded into Tween 20 micelles with pH and [Tween 20] have been analysed in a non-conventional manner by exploiting the deconvolution method. The number of buried sub-bands has been found to depend on both pH and bio-surfactant concentration, whose positions have been associated to Nile Red confined in aqueous solution and in the three micellar solubilisation sites. For the first time, by using an extended classical two-pseudo-phases-model, the robust treatment of the spectrophotometric data allows the estimation of Nile Red binding constant to the available loci. Hosting capability towards Nile Red is exalted by the pH enhancement. Comparison between binding constant values classically evaluated and those estimated by the deconvolution protocol unveiled that overall binding values perfectly match with the mean values of the local binding sites. This result suggests that deconvolution procedure provides more precise and reliable values, which are more representative of drug confinement.

  20. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.

  1. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes.

  2. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  3. 32 CFR 299.5 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... would harm an interest protected by exemption (see 5 U.S.C. 552); and the procedure for filing an appeal... waiver or reduction of fees; (4) Placement of requester in a specific fee category; (5) Amount...

  4. 32 CFR 299.5 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... would harm an interest protected by exemption (see 5 U.S.C. 552); and the procedure for filing an appeal... waiver or reduction of fees; (4) Placement of requester in a specific fee category; (5) Amount...

  5. 32 CFR 299.5 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... would harm an interest protected by exemption (see 5 U.S.C. 552); and the procedure for filing an appeal... waiver or reduction of fees; (4) Placement of requester in a specific fee category; (5) Amount...

  6. 7 CFR 1485.29 - Contracting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.29 Contracting procedures. (a) Neither CCC nor any other... a specific market; solicitations that yield receipt of three or more bids; solicitations that...

  7. Isolation from beer and structural determination of a potent stimulant of gastrin release.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, Y; Kohda, H; Kusumoto, A; Naoki, H; Matsumoto, N; Amachi, T; Suwa, Y; Fukazawa, H; Ishida, H; Tsuji, K; Nukaya, H

    1999-01-01

    Beer was subjected to five successive chromatographic procedures to isolate the gastrin release-inducing activity, guided by bioassay of the fractions in anaesthetized Donryu rats. The procedures were: (1) hydrophobic interaction chromatography (aqueous effluent with an HP20 column); (2) weak cation-exchange chromatography (1 M acetic acid eluate with a CM Sephadex C-25 column); (3) gel filtration (methanol eluate with a Sephadex LH-20 column); (4) same as (2); (5) high-performance liquid chromatography (YMC-Pack ODS-AM with 7% acetonitrile-0.01 M HCl). The active component finally isolated had a specific activity approximately 10000 times higher than that of beer. It was identified by means of mass, 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses as N-methyltyramine (NMT). The dose of NMT giving maximal gastrin-releasing activity was 25 microg/kg, and the 50% effective dose was approximately 10 microg/kg on oral administration to rats. NMT was isolated and identified as a gastrin release inducer in beer. Its concentration in beer is sufficient to account for most of the activity of beer.

  8. 28 CFR 572.40 - Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g). 572.40 Section 572.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Compassionate Release (Procedures for the Implementation of 18...

  9. 28 CFR 572.40 - Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g). 572.40 Section 572.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Compassionate Release (Procedures for the Implementation of 18...

  10. 28 CFR 572.40 - Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g). 572.40 Section 572.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Compassionate Release (Procedures for the Implementation of 18...

  11. 28 CFR 572.40 - Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compassionate release under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g). 572.40 Section 572.40 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE PAROLE Compassionate Release (Procedures for the Implementation of 18...

  12. Varicella-zoster virus-specific, cell-mediated immunity with interferon-gamma release assay after vaccination of college students with no or intermediate IgG antibody response.

    PubMed

    Terada, Kihei; Itoh, Yuri; Fujii, Akihide; Kitagawa, Seiko; Ogita, Satoko; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2015-02-01

    This study measured Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and antibodies to clarify immune response after vaccination in 68 college students with negative or intermediate IgG antibody status. The enrolled numbers of negative, intermediate, and positive VZV-IgG antibody were 27, 41, and 28 students, respectively. The positive rates of CMI were 3.7% (1/27), 41.5% (17/41), and 96.4% (27/28) before vaccination, respectively. After vaccination, the IgG antibody titers became significantly higher in the intermediate IgG group compared to those in the negative IgG group (P < 0.01), but CMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ninety-three percent (38/41) of the intermediate IgG antibody group and 41% (11/27) of the negative IgG antibody group became positive for the IgG antibody after vaccination (P < 0.0001). When subjects were divided into negative, intermediate, and positive CMI by interferon-gamma values before vaccination, the IgG antibody and interferon-gamma values increased significantly in the positive CMI group compared to the negative CMI group after vaccination (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). All (17/17) of positive CMI group and 61% (27/44) of negative CMI group became positive for the IgG antibody after vaccination (P < 0.01). Ninety-four percent (16/17) of positive CMI group and 59% (28/44) of negative CMI group became positive for CMI after vaccination (P < 0.05). Ninety-six percent (22/23) of the subjects with a history of vaccination became IgG seropositive after a second dose of vaccination, but 22% (5/23) of them remained negative for CMI. CMI is valuable information to identify potential non-responders to vaccination and to predict risk of clinical VZV infection.

  13. Fission product release mechanisms and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is axiomatic that the severity of a nuclear reactor accident is determined by the extent of radioactivity escape which results. The main focus of site safety analyses is thus on fission product release and transport. Of all the processes involved, fission product escape from the fuel-cladding region into the primary coolant circuit is perhaps the most simple to describe; even so, it is an extremely complex function of the time/temperature history of the fuel-cladding system during an accident, since many mechanisms for release are involved. Depending upon the particular fission product species, these release mechanisms range from simple gaseous expansion processes at low temperatures to evaporation-condensation processes (aerosol formation) over molten fuel. Because of these complexities, it is convenient to subdivide the time/temperature sequence of an accident into more or less discrete phases over which specific release mechanisms dominate. Four such phases are the periods of (1) gap release, (2) meltdown release, (3) vaporization, and (4) oxidation release. This approach simplifies the problem considerably, although some loss of uniformity results. The methodology applies to BWR and PWR reactors with appropriate adaptations.

  14. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin Brian; Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gaither, Frank; Juro, Greg

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows that may be subject to constraints that create localized demand/capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool, based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and departure

  15. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center TMC to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that uses this technology to improve tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions to the

  16. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  17. 46 CFR 164.007-9 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-9 Procedure for approval. The following... general statement describing manufacturing procedures indicating the degree of quality control...

  18. 46 CFR 164.007-9 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-9 Procedure for approval. The following... general statement describing manufacturing procedures indicating the degree of quality control...

  19. Quantification of the 35S promoter in DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction and specificity assessment on various genetically modified organisms, part I: operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sophie; Charles-Delobel, Chrystèle; Geldreich, Angèle; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Collonnier, Cécile; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Kebdani, Naïma; Romaniuk, Marcel; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive quantitative real-time assay targeted on the 35S promoter of a commercial genetically modified organism (GMO) was characterized (sF/sR primers) and developed for an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System and TaqMan chemistry. The specificity assessment and performance criteria of sF/sR assay were compared to other P35S-targeted published assays. sF/sR primers amplified a 79 base pair DNA sequence located in a part of P35S that is highly conserved among many caulimovirus strains, i.e., this consensus part of CaMV P35S is likely to be present in many GM events. According to the experimental conditions, the absolute limit of detection for Bt176 corn was estimated between 0.2 and 2 copies of equivalent genome (CEG). The limit of quantification was reached below 0.1% Bt176 content. A Cauliflower Mosaic Virus control (CaMV) qualitative assay targeted on the ORF III of the viral genome was also used as a control (primers 3F/3R) to assess the presence of CaMV in plant-derived products. The specificity of this test was assessed on various CaMV strains, including the Figwort Mosaic Virus (FMV) and solanaceous CaMV strains. Considering the performance of sF/sR quantification test, the highly conserved sequence, and the small size of the amplicon, this assay was tested in a collaborative study in order to be proposed as an international standard.

  20. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  1. RAVEN Beta Release

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  2. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  3. Risk assessment for release of genetically modified organisms: a virus to reduce the fertility of introduced wild mice, Mus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Williams, C K

    2002-01-01

    Risk assessment is a key task in developing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) intended for release into the environment. A risk assessment protocol is described, focusing on genetically modified biological control agents intended to reduce fertility in mammalian pests. The protocol is being applied to development of an immunocontraceptive murine cytomegalovirus vaccine intended to reduce the frequency and extent of costly troublesome plagues of introduced house mice, Mus domesticus, in southern Australia. Success of the agent, including regulatory approval for release to target populations, will depend on demonstrated biosafety, on the biophysical consequences of releasing the agent, and on public perceptions of the consequences and ongoing risks. The proposed risk assessment protocol addresses biosafety and the biophysical and social risks. It elicits perceptions of interaction and risk from the project scientists and from representatives of interested or affected sectors of society. The perceptions are documented for examination interactively in subsequent socially inclusive formal risk assessments. Representatives of the relevant social sectors participate with the scientists, iteratively if needed, in a workshop to assess the risks of releasing the particular GMO into the environment, using a formal inductive procedure, GENHAZ, designed specifically for assessment and management of the risks of GMOs. Use of this protocol is intended to precede and complement risk assessment and risk management procedures specified by gene technology legislation and regulations.

  4. Observations of chemical releases from high flying aircraft. [investigation of barium and lithium vapor releases in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1973-01-01

    Barium and lithium vapors were released from sounding rockets in the thermosphere and observed from aboard the NASA Convair 990 at an altitude of 40,000 ft. The purpose of the releases was to (1) check out observational and operational procedures associated with the large high altitude barium release from a Scout rocket (BIC); (2) develop an all-weather technique for observing chemical releases; (3) evaluate methods of observing daytime releases, and (4) investigate the possibilities of observations from a manned satellite. The initial analysis indicates that the previous limitations on the usage of the vapor release method have been removed by the use of the aircraft and innovative photographic techniques. Methods of analysis and applications to the investigation of the thermosphere are discussed.

  5. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Tyson K

    2010-10-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic approach has been successfully applied to surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. This procedure allows for smaller incisions with faster recovery time. This article details relevant surgical anatomy, indications, contraindications, surgical technique, complications, and postoperative management.

  6. Rapid Detection and Identification of Biogenic Aerosol Releases and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Macher, J.; Ghosal, S.; Ahmed, K.; Hemati, K.; Wall, S.; Kumagai, K.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols can be important contributors to aerosol chemistry, cloud droplet and ice nucleation, absorption and scattering of radiation, human health and comfort, and plant, animal, and microbial ecology. Many types of bioaerosols, e.g., fungal spores, are released into the atmosphere in response to specific climatological and meteorological conditions. The rapid identification of bioaerosol releases is thus important for better characterization of the above phenomena, as well as enabling public officials to respond quickly and appropriately to releases of infectious agents or biological toxins. One approach to rapid and accurate bioaerosol detection is to employ sequential, automated samples that can be fed directly into an image acquisition and data analysis device. Raman spectroscopy-based identification of bioaerosols, automated analysis of microscopy images, and automated detection of near-monodisperse peaks in aerosol size-distribution data were investigated as complementary approaches to traditional, manual methods for the identification and counting of fungal and actinomycete spores. Manual light microscopy is a widely used analytical technique that is compatible with a number of air sample formats and requires minimal sample preparation. However, a major drawback is its dependence on a human analyst's ability to distinguish particles and accurately count, size, and identify them. Therefore, automated methods, such as those evaluated in this study, have the potential to provide cost-effective and rapid alternatives if demonstrated to be accurate and reliable. An exploratory examination of individual spores for several macro- and microfungi (those with and without large fruiting bodies) by Raman microspectroscopy found unique spectral features that were used to identify fungi to the genus level. Automated analyses of digital spore images accurately recognized and counted single fungal spores and clusters. An automated procedure to discriminate near

  7. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Detection of calcium release via ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Eu, Jerry P; Meissner, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor ion channels (RyRs) release Ca(2+) from the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum in a variety of nonvertebrate and vertebrate species including flies, crustaceans, birds, fish, and amphibians. They are most abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscle, where in response to an action potential, the release of Ca(2+) ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the RyRs into the cytoplasm leads to muscle contraction (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling). Here, we describe how to determine their cellular location using isoform-specific antibodies, their protein levels using an in vitro ((3)H)ryanodine-binding assay, and their cellular release of Ca(2+) using RyR-specific channel agonists and inhibitors.

  9. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  10. Pollutant Assessments Group Procedures Manual: Volume 1, Administrative and support procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This manual describes procedures currently in use by the Pollutant Assessments Group. The manual is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 includes administrative and support procedures, and Volume 2 includes technical procedures. These procedures are revised in an ongoing process to incorporate new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and changes in administrative policy. Format inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent revisions of individual procedures. The purpose of the Pollutant Assessments Groups Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures documenting in an auditable manner the activities performed by the Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of the Environmental Measurements and Applications Section (EMAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Procedures Manual ensures that the organizational, administrative, and technical activities of PAG conform properly to protocol outlined by funding organizations. This manual also ensures that the techniques and procedures used by PAG and other contractor personnel meet the requirements of applicable governmental, scientific, and industrial standards. The Procedures Manual is sufficiently comprehensive for use by PAG and contractor personnel in the planning, performance, and reporting of project activities and measurements. The Procedures Manual provides procedures for conducting field measurements and includes program planning, equipment operation, and quality assurance elements. Successive revisions of this manual will be archived in the PAG Document Control Department to facilitate tracking of the development of specific procedures.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Endoscopic Partial Plantar Fascia Release

    PubMed Central

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Ken; Shinga, Kotaro; Hattori, Soichi; Yamada, Shin; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Various surgical treatment procedures for plantar fasciitis, such as open surgery, percutaneous release, and endoscopic surgery, exist. Skin trouble, nerve disturbance, infection, and persistent pain associated with prolonged recovery time are complications of open surgery. Endoscopic partial plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of the anatomy at the surgical site. However, the primary medial portal and portal tract used for this technique have been shown to be in close proximity to the posterior tibial nerves and their branches, and there is always the risk of nerve damage by introducing the endoscope deep to the plantar fascia. By performing endoscopic partial plantar fascia release under ultrasound assistance, we could dynamically visualize the direction of the endoscope and instrument introduction, thus preventing nerve damage from inadvertent insertion deep to the fascia. Full-thickness release of the plantar fascia at the ideal position could also be confirmed under ultrasound imaging. We discuss the technique for this new procedure. PMID:24265989

  12. Risk methodology overview. [for carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Some considerations of risk estimation, how risk is measured, and how risk analysis decisions are made are discussed. Specific problems of carbon fiber release are discussed by reviewing the objective, describing the main elements, and giving an example of the risk logic and outputs.

  13. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to the... or a DOE facility for non-beryllium use, or to another facility for work involving beryllium....

  14. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to the... or a DOE facility for non-beryllium use, or to another facility for work involving beryllium....

  15. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to the... or a DOE facility for non-beryllium use, or to another facility for work involving beryllium....

  16. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to the... or a DOE facility for non-beryllium use, or to another facility for work involving beryllium....

  17. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to the... or a DOE facility for non-beryllium use, or to another facility for work involving beryllium....

  18. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from electrodeposition of organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Appliers of organic coatings via electrodeposition (EDP) may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist appliers of organic coatings in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  19. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from electroplating operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Facilities engaged in electroplating operations may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who perform electroplating operations in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  20. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from formulation of aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Formulators of aqueous solutions may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist formulators of aqueous solutions, emulsions, and slurries in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  1. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  2. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from semiconductor manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers of semiconductors may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist semiconductor manufacturers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  3. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from paper and paperboard production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in paper and paperboard production may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those engaged in paper and paperboard production in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  4. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from spray application of organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Spray applicators of organic coatings may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist appliers of organic coatings in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  5. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from monofilament fiber manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers of monofilament fibers may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist monofilament fiber manufacturers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  6. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from printing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Printers may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist printers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  7. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from wood preserving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in wood preserving operations may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist facilities engaged in wood preserving operations in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  8. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from leather tanning and finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in leather tanning and finishing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those in the leather tanning and finishing industry in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  9. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from rubber production and compounding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Facilities engaged in rubber production and compounding may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who produce rubber in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  10. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  11. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  12. Hydraulic release oil tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-03-11

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member.

  13. Data Release Summary Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-14

    ... 3 CALIOP Level 1 data are released with a product maturity classification of Validated Stage1 , indicating that initial validation of ... users for evaluation and to provide feedback to the CALIOP algorithm development team. Users should carefully read the section of the Data ...

  14. Pyroshock prediction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    2002-05-01

    Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

  15. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  16. 32 CFR 635.10 - Release of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) Release of information from Army records to agencies outside DOD will be governed by AR 25-55, AR 340-21, AR 600-37, and this part. Procedures for release of certain other records and information are contained in AR 20-1, AR 27-20, AR 27-40, AR 40-66, AR 195-2, AR 360-1, and AR 600-85. Installation drug...

  17. 32 CFR 635.10 - Release of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Release of information from Army records to agencies outside DOD will be governed by AR 25-55, AR 340-21, AR 600-37, and this part. Procedures for release of certain other records and information are contained in AR 20-1, AR 27-20, AR 27-40, AR 40-66, AR 195-2, AR 360-1, and AR 600-85. Installation drug...

  18. 32 CFR 635.10 - Release of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) Release of information from Army records to agencies outside DOD will be governed by AR 25-55, AR 340-21, AR 600-37, and this part. Procedures for release of certain other records and information are contained in AR 20-1, AR 27-20, AR 27-40, AR 40-66, AR 195-2, AR 360-1, and AR 600-85. Installation drug...

  19. 32 CFR 635.10 - Release of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) Release of information from Army records to agencies outside DOD will be governed by AR 25-55, AR 340-21, AR 600-37, and this part. Procedures for release of certain other records and information are contained in AR 20-1, AR 27-20, AR 27-40, AR 40-66, AR 195-2, AR 360-1, and AR 600-85. Installation drug...

  20. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  1. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  2. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia.

  3. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  6. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  7. Connectionist Learning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Geoffrey E.

    A major goal of research on networks of neuron-like processing units is to discover efficient learning procedures that allow these networks to construct complex internal representations of their environment. The learning procedures must be capable of modifying the connection strengths in such a way that internal units which are not part of the…

  8. Nonenzymatic release of free reducing glycans from glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuezheng; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2012-10-01

    A major limitation in studying the structures and functions of glycans in glycosphingolipids is the difficulty in releasing free glycans for analysis and derivatization. Here we show that reducing glycans can be released nonenzymatically from glycosphingolipids after a brief treatment with ozone followed by heating in neutral aqueous buffer (pHs 6.0-8.0). The released free reducing glycans are then available for glycomic analyses, including fluorescent labeling, permethylation, and mass spectrometry. This procedure is simple and highly efficient, with no base-catalyzed "peeling" reaction by-products observed.

  9. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  11. Sudden releases of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupecká, Hana; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Jurčáková, Klára; Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán

    2014-03-01

    Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  12. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, D. C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  13. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  14. EIA new releases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  15. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  16. Clinton releases oceans report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton is trying to beat the clock on the January 20 close of his administration by maintaining a flurry of activity on resource and conservation issues.During a December 4 speech in Washington, D.C., he released a broad-ranging report by the Presidents Panel on Ocean Exploration, entitled “Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration.”

  17. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  18. Diffuse-interface theory for structure formation and release behavior in controlled drug release systems.

    PubMed

    Saylor, David M; Kim, Chang-Soo; Patwardhan, Dinesh V; Warren, James A

    2007-11-01

    A common method of controlling drug release has been to incorporate the drug into a polymer matrix, thereby creating a diffusion barrier that slows the rate of drug release. It has been demonstrated that the internal microstructure of these drug-polymer composites can significantly impact the drug release rate. However, the effect of processing conditions during manufacture on the composite structure and the subsequent effects on release behavior are not well understood. We have developed a diffuse-interface theory for microstructure evolution that is based on interactions between drug, polymer and solvent species, all of which may be present in either crystalline or amorphous states. Because the theory can be applied to almost any specific combination of material species and over a wide range of environmental conditions, it can be used to elucidate and quantify the relationships between processing, microstructure and release response in controlled drug release systems. Calculations based on the theory have now demonstrated that, for a characteristic delivery system, variations in microstructure arising due to changes in either drug loading or processing time, i.e. evaporation rate, could have a significant impact on both the bulk release kinetics and the uniformity of release across the system. In fact, we observed that changes in process time alone can induce differences in bulk release of almost a factor of two and typical non-uniformities of +/-30% during the initial periods of release. Because these substantial variations may have deleterious clinical ramifications, it is critical that both the system microstructure and the control of that microstructure are considered to ensure the device will be both safe and effective in clinical use.

  19. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  20. 7 CFR 1.19 - Exemptions and discretionary release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemptions and discretionary release. 1.19 Section 1.19 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.19 Exemptions and discretionary release. (a) All agency records, except those specifically...

  1. 7 CFR 1.19 - Exemptions and discretionary release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions and discretionary release. 1.19 Section 1.19 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.19 Exemptions and discretionary release. (a) All agency records, except those specifically...

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  4. 39 CFR 265.8 - Business information; procedures for predisclosure notification to submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business information; procedures for predisclosure... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION § 265.8 Business information; procedures for predisclosure notification to submitters. (a) In general. This section provides a procedure by which persons submitting...

  5. Recommended for release on recognizance: factors affecting pretrial release recommendations.

    PubMed

    Petee, T A

    1994-06-01

    Researchers have acknowledged the influence of pretrial release agencies in judicial decision making regarding bail; however, few researchers have focused on the process used by the pretrial release agencies to make bail-bond recommendations. In this study I sought to establish which factors were most salient in making the decision to recommend a defendant for release on recognizance. I found that both officially sanctioned release criteria and "extralegal" variables were predictive of this decision.

  6. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  7. Standard operating procedures, water immersion facility, revision B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    General guideline procedures to identify those factors that are common to all spacecraft design laboratory support group emergency procedures and to establish the basic rescue plan are presented. This eliminates needless repetition of the fundamentals from the other, more specific procedures.

  8. 40 CFR 1066.230 - Time verification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time verification procedure. 1066.230 Section 1066.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.230 Time verification procedure....

  9. 40 CFR 1066.230 - Time verification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time verification procedure. 1066.230 Section 1066.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.230 Time verification procedure....

  10. 46 CFR 164.009-15 - Test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test procedure. 164.009-15 Section 164.009-15 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-15 Test procedure. (a) General. Paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section contain the test procedures for each...

  11. 46 CFR 164.009-15 - Test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test procedure. 164.009-15 Section 164.009-15 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-15 Test procedure. (a) General. Paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section contain the test procedures for each...

  12. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations.

  13. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  14. Arthroscopic Capsular Release of the Ankle Joint.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the ankle is also known as frozen ankle and results in marked fibrosis and contracture of the ankle capsule. Arthroscopic capsular release is indicated for symptomatic frozen ankle that is resistant to conservative treatment. It is contraindicated for ankle stiffness due to degenerative joint disease, intra-articular malunion, or adhesion of the extensors of the ankle. The procedure consists of endoscopic posterior ankle capsulectomy and arthroscopic anterior ankle capsulotomy. It has the advantages of being minimally invasive surgery and allowing early postoperative vigorous mobilization of the ankle joint.

  15. Instrument Calibration and Certification Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Wesley

    2016-05-31

    The Amptec 640SL-2 is a 4-wire Kelvin failsafe resistance meter, designed to reliably use very low-test currents for its resistance measurements. The 640SL-1 is a 2-wire version, designed to support customers using the Reynolds Industries type 311 connector. For both versions, a passive (analog) dual function DC Milliameter/Voltmeter allows the user to verify the actual 640SL output current level and the open circuit voltage on the test leads. This procedure includes tests of essential performance parameters. Any malfunction noticed during calibration, whether specifically tested for or not, shall be corrected before calibration continues or is completed.

  16. Endoscopic Release of Master Knot of Henry.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A post-traumatic partial tear of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at the master knot of Henry and the resultant fibrosis of the knot can result in pain at the medial foot arch or posteromedial ankle pain with trigger hallux. Open debridement of the master knot of Henry is indicated if the symptoms do not improve with nonoperative treatment. The open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the master knot of Henry is a deep structure. Endoscopic release of the master knot of Henry is an alternative to the open procedure and has the advantage of less surgical trauma and potential for less chance of recurrence of fibrosis of the master knot of Henry.

  17. 31 CFR 558.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... licensing policy relating to this part also may be available through the South Sudan sanctions page on...

  18. GENERATING PARTICIPANT SPECIFIC FIGURES USING SAS GRAPHIC PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important part of our research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to effectively communicate the results from observational studies to the study participants. This can be particularly challenging where participants are from different socio-economic background...

  19. 31 CFR 552.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses... part also may be available through the Yemen sanctions page on OFAC's Web site: www.treasury.gov/ofac....

  20. 31 CFR 552.501 - General and specific licensing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses... part also may be available through the Yemen sanctions page on OFAC's Web site: www.treasury.gov/ofac....

  1. Runway Rubber Removal Specification Development: Field Evaluation Procedures Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Administration, Hampton, Virginia, 1983. 7. Moore, 0. F., The Friction of Pneumatic Tyres , Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, New York, 1975...The Friction of Pneumatic Tyres , Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, New York, 1975. 8. Kummer, H. W., Unified Theory of Rubber and Tire...Ref. 10) on pneumatic tire hydroplaning, states there are three types of hydroplaning, viz., dynamic, viscous, and reverted tire rubber hydroplaning

  2. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  3. Canalith Repositioning Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... repositioning procedure can help relieve benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition in which you have brief, but intense, episodes of dizziness that occur when you move your head. Vertigo ...

  4. Lithotripsy procedure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a procedure used to shatter simple stones in the kidney or upper urinary tract. Ultrasonic waves are passed through the body until they strike the dense stones. Pulses of ...

  5. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  6. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  7. Dopamine release in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

  8. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  9. Gaia Data Release 1. Catalogue validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenou, F.; Luri, X.; Babusiaux, C.; Fabricius, C.; Helmi, A.; Robin, A. C.; Vallenari, A.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Findeisen, K.; Reylé, C.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sordo, R.; Turon, C.; Walton, N. A.; Shih, I.-C.; Antiche, E.; Barache, C.; Barros, M.; Breddels, M.; Carrasco, J. M.; Costigan, G.; Diakité, S.; Eyer, L.; Figueras, F.; Galluccio, L.; Heu, J.; Jordi, C.; Krone-Martins, A.; Lallement, R.; Lambert, S.; Leclerc, N.; Marrese, P. M.; Moitinho, A.; Mor, R.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Sartoretti, P.; Soria, S.; Soubiran, C.; Souchay, J.; Veljanoski, J.; Ziaeepour, H.; Giuffrida, G.; Pancino, E.; Bragaglia, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Before the publication of the Gaia Catalogue, the contents of the first data release have undergone multiple dedicated validation tests. Aims: These tests aim to provide in-depth analysis of the Catalogue content in order to detect anomalies and individual problems in specific objects or in overall statistical properties, and either to filter them before the public release or to describe the different caveats on the release for an optimal exploitation of the data. Methods: Dedicated methods using either Gaia internal data, external catalogues, or models have been developed for the validation processes. They test normal stars as well as various populations such as open or globular clusters, double stars, variable stars, and quasars. Properties of coverage, accuracy, and precision of the data are provided by the numerous tests presented here and are jointly analysed to assess the data release content. Results: This independent validation confirms the quality of the published data, Gaia DR1 being the most precise all-sky astrometric and photometric catalogue to date. However, several limitations in terms of completeness, and astrometric or photometric quality are identified and described. Figures describing the relevant properties of the release are shown, and the testing activities carried out validating the user interfaces are also described. A particular emphasis is made on the statistical use of the data in scientific exploitation.

  10. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  11. [The EXIT procedure].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Blödow, A; Flügel, W; Renner-Lützkendorf, H; Isbruch, A; Siegling, F; Untch, M; Strauß, J; Bloching, M B

    2013-08-01

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is used for unborn fetuses in cases of predictable complications of postpartum airway obstruction. Indications for the EXIT procedure are fetal neck tumors, obstruction of the trachea, hiatus hernia of the diaphragm and congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Large cervical tumors prevent normal delivery of a fetus due to reclination of the head with airway obstruction. Therefore, a primary caesarean section or the EXIT procedure has to be considered. The EXIT procedure has time limitations as the blood supply by the placenta only lasts for 30-60 min. Airway protection has to be ensured during parturition.This article reports the case of an unborn fetus with a large cervical teratoma where an obstruction of the cervical airway was detected and monitored by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during pregnancy. The EXIT procedure was therefore used and successfully accomplished. The features of the interdisciplinary aspects of the EXIT procedure are described with the special aspects of each medical discipline.

  12. 12 CFR 346.8 - Release of information under FOIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proprietary and confidential information in a covered agreement or an annual report under those procedures. ... FOIA. The FDIC will make covered agreements and annual reports available to the public in accordance... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of information under FOIA....

  13. 28 CFR 51.36 - Release of information concerning submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of information concerning submissions. 51.36 Section 51.36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Processing of Submissions §...

  14. 28 CFR 541.68 - Release from controlled housing status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release from controlled housing status. 541.68 Section 541.68 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Procedures for Handling of HIV Positive Inmates...

  15. 28 CFR 541.68 - Release from controlled housing status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release from controlled housing status. 541.68 Section 541.68 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Procedures for Handling of HIV Positive Inmates...

  16. 28 CFR 541.68 - Release from controlled housing status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release from controlled housing status. 541.68 Section 541.68 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Procedures for Handling of HIV Positive Inmates...

  17. 28 CFR 541.68 - Release from controlled housing status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release from controlled housing status. 541.68 Section 541.68 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Procedures for Handling of HIV Positive Inmates...

  18. 28 CFR 541.68 - Release from controlled housing status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release from controlled housing status. 541.68 Section 541.68 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Procedures for Handling of HIV Positive Inmates...

  19. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regional Airport (EAR), Kearney, Nebraska. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on... request to release approximately 67.72 acres of airport property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR... property at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) submitted by the Sponsor meets the procedural...

  20. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…