NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration
2016-03-01
We report on results obtained with the event-shape engineering technique applied to Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV. By selecting events in the same centrality interval, but with very different average flow, different initial-state conditions can be studied. We find the effect of the event-shape selection on the elliptic flow coefficient v2 to be almost independent of transverse momentum pT, which is as expected if this effect is attributable to fluctuations in the initial geometry of the system. Charged-hadron, -pion, -kaon, and -proton transverse momentum distributions are found to be harder in events with higher-than-average elliptic flow, indicating an interplay between radial and elliptic flow.
Elliptic flow from collision geometry and rescattering
Boeggild, H.; Hansen, Ole; Humanic, T. J.
2009-04-15
Calculations of elliptic flow based on two initial state models of Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s)=200 GeV/n coupled with a hadronic rescattering calculation are presented. The two initial state models used are a thermal model and a partonic model. Results from these calculations are compared with experiments and it is found that both initial state models give satisfactory representations of elliptic flow measurements, provided that the rescattering is started early enough in the collision process. It is also found that the present hadronic model studies do not show the jet suppression observed experimentally.
ELLIPTIC FLOW, INITIAL ECCENTRICITY AND ELLIPTIC FLOW FLUCTUATIONS IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC.
NOUICER,R.; ALVER, B.; BACK, B.B.; BAKER, M.D.; BALLINTIJN, M.; BARTON, D.S.; ET AL.
2007-02-19
We present measurements of elliptic flow and event-by-event fluctuations established by the PHOBOS experiment. Elliptic flow scaled by participant eccentricity is found to be similar for both systems when collisions with the same number of participants or the same particle area density are compared. The agreement of elliptic flow between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions provides evidence that the matter is created in the initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions with transverse granularity similar to that of the participant nucleons. The event-by-event fluctuation results reveal that the initial collision geometry is translated into the final state azimuthal particle distribution, leading to an event-by-event proportionality between the observed elliptic flow and initial eccentricity.
Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Voloshin, Sergei A.
2009-04-16
We discuss how the different estimates of elliptic flow are influenced by flow fluctuations and nonflow effects. It is explained why the event-plane method yields estimates between the two-particle correlation methods and the multiparticle correlation methods. It is argued that nonflow effects and fluctuations cannot be disentangled without other assumptions. However, we provide equations where, with reasonable assumptions about fluctuations and nonflow, all measured values of elliptic flow converge to a unique mean v_2,PP elliptic flow in the participant plane and, with a Gaussian assumption on eccentricity fluctuations, can be converted to the mean v_2,RP in the reaction plane. Thus, the 20percent spread in observed elliptic flow measurements from different analysis methods is no longer mysterious.
Model dependence of elliptic flow differences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cozma, M. D.
2013-02-01
An isospin dependent version of the QMD transport model is used to study the influence of the isovector part of the equation of state of nuclear matter on observables that can be measured in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy. The model dependence of neutron-proton elliptic flow difference is studied for AuAu collisions at an incident energy of 400 MeV per nucleon. It is found that the sensitivity to microscopical nucleon-nucleon cross-sections, momentum dependence of the optical potential, compressibility modulus of nuclear matter and width of nucleon wave function are moderate compared to the dependence on the stiffness of the isospin asymmetric part of the equation of state. It is concluded that neutron-proton elliptic flow difference is a suitable observable for setting constraints on the supra-saturation density dependence of symmetry energy.
Reconfigurable Optical Spectra from Perturbations on Elliptical Whispering Gallery Resonances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.
Eccentricity and elliptic flow in pp collisions at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avsar, E.; Hatta, Y.; Flensburg, C.; Ollitrault, J.-Y.; Ueda, T.
2011-12-01
High-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC may exhibit collective phenomena such as elliptic flow. We study this issue using DIPSY, a brand-new Monte Carlo event generator which features almost-NLO BFKL dynamics and describes the transverse shape of the proton including all fluctuations. We predict the eccentricity of the collision as a function of the multiplicity and estimate the magnitude of elliptic flow. We suggest that flow can be signaled by a sign change in the four-particle azimuthal correlation.
Event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations from PHOBOS.
Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Physics; BNL; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; National Central Univ.; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Rochester
2009-04-01
Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.
System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow
Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.
2007-06-15
This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.
Homogeneous turbulence subjected to mean flow with elliptic streamlines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, G. A.; Shariff, K.
1994-01-01
Direct numerical simulations are performed for homogeneous turbulence with a mean flow having elliptic streamlines. This flow combines the effects of rotation and strain on the turbulence. Qualitative comparisons are made with linear theory for cases with high Rossby number. The nonlinear transfer process is monitored using a generalized skewness. In general, rotation turns off the nonlinear cascade; however, for moderate ellipticities and rotation rates the nonlinear cascade is turned off and then reestablished. Turbulence statistics of interest in turbulence modeling are calculated, including full Reynolds stress budgets.
Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; George, N.; Wuosmaa, A.; Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; BNL; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago
2005-01-01
Elliptic flow is an interesting probe of the dynamical evolution of the dense system formed in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The elliptic flow dependences on transverse momentum, centrality and pseudorapidity were measured using data collected by the PHOBOS detector, which offers a unique opportunity to study the azimuthal anisotropies of charged particles over a wide range of pseudorapidity. These measurements are presented, together with an overview of the analysis methods and a discussion of the results.
Cooling Flow Spectra in Ginga Galaxy Clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Raymond E., III
1997-01-01
The primary focus of this research project has been a joint analysis of Ginga LAC and Einstein SSS X-ray spectra of the hot gas in galaxy clusters with cooling flows is reported. We studied four clusters (A496, A1795, A2142 & A2199) and found their central temperatures to be cooler than in the exterior, which is expected from their having cooling flows. More interestingly, we found central metal abundance enhancements in two of the clusters, A496 and A2142. We have been assessing whether the abundance gradients (or lack thereof) in intracluster gas is correlated with galaxy morphological gradients in the host clusters. In rich, dense galaxy clusters, elliptical and SO galaxies are generally found in the cluster cores, while spiral galaxies are found in the outskirts. If the metals observed in clusters came from proto-ellipticals and proto-S0s blowing winds, then the metal distribution in intracluster gas may still reflect the distribution of their former host galaxies. In a research project which was inspired by the success of the Ginga LAC/Einstein SSS work, we analyzed X-ray spectra from the HEAO-A2 MED and the Einstein SSS to look for temperature gradients in cluster gas. The HEAO-A2 MED was also a non-imaging detector with a large field of view compared to the SSS, so we used the differing fields of view of the two instruments to extract spatial information. We found some evidence of cool gas in the outskirts of clusters, which may indicate that the nominally isothermal mass density distributions in these clusters are steepening in the outer parts of these clusters.
Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.
1991-01-01
An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.
Multigrid solutions of elliptic fluid flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Nigel George
1988-06-01
An efficient FAS multigrid solution strategy is presented for the accurate and economic simulation of convection dominated flows. The use of a high-order approximation to the convective transport terms found in the governing equations of motion was investigated in conjunction with an unsegregated smoothing technique. Results are presented for a sequence of problems of increasing complexity requiring that careful attention be directed toward the proper treatment of different types of boundary condition. The classical two-dimensional problem of flow in a lid-driven cavity is investigated in depth for flows at Reynolds number of 100, 400 and 1000. This gives an extremely good indication of the power of a multigrid approach. Next, the solution methodology is applied to flow in a three-dimensional lid-driven cavity at different Reynolds numbers, with cross-reference being made to predictions obtained in the corresponding two-dimensional simulations, and to the flow over a step discontinuity in the case of an abruptly expanding channel. Although, at first sight, these problems appear to require only minor extensions to the existing approach, it is found that they are rather more idiosyncratic. Finally, the governing equations and numerical algorithm are extended to encompass the treatment of thermally driven flows. The solution to two such problems is presented and compared with corresponding results obtained by traditional methods.
Hydrodynamical model for J/{psi} suppression and elliptic flow
Chaudhuri, A. K.
2009-10-15
In a hydrodynamic model, we have studied J/{psi} suppression and elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy {radical}(s)=200 GeV. At the initial time, J/{psi}'s are randomly distributed in the fluid. As the fluid evolves in time, the free-streaming J/{psi}'s are dissolved if the local fluid temperature exceeds a melting temperature T{sub J/{psi}}. Sequential melting of charmonium states ({chi}{sub c}, {psi}{sup '}, and J/{psi}), with melting temperatures T{sub {chi}{sub c}}=T{sub {psi}{sup '}}{approx_equal}1.2T{sub c} and T{sub J/{psi}}{approx_equal}2T{sub c} and a feed-down fraction F{approx_equal}0.3, is consistent with the PHENIX data on J/{psi} suppression and near-zero elliptic flow for J/{psi}'s. It is also shown that the model will require substantial regeneration of charmonium if the charmonium states dissolve at a temperature close to the critical temperatures, T{sub {chi}{sub c}}=T{sub {psi}{sup '}}{<=}T{sub c} and T{sub J/{psi}}{approx_equal}1.2T{sub c}. The regenerated charmonium will have positive elliptic flow.
Resonant phenomenon of elliptical cylinder flows in a subcritical regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shih-Sheng; Yen, Ruey-Hor
2011-11-01
The resonant phenomena in the wake behind a transversely vibrating elliptical cylinder with different axis ratios from Ar = 0.01 to Ar = 2.0 in the subcritical regime is numerically investigated. Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a spectral element code with a triangular mesh. Reynolds numbers range from 15 to 60 and the Roshko numbers range from 0.5 to 8 for different elliptical cylinders. Both the velocity and pressure responses in the wake are measured and analyzed. The investigations of the drag coefficients and the wake streamlines indicate that the cylinder's axis ratio has a minor effect on the resonant frequency, Ron. However, the cylinder's axis ratio is found to have a prominent effect on the resonant amplitude; namely, the smaller the cylinder's axis ratio, the stronger the occurrence of resonant amplitude. The investigations of resonant responses of both the velocity and pressure and the probe locations may provide information for designing a flow meter based on pressure responses in the subcritical regime. It shows that the ratio of velocity and pressure responses poses a great linear relationship against the probe distance behind the vibrating cylinder. Moreover, a resonant method based on the different resonant frequencies at different probed locations in the subcritical regime to predict the critical conditions is examined and verified for different elliptical cylinders. Finally, based on the critical values found, a reduced Reynolds number and a reduced Roshko number are proposed to unify the different linear relationships resulting from different elliptical cylinder flows. The result indicates that the effect of axis ratio can be stripped off in the reduced plane, which may be applied to a more generalized cylinder shape.
Correlation functions and cumulants in elliptic flow analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill L.
2003-04-01
We consider various methods of flow analysis in heavy ion collisions and compare experimental data on corresponding observables to the predictions of our saturation model proposed earlier [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413]. We demonstrate that, due to the nature of the standard flow analysis, azimuthal distribution of particles with respect to reaction plane determined from the second order harmonics should always be proportional to cos2( φ- ΨR) independent of the physical origin of particle correlations (flow or non-flow). The amplitude of this distribution is always physical and proportional to v2. Two-particle correlations analysis is, therefore, a more reliable way of extracting the shape of physical azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate that two-particle correlation functions generated in our minijet model of particle production [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413] are in good agreement with the data reported by PHENIX. We discuss the role of non-flow correlations in the cumulant flow analysis and demonstrate using a simple example that if the flow is weak, higher order cumulants analysis does not significantly reduce the contribution of non-flow correlations to elliptic flow observable v2 in RHIC data.
Andrade, R.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Kodama, T.; Socolowski, O. Jr.
2006-11-17
Elliptic flow at BNL RHIC is computed event by event with NeXSPheRIO. We show that when symmetry of the particle distribution in relation to the reaction plane is assumed, as usually done in the experimental extraction of elliptic flow, there is a disagreement between the true and reconstructed elliptic flows (15%-30% for {eta}=0, 30% for p{sub perpendicular}=0.5 GeV). We suggest a possible way to take into account the asymmetry and get good agreement between these elliptic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pan, Y. S.
1978-01-01
A three dimensional, partially elliptic, computer program was developed. Without requiring three dimensional computer storage locations for all flow variables, the partially elliptic program is capable of predicting three dimensional combustor flow fields with large downstream effects. The program requires only slight increase of computer storage over the parabolic flow program from which it was developed. A finite difference formulation for a three dimensional, fully elliptic, turbulent, reacting, flow field was derived. Because of the negligible diffusion effects in the main flow direction in a supersonic combustor, the set of finite-difference equations can be reduced to a partially elliptic form. Only the pressure field was governed by an elliptic equation and requires three dimensional storage; all other dependent variables are governed by parabolic equations. A numerical procedure which combines a marching integration scheme with an iterative scheme for solving the elliptic pressure was adopted.
Elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
B. Ivanov, Yu.; Soldatov, A. A.
2016-08-01
The transverse-momentum-integrated elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity, v2 (charged), and that of identified hadrons from Au+Au collisions are analyzed in the range of incident energies relevant to the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA). Simulations are performed within a three-fluid model employing three different equations of state (EoSs): a purely hadronic EoS and two versions of the EoS involving the deconfinement transition-a first-order phase transition and a smooth crossover one. The present simulations demonstrate low sensitivity of v2 (charged) to the EoS. All considered scenarios equally well reproduce recent STAR data on v2 (charged) for mid-central Au+Au collisions and properly describe its change of sign at the incident energy decrease below √{s_{NN}} ≈ 3.5 GeV. The predicted integrated elliptic flow of various species exhibits a stronger dependence on the EoS. A noticeable sensitivity to the EoS is found for anti-protons and, to a lesser extent, for K- mesons. Presently there are no experimental data that could verify these predictions. Future experiments at NICA could corroborate these findings.
Laminar flow in the entrance region of elliptical ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatti, M. S.
1983-06-01
A closed-form analytical solution is developed to hitherto unsolved problem of steady laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in the entrance region of elliptical ducts. The analysis is based on the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method and entails solution of the integrated forms of the mass and the momentum balance equations. According to this analysis, the hydrodynamic entrance length based on 99 percent approach to the fully developed flow is equal to 0.5132 lambda/(l + lambda-squared) where lambda is the aspect ratio. Also, the fully developed incremental pressure defect is found to be 7/6 which is independent of the aspect ratio. In the limit when the flow becomes fully developed, the solution converges to the known exact asymptotic solution. Available, wide-ranging velocity measurements for a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 7 percent. Also, available pressure drop measurements near the inlet of a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 2 percent.
Computational analysis of hypersonic flows past elliptic-cone waveriders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Bok-Hyun; Rasmussen, Maurice L.
1991-01-01
A comprehensive study for the inviscid numerical calculation of the hypersonic flow past a class of elliptic-cone derived waveriders is presented. The theoretical background associated with hypersonic small-disturbance theory (HSDT) is reviewed. Several approximation formulas for the waverider compression surface are established. A CFD algorithm is used to calculate flow fields for the on-design case and a variety of off-design cases. The results are compared with HSDT, experiment, and other available CFD results. For the waverider shape used in previous investigations, the bow shock for the on-design condition stands off from the leading-edge tip of the waverider. It was found that this occurs because the tip was too thick according to the approximating shape formula that was used to describe the compression surface. When this was corrected, the bow shock became closer to attached as it should be. At Mach numbers greater than the design condition, a lambda-shock configuration develops near the tip of the compression surface. At negative angles of attack, other complicated shock patterns occur near the leading-edge tip. These heretofore unknown flow patterns show the power and utility of CFD for investigating novel hypersonic configurations such as waveriders.
Exposing the non-collectivity in elliptic flow
Liao, Jinfeng; Koch, Volker
2009-02-13
We show that backward-forward elliptic asymmetry correlations provide an experimentally accessible observable which distinguishes between collective and non-collective contributions to the observed elliptic asymmetry v2 in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The measurement of this observable will reveal the momentum scale at which collective expansion seizes and where the elliptic asymmetry is dominated by (semi)-hard processes. In addition, the knowledge of the actual magnitude of the collective component of the elliptic asymmetry will be essential for the extraction of the viscosity of the matter created in these collisions.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows.
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α, may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5/3, but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α=3. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5/3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows. PMID:27661693
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Lateral Migration and Rotational Motion of Elliptic Particles in Planar Poiseuille Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Qi, Dewei; Luo, Li-Shi; Aravamuthan, Raja; Strieder, William; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Simulations of elliptic particulate suspensions in the planar Poiseuille flow are performed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation. Effects of the multi-particle on the lateral migration and rotational motion of both neutrally and non-neutrally buoyant elliptic particles are investigated. Low and intermediate total particle volume fraction f(sub a) = 13%, 15%, and 40% are considered in this work.
Rapidity and pt dependence of identified-particle elliptic flow at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, S. J.; BRAHMS Collaboration
2007-08-01
Elliptic flow has been measured by the BRAHMS experiment as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for the Au+Au reaction at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. Identified-particle v2(η, pt) values were obtained with the two BRAHMS spectrometers at pseudorapidities ηap 0, 1 and 3.4. The results show that the differential v2(η, pt) values for a given particle type are essentially constant over the covered pseudorapidity range. It is suggested that the dominant cause of the observed fall-off of the integral v2 values going away from mid-rapidity is a corresponding softening of the particle spectra.
Mass ordering of differential elliptic flow and its violation for {phi} mesons
Hirano, Tetsufumi; Heinz, Ulrich; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Lacey, Roy; Nara, Yasushi
2008-04-15
We simulate the dynamics of Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with a hybrid model that treats the dense early quark-gluon plasma (QGP) stage macroscopically as an ideal fluid but models the dilute late hadron resonance gas (HG) microscopically using a hadronic cascade. By comparing with a pure hydrodynamic approach we identify effects of hadronic viscosity on the transverse momentum spectra and differential elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}). We investigate the dynamical origins of the observed mass ordering of v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) for identified hadrons, focusing on dissipative effects during the late hadronic stage. Within our approach, we find that, at RHIC energies, much of the finally observed mass splitting is generated during the hadronic stage, due to buildup of additional radial flow. The {phi} meson, having a small interaction cross section, does not fully participate in this additional flow. As a result, it violates the mass-ordering pattern for v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) that is observed for other hadron species. We also show that the early decoupling of the {phi} meson from the hadronic rescattering dynamics leads to interesting and unambiguous features in the p{sub T} dependence of the nuclear suppression factor R{sub AA} and of the {phi}/p ratio.
Effect of free surface on near-wake flow of elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang Joon; Daichin, -
2003-04-01
The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. The elliptic cylinders tested in this study have same cross section area. For each elliptic cylinder, the experiments were carried out under different conditions by varying the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean flow field information and spatial distribution of turbulent statistics. The near-wakes can be basically classified into three typical patterns, which are formation of Coanda effect, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structures behind the elliptic cylinder are similar to previous results for a circular submerged near to a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder are smaller than those for the circular cylinder. These trends are enhance with increasing of the cylinder aspect ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roediger, E.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C.; Churazov, E.; Kokotanekova, R.
2015-06-01
Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.
Roediger, E.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C.; Kokotanekova, R.
2015-06-10
Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.
Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV.
Ackermann, K H; Adams, N; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M; Blyth, C O; Boehm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chatopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Diaz, H; DeYoung, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, W; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, K J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Grau, M; Greiner, D; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G J; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kuhn, C; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Leonhardt, W J; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, J R; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; Matyushevski, E A; McParland, C; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevotchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Roehrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sanchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlueter, R; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimanskii, S S; Shuman, D; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Stroebele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Symons, T J; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto De Toledo, A; Tonse, S; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N
2001-01-15
Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV using the STAR Time Projection Chamber at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow signal, v2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.
Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV.
Ackermann, K H; Adams, N; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M; Blyth, C O; Boehm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chatopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Diaz, H; DeYoung, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, W; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, K J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Grau, M; Greiner, D; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G J; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kuhn, C; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Leonhardt, W J; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, J R; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; Matyushevski, E A; McParland, C; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevotchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Roehrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sanchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlueter, R; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimanskii, S S; Shuman, D; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Stroebele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Symons, T J; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto De Toledo, A; Tonse, S; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N
2001-01-15
Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at square root(S)NN = 130 GeV using the STAR Time Projection Chamber at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow signal, v2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented. PMID:11177841
Ito, Atsushi; Ramos, Jesus J.; Nakajima, Noriyoshi
2007-06-15
The ellipticity criteria for the partial differential equations of axisymmetric single-fluid and Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria with flow and pressure anisotropy are investigated. The MHD systems are closed with cold ions and electron pressures derived from their parallel heat flux equations, a closure that reproduces the corresponding kinetic dispersion relation. In the single-fluid model, which differs from the double-adiabatic Chew-Goldberger-Low model, it is verified that the elliptic region boundaries occur at poloidal flow velocities equal to wave velocities from the kinetic dispersion relation. For Hall magnetohydrodynamics, a set of anisotropic-pressure equilibrium equations is derived and an ellipticity condition corresponding to a poloidal flow velocity slightly smaller than the ion sound velocity is obtained.
NeXSPheRIO results on elliptic-flow fluctuations at RHIC
Hama, Y. Andrade, R. P. G.; Grassi, F.; Qian, W.-L.; Osada, T.; Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.
2008-09-15
By using the NeXSPheRIO code, we study the elliptic-flow fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at 200 A GeV. It is shown that, by fixing the parameters of the model to correctly reproduce the charged pseudorapidity and the transverse-momentum distributions, reasonable agreement of
Elliptical flow in relativistic ion collisions at \\sqrt{s}= 200 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.
2008-07-01
A consistent picture of the Au + Au and D + Au, \\sqrt{s}= 200 A GeV measurements at RHIC obtained with the PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS and BRAHMS detectors including both the rapidity and transverse momentum spectra was previously developed with the simulation LUCIFER. The approach was modelled on the early production of a fluid of pre-hadrons after the completion of an initial phase of high-energy interactions. The formation of pre-hadrons is discussed here, in a perturbative QCD approach as advocated by Kopeliovich, Nemchik and Schmidt. In the second phase of LUCIFER, a considerably lower energy hadron-like cascade ensues. Since the dominant collisions occurring in this latter phase are meson-meson in character while the initial collisions are between baryons, i.e. both involve hadron-sized interaction cross-sections, there is good reason to suspect that the observed elliptical flow will be produced naturally, and this is indeed found to be the case.
Radial Motions in Disk Stars: Ellipticity or Secular Flows?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Corredoira, M.; González-Fernández, C.
2016-06-01
Average stellar orbits of the Galactic disk may have some small intrinsic ellipticity which breaks the exact axisymmetry and there may also be some migration of stars inwards or outwards. Both phenomena can be detected through kinematic analyses. We use the red clump stars selected spectroscopically from the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment, with known distances and radial velocities, to measure the radial component of the Galactocentric velocities within 5 kpc < R < 16 kpc, | b| \\lt 5^\\circ , and within 20° from the Sun–Galactic center line. The average Galactocentric radial velocity is VR = (1.48 ± 0.35)[R(kpc) ‑ (8.8 ± 2.7)] km s‑1 outwards in the explored range, with a higher contribution from stars below the Galactic plane. Two possible explanations can be given for this result: (i) the mean orbit of the disk stars is intrinsically elliptical with a Galactocentric radial gradient of eccentricity around 0.01 kpc‑1 or (ii) there is a net secular expansion of the disk, in which stars within R ≈ 9–11 kpc are migrating to the region R ≳ 11 kpc at the rate of ∼2 M⊙ yr‑1, and stars with R ≲ 9 kpc are falling toward the center of the Galaxy. This migration ratio would be unattainable for a long time and should decelerate, otherwise the Galaxy would fade away in around 1 Gyr. At present, both hypotheses are speculative and one would need data on the Galactocentric radial velocities for other azimuths different to the center or anticenter in order to confirm one of the scenarios.
Radial Motions in Disk Stars: Ellipticity or Secular Flows?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Corredoira, M.; González-Fernández, C.
2016-06-01
Average stellar orbits of the Galactic disk may have some small intrinsic ellipticity which breaks the exact axisymmetry and there may also be some migration of stars inwards or outwards. Both phenomena can be detected through kinematic analyses. We use the red clump stars selected spectroscopically from the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment, with known distances and radial velocities, to measure the radial component of the Galactocentric velocities within 5 kpc < R < 16 kpc, | b| \\lt 5^\\circ , and within 20° from the Sun-Galactic center line. The average Galactocentric radial velocity is VR = (1.48 ± 0.35)[R(kpc) - (8.8 ± 2.7)] km s-1 outwards in the explored range, with a higher contribution from stars below the Galactic plane. Two possible explanations can be given for this result: (i) the mean orbit of the disk stars is intrinsically elliptical with a Galactocentric radial gradient of eccentricity around 0.01 kpc-1 or (ii) there is a net secular expansion of the disk, in which stars within R ≈ 9-11 kpc are migrating to the region R ≳ 11 kpc at the rate of ˜2 M⊙ yr-1, and stars with R ≲ 9 kpc are falling toward the center of the Galaxy. This migration ratio would be unattainable for a long time and should decelerate, otherwise the Galaxy would fade away in around 1 Gyr. At present, both hypotheses are speculative and one would need data on the Galactocentric radial velocities for other azimuths different to the center or anticenter in order to confirm one of the scenarios.
Spatiotemporal cascades of the Poiseuille-Hagen flow in invariant elliptic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miroshnikov, Victor
2011-11-01
Spatiotemporal cascades of the transitional Poiseuille-Hagen flow are considered in elliptic structures, which are invariant with respect to differential and nonlinear algebraic operations. Differentiation and algebra of the invariant structures and decomposition of smooth velocity profiles in the invariant structures are treated both theoretically and symbolically. Reduction of the invariant elliptic structures to invariant trigonometric structures and invariant hyperbolic structures is also considered. By using the invariant structures, the displayed and hidden perturbations of the basic Poiseuille-Hagen flow are represented as dual perturbations, while the series solution for the perturbed flow converges uniformly. The cascade solution for the Poiseuille-Hagen flow is constructed in a multiscale form, which explicitly shows the effect of various factors at multiple scales.
PHENIX Studies of the Scaling Properties of Elliptic Flow of RHIC
Taranenko, A; Awes, Terry C; Batsouli, Sotiria; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; Zhang, Chun; PHENIX, Collaboration
2007-01-01
Recent PHENIX elliptic flow ({nu}{sub 2}) measurements for identified particles produced in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}S{sub NN} = 200 GeV are presented and compared to other RHIC measurements. They indicate universal scaling of {nu}{sub 2} compatible with partonic collectivity leading to the flow of light, strange and heavy quarks with a common expansion velocity field.
Bifurcations of transonic flow past simple airfoils with elliptic and wedge-shaped noses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuz'min, A. G.
2010-01-01
A turbulent transonic flow past two symmetric airfoils with flat midparts is studied numerically. Using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, we analyze the flow past a 9% thick airfoil with an elliptic nose. A range of the free-stream Mach number M∞, in which flow bifurcations occur, is determined. Values of M∞ that give rise to significant changes in the lift coefficient with variations of the angle of attack are specified. Flow bifurcations are also revealed for a thin double wedge, i.e., a sort of a hexagon.
A numerical analysis of thermally developing flow in elliptic ducts with internal fins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Z. F.; Ebadian, M. A.
1991-06-01
The thermally developing laminar forced-convection flow and heat transfer characteristics in elliptic tubes with four longitudinal internal fins is numerically investigated in this article via the boundary-fitted coordinate system. The control volume-based finite-difference technique is applied to obtain the solution utilizing the numerically generated boundary-fitted coordinate. The elliptic tubes are maintained at a uniform wall temperature, peripherally as well as axially. Since the fins are considered to be continuous and of zero thickness, the results presented are in terms of isotherms, variation of bulk temperature, and Nusselt number in the entire thermal region of the elliptic duct for various values of relative fin heights. Also studied and graphically illustrated is the effect of minor-axis to major-axis ratios in the elliptic duct with internal fins on the fully developed and developing heat transfer characteristics. For the special case of a circular duct, the results are compared with some limited findings in the literature, and very good agreement is obtained. Furthermore, the results exhibit a high heat transfer coefficient, expected in the entrance region, approaching asymptotically fully developed values at greater axial distances. The significance of each curve is also discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasim, Md.; Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong
2016-04-01
A systematic study of the pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow parameter using transport models (e.g., a multiphase transport model, AMPT, and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics, UrQMD) has been presented. We have observed that while at mid-pseudorapidity the elliptic flow measured using the event-plane method differs significantly from that measured by actual reaction plane method, both the event-plane and reaction-plane methods give the same elliptic flow for far forward and backward pseudorapidity. This indicates that the magnitude of measured v2 around midrapidity strongly depends on the analysis method. Therefore, one should use the same procedure (as used in data analysis) in model calculations while comparing model results and experimental data. We find the shape of v2(η ) measured by the PHOBOS experiment is not reproduced by using actual v2 (i.e., measured with respect to the reaction plane) from AMPT and UrQMD models. The shape and magnitude of measured v2(η ) can be explained by the AMPT model with string-melting mode only if one uses the same procedure as used in data analysis. Magnitude of elliptic flow can be reproduced for all pseudorapidity range by taking the parton-parton interaction cross section to be 3 mb at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV. This implies that the partonic interactions are necessary to reproduce data at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV and the strength of partonic interactions at far forward and backward rapidity is as strong as at midrapidity. Both UrQMD and AMPT with default mode fail to explain the data.
Eccentricity fluctuations in an integrated hybrid approach: Influence on elliptic flow
Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus
2010-04-15
The effects of initial state fluctuations on elliptic flow are investigated within a (3+1)-dimensional Boltzmann+hydrodynamics transport approach. The spatial eccentricity (epsilon{sub RP} and epsilon{sub part}) is calculated for initial conditions generated by a hadronic transport approach (ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics). Elliptic flow results as a function of impact parameter, beam energy, and transverse momentum for two different equations of state and for averaged initial conditions or a full event-by-event setup are presented. These investigations allow the conclusion that in mid-central (b=5-9 fm) heavy-ion collisions the final elliptic flow is independent of the initial state fluctuations and the equation of state. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that most of the v{sub 2} is built up during the hydrodynamic stage of the evolution. Therefore, the use of averaged initial profiles does not contribute to the uncertainties of the extraction of transport properties of hot and dense QCD matter based on viscous hydrodynamic calculations.
Elliptic model for space-time correlations in turbulent shear flows.
He, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Bai
2006-05-01
An elliptic model for space-time correlations in turbulent shear flows is proposed based on a second order approximation to the iso-correlation contours, while Taylor's hypothesis implies a first-order approximation. It is shown that the space-time correlations are mainly determined by their space correlations and the convection and sweeping velocities. This model accommodates two extreme cases: Taylor's hypothesis at vanishing sweeping velocity and the sweeping hypothesis at vanishing convection velocity. The result is supported by the data from the direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows.
Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.
Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A
2016-08-01
The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system. PMID:27586607
Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.
Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A
2016-08-01
The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.
Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshel, Konstantin V.; Ryzhov, Eugene A.
2016-08-01
The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.
Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie
2011-07-01
We recently found that massive cluster elliptical galaxies have strong Na I {lambda}8183, 8195 and FeH {lambda}9916 Wing-Ford band absorption, indicating the presence of a very large population of stars with masses {approx}< 0.3 M{sub sun}. Here we test this result by comparing the elliptical galaxy spectra to those of luminous globular clusters associated with M31. These globular clusters have similar metallicities, abundance ratios, and ages as massive elliptical galaxies but their low dynamical mass-to-light ratios rule out steep stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). From high-quality Keck spectra we find that the dwarf-sensitive absorption lines in globular clusters are significantly weaker than in elliptical galaxies and consistent with normal IMFs. The differences in the Na I and Wing-Ford indices are 0.027 {+-} 0.007 mag and 0.017 {+-} 0.006 mag, respectively. We directly compare the two classes of objects by subtracting the averaged globular cluster spectrum from the averaged elliptical galaxy spectrum. The difference spectrum is well fit by the difference between a stellar population synthesis model with a bottom-heavy IMF and one with a bottom-light IMF. We speculate that the slope of the IMF may vary with velocity dispersion, although it is not yet clear what physical mechanism would be responsible for such a relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponder, Jerry M.; Burstein, David; O'Connell, Robert W.; Rose, James A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Wu, Chi-Chao; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Tripicco, Michael
1998-11-01
We present observations of the integrated light of four M31 globular clusters (MIV, MII, K280, and K58) and of the cores of six elliptical galaxies (NGC 3605, 3608, 5018, 5831, 6127, and 7619) made with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra cover the range 2200-4800 Å at a resolution of 8 Å with signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 and flux accuracy of ~5%. To these data we add from the literature IUE observations of the dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, Galactic globular clusters, and Galactic stars. The stellar populations in these systems are analyzed with the aid of mid-UV and near-UV colors and absorption line strengths. Included in the measured indices is the key NH feature at 3360 Å. We compare these line index measures with the 2600 - 3000 colors of these stars and stellar populations. We find that the M31 globular clusters, Galactic globular clusters/Galactic stars, and elliptical galaxies represent three distinct stellar populations, based on their behavior in color-line strength correlations involving Mg II, NH, CN, and several UV metallic blends. In particular, the M31 globular cluster MIV, as metal-poor as the Galactic globular M92, shows a strong NH 3360 Å feature. Other line indices, including the 3096 Å blend that is dominated by lines of Mg I and Al I, show intrinsic differences as well. We also find that the broadband line indices often employed to measure stellar population differences in faint objects, such as the 4000 Å and the Mg 2800 breaks, are disappointingly insensitive to these stellar population differences. We find that the hot (T > 20,000 K) stellar component responsible for the ``UV upturn'' at shorter wavelengths can have an important influence on the mid-UV spectral range (2400-3200 Å) as well. The hot component can contribute over 50% of the flux at 2600 Å in some cases and affects both continuum colors and line strengths. Mid-UV spectra of galaxies must be corrected for this effect before
Numerical simulation of vortical flow over an elliptical-body missile at high angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, R. N.; Adams, M. S.
1986-01-01
Numerical solutions to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are given for the flow about an elliptical body missile (3:1 ellipse) at a Mach number of 2.5 and a unit Reynolds number of 6.56 x 10 to the 6th/m. At high angles of attack, the flow is dominated by large-scale free vortices which occur in the lee-side flow field due to crossflow boundary-layer separation. Emphasis is focused on the accurate prediction of the lee-side vortical flow. Solutions are presented for both symmetric and asymmetric (body rolled 45 deg) configurations at 10 deg and 20 deg angle of attack. The computed results are compared with experimental surface pressure coefficients and vapor-screen photographs. Excellent agreement is obtained in all cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bica, E.; Alloin, D.
1988-03-01
We have linked available ultraviolet observations to the visible and near infrared spectra of some objects from our star cluster and galaxy nucleus samples. We have analyzed the nature of the UV turn-up in giant elliptical galaxies (gE) in the light of our recent population synthesis results which are based upon a library of star cluster integrated spectra in the visible and near infrared. We also investigate how star clusters can provide information on the frequency of occurrence of particular types of stars with respect to the associated populations of a given age and metallicity. We definitely exclude the possibility that the UV turn-up in gE is caused by blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars associated with metal-poor components: even if they were a major contributor to the optical spectrum, their UV turn-up would be unable to account for that observed in gE, simply because it is not steep enough. Furthermore, our previous visible-near infrared synthesis has shown that only 10% of the flux originates from low metallicity components. On the contrary we find strong evidence that this UV turn-up is a result of on-going star formation in gE nuclei. Indeed, young blue clusters and/or H II region spectra match the UV turn-up quite well, without affecting much the optical range where their contribution is less than 2% at 5870 Å. Another possibility would be that the UV turn-up in gE is caused by post AGB stars from metal-rich components: data presently available about their frequency of occurrence in metal-rich galactic clusters, as well as about that of planetary nebulae in the bulge of M31 do not favour this interpretation however.
Importance of Granular Structure in the Initial Conditions for the Elliptic Flow
Andrade, R. P. G.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Qian, W. L.; Kodama, T.
2008-09-12
We show the effects of the granular structure of the initial conditions of a hydrodynamic description of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions on some observables, especially on the elliptic-flow parameter v{sub 2}. Such a structure enhances production of isotropically distributed high-p{sub T} particles, making v{sub 2} smaller there. Also, it reduces v{sub 2} in the forward and backward regions where the global matter density is smaller and, therefore, where such effects become more efficacious.
Understanding the Rapidity Dependence of the Elliptic Flow and the HBT Radii at RHIC
Csanad, M.; Loerstad, B.
2006-04-11
The pseudo-rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow at various excitation energies measured by the PHOBOS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is one of the surprising results that has not been explained before in terms of hydrodynamical models. Here we show that these data are in agreement with theoretical predictions and satisfy the universal scaling relation predicted by the Buda-Lund hydrodynamical model, based on exact solutions of perfect fluid hydrodynamics. We also show a theoretical prediction on the rapidity and transverse momentum scaling of the HBT radii measured in heavy ion collisions, based on the Buda-Lund model.
Wei, Bo; Yang, Mo; Wang, Zhiyun; Xu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yuwen
2015-04-01
Flow and thermal performance of transversal elliptical microchannels were investigated as a passive scheme to enhance the heat transfer performance of laminar fluid flow. The periodic transversal elliptical micro-channel is designed and its pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flow are numerically investigated. Based on the comparison with a conventional straight micro- channel having rectangular cross section, it is found that periodic transversal elliptical microchannel not only has great potential to reduce pressure drop but also dramatically enhances heat transfer performance. In addition, when the Reynolds number equals to 192, the pressure drop of the transversal elliptical channel is 36.5% lower than that of the straight channel, while the average Nusselt number is 72.8% higher; this indicates that the overall thermal performance of the periodic transversal elliptical microchannel is superior to the conventional straight microchannel. It is suggested that such transversal elliptical microchannel are attractive candidates for cooling future electronic chips effectively with much lower pressure drop. PMID:26353536
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daichin, K. V.; Lee, Sang Joon
The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper.
Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.
Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil
2016-08-01
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27146288
Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil SVN, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.
2015-06-01
The elliptic flow coefficient ( v 2) of identified particles in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, a two-particle correlation technique, using a pseudo-rapidity gap of |Δ η| > 0 .9 between the identified hadron under study and the reference particles. The v 2 is reported for π ±, K±, K{S/0}, , ϕ, , and in several collision centralities. In the low transverse momentum ( p T) region, p T < 3 GeV/ c, v 2( p T) exhibits a particle mass dependence consistent with elliptic flow accompanied by the transverse radial expansion of the system with a common velocity field. The experimental data for π ± and the combined K± and K{S/0} results, are described fairly well by hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (VISHNU) for central collisions. However, the same calculations fail to reproduce the v 2( p T) for , ϕ, and . For transverse momentum values larger than about 3 GeV/ c, particles tend to group according to their type, i.e. mesons and baryons. The present measurements exhibit deviations from the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling at the level of ±20% for p T > 3 GeV/ c. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Viscous flow computations for elliptical two-duct version of the SSME hot gas manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roger, R. P.
1986-01-01
The objective of the effort was to numerically simulate viscous subsonic flow in a proposed elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The numerical results were to complement both water flow and air flow experiments in the two-duct geometry performed at NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne. The three-dimensional character of the HGM consists of two essentially different geometries. The first part of the construction is a concentric shell duct structure which channels the gases from a turbine exit into the second part comprised of two cylindrically shaped transfer ducts. The initial concentric shell portion can be further subdivided into a turnaround section and a bowl section. The turnaround duct (TAD) changes the direction of the mean flow by 180 degress from a smaller radius to a larger radius duct which discharges into the bowl. The cylindrical transfer ducts are attached to the bowl on one side thus providing a plane of symmetry midway between the two. Centerline flow distance from the TAD inlet to the transfer duct exit is approximately two feet. Details of the approach used to numerically simulate laminar or turbulent flow in the HGM geometry are presented. Computational results are presented and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silk, J.; Djorgovski, S.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bruzual A., G.
1986-01-01
A self-consistent treatment of the heating by supernovae associated with star formation in a spherically symmetric cooling flow in a cluster core or elliptical galaxy is presented. An initial stellar mass function similar to that in the solar neighborhood is adopted. Inferred star-formation rates, within the cooling region - typically the inner 100 kpc around dominant galaxies at the centers of cooling flows in XD clusters - are reduced by about a factor of 2, relative to rates inferred when the heat input from star formation is ignored. Truncated initial mass functions (IMFs) are also considered, in which massive star formation is suppressed in accordance with previous treatments, and colors are predicted for star formation in cooling flows associated with central dominant elliptical galaxies and with isolated elliptical galaxies surrounded by gaseous coronae. The low inferred cooling-flow rates around isolated elliptical galaxies are found to be insensitive to the upper mass cutoff in the IMF, provided that the upper mass cutoff exceeds 2 M solar mass. Comparison with observed colors favors a cutoff in the IMF above 1 M solar mass in at least two well-studied cluster cooling flows, but a normal IMF cannot be excluded definitively. Models for NGC 1275 support a young (less than about 3 Gyr) cooling flow. As for the isolated elliptical galaxies, the spread in colors is consistent with a normal IMF. A definitive test of the IMF arising via star formation in cooling flows requires either UV spectral data or supernova searches in the cooling-flow-centered galaxies.
Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with constant heat flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javed, Tariq; Ahmad, Hussain; Ghaffari, Abuzar
2015-12-01
Mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with a constant heat flux is investigated numerically. The governing partial differential equations are transformed to non-dimensional form and then are solved by an efficient implicit finite different scheme known as Keller-box method. The solutions are expressed in the form of skin friction and Nusselt number, which are plotted against the eccentric angle. The effect of pertinent parameters such as mixed convection parameter, aspect ratio (ratio of lengths of minor axis to major axis), and Prandtl number on skin friction and Nusselt number are illustrated through graphs for both blunt and slender orientations. The increase in the value of mixed convection parameter results in increase in skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for blunt as well as slender orientations.
Effect of bulk viscosity on elliptic flow near the QCD phase transition
Denicol, G. S.; Kodama, T.; Mota, Ph.; Koide, T.
2009-12-15
In this work, we examine the effect of bulk viscosity on elliptic flow, taking into account the critical behavior of the equation of state and transport coefficients near the QCD phase transition. We found that the p{sub T} dependence of v{sub 2} is quantitatively changed by the presence of the QCD phase transition. Within reasonable values of the transport coefficients, v{sub 2} decreases by a factor of 15% at small p{sub T} values (<1 GeV). However, for larger values of p{sub T} (>2 GeV), the interplay between the velocity of sound and transport coefficient near the QCD phase transition enhances v{sub 2}. We point out that Grad's 14-moment approximation cannot be applied for the calculation of the one-particle distribution function at the freeze-out.
Eccentricity fluctuation effects on elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Hirano, Tetsufumi; Nara, Yasushi
2009-06-15
We study effects of eccentricity fluctuations on the elliptic flow coefficient v{sub 2} at midrapidity in both Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV by using a hybrid model that combines ideal hydrodynamics for space-time evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase and a hadronic transport model for the hadronic matter. For initial conditions in hydrodynamic simulations, both the Glauber model and the color glass condensate model are employed to demonstrate the effect of initial eccentricity fluctuations originating from the nucleon position inside a colliding nucleus. The effect of eccentricity fluctuations is modest in semicentral Au+Au collisions, but significantly enhances v{sub 2} in Cu+Cu collisions.
Heavy quark diffusion in strong magnetic fields at weak coupling and implications for elliptic flow
Fukushima, Kenji; Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho -Ung; Yin, Yi
2016-04-20
In this paper, we compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, κ∥ and κ⊥, in a strong magnetic field B along the directions parallel and perpendicular to B, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant αs. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, αseB << T2 << eB, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find κLO⊥ ∝ α2sTeB in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while κ∥ gets nomore » contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first nonzero leading order contributions to κLO∥ come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass mq. The former leads to κLO,gluon∥ ∝ α2sT3 and the latter to κLO,massive∥ ∝ αs(αseB)1/2m2q. Based on our results, we propose a new scenario for the large value of heavy-quark elliptic flow observed in RHIC and LHC. Namely, when κ⊥ >> κ∥, an anisotropy in drag forces gives rise to a sizable amount of the heavy-quark elliptic flow even if heavy quarks do not fully belong to an ellipsoidally expanding background fluid.« less
Heavy quark diffusion in strong magnetic fields at weak coupling and implications for elliptic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Kenji; Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi
2016-04-01
We compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, κ∥ and κ⊥ , in a strong magnetic field B along the directions parallel and perpendicular to B , respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant αs . We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, αse B ≪T2≪e B , so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find κ⊥LO∝αs2T e B in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1 +1 )-dimensional LLL quarks, while κ∥ gets no contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first nonzero leading order contributions to κ∥LO come from the two separate effects: (1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and (2) a finite light-quark mass mq . The former leads to κ∥LO ,gluon∝αs2T3 and the latter to κ∥LO ,massive∝αs(αse B )1 /2mq2 . Based on our results, we propose a new scenario for the large value of heavy-quark elliptic flow observed in RHIC and LHC. Namely, when κ⊥≫κ∥, an anisotropy in drag forces gives rise to a sizable amount of the heavy-quark elliptic flow even if heavy quarks do not fully belong to an ellipsoidally expanding background fluid.
Elliptic flow for phi mesons and (anti)deuterons in Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV.
Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Gadrat, S; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kawagishi, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X H; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; vanHecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L
2007-08-01
Differential elliptic flow (v(2)) for phi mesons and (anti)deuterons (d)d is measured for Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV. The v(2) for phi mesons follows the trend of lighter pi+/- and K+/- mesons, suggesting that ordinary hadrons interacting with standard hadronic cross sections are not the primary driver for elliptic flow development. The v(2) values for (d)d suggest that elliptic flow is additive for composite particles. This further validation of the universal scaling of v(2) per constituent quark for baryons and mesons suggests that partonic collectivity dominates the transverse expansion dynamics.
System size, energy and centrality dependence of strange hadron elliptic flow at STAR
Masui, Hiroshi
2008-12-21
The elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) pattern in terms of hadron mass and transverse momentum p{sub T} is qualitatively described for p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c by ideal hydrodynamics in Au + Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, for p{sub T} = 2-6 GeV/c the measured v{sub 2} follow a universal scaling by the number of quarks explained by quark coalescence/recombination models. These observations suggest that a partonic collectivity develops in the matter in early stage of heavy ion collisions. Centrality as well as system size and energy dependence of the v{sub 2} is important to shed light on the underlying collision dynamics in heavy ion collisions. We present the measurements of centrality dependence of v{sub 2} at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62.4 GeV in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions for K{sub S}{sup 0}, {phi}, {Lambda}, {Xi} and {Omega} at STAR experiment. We focus on the recent Cu + Cu results and discuss the centrality dependence of v{sub 2} as well as the number of quark scaling as a function of transverse kinetic energy at different system size and energies. We also discuss the eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} for identified hadrons and implications that ideal hydrodynamical limit has not been reached at RHIC.
Multistrange Baryon elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV.
Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Blyth, S L; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; de Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Fornazier, K S F; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskiy, S S; Sichtermann, E; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vander Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovsky, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhong, C; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X
2005-09-16
We report on the first measurement of elliptic flow v2(pT) of multistrange baryons Xi- +Xi+ and Omega- + Omega+ in heavy-ion collisions. In minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at square root of s(NN)=200 GeV, a significant amount of elliptic flow, comparable to other nonstrange baryons, is observed for multistrange baryons which are expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of the partonic stage of heavy-ion collisions. The pT dependence of v2 of the multistrange baryons confirms the number of constituent quark scaling previously observed for lighter hadrons. These results support the idea that a substantial fraction of the observed collective motion is developed at the early partonic stage in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. PMID:16197068
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briggs, Benjamin R.
1960-01-01
The inverse method, with the shock wave prescribed to be an elliptic cone at a finite angle of incidence, is applied to calculate numerically the supersonic perfect-gas flow past conical bodies not having axial symmetry. Two formulations of the problem are employed, one using a pair of stream functions and the other involving entropy and components of velocity. A number of solutions are presented, illustrating the numerical methods employed, and showing the effects of moderate variation of the initial parameters.
Deconvolved spectra of Two Component Advective Flow including jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Santanu; Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar
2016-07-01
Outflows and winds are produced when the accretion flows have positive specific energy. Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model suggests that the centrifugal pressure supported region of the flow outside the black hole horizon, acts as the base of this outflow. We study the spectral properties of the TCAF which includes a jet component. We consider the jet as a conical in shape which also up-scatters the soft photons from the Keplerian disc. We see that due to the presence of jet component, spectrum become harder as the jet itself behaves like an another Compton cloud above the inner hot corona. We also see how the jet spectra depends on the flow rates. This gives the direct link in timing properties of the X-rays in CENBOL component and the radiation emitted in the jet component.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Hiromu
1992-10-01
The relationship between the transient journal-bearings' center motion and the variation of corresponding pressure distribution was examined theoretically on the basis of nonlinear analysis for three different values of ellipticity ratio: 0, 0.5, and 1.0. It was found that, with an increase in the ellipticity ratio, the pressure distribution is concentrated on a narrow region. As a result, the violent pressure variation with the passage of time is suppressed and the stability is improved. Turbulence prevents the concentration of the pressure distribution of the elliptical journal bearings and decreases the whirl onset velocity. Conversely, the fluid film inertia increases the effective mass on the rotor and improves the stability of elliptical journal bearings under certain operating conditions.
Energy dependence of elliptic flow from heavy-ion collision models
Nasim, Md.; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar
2010-11-15
We have compared the experimental data on charged-particle elliptic flow parameter (v{sub 2}) in Au + Au collisions at midrapidity for {radical}(s{sub NN})=9.2, 19.6, 62.4, and 200 GeV with results from various models in heavy-ion collisions such as the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, a multiphase transport model (AMPT), and heavy-ion jet interaction generator (HIJING). We observe that the average v{sub 2} (
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hantzsche, W.; Wendt, H.
1942-01-01
For the tunnel corrections of compressible flows those profiles are of interest for which at least the second approximation of the Janzen-Rayleigh method can be applied in closed form. One such case is presented by certain elliptical symmetrical cylinders located in the center of a tunnel with fixed walls and whose maximum velocity, incompressible, is twice the velocity of flow. In the numerical solution the maximum velocity at the profile and the tunnel wall as well as the entry of sonic velocity is computed. The velocity distribution past the contour and in the minimum cross section at various Mach numbers is illustrated on a worked out-example.
Directed and Elliptic Flow of Charged Hadrons in 22.4 GeV Cu+Cu Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandit, Yadav
2010-02-01
Measurements of anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions provide insight into the early stage of the system's evolution. Anisotropic flow is quantified by the Fourier coefficients vn of the distribution of particles with respect to the reaction plane. This talk reports recent results for directed (v1) and elliptic flow (v2) at sNN = 22.4 GeV. The measurements are done using 0-60% central collision for charged particles at mid-pseudo rapidity region |η|<1.2 and at forward pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0 in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The STAR Beam Beam Counters (BBC) cover the pseudorapidity (η) range 3.3 < |η| < 5.0 and provide full azimuthal coverage. They are used to reconstruct the first-order event plane for the directed flow analysis. For the elliptic flow measurements, charged tracks in the time projection chamber are used to reconstruct the event plane. Comparisons with other methods and with different energies are presented. )
Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.
Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, P; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Ding, F; Dion, A; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Gliske, S; Grebenyuk, O G; Grosnick, D; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Lu, Y; Luo, X; Luszczak, A; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Mioduszewski, S; Mitrovski, M K; Mohammed, Y; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Novak, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Powell, C B; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, B; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M
2013-04-01
Elliptic flow (v(2)) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions, measured by the STAR experiment in the beam energy scan at RHIC at sqrt[s(NN)] = 7.7-62.4 GeV, are presented. A beam-energy-dependent difference of the values of v(2) between particles and corresponding antiparticles was observed. The difference increases with decreasing beam energy and is larger for baryons compared to mesons. This implies that, at lower energies, particles and antiparticles are not consistent with the universal number-of-constituent-quark scaling of v(2) that was observed at sqrt[s(NN)] = 200 GeV. PMID:25166982
Back, B.B.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Baker, M.D.; Barton, D.S.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heintzelman, G.A.; Holzman, B.; Nguyen, M.; Pak, R.; Remsberg, L.P.; Steinberg, P.; Sukhanov, A.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M.P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J.L.; Kulinich, P.
2005-11-01
This Rapid Communication describes the measurement of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The measured azimuthal anisotropy is presented over a wide range of pseudorapidity for three broad collision centrality classes for the first time at this energy. Two distinct methods of extracting the flow signal were used to reduce systematic uncertainties. The elliptic flow falls sharply with increasing |{eta}| at 200 GeV for all the centralities studied, as observed for minimum-bias collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=130 GeV.
J/ψ Elliptic Flow in Pb-Pb Collisions at sNN=2.76TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, E.; Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, W.; Carena, F.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P. G.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, K. H.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, T.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. W.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manukyan, N.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P. A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, P.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.
2013-10-01
We report on the first measurement of inclusive J/ψ elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV in the rapidity range 2.5
Adamczyk, L.
2015-06-26
We present measurements of π⁻ and π⁺ elliptic flow, v₂, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π⁻ (π⁺) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √sNN = 27 GeV and higher. At √sNN = 200 GeV, the slope of the difference of v₂ between π⁻ and π⁺ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations thatmore » incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. In addition, similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.« less
Adamczyk, L.
2015-06-26
We present measurements of π⁻ and π⁺ elliptic flow, v₂, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √s_{NN} = 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, A_{ch}, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π⁻ (π⁺) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √s_{NN} = 27 GeV and higher. At √s_{NN} = 200 GeV, the slope of the difference of v₂ between π⁻ and π⁺ as a function of A_{ch} exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. In addition, similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakuraba, A.
2015-12-01
I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the
Elliptic Flow for phi Mesons and (anti)Deuterons in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV
Afanasiev, S.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; Zhang, Chun; PHENIX, Collaboration
2007-01-01
Differential elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) for {phi} mesons and (anti)deuterons ({bar d})d is measured for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN}=200 GeV. The v{sub 2} for {phi} mesons follows the trend of lighter {pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sup {+-}} mesons, suggesting that ordinary hadrons interacting with standard hadronic cross sections are not the primary driver for elliptic flow development. The v{sub 2} values for ({bar d})d suggest that elliptic flow is additive for composite particles. This further validation of the universal scaling of v{sub 2} per constituent quark for baryons and mesons suggests that partonic collectivity dominates the transverse expansion dynamics.
Production and elliptic flow of dileptons and photons in a matrix model of the quark-gluon plasma.
Gale, Charles; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Jeon, Sangyong; Lin, Shu; Paquet, Jean-François; Pisarski, Robert D; Satow, Daisuke; Skokov, Vladimir V; Vujanovic, Gojko
2015-02-20
We consider a nonperturbative approach to the thermal production of dileptons and photons at temperatures near the critical temperature in QCD. The suppression of colored excitations at low temperature is modeled by including a small value of the Polyakov loop, in a "semi"-quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Comparing the semi-QGP to the perturbative QGP, we find a mild enhancement of thermal dileptons. In contrast, to leading logarithmic order in weak coupling there are far fewer hard photons from the semi-QGP than the usual QGP. To illustrate the possible effects on photon and dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions, we integrate the rate with a simulation using ideal hydrodynamics. Dileptons uniformly exhibit a small flow, but the strong suppression of photons in the semi-QGP tends to weight the elliptical flow of photons to that generated in the hadronic phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirsh, R. S.
1975-01-01
A numerical method is presented which is valid for integration of the parabolic-elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure is applied to the three-dimensional supersonic flow of a jet issuing into a supersonic free stream. Difficulties associated with the imposition of free-stream boundary conditions are noted, and a coordinate transformation, which maps the point at infinity onto a finite value, is introduced to alleviate these difficulties. Results are presented for calculations of a square jet and varying-aspect-ratio rectangular jets. The solution behavior varies from axisymmetry for the square jet to nearly two-dimensional for the high-aspect-ratio rectangle, although the computation always calculates the flow as though it were truly three-dimensional.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaneko, Y.; Shearer, P. M.
2015-02-01
Large variability of earthquake stress drops and scaled energy has been commonly reported in the literature, but it is difficult to assess how much of this variability is caused by underlying physical source processes rather than simply observational uncertainties. Here we examine a variety of dynamically realistic rupture scenarios for circular and elliptical faults and investigate to what extent the variability in seismically estimated stress drops and scaled energy comes from differences in source geometry, rupture directivity, and rupture speeds. We numerically simulate earthquake source scenarios using a cohesive-zone model with the small-scale yielding limit, where the solution approaches a singular crack model with spontaneous healing of slip. Compared to symmetrical circular source models, asymmetrical models result in larger variability of estimated corner frequencies and scaled energy over the focal sphere. The general behavior of the spherical averages of corner frequencies and scaled energy in the subshear regime extends to the supershear regime, although shear Mach waves generated by the propagation of supershear rupture lead to much higher corner frequency and scaled energy estimates locally. Our results suggest that at least a factor of 2 difference in the spherical average of corner frequencies is expected in observational studies simply from variability in source characteristics almost independent of the actual stress drops, translating into a factor of 8 difference in estimated stress drops. Furthermore, radiation efficiency estimates derived from observed seismic spectra should not be directly interpreted as describing rupture properties unless there are independent constraints on rupture speed and geometry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirsh, R. S.
1976-01-01
A numerical method is presented for solving the parabolic-elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure is applied to three-dimensional supersonic laminar jet flow issuing parallel with a supersonic free stream. A coordinate transformation is introduced which maps the boundaries at infinity into a finite computational domain in order to eliminate difficulties associated with the imposition of free-stream boundary conditions. Results are presented for an approximate circular jet, a square jet, varying aspect ratio rectangular jets, and interacting square jets. The solution behavior varies from axisymmetric to nearly two-dimensional in character. For cases where comparisons of the present results with those obtained from shear layer calculations could be made, agreement was good.
D Meson Elliptic Flow in Noncentral Pb-Pb Collisions at sNN=2.76TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
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K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P. G.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, P.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, T.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P. A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B. C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.
2013-09-01
Azimuthally anisotropic distributions of D0, D+, and D*+ mesons were studied in the central rapidity region (|y|<0.8) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy sNN=2.76TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The second Fourier coefficient v2 (commonly denoted elliptic flow) was measured in the centrality class 30%-50% as a function of the D meson transverse momentum pT, in the range 2-16GeV/c. The measured v2 of D mesons is comparable in magnitude to that of light-flavor hadrons. It is positive in the range 2
Elliptic and Hexadecapole Flow of Charged Hadrons in Au+Au Collisions at sNN=200GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'Yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M., Jr.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hanks, J.; Han, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Heffner, M.; Hegyi, S.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; He, X.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Li, X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Okada, K.; Oka, M.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; You, Z.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.
2010-08-01
Differential measurements of the elliptic (v2) and hexadecapole (v4) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (pT) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (Npart) for Au+Au collisions at sNN=200GeV. The v2,4 measurements at pseudorapidity |η|≤0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0<|η|<3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant Δη-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v4(pT) are observed with a ratio v4(pT,Npart)/v22(pT,Npart)≈0.8 for 50≲Npart≲200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For Npart≳200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.
D meson elliptic flow in noncentral Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[sNN]=2.76 Tev.
Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, S; Das, K; Das, I; Das, D; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Elwood, B G; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goerlich, L; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Ketzer, B; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khan, K H; Khan, P; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, J H; Kim, D W; Kim, T; Kim, S; Kim, B; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, J S; Kim, D J; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kompaniets, M; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martin Blanco, J; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; 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2013-09-01
Azimuthally anisotropic distributions of D0, D+, and D*+ mesons were studied in the central rapidity region (|y|<0.8) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt[sNN]=2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The second Fourier coefficient v2 (commonly denoted elliptic flow) was measured in the centrality class 30%-50% as a function of the D meson transverse momentum pT, in the range 2-16 GeV/c. The measured v2 of D mesons is comparable in magnitude to that of light-flavor hadrons. It is positive in the range 2
D meson elliptic flow in noncentral Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[sNN]=2.76 Tev.
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2013-09-01
Azimuthally anisotropic distributions of D0, D+, and D*+ mesons were studied in the central rapidity region (|y|<0.8) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt[sNN]=2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The second Fourier coefficient v2 (commonly denoted elliptic flow) was measured in the centrality class 30%-50% as a function of the D meson transverse momentum pT, in the range 2-16 GeV/c. The measured v2 of D mesons is comparable in magnitude to that of light-flavor hadrons. It is positive in the range 2
Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.
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Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Lorenzo, P Mendez; Menis, I; Pérez, J Mercado; Meres, M; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Zetina, L Montaño; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; De Godoy, D A Moreira; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Velasquez, A Ortiz; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; 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Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Cahuantzi, M Rodríguez; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Montero, A J Rubio; Rui, R; Rivetti, A; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Castro, X Sanchez; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stokkevag, C H; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Vásquez, M A Subieta; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Takaki, J D Tapia; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Muñoz, G Tejeda; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Palomo, L Valencia; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Baillie, O Villalobos; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Karampatsos, L Xaplanteris; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M
2010-12-17
We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2
elliptic flow signal v₂, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 ± 0.002(stat) ± 0.003(syst) in the 40%-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v₂ p t reaches a maximum of 0.2 near p t =3 GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase. PMID:21231580
Elliptic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV
Aamodt, K.; Djuvsland, O.; Fehlker, D.; Haaland, O.; Huang, M.; Kanaki, K.; Klovning, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lien, J.; Liu, L.; Loenne, P. I.; Nystrand, J.; Richter, M.; Roehrich, D.; Skjerdal, K.; Stokkevag, C. H.; Szostak, A.; Ullaland, K.; Ovrebekk, G.; Wagner, B.
2010-12-17
We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|{eta}|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2
elliptic flow signal v{sub 2}, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087{+-}0.002(stat){+-}0.003(syst) in the 40%-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub t}) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near p{sub t}=3 GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, U.; Ghia, K. N.
1988-01-01
A semi-elliptic formulation, termed the interacting parabolized Navier-Stokes (IPNS) formulation, is developed for the analysis of a class of subsonic viscous flows for which streamwise diffusion is neglible but which are significantly influenced by upstream interactions. The IPNS equations are obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations by dropping the streamwise viscous-diffusion terms but retaining upstream influence via the streamwise pressure-gradient. A two-step alternating-direction-explicit numerical scheme is developed to solve these equations. The quasi-linearization and discretization of the equations are carefully examined so that no artificial viscosity is added externally to the scheme. Also, solutions to compressible as well as nearly compressible flows are obtained without any modification either in the analysis or in the solution process. The procedure is applied to constricted channels and cascade passages formed by airfoils of various shapes. These geometries are represented using numerically generated curilinear boundary-oriented coordinates forming an H-grid. A hybrid C-H grid, more appropriate for cascade of airfoils with rounded leading edges, was also developed. Satisfactory results are obtained for flows through cascades of Joukowski airfoils.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keyes, David E.; Smooke, Mitchell D.
1987-01-01
A parallelized finite difference code based on the Newton method for systems of nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in two dimensions is analyzed in terms of computational complexity and parallel efficiency. An approximate cost function depending on 15 dimensionless parameters is derived for algorithms based on stripwise and boxwise decompositions of the domain and a one-to-one assignment of the strip or box subdomains to processors. The sensitivity of the cost functions to the parameters is explored in regions of parameter space corresponding to model small-order systems with inexpensive function evaluations and also a coupled system of nineteen equations with very expensive function evaluations. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Hypercube, and some experimental results for the model problems with stripwise decompositions are presented and compared with the theory. In the context of computational combustion problems, multiprocessors of either message-passing or shared-memory type may be employed with stripwise decompositions to realize speedup of O(n), where n is mesh resolution in one direction, for reasonable n.
The source of elliptic flow and initial conditions for hydrodynamical calculations
Strottman, D.; Csernai, L.; Magas, V.
2000-08-01
A model for energy, pressure and flow velocity distributions at the beginning of relativistic heavy ion collisions is presented, which can be used as initial condition for hydrodynamical calculations. The results show that QGP forms a tilted disk, such that the direction of the largest pressure gradient stays in the reaction plane, but deviates from both the beam and the usual transverse flow directions. Such initial condition may lead to the creation of antiflow or third flow component.
Systematic Studies of Elliptic Flow Measurements in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV
Afanasiev, S.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration
2009-01-01
We present inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) measured over the pseudorapidity range |{eta}| < 0.35 in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Results for v{sub 2} are presented over a broad range of transverse momentum (p{sub T} = 0.2-8.0 GeV/c) and centrality (0-60%). To study nonflow effects that are correlations other than collective flow, as well as the fluctuations of v{sub 2}, we compare two different analysis methods: (1) the event-plane method from two independent subdetectors at forward (|{eta}| = 3.1-3.9) and beam (|{eta}| > 6.5) pseudorapidities and (2) the two-particle cumulant method extracted using correlations between particles detected at midrapidity. The two event-plane results are consistent within systematic uncertainties over the measured p{sub T} and in centrality 0-40%. There is at most a 20% difference in the v{sub 2} between the two event-plane methods in peripheral (40-60%) collisions. The comparisons between the two-particle cumulant results and the standard event-plane measurements are discussed.
Elliptic flow computation by low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michelassi, V.; Shih, T.-H.
1991-01-01
A detailed comparison of ten low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models is carried out. The flow solver, based on an implicit approximate factorization method, is designed for incompressible, steady two-dimensional flows. The conservation of mass is enforced by the artificial compressibility approach and the computational domain is discretized using centered finite differences. The turbulence model predictions of the flow past a hill are compared with experiments at Re = 10 exp 6. The effects of the grid spacing together with the numerical efficiency of the various formulations are investigated. The results show that the models provide a satisfactory prediction of the flow field in the presence of a favorable pressure gradient, while the accuracy rapidly deteriorates when a strong adverse pressure gradient is encountered. A newly proposed model form that does not explicitly depend on the wall distance seems promising for application to complex geometries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mastin, C. W.; Thompson, J. F.
1978-01-01
A transformation method is developed which may be used to solve various types of boundary value problems on three-dimensional regions with an arbitrary boundary. The implementation of the method is illustrated in the solution of a potential flow problem. All computations are performed on a cubic mesh in a rectangular region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Feng-Chu; Cai, Xu; Zhou, Dai-Cui
2014-07-01
In heavy ion collision, the event plane is a key parameter defined as the plane composted by the impact parameter b and beam axis z. It is a crucial reference for various observables, which focus on the initial spatial anisotropy of the overlap region in heavy ion collision. We notice that in some recent heavy ion collision experiments, due to potentially inefficient or even the invalidity of experimental facilities, the reconstructed event plane, which is used in elliptic flow study, may be biased towards a non-flat distribution. In this study, we develop a toy model for fast estimation of the bias effect and its influence on the elliptic flow. The possible azimuthal bias of the detector is firstly studied by varying the part of its azimuthal information. We also study on the limit acceptance of the detector, which will be used to measure the particle of interest in an elliptic flow. The outcomes are presented by comparing the flow study results with or without the non-flat effect on the event plane.
Elliptic and Hexadecapole Flow of Charged Hadrons in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV
Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration
2010-01-01
Differential measurements of the elliptic (v{sub 2}) and hexadecapole (v{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N{sub part}) for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The v{sub 2,4} measurements at pseudorapidity |{eta}| {le} 0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0 < |{eta}| < 3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant {Delta}{eta}-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v{sub 4}(p{sub T}) are observed with a ratio v{sub 4}(p{sub T},N{sub part})/v{sub 2}{sup 2}(p{sub T},N{sub part}) {approx} 0.8 for 50 {le} N{sub part} {le} 200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N{sub part} {ge} 200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singha, Subhash; Nasim, Md.
2016-03-01
We studied the number of constituent quark scaling (NCQ) behavior of elliptic flow (v2) under the framework of a multiphase transport model (AMPT) at both top-RHIC and LHC energies. The NCQ-scaling in v2 holds at top RHIC energy with AMPT string melting version, while it breaks in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energy using the same framework. The breaking of NCQ scaling at LHC energy has been studied by varying the magnitude of parton-parton scattering cross sections and lifetime of hadronic cascade as implemented in AMPT. We find that the breaking of NCQ scaling in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV is independent of the magnitude of parton-parton cross sections and the later stage hadronic interactions. Further we observed that scaling holds in a small collision system like Si+Si at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV. We discussed that the breaking of NCQ scaling is possibly due to high phase-space density of constituents quarks in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV.
Elliptic and Hexadecapole Flow of Charged Hadrons in Au + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=GeV
Adare, A.; PHENIX Collaboration
2010-08-06
Differential measurements of the elliptic (v{sub 2}) and hexadecapole (v{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N{sub part}) for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The v{sub 2,4} measurements at pseudorapidity |{eta}| {le} 0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0 < |{eta}| < 3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant {Delta}{eta}-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v{sub 4}(p{sub T}) are observed with a ratio v{sub 4}(p{sub T},N{sub part})/v{sub 2}{sup 2}(p{sub T},N{sub part}) {approx} 0.8 for 50 {approx}< N{sub part} {approx}< 200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N{sub part} {approx}> 200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.
Predictions of Elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor from 200 GeV U+U collisions at RHIC
Masui, Hiroshi; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Xu, Nu
2010-07-07
Predictions of elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) and nuclear modification factor (R{sub AA}) are provided as a function of centrality in U + U collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Since the {sup 238}U nucleus is naturally deformed, one could adjust the properties of the fireball, density and duration of the hot and dense system, for example, in high energy nuclear collisions by carefully selecting the colliding geometry. Within our Monte Carlo Glauber based approach, the v{sub 2} with respect to the reaction plane v{sub 2}{sup RP} in U + U collisions is consistent with that in Au + Au collisions, while the v{sub 2} with respect to the participant plane v{sub 2}{sup PP} increases {approx}30-60% at top 10% centrality which is attributed to the larger participant eccentricity at most central U + U collisions. The suppression of R{sub AA} increases and reaches {approx}0.1 at most central U + U collisions that is by a factor of 2 more suppression compared to the central Au + Au collisions due to large size and deformation of Uranium nucleus.
Theoretical model for k-3 spectra in dispersed multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Risso, Frédéric
2011-01-01
The spectrum of a signal consisting of a sum of localized random bursts can exhibit, under certain conditions, an intermediate subrange evolving as the power -3 of the wavenumber k. These bursts should have a smooth and regular pattern, their strength and size should be statistically independent, and their size should be uniformly distributed between two finite wavelengths. This is probably the explanation for the k-3 subrange that is commonly observed in the velocity spectra of bubble-induced turbulence, which results from the interaction of the localized velocity disturbances caused by the bubbles.
Elliptic flow at forward rapidity in the square root of sNN = 200 GeV gold + gold collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Eric Michael
Forward rapidity elliptic flow (v2) of both unidentified charged hadrons and decay muons has been measured from sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions as a function of pseudorapidity (η), transverse momentum, and number of nucleon collision participants. The measurements were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using the PHENIX experiment's Muon Arm spectrometers, located at 1.2 < |η| ≲ 2.4. To identify hadrons, which consist mostly of pions, kaons, and protons, a longitudinal momentum cut was applied to tracks stopping in the shallow steel layers of the Muon Arms. Those particles traversing completely through the Muon Arms consist of mostly muons from pion and kaon decays. The standard event plane (EP) method was used to measure v 2, whose accuracy was improved ˜20-25% by combining the measured EP angles of several detectors, instead of using the measured EP from a single detector. Additionally, a hit swapping technique was devised to optimize track cuts, estimate background, and apply a background correction. To investigate the ability of the Muon Arms to accurately measure unidentified hadron v2, a GEANT simulation was also undertaken. The forward rapidity v2 results show good agreement with mid-rapidity measurements for central collisions ( ≲ 20-30% centrality), indicating a longitudinally extended thermalized medium with similar eccentricity, at least out to the Muon Arm η region. Only when compared to very forward BRAHMS measurements (η ≈ 3) is a v2 suppression seen for central collisions. For increasingly peripheral collisions, a growing suppression in v2 is observed for the Muon Arm measurements compared to mid-rapidity, indicating increased changes in the medium properties of ever smaller systems. For peripheral collisions of the same/similar centralities, an increased suppression is observed toward forward η.
Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio
2006-10-10
Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators. PMID:17068595
Directed and Elliptic Flow of Charged Hadrons in Cu+Cu Collisions at sNN = 22.4 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandit, Yadav
2010-11-01
Measurements of anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions provide insight into the early stage of the system's evolution. Anisotropic flow is quantified by the Fourier coefficients vn of the distribution of particles with respect to the reaction plane. This talk reports recent results for directed (v1) and elliptic flow (v2) at sNN = 22.4 GeV. The measurements are based on the events at 0-60% centrality for charged particles at mid-pseudo rapidity region |η|<1.2 and at forward pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0 in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The STAR Beam Beam Counters (BBC) covering the pseudorapidity (η) range 3.3 < |η| < 5.0 with full azimuthal coverage are used to reconstruct the first-order event plane for the directed flow analysis. For the elliptic flow measurements, charged tracks in the time projection chamber are used to reconstruct the event plane. Comparisons with model calculations as well as with other methods and with different energies are presented.
A Gas-Kinetic Method for Hyperbolic-Elliptic Equations and Its Application in Two-Phase Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Kun
1999-01-01
A gas-kinetic method for the hyperbolic-elliptic equations is presented in this paper. In the mixed type system, the co-existence and the phase transition between liquid and gas are described by the van der Waals-type equation of state (EOS). Due to the unstable mechanism for a fluid in the elliptic region, interface between the liquid and gas can be kept sharp through the condensation and evaporation process to remove the "averaged" numerical fluid away from the elliptic region, and the interface thickness depends on the numerical diffusion and stiffness of the phase change. A few examples are presented in this paper for both phase transition and multifluid interface problems.
Multi-scale roughness spectra of Mount St. Helens debris flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Austin, Richard T.; England, Anthony W.
1993-01-01
A roughness spectrum allows surface structure to be interpreted as a sum of sinusoidal components with differing wavelengths. Knowledge of the roughness spectrum gives insight into the mechanisms responsible for electromagnetic scattering at a given wavelength. Measured spectra from 10-year-old primary debris flow surfaces at Mount St. Helens conform to a power-law spectral model, suggesting that these surfaces are scaling over the measured range of spatial frequencies. Measured spectra from water-deposited surfaces deviate from this model.
Measurements of energy spectra in two-dimensional turbulence with sheared mean flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, P. W.; Kearney-Fischer, M.; Rogers, S.; Windell, S.
2006-11-01
Measurements of forced turbulence in the presence of mean flow shear in quasi-two-dimensional flows in a circular Couette cell are underway. Initial observations indicate suppression of the turbulence by the shear, as suggested by observations of transport barriers in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus generates flows in a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in a horizontal annular channel. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm. Turbulence is forced electromagnetically, while mean flow shear is generated independently by rotating the outer boundary. The mean sheared flow profiles provide a new method of estimating the coefficient of drag between the films and the air; the result, ˜9 s-1, is compared with estimates from other soap film experiments using different techniques. Two-dimensional turbulence spectra are measured using particle imaging velocimetry, and data showing the effect of shear on the spectrum are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Danley, D.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Sodre, T.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, A. S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimamyi, J.; Zolin, L.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration
2015-10-01
We present the first measurement of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow in high-multiplicity 3He +Au collisions at √{sN N }=200 GeV . Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in 3He +Au and in p +p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the 3He +Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v2 and triangular v3 anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v2 values are comparable to those previously measured in d +Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three 3He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He3+Au Collisions at sNN=200GeV
Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Ta’ani, H.; et al
2015-09-28
In this paper, we present the first measurement of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Aucollisions at √sNN=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in 3He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the 3He+Ausystem. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v2 and triangular v3 anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v2 values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy.more » Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three 3He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. Finally, the agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.« less
Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Al-Ta'ani, H; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Asano, H; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chen, C-H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Danley, D; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hamilton, H F; Han, R; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Harper, C; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Hoshino, T; Hotvedt, N; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanishchev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kaneta, M; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E-J; Kim, G W; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Kiyomichi, A; Klatsky, J; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D K; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Miyachi, Y; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nishimura, S; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Orjuela Koop, J D; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Sakata, H; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunečka, M; Snowball, M; Sodre, T; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, C L; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, A S; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xie, W; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoo, J S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zelenski, A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimamyi, J; Zolin, L; Zou, L
2015-10-01
We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity (3)He+Au collisions at √(s(NN))=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in (3)He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the (3)He+Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three (3)He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems. PMID:26551807
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Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, A S; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xie, W; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoo, J S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zelenski, A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimamyi, J; Zolin, L; Zou, L
2015-10-01
We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity (3)He+Au collisions at √(s(NN))=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in (3)He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the (3)He+Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three (3)He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
Hirano, Tetsufumi; Huovinen, Pasi; Nara, Yasushi
2011-07-15
We analyze the elliptic flow parameter v{sub 2} in Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV and in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV using a hybrid model in which the evolution of the quark gluon plasma is described by ideal hydrodynamics with a state-of-the-art lattice QCD equation of state, and the subsequent hadronic stage by a hadron cascade model. For initial conditions, we employ Monte Carlo versions of the Glauber and the Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi models and compare results with each other. We demonstrate that the differential elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) hardly changes when the collision energy increases, whereas the integrated v{sub 2} increases due to the enhancement of mean transverse momentum. The amount of increase of both v{sub 2} and mean p{sub T} depends significantly on the model of initialization.
Measurements of elliptic and triangular flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV
Adare, A.
2015-09-28
We present the first measurement of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow in high-multiplicity 3He+Aucollisions at √sNN=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in 3He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the 3He+Ausystem. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v2 and triangular v3 anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v2 values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with variousmore » theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three 3He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.« less
Adare, A.
2015-09-28
We present the first measurement of elliptic (v_{2}) and triangular (v_{3}) flow in high-multiplicity ^{3}He+Aucollisions at √s_{NN}=200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in ^{3}He+Au and in p+p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the ^{3}He+Ausystem. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v_{2} and triangular v_{3} anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v_{2} values are comparable to those previously measured in d+Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three ^{3}He nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
J/ψ elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV.
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2013-10-18
We report on the first measurement of inclusive J/ψ elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV in the rapidity range 2.5
J/ψ elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV.
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Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manukyan, N; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizuno, S; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauch, W; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, C; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, M; Song, J; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Ter Minasyan, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vande Vyvre, P; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, A; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, S; Yang, P; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M
2013-10-18
We report on the first measurement of inclusive J/ψ elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV in the rapidity range 2.5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoji
Electro-magnetic (E&M) probes such as direct photons and muons (mu) are important tools to study the properties of the extremely hot and dense matter created in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this thesis, several topics of E&M physics will be addressed, including neutral pion (pi0) production, direct photon HBT, and photon elliptic flow (v2) in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. A discussion on the simulation study of the new Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) will also be presented. The pi0 production is a fundamental measurement of hadron production and prerequisite for the background study of direct photons. Neutral pions are reconstructed using the photons detected by the STAR Barrel Electro-magnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Spectra of pi 0 are measured at transverse momentum 1 < pT < 12 GeV/c near mid-rapidity (0 < eta < 0.8) in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions. The spectra and nuclear modification factors RCP and RAA are compared to earlier pi+/- and pi0 results. Direct photon Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) correlations can reveal information of the system size throughout the whole collision. A first attempt of direct photon HBT study at RHIC in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions is done using photons detected by the STAR BEMC and TPC. All unknown correlation at small Qinv is observed, whose magnitude is much larger than the expected HBT signal, and possible causes of the correlation will be discussed. Direct photon elliptic flow (v2) at intermediate to high pT is sensitive to the source of direct photon production. Results of inclusive photon v2 in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions are presented. The v2 of pi0 decay photons is calculated from the previously published pi results. The comparison between inclusive and decay photon v 2 indicates that direct photon v2 is small. A new large-area Muon Telescope Detector at mid-rapidity at RHIC is proposed and under investigation, using the Long-strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate
Cavitation erosion prediction based on analysis of flow dynamics and impact load spectra
Mihatsch, Michael S. Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2015-10-15
Cavitation erosion is the consequence of repeated collapse-induced high pressure-loads on a material surface. The present paper assesses the prediction of impact load spectra of cavitating flows, i.e., the rate and intensity distribution of collapse events based on a detailed analysis of flow dynamics. Data are obtained from a numerical simulation which employs a density-based finite volume method, taking into account the compressibility of both phases, and resolves collapse-induced pressure waves. To determine the spectrum of collapse events in the fluid domain, we detect and quantify the collapse of isolated vapor structures. As reference configuration we consider the expansion of a liquid into a radially divergent gap which exhibits unsteady sheet and cloud cavitation. Analysis of simulation data shows that global cavitation dynamics and dominant flow events are well resolved, even though the spatial resolution is too coarse to resolve individual vapor bubbles. The inviscid flow model recovers increasingly fine-scale vapor structures and collapses with increasing resolution. We demonstrate that frequency and intensity of these collapse events scale with grid resolution. Scaling laws based on two reference lengths are introduced for this purpose. We show that upon applying these laws impact load spectra recorded on experimental and numerical pressure sensors agree with each other. Furthermore, correlation between experimental pitting rates and collapse-event rates is found. Locations of high maximum wall pressures and high densities of collapse events near walls obtained numerically agree well with areas of erosion damage in the experiment. The investigation shows that impact load spectra of cavitating flows can be inferred from flow data that captures the main vapor structures and wave dynamics without the need for resolving all flow scales.
Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings
Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang
2014-12-15
Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb andmore » observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.« less
Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings
Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang
2014-12-15
Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb and observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.
Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from Parton scatterings.
Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang
2014-12-19
Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v_{2} and triangular v_{3} Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v_{3} are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v_{2} coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v_{2} in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v_{3}, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v_{2} and v_{3} in p-Pb and observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v_{4} and v_{5}, in p-Pb are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chisman, O.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2016-01-01
Elliptic flow (v2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at √{sN N}= 7.7 -62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at √{sN N}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies, we observe a similar relative v2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with a multiphase transport (AMPT) model and fit with a blast wave model.
Analysis of spatial and temporal spectra of liquid film surface in annular gas-liquid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, Sergey; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Heinz, Oksana; Kharlamov, Sergey; Markovich, Dmitriy
2013-09-01
Wavy structure of liquid film in annular gas-liquid flow without liquid entrainment consists of fast long-living primary waves and slow short-living secondary waves. In present paper, results of spectral analysis of this wavy structure are presented. Application of high-speed LIF technique allowed us to perform such analysis in both spatial and temporal domains. Power spectra in both domains are characterized by one-humped shape with long exponential tail. Influence of gas velocity, liquid Reynolds number, liquid viscosity and pipe diameter on frequency of the waves is investigated. When gravity effect is much lesser than the shear stress, similarity of power spectra at different gas velocities is observed. Using combination of spectral analysis and identification of characteristic lines of primary waves, frequency of generation of secondary waves by primary waves is measured.
Ahsan R. Choudhuri
2003-06-01
A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.
Ellipticities of Elliptical Galaxies in Different Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Ming
2016-10-01
We studied the ellipticity distributions of elliptical galaxies in different environments. From the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we selected galaxies with absolute {r}\\prime -band magnitudes between ‑21 and ‑22. We used the volume number densities of galaxies as the criterion for selecting the environments of the galaxies. Our samples were divided into three groups with different volume number densities. The ellipticity distributions of the elliptical galaxies differed considerably in these three groups of different density regions. We deprojected the observed 2D ellipticity distributions into intrinsic 3D shape distributions, and the result showed that the shapes of the elliptical galaxies were relatively spherically symmetric in the high density region (HDR) and that relatively more flat galaxies were present in the low density region (LDR). This suggests that the ellipticals in the HDRs and LDRs have different origins or that different mechanisms might be involved. The elliptical galaxies in the LDR are likely to have evolved from mergers in relatively anisotropic structures, such as filaments and webs, and might contain information on the anisotropic spatial distribution of their parent mergers. By contrast, elliptical galaxies in the HDR might be formed in more isotropic structures, such as galaxy clusters, or they might encounter more torqueing effects compared with galaxies in LDRs, thereby becoming rounder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, H.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2016-02-01
We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y |<1.0 ) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au +Au collisions at center of mass energy √{sN N}=200 GeV . We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p , respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2.
Chaudhuri, A. K.
2010-10-15
Taking into account entropy generation during evolution of a viscous fluid, we have estimated the inverse Knudsen number, the ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow, and the quark-gluon plasma viscosity to entropy ratio in {radical}(s{sub NN})=62 and 200 GeV Cu+Cu/Au+Au collisions. The viscosity to entropy ratio is estimated as {eta}/s=0.17{+-}0.10{+-}0.20, where the first error is statistical, the second one is systematic. In a central Au+Au collision, the inverse Knudsen number is {approx_equal}2.80{+-}1.63, which is presumably too small for complete equilibration. In peripheral collisions it is even less. The ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow is {approx}40% more than the experimental flow in a central collision.
On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merloni, A.; Malzac, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.
2006-08-01
We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation-pressure-dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zone model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonization in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law-like emission originating from the hot Comptonizing phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical set-up for the complex multiphase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.
Elliptic and hexadecapole flow of charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at sq.rt(s(NN))=200 GeV.
Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hegyi, S; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunecka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; You, Z; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L
2010-08-01
Differential measurements of the elliptic (v(2)) and hexadecapole (v(4)) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p(T)) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N(part)) for Au+Au collisions at sq.rt(s(NN))=200 GeV. The v(2,4) measurements at pseudorapidity |η|≤0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0<|η|<3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant Δη-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v(4)(p(T)) are observed with a ratio v(4)(p(T),N(part))/v(2)(2)(p(T),N(part))≈0.8 for 50≲N(part)≲200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N(part)≳200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.
Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
2007-01-01
An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are
On the '-1' scaling of air temperature spectra in atmospheric surface layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D.; Katul, G. G.; Gentine, P.
2015-12-01
The spectral properties of scalar turbulence at high wavenumbers have been extensively studied in turbulent flows, and existing theories explaining the k-5/3 scaling within the inertial subrange appear satisfactory at high Reynolds numbers. Equivalent theories for the low wavenumber range have been comparatively lacking because boundary conditions prohibit attainment of such universal behavior. A number of atmospheric surface layer (ASL) experiments reported a k-1 scaling in air temperature spectra ETT(k) at low wavenumbers but other experiments did not. Here, the occurrence of a k-1 scaling in ETT(k) in an idealized ASL flow across a wide range of atmospheric stability regimes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Experiments reveal a k-1 scaling persisted across different atmospheric stability parameter values (ζ) ranging from mildly unstable to mildly stable conditions (-0.1< ζ < 0.2). As instability increases, the k-1 scaling vanishes. Based on a combined spectral and co-spectral budget models and upon using a Heisenberg eddy viscosity as a closure to the spectral flux transfer term, conditions promoting a k-1 scaling are identified. Existence of a k-1 scaling is shown to be primarily linked to an imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance. The role of the imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance in controlling the existence of a '-1' scaling suggests that the '-1' scaling in ETT(k) does not necessarily concur with the '-1' scaling in the spectra of longitudinal velocity Euu(k). This finding explains why some ASL experiments reported k-1 in Euu(k) but not ETT(k). It also differs from prior arguments derived from directional-dimensional analysis that lead to simultaneous k-1 scaling in Euu(k) and ETT(k) at low wavenumbers in a neutral ASL.
Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.
2014-01-10
Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ∼100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ☉}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ∼ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.
Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration
2008-01-01
We present STAR results on the elliptic flow v{sub 2} of charged hadrons, strange and multistrange particles from {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The detailed study of the centrality dependence of v{sub 2} over a broad transverse momentum range is presented. Comparisons of different analysis methods are made in order to estimate systematic uncertainties. To discuss the nonflow effect, we have performed the first analysis of v{sub 2} with the Lee-Yang zero method for KS{sup 0} and {Lambda}. In the relatively low p{sub T} region, p{sub T} {le} 2 GeV/c, a scaling with m{sub T}-m is observed for identified hadrons in each centrality bin studied. However, we do not observe v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) scaled by the participant eccentricity to be independent of centrality. At higher p{sub T},2 {le} p{sub T} {le} 6 GeV/c,v{sub 2} scales with quark number for all hadrons studied. For the multistrange hadron {Omega}, which does not suffer appreciable hadronic interactions, the values of v{sub 2} are consistent with both m{sub T}-m scaling at low p{sub T} and number-of-quark scaling at intermediate p{sub T}. As a function of collision centrality, an increase of p{sub T}-integrated v{sub 2} scaled by the participant eccentricity has been observed, indicating a stronger collective flow in more central Au+Au collisions.
Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng
2016-06-01
Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.
The effect of flow on hadronic spectra in an excluded-volume model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.
2013-04-01
Recently, we proposed a thermodynamically consistent excluded-volume model for the HG fireball and we noticed that our model gives a suitable description of various properties of multiparticle production and their ratios in the entire range of temperatures and baryon densities. Our aim in this paper is to obtain the variations of freeze-out volume in a slice of unit rapidity, i.e. dV/dy, as well as total volume of the fireball with respect to center-of-mass energy (\\sqrt{s_{NN}}), and to compare our model calculations with the corresponding thermal freeze-out volume obtained from the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss pion interferometry method. We also test the validity of our model in extracting the total multiplicities as well as the central rapidity densities of various hadrons and comparing them with the recent results. We further calculate the rapidity and transverse momentum spectra of various particles produced in different heavy-ion collider experiments in order to examine the role of flow by matching our predictions with the available experimental results. Finally, we extend our analysis for the production of light nuclei, hypernuclei and their antinuclei over a broad energy range from alternating gradient synchrotron to large hadron collider energies.
The noise from supersonic elliptic jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.
1992-01-01
This paper presents calculations of the noise radiated by a supersonic elliptic jet. The large scale structures in the jet, that are the predominant source of noise in the downstream direction, are modeled as instability waves. The evolution of the instability waves is determined by a local, linear, inviscid analysis. An expression is derived for the acoustic field outside the jet and the far field directivity associated with each instability wave. Calculations are performed for a Mach 1.5 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 3:1. The mean flow development is taken from experimental results. Comparisons are made with far field acoustic measurements.
Mineev, Mark
2008-01-01
The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.
Elliptical instability in the planetary fluid cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Ali
Elliptical instability may be excited in any rotating flow with elliptically deformed streamlines. Investigating this instability in containers with spheroidal or ellipsoidal boundaries is of geophysical and astrophysical interest as many stars and planets are either rotating ellipsoidal fluid bodies or have substantial fluid cores which are either ellipsoidal, in the absence of a solid inner core, or ellipsoidal shells such as the Earth's fluid core; elliptical instability may be excited in these bodies as a result of the gravitational pull of a secondary body such as a moon or a large asteroid orbiting these bodies. In this thesis, the nonlinear evolution of elliptical instability in an inviscid incompressible rotating triaxial ellipsoid is numerically studied using the least-square finite element method. After validating the method by reproducing some known results, it is applied to other configurations in order to investigate some open questions on this subject, namely, the effects of the oblateness of the ellipsoid and the frequency ratio of the orbital speed of the secondary body on the evolution of the elliptical instability. We have found that if the parameters of the system, i.e. the flattening ratio and the frequency ratio of the background rotation, are in the range of the spin-over instability, a repetitive three-dimensional rigorous motion is maintained indefinitely; otherwise, instability may be excited initially, once the streamlines become elliptical, for certain ranges of the system parameters; however, as time elapses the motion becomes two dimensional with small displacement amplitudes in x- and y- directions.
Hirano, Tetsufumi; Huovinen, Pasi; Nara, Yasushi
2011-02-15
We predict the elliptic flow parameter v{sub 2} in U+U collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV and in Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV using a hybrid model in which the evolution of the quark gluon plasma is described by ideal hydrodynamics with a state-of-the-art lattice QCD equation of state and the subsequent hadronic stage is described by a hadron cascade model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yongle; Holler, Stephen; Chang, Richard K.; Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Niles, Stanley; Bottiger, Jerold R.; Bronk, Burt V.
1999-11-01
Real-time methods which is reagentless and could detect and partially characterize bioaerosols are of current interest. We present a technique for real-time measurement of UV-excited fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) from individual flowing biological aerosol particles. The fluorescence spectra have been observed from more than 20 samples including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, allergens, dust, and smoke. The S/N and resolution of the spectra are sufficient for observing small lineshape differences among the same type of bioaerosol prepared under different conditions. The additional information from TAOS regarding particle size, shape, and granularity has the potential of aiding in distinguishing bacterial aerosols from other aerosols, such as diesel and cigarette smoke.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.
1980-01-01
An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.
Global variational approach to elliptic transport barriers in three dimensions.
Oettinger, David; Blazevski, Daniel; Haller, George
2016-03-01
We introduce an approach to identify elliptic transport barriers in three-dimensional, time-aperiodic flows. Obtained as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), the barriers are tubular non-filamenting surfaces that form and bound coherent material vortices. This extends a previous theory of elliptic LCSs as uniformly stretching material surfaces from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flows. Specifically, we obtain explicit expressions for the normals of pointwise (near-) uniformly stretching material surfaces over a finite time interval. We use this approach to visualize elliptic LCSs in steady and time-aperiodic ABC-type flows. PMID:27036192
Global variational approach to elliptic transport barriers in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oettinger, David; Blazevski, Daniel; Haller, George
2016-03-01
We introduce an approach to identify elliptic transport barriers in three-dimensional, time-aperiodic flows. Obtained as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), the barriers are tubular non-filamenting surfaces that form and bound coherent material vortices. This extends a previous theory of elliptic LCSs as uniformly stretching material surfaces from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flows. Specifically, we obtain explicit expressions for the normals of pointwise (near-) uniformly stretching material surfaces over a finite time interval. We use this approach to visualize elliptic LCSs in steady and time-aperiodic ABC-type flows.
Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules.
Li, Weiyan; Dong, Fulong; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun
2015-11-30
We study the ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics (NTH) from aligned molecules with large internuclear distances numerically and analytically. The calculated harmonic spectra show a broad plateau for NTH which is several orders of magnitude higher than that for high-order harmonics. In particular, the NTH plateau shows high ellipticity at small and intermediate orientation angles. Our analyses reveal that the main contributions to the NTH plateau come from the transition of the electron from continuum states to these two lowest bound states of the system, which are strongly coupled together by the laser field. Besides continuum states, higher excited states also play a role in the NTH plateau, resulting in a large phase difference between parallel and perpendicular harmonics and accordingly high ellipticity of the NTH plateau. The NTH plateau with high intensity and large ellipticity provides a promising manner for generating strong elliptically-polarized extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses. PMID:26698731
Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch
Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.
2011-10-13
Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian function associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.
Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch
Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.
2011-10-13
Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less
Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles
1989-01-01
A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEARBY RADIO ACTIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Mould, Jeremy; Reynolds, Tristan; Readhead, Tony; Matthews, Keith; Floyd, David; Brown, Michael; Jannuzi, Buell; Atlee, David; Cotter, Garret; Ferrarese, Laura
2012-11-15
In preparation for a study of their circumnuclear gas we have surveyed 60% of a complete sample of elliptical galaxies within 75 Mpc that are radio sources. Some 20% of our nuclear spectra have infrared emission lines, mostly Paschen lines, Brackett {gamma}, and [Fe II]. We consider the influence of radio power and black hole mass in relation to the spectra. Access to the spectra is provided here as a community resource.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Stuart T.; Badami, Vivek G.; Dale, Jami S.; Xu, Ying
1997-03-01
This paper presents closed form equations based on a modification of those originally derived by Paros and Weisbord in 1965, for the mechanical compliance of a simple monolithic flexure hinge of elliptic cross section, the geometry of which is determined by the ratio ɛ of the major and minor axes. It is shown that these equations converge at ɛ=1 to the Paros and Weisbord equations for a hinge of circular section and at ɛ ⇒∞ to the equations predicted from simple beam bending theory for the compliance of a cantilever beam. These equations are then assessed by comparison with results from finite element analysis over a range of geometries typical of many hinge designs. Based on the finite element analysis, stress concentration factors for the elliptical hinge are also presented. As a further verification of these equations, a number of elliptical hinges were manufactured on a CNC milling machine. Experimental data were produced by applying a bending moment using dead weight loading and measuring subsequent angular deflections with a laser interferometer. In general, it was found that predictions for the compliance of elliptical hinges are likely to be within 12% for a range of geometries with the ratio βx(=t/2ax) between 0.06 and 0.2 and for values of ɛ between 1 and 10.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middlecoff, J. F.; Thomas, P. D.
1979-01-01
The generation of computational grids suitable for obtaining accurate numerical solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is the subject of intensive research. For a wide class of nozzle configurations, a three-dimensional grid can be constructed by a sequence of two-dimensional grids in successive cross-sectional planes. The present paper is concerned with numerical generation of two-dimensional grids. An effective method of interior grid control is presented based on a modified elliptic system containing free parameters. For a simply connected region, the free parameters are computed from the Dirichlet boundary values. The resulting interior grid point distribution is controlled entirely by a priori selection of the grid point distribution along the boundaries of the section.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. D.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.
2016-09-01
The elliptic flow of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity (| y| < 0.7) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV with ALICE at the LHC. The particle azimuthal distribution with respect to the reaction plane can be parametrized with a Fourier expansion, where the second coefficient ( v 2) represents the elliptic flow. The v 2 coefficient of inclusive electrons is measured in three centrality classes (0-10%, 10-20% and 20-40%) with the event plane and the scalar product methods in the transverse momentum ( p T) intervals 0.5-13 GeV/ c and 0.5-8 GeV/ c, respectively. After subtracting the background, mainly from photon conversions and Dalitz decays of neutral mesons, a positive v 2 of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays is observed in all centrality classes, with a maximum significance of 5.9 σ in the interval 2 < p T < 2.5 GeV/ c in semi-central collisions (20-40%). The value of v 2 decreases towards more central collisions at low and intermediate p T (0.5 < p T < 3 GeV/ c). The v 2 of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity is found to be similar to the one of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4). The results are described within uncertainties by model calculations including substantial elastic interactions of heavy quarks with an expanding strongly-interacting medium. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Flare and CME onset: UV spectra show fast 3-D flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Innes, D. E.
We present observations taken in the corona above a flare that occurred on the west limb of the Sun. SUMER spectra show large red (400 km/s) and blue (700 km/s) Dopplershifts in Fe XX (107 K), Cr XVI (5×106 K), Si IX (106 K) and O III (105 K) emission lines. These shifts are associated with a fast moving (500 km/s) optical emission front detected in high cadence images, taken with the coronagraph MICA. Yohkoh images, taken 8 min after the hard X-ray peak, show fast soft X-ray ejecta that can be extrapolated back to the position of pre-flare coronal arcade structure seen in EIT 195 images. The observations are interpreted as evidence of a blast wave propagating through the active region coronal loop structure very early in the flare evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto
2016-06-01
Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a mathbb{C}{P}^2 space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n - gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ-algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.
Vibration and Noise Characteristics of Elliptical Gears due to Non-Uniform Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka
Elliptical gear is a typical non-circular gear, which transmits a variable-ratio rotation and power simultaneously. Due to the non-uniform rotation, the vibration and noise of elliptical gears demonstrate particular characteristics which should be paid attention to in practical application. In this paper, two elliptical gears, which are a single elliptical gear and a double elliptical gear, have been investigated to analyze the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. The corresponding circular gears for comparison are also investigated. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed, the gear vibration acceleration and the gear noise of the four test gears are measured by running test. The root mean square of the Circumferential Vibration Acceleration (CVA) and the sound pressure level of the noise of elliptical gears are obtained from the measured results and compared with those of circular gears to clarify the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the CVA of elliptical gears is conducted by Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT) and compared with that of circular gears. The main vibration component of elliptical gear is uncovered according to the obtained frequency spectra. In addition, the Critical Rotation Speeds of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of elliptical gear is obtained and its relation with load torque is unveiled.
Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim
1999-11-01
Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Matsumoto, Ryoji
Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) have recently been found in the off-center region of nearby external galaxies. The typical photon luminosities of ULXs range 1039.5-41 [erg/s], which ex-ceeds the Eddington luminosity for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. There are two possible models considered to account for such large photon luminosities: subcritical accretion (i.e., accretion below the Eddington accretion rate) onto an intermediate-mass black hole and supercritical accretion (i.e., accretion exceeding the Eddington accretion rate) onto a stellar-mass black hole. Since the black hole masses of ULXs are poorly known at present, we cannot discriminate between these two models. The study of radiation spectra of supercritical accre-tion flows may give a clue to resolve this issue. We calculated X-ray spectra of supercritical accretion flows with mildly hot outflows by Monte-Carlo techniques using two-dimensional ra-diation hydrodynamic simulation data of Kawashima et al. (2009). Our method is based on Pozdnyakov et al. (1977), and we incorporated radiative processes such as the modified black-body radiation with special relativistic effects (i.e., the Doppler shift and the aberration) at the photosphere, the free-free absorption, the photon trapping effect, the thermal Comptoniza-tion, and the bulk Comptonization. We found that the thermal inverse Compton scattering by electrons of the outflow affects the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the supercritical accretion flow. The fraction of the hard emission increases as the mass accretion rate increases (i.e., the photon luminosity increases). When the isotropic X-ray luminosity is below about 10 Eddington luminosity, the SED is similar to that of the slim disk state (i.e., the one-dimensional model of the supercritical accretion flow). By contrast, when the isotropic X-ray luminosity is larger than about 10 Eddington luminosity, the SED becomes harder at high energy region and deviates from the slim
Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Z M; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, C; Li, Y; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M
2016-02-12
We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y|<1.0) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at center of mass energy √[sNN]=200 GeV. We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p, respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2. PMID:26918982
Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Z M; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, C; Li, Y; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M
2016-02-12
We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y|<1.0) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at center of mass energy √[sNN]=200 GeV. We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p, respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2.
Bykova, N.G.; Kuznetsova, L.A.
2004-11-15
Results are presented from measurements of the temperature characteristics of subsonic CO{sub 2} plasma flows generated by a 100-kW induction plasmatron at the Institute for Problems of Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The atomic excitation temperature T{sub a} and the population temperature T{sub e} of the electronic states of C{sub 2} molecules (both averaged over the jet diameter) were measured from the absolute intensities of the atomic spectral lines and the spectrum of C{sub 2} molecules in different generation regimes at gas pressures of 25-140 hPa and anode supply powers of 29-72 kW. The longitudinal and radial profiles of the temperatures were determined for some of these regimes and compared to those obtained from numerical calculations of equilibrium induction plasma flows in the discharge channel. For some generation regimes, the dependences of the averaged (over the line of sight) rotational and vibrational temperatures (T{sub r} and T{sub v} ) on the discharge parameters, as well as the radial profiles of these temperatures, were determined from the best fit of the measured and calculated spectra of C{sub 2} molecules (Swan bands). The self-absorption of molecular emission was observed at sufficiently high temperatures and gas pressures, and its influence on the measured values of the molecular temperatures T{sub e} , T{sub v} , and T{sub r} was examined.
Mining the Suzaku Archive for Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loewenstein, Michael
Despite significant progress, our understanding of the formation and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies is incomplete. Many unresolved details about the star formation and assembly history, dissipation and feedback processes, and how these are connected in space and time relate to complex gasdynamical processes that are not directly observable, but that leave clues in the form of the level and pattern of heavy element enrichment in the hot ISM. The low background and relatively sharp spectral resolution of the Suzaku X-ray Observatory XIS CCD detectors enable one to derive a particularly extensive abundance pattern in the hot ISM out to large galactic radii for bright elliptical galaxies. These encode important clues to the chemical and dynamical history of elliptical galaxies. The Suzaku archive now includes data on many of the most suitable galaxies for these purposes. To date, these have been analyzed in a very heterogeneous manner -- some at an early stage in the mission using instrument calibration and analysis tools that have greatly evolved in the interim. Given the level of maturity of the data archive, analysis software, and calibration, the time is right to undertake a uniform analysis of this sample and interpret the results in the context of a coherent theoretical framework for the first time. We propose to (1) carefully and thoroughly analyze the available X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies in the Suzaku database, employing the techniques we have established in our previous work to measure hot ISM abundance patterns. Their interpretation requires careful deconstruction within the context of physical gasdynamical and chemical evolutionary models. Since we have developed models for elliptical galaxy chemical evolution specifically constructed to place constraints on the history and development of these systems based on hot ISM abundances, we are uniquely positioned to interpret -- as well as to analyze -- X-ray spectra of these objects. (2) We will
The Invertible Double of Elliptic Operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Lesch, Matthias
2009-02-01
First, we review the Dirac operator folklore about basic analytic and geometrical properties of operators of Dirac type on compact manifolds with smooth boundary and on closed partitioned manifolds and show how these properties depend on the construction of a canonical invertible double and are related to the concept of the Calderón projection. Then we summarize a recent construction of a canonical invertible double for general first order elliptic differential operators over smooth compact manifolds with boundary. We derive a natural formula for the Calderón projection which yields a generalization of the famous Cobordism Theorem. We provide a list of assumptions to obtain a continuous variation of the Calderón projection under smooth variation of the coefficients. That yields various new spectral flow theorems. Finally, we sketch a research program for confining, respectively closing, the last remaining gaps between the geometric Dirac operator type situation and the general linear elliptic case.
Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myler, T.
1984-01-01
Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.
Blue ellipticals in compact groups
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.
1990-01-01
By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.
Two confirmed compact elliptical galaxies in the Antlia cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith Castelli, A. V.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Romero, G. A.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.
We confirm the existence of two compact elliptical (cE) galaxies in the cen- tral region of the Antlia cluster through MAGELLAN-MIKE and GEMINI- GMOS spectra. Only about a dozen galaxies of this rare type are known today up to a distance of 100 Mpc. With this finding, Antlia becomes the nearest galaxy cluster harbouring more than one cE galaxy among its galaxy population. One of these galaxies shows evidence of interaction with one of the giant ellipticals that dominate the central region of the cluster.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, QingFeng; Wang, YongJia; Wang, XiaoBao; Shen, CaiWan
2016-03-01
The time evolution of both proton and anti-proton v 2 flows from Au+Au collisions at √{{S_{NN}}} = 7.7 GeV are examined by using both pure cascade and mean-field potential versions of the UrQMD model. Due to a stronger repulsion at the early stage introduced by the repulsive potentials and hence much less annihilation probabilities, anti-protons are frozen out earlier with smaller v 2 values. Therefore, the experimental data of anti-proton v 2 as well as the flow difference between proton and anti-proton can be reasonably described with the potential version of UrQMD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.
2016-02-01
The elliptic flow, v2, of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The scalar product, two- and four-particle Q cumulants and Lee-Yang zeros methods are used. The dependence of the v2 of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays on the collision centrality, in the range 0-40%, and on transverse momentum, pT, is studied in the interval 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisman, Olivia; STAR Collaboration
2014-09-01
The quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC top energies is a strongly interacting medium. Elliptic flow (v2) , which is the second-order Fourier coefficient of the azimuthal distribution of the produced particles with respect to the reaction plane, has been extensively used to study this medium's properties. Previous STAR data showed a difference in v2 of π+ and π- that becomes more pronounced at lower collision energies such as √sNN = 7.7 GeV. In this poster, we analyze v2 of π+ and π- produced at mid-rapidity, with the event plane reconstructed from the STAR Beam Beam Counters (BBC). With the pseudo-rapidity gap (Δη >2) between the event plane and particles of interest, we improve our control of the systematics due to the short-range correlations that are not related to the reaction plane. The low possibility of proton registration in the BBC further suppresses the background due to weak decays. We will present pion v2 results for Au +Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5 and 19.6 GeV, and discuss the physics implications of our results in comparison with previous data whose event plane was reconstructed at mid-rapidity.
STEWART, JULIAN M.; TANEJA, INDU; GOLIGORSKY, MICHAEL S.; MEDOW, MARVIN S.
2015-01-01
Objective While higher frequency oscillations (0.021–0.6 Hz) in cutaneous blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) relate to oscillations in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity, very low-frequency oscillations (VLF, 0.0095–0.021 Hz) do not. The authors investigated whether VLF LDF power is nitric oxide (NO) specific. Methods LDF combined with intradermal microdialysis was used in the calves of 22 healthy volunteers aged 19–27 years. LDF power spectral analysis was performed by windowed fast Fourier transform. The authors tested whether the NO synthesis inhibitor nitro-l-arginine (NLA) produced selective decreases in VLF power before and after stimulation with acetylcholine. Results NLA alone did not alter total power but selectively reduced VLF power by approximately 50%. LDF and spectral power increased markedly across all spectra with acetylcholine. This increase was blunted by NLA, which selectively reduced VLF power by approximately 50%. Conclusions The data suggest that VLF oscillations in the laser Doppler signal are NO dependent, increase with cholinergic stimulation, and have potential as a noninvasive marker for NO-dependent microvascular reactivity. PMID:17454670
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abou-Khousa, M. A.
2009-01-01
A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed elliptical slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).
Numerical calculations of flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.
1973-01-01
Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.
Bounding the elliptic Mahler measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinner, Christopher
1998-11-01
We give a simple inequality relating the elliptic Mahler measure of a polynomial to the traditional Mahler measure (via the length of the polynomial). These bounds are essentially sharp. We also give the corresponding result for polynomials in several variables.
Degenerating the elliptic Schlesinger system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminov, G. A.; Artamonov, S. B.
2013-01-01
We study various ways of degenerating the Schlesinger system on the elliptic curve with R marked points. We construct a limit procedure based on an infinite shift of the elliptic curve parameter and on shifts of the marked points. We show that using this procedure allows obtaining a nonautonomous Hamiltonian system describing the Toda chain with additional spin sl(N, ℂ) degrees of freedom.
Extremely Isolated Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuse, Christopher R.; Marcum, P.; Fanelli, M.; Aars, C.
2006-06-01
Isolated galaxies provide a means of assessing the evolution of galactic systems. Extremely isolated galaxies define a zero-interaction baseline for comparative studies of galaxy evolution. We present results of a search for isolated elliptical galaxies (IEGs). We utilize the optical imaging data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify candidate galaxies from Release 1-4 of the SDSS. Candidate IEGs meet strict isolation criteria: Any IEG must be separated by at least 2.5 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy having a MV fainter than -16.5 mag. The candidate isolated systems have no non-dwarf neighbors within a distance such that we can insure that the IEGs have never interacted with another existing galaxy since formation.In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, we have used the SDSS images in the u,g,r filters to create combined sets of images for each IEG. The stacked images permit a more robust determination of the morphology of the candidate galaxies. Verification that these are spheroidal systems is achieved through a bulge/disk decomposition technique using standard surface photometry. Our preliminary sample of 51 isolated systems defines a complete volume-limited population of extremely isolated early-type galaxies within a distance of 72Mpc
Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at √s_{NN}=62.4 GeV
Adare, A.
2015-04-28
In this study, we present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (|y|< 0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √s_{NN} = 62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 < p^{e}_{T} < 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield per binary collision is slightly enhanced above the p+p reference in Au+Au 0%–20%, 20%–40%, and 40%–60% centralities at a comparable level. At this low beam energy this may be a result of the interplay between initial-state Cronin effects, final-state flow, and energy loss in medium. The v₂ of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3 < p^{e}_{T} < 2.5 GeV/c for 0%–40% centrality collisions at √s_{NN} = 62.4 GeV. For 20%–40% centrality collisions, the v₂ at √s_{NN} = 62.4 GeV is smaller than that for heavy-flavor decays at √s_{NN} = 200 GeV. The v₂ of the electrons from heavy-flavor decay at the lower beam energy is also smaller than v₂ for pions. Both results indicate that the heavy-quarks interact with the medium formed in these collisions, but they may not be at the same level of thermalization with the medium as observed at √s_{NN} = 200 GeV.
Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=62.4 GeV
Adare, A.
2015-04-28
In this study, we present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (|y|< 0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 < peT < 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield per binary collision is slightly enhanced above the p+p reference in Au+Au 0%–20%, 20%–40%, and 40%–60% centralities at a comparable level. At this low beam energy thismore » may be a result of the interplay between initial-state Cronin effects, final-state flow, and energy loss in medium. The v₂ of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3 < peT < 2.5 GeV/c for 0%–40% centrality collisions at √sNN = 62.4 GeV. For 20%–40% centrality collisions, the v₂ at √sNN = 62.4 GeV is smaller than that for heavy-flavor decays at √sNN = 200 GeV. The v₂ of the electrons from heavy-flavor decay at the lower beam energy is also smaller than v₂ for pions. Both results indicate that the heavy-quarks interact with the medium formed in these collisions, but they may not be at the same level of thermalization with the medium as observed at √sNN = 200 GeV.« less
Silvestre, Catherine; Cianciolo, Vince; Awes, Terry C; Efremenko, Yuri V; Enokizono, Akitomo; Hornback, Donald; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration
2008-01-01
Recent results indicate that the J/{psi} suppression pattern differs with rapidity showing a larger suppression at forward rapidity. J/{psi} suppression mechanisms based on energy density (such as color screening, interaction with co-movers, etc.) predict the opposite trend. On the other hand, it is expected that more c{bar c} pairs should be available to form quarkonia at mid-rapidity via recombination. Some models provide a way to differentiate J/{psi} production from initially produced c{bar c} pairs and final state recombination of uncorrelated pairs, via the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow ({upsilon}{sub 2}). During 2007 data taking at RHIC, a large sample of Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV was collected. The statistics has been increased compared to previous 2004 data set, thus allowing a more precise measurement of the J/{psi} production at both mid and forward rapidity. Furthermore, the PHENIX experiment benefited from the addition of a new detector, which improves the reaction plane resolution and allows us to measure the J/{psi} {upsilon}{sub 2}. Comparing this measurement to the positive D-mesons {upsilon}{sub 2} (through non-photonic electron decays) will help constraining the J/{psi} production mechanisms and getting a more precise picture of the proportion of J/{psi} coming from direct production or charm quark coalescence. Details on how the J/{psi} {upsilon}{sub 2} is measured at mid-rapidity rapidities are presented. The J/{psi} {upsilon}{sub 2} as a function of transverse momentum are compared to existing models.
An experimental study on jets issuing from elliptic inclined nozzles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
New, T. H.
2009-06-01
This paper reports on an experimental flow visualisation and digital particle image velocimetry investigation on forced jets exhausting from aspect ratio equal to three elliptic nozzles with exits inclined at 30° and 60°. Flow images show that shear layer instabilities and subsequent vortex roll-ups are formed parallel to the inclined nozzle exits at 30° incline and that rapid re-orientation of the vortex roll-ups occurs at 60° incline. Flow observations also show that strong axis-switching occurs in a non-inclined elliptic nozzle. However, 30° and 60° elliptic inclined nozzles produce significant distortions to and suppression of the axis-switching behaviour, respectively. As a result, flow stresses and turbulent kinetic energy distributions become increasingly asymmetric. Their coherency and magnitudes along the shorter nozzle lengths also vary significantly. This can be attributed to the dissimilar formations of vortex roll-ups and rib structures, as well as unequal mutual interactions between them as the incline-angle increases. Lastly, results also show that unlike circular inclined nozzles, elliptic inclined nozzles do not produce serpentine-shaped jet columns nor lead to significant lateral jet-spread at large incline-angles.
Dynamic separation of nanomagnet sublattices by orientation of elliptical elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahagi, Y.; Berk, C. R.; Harteneck, B. D.; Cabrini, S. D.; Schmidt, H.
2014-04-01
We report the separation of the magnetization dynamics of densely packed nanomagnets depending on their orientation. The arrays consist of interleaved sublattices of identical nickel elliptical disks. By controlling the orientation of the elliptic disks relative to the external field in each sublattice, we simultaneously analyzed the magnetization dynamics in each sublattice using a time-resolved magnetooptic Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) microscopy system. The Fourier spectra showed clearly separated precession modes for sublattices with different orientations. The spectra were shown to be robust against the error in applied field orientation. The sublattice response can be tuned to a single collective frequency by choosing a symmetric field orientation. We analyzed the effect of the interelement coupling with various spacing between nanomagnets and found a relatively weak dependence on dipolar interactions in good agreement with micromagnetic simulations.
Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations
de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L
2007-03-06
We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.
Variational elliptic solver for atmospheric applications
Smolarkiewicz, P.K.; Margolin, L.G.
1994-03-01
We discuss a conjugate gradient type method -- the conjugate residual -- suitable for solving linear elliptic equations that result from discretization of complex atmospheric dynamical problems. Rotation and irregular boundaries typically lead to nonself-adjoint elliptic operators whose matrix representation on the grid is definite but not symmetric. On the other hand, most established methods for solving large sparse matrix equations depend on the symmetry and definiteness of the matrix. Furthermore, the explicit construction of the matrix can be both difficult and computationally expensive. An attractive feature of conjugate gradient methods in general is that they do not require any knowledge of the matrix; and in particular, convergence of conjugate residual algorithms do not rely on symmetry for definite operators. We begin by reviewing some basic concepts of variational algorithms from the perspective of a physical analogy to the damped wave equation, which is a simple alternative to the traditional abstract framework of the Krylov subspace methods. We derive two conjugate residual schemes from variational principles, and prove that either definiteness or symmetry ensures their convergence. We discuss issues related to computational efficiency and illustrate our theoretical considerations with a test problem of the potential flow of a Boussinesq fluid flow past a steep, three-dimensional obstacle.
Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Binary Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susantio, D. R.; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, I.
2016-04-01
Currently, there is a steadily increasing demand of information security, caused by a surge in information flow. There are many ways to create a secure information channel, one of which is to use cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of elliptic curves over the binary field for cryptography. We use the simplified version of the ECIES (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme). The ECIES encrypts a plaintext by masking the original message using specified points on the curve. The encryption process is done by separating the plaintext into blocks. Each block is then separately encrypted using the encryption scheme.
Elliptical flux vortices in YBa2Cu3O7
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hickman, H.; Dekker, A. J.; Chen, T. M.
1991-01-01
The most energetically favorable vortex in YBa2Cu3O7 forms perpendicular to an anisotropic plane. This vortex is elliptical in shape and is distinguished by an effective interchange of London penetration depths from one axis of the ellipse to another. By generalizing qualitatively from the isotropic to the anisotropic case, we suggest that the flux flow resistivity for the vortex that forms perpendicular to an anistropic plane should have a preferred direction. Similar reasoning indicates that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature for a vortex mediated transition should be lower if the vortex is elliptical in shape.
Elliptic jets, part 2. Dynamics of coherent structures: Pairing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Husain, Hyder S.; Hussain, Fazle
1992-01-01
The dynamics of the jet column mode of vortex pairing in the near field of an elliptic jet was investigated. Hot-wire measurements and flow visualization were used to examine the details of the pairing mechanism of nonplanar vortical elliptic structures and its effect on such turbulence measures as coherent velocities, incoherent turbulence intensities, incoherent and coherent Reynolds, stresses, turbulence production, and mass entrainment. It was found that pairing of elliptic vortices in the jet column does not occur uniformly around the entire perimeter, unlike in a circular jet. Merger occurs only in the initial major-axis plane. In the initial minor-axis plane, the trailing vortex rushes through the leading vortex without pairing and then breaks down violently, producing considerably greater entrainment and mixing than in circular or plane jets.
Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.
Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A
2013-01-01
When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus. PMID:23410439
Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.
Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A
2013-01-01
When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus.
Elliptic interface problem solved using the mixed finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuqiang
2007-05-01
The elliptic boundary value/interface problem is very important in many applications, for example, in incompressible flow and MHD. Many methods are used to solve these problems in a complex domain, including the finite volume method, the finite element method and the boundary element method. For a complex computational domain, the better choice of the partition of the computational domain is to use an unstructured grid. However, it is not a straight forward task to implement a mesh generation program. Such a program requires extra computing time and resources (such as computer memory). Thus people like to use a structured mesh if possible, especially a cartesian mesh. Popular methods using structured cartesian grids for the elliptic boundary value/interface problem include the immersed boundary method, the immersed interface method, the ghost fluid method, and the embedded boundary method. This thesis solves the elliptic problem using several versions of the mixed nite element method on an unstructured mesh. The results are compared for speed and accuracy to the embedded boundary method. A ghost fluid method for elliptic boundary value/interface problems is also investigated. Finally, a simple test of the 2D Rayleigh-Taylor instability is performed using the FronTier-Lite package. Key Words. Elliptic Boundary Value, Interface, Mesh Generation, Quadtree, Octree, Front Tracking.
Magnetic field induced by elliptical instability in a rotating spheroid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacaze, L.; Herreman, W.; Le Bars, M.; Le Dizès, S.; Le Gal, P.
2006-10-01
The tidal or the elliptical instability of the rotating fluid flows is generated by the resonant interaction of the inertial waves. In a slightly elliptically deformed rotating sphere, the most unstable linear mode is called the spin-over mode, and is a solid body rotation versus an axis aligned with the maximum strain direction. In the non-viscous case, this instability corresponds to the median moment of the inertial instability of the solid rotating bodies. This analogy is furthermore illustrated by an elliptical top experiment, which shows the expected inviscid heteroclinic behaviour. In geophysics, the elliptical instability may appear in the molten liquid cores of the rotating planets, which are slightly deformed by the tidal gravitational effects of the close bodies. It may then participate in the general outer core dynamics and possibly the geodynamo process. In this context, Kerswell and Malkus (Kerswell, R.R. and Malkus, W.V.R., Tidal instability as the source for Io's magnetic signature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1998, 25, 603 606) showed that the puzzling magnetic field of the Jovian satellite Io may indeed be induced by the elliptically unstable motions of its liquid core that deflect the Jupiter's magnetic field. Our magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) experiment is a toy-experiment of this geophysical situation and demonstrates for the first time the possibility of an induction of a magnetic field by the flow motions due to the elliptical instability. A full analytical calculation of the magnetic dipole induced by the spin-over is presented. Finally, exponential growths of this induced magnetic field in a slightly deformed rotating sphere filled with galinstan liquid metal are measured for different rotating rates. Their growth rates compare well with the theoretical predictions in the limit of a vanishing Lorentz force.
Evolution of an elliptic vortex ring in a viscous fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2016-03-01
The evolution of a viscous elliptic vortex ring in an initially quiescent fluid or a linear shear flow is numerically simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method. A wide range of parameters are considered, namely, aspect ratios (AR) (1 ≤ AR ≤ 8), core radius to ring radius ratios (σ0) (0.1 ≤ σ0 ≤ 0.3), Reynolds number (Re) (500 ≤ Re ≤ 3000), and shear rate (K) (0 ≤ K ≤ 0.12). The study aims to fill the gap in the current knowledge of the dynamics of an elliptic vortex ring in a viscous fluid and also to address the issue of whether an elliptic ring undergoes vortex stretching and compression during axis-switching. In a quiescent fluid, results show that for fixed Re and σ0, there exists a critical aspect ratio (ARc), below which an elliptic ring undergoes oscillatory deformation with the period that increases with increasing AR. Above ARc, the vortex ring breaks up into two or three sub-rings after the first half-cycle of oscillation. While higher Reynolds number enhances vortex ring breakup, larger core size has the opposite effect. Contrary to an inviscid theory, an elliptic ring does undergo vortex stretching and compression during oscillatory deformation. In the presence of a linear shear flow, the vortex ring undergoes not only oscillatory deformation and stretching but also tilting as it propagates downstream. The tilting angle increases with the shear rate K and is responsible for inducing a "tail" that consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) near the upstream end of the initial major axis after the first half-cycle of oscillation. For a high shear rate, the CVP wraps around the ring and transforms its topological structure from a simple elliptic geometry to a complicated structure that eventually leads to the generation of turbulence.
Energy and the Elliptical Orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nettles, Bill
2009-03-01
In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.
Constructing massive blue elliptical galaxies in the local universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, Tim
Over cosmic time, galaxy mass assembly has transitioned from low-mass, star-forming disk galaxies to massive, quiescent elliptical galaxies. The merger hypothesis for the formation of new elliptical galaxies provides one physical explanation to the observed buildup of this population, a key prediction of which is a brief phase of morphological transformation from highly-disturbed remnant to blue elliptical. We study 12 plausible new ellipticals with varying degrees of morphological peculiarities visually selected from a larger parent sample of nearby (0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.04), massive (M* ≥ 10 10 M⊙ ), concentrated (Petrosian R90/R50 ≥ 2.6), and optically blue galaxies from the SDSS DR4 catalog. Using integral field spectroscopy, we construct two-dimensional spectra of the stellar populations and azimuthally bin them into concentric annuli to determine the relative ages of the stellar populations as a function of radius. Using this data and conclusions from simulations, we seek to distinguish post-mergers from galaxies undergoing other modes of mass assembly. We find that 1/3 of our sample is consistent with having undergone a recent, gas-rich major merger. Another 1/3 of our sample is consistent with having undergone a 'frosting' of recent star formation. The final 1/3 of our sample is either inconsistent with or inconclusive of having undergone a recent, gas-rich major merger.
Energy and the Elliptical Orbit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nettles, Bill
2009-01-01
In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…
Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2003-01-01
Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…
The ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules
Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand; Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre
2014-01-29
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four elliptical Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS elliptical cavity cryomodules. An Elliptical Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.
Elliptic curves and primality proving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.
1993-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.
Liouville Theory and Elliptic Genera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taormina, A.
The structure and modular properties of N = 4 superconformal characters are reviewed and exploited, in an attempt to construct elliptic genera-like functions by decompactifying K_3. The construction is tested against expressions obtained in the context of strings propagating in background ALE spaces of type A_{N-1}, using the underlying superconformal theory N = 2 minimal ⊗ N = 2 Liouville.
The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilinger, W. W.
High spatial resolution observations impose stricter constraints on theories on the presence of dark objects in galactic nuclei. Observational evidence suggests that central massive black holes are a common phenomenon in dynamically hot stellar systems such as ellipticals and bulges of spirals.
Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge
Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.
1992-12-01
A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.
Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge
Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark
1992-01-01
A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bingyan; Zhu, Changping; Chen, Longwei; Fei, Juntao; Gao, Ying; Wen, Wen; Shan, Minglei; Ren, Zhaoxing
2014-12-01
The organic compounds of p-nitrophenol (PNP) solution was treated by the active species generated in a stirred reactor by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The emission intensities of hydroxyl (OH), oxygen (O), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen (H) and molecular (N2) were measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The relations between the flow rates of the PNP solution and degradation, the degradation effects and initial pH value of the solution were also investigated. Experimental results show that there exist intense emissions of O (777.1 nm), N2 (337.1 nm), OH (306-310 nm) and NO band (200-290 nm) in the region of plasma. Given the treatment time and gas flow rate, the degradation increased as a function of discharge energy and solution flow rate, respectively. The solution flow rate for the most efficient degradation ranged from 1.414 m/s to 1.702 m/s, and contributed very little when it exceeded 2.199 m/s. This indicates the existence of diffusion-controlled reactions at a low solution flow rate and activation-controlled reactions at a high solution flow rate. Moreover, increasing or decreasing the initial pH value of neutral PNP solution (pH=5.95) could improve the degradation efficiency. Treated by APPJ, the PNP solutions with different initial pH values of 5.95, 7.47 and 2.78 turned more acidic in the end, while the neutral solution had the lowest degradation efficiency. This work clearly demonstrates the close coupling of active species, photolysis of ultraviolet, the organic solution flow rate and the initial pH value, and thus is helpful in the study of the mechanism and application of plasma in wastewater treatment.
Splitting of Forced Elliptic Jets and Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hertzberg, J.; Carlton, J.; Schwieterman, M.; Davis, E.; Bradley, E.; Linne, M.
1997-01-01
The objective of this work is to understand the fluid dynamics in the interaction of large scale, three-dimensional vortex structures and transitional diffusion flames in a microgravity environment. The vortex structures are used to provide a known perturbation of the type used in passive and active shear layer control techniques. 'Passive techniques' refers to manipulation of the system geometry to influence the three dimensional dynamics of vortex structures, and 'active' refers to any technique which adds energy (acoustic or kinetic) to the flow to influence the shear layer vortex dynamics. In this work the passive forcing is provided by an elliptic jet cross-section, and the active forcing is incorporated by perturbing the jet velocity using a loudspeaker in the plenum section.
Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1981-01-01
An alternative approach which employs multigrid concepts in the iterative solution of spectral equations was examined. Spectral multigrid methods are described for self adjoint elliptic equations with either periodic or Dirichlet boundary conditions. For realistic fluid calculations the relevant boundary conditions are periodic in at least one (angular) coordinate and Dirichlet (or Neumann) in the remaining coordinates. Spectral methods are always effective for flows in strictly rectangular geometries since corners generally introduce singularities into the solution. If the boundary is smooth, then mapping techniques are used to transform the problem into one with a combination of periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions. It is suggested that spectral multigrid methods in these geometries can be devised by combining the techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petridou, Chariclia I.
We studied the pp annihilations at rest looking for narrow bound states in the proton-antiproton system. We looked, with high energy resolution, for radiative and pionic transitions in the gamma and charged pion spectra. The detector for the (gamma)(--->)e+e- and the (pi)('(+OR-)) was a magnetic pair spectrometer. The directions of the incident particles (e(+OR-) and (pi)(+OR-)) were determined by a drift chamber module in front of the magnet and the final directions of the particles, if reflected in the magnet, by the same chamber; if transversing the magnet, by an identical module at the rear of the magnet. The momentum was calculated from the directions of the particle. The following gamma spectra were obtained. Gammas with both e+, e- reflected in the magnet at a field of about 6 Kgauss (RR-gammas). That covers the region between 80 and 180 MeV, corresponding to a missing mass 1794 to 1686 MeV/c. The energy resolution is about 2.5 MeV ((sigma)) at 129 MeV (confirmed by the observed Panofsky gammas from stopping (pi)('-)p data) and 5 MeV ((sigma)) at 80 MeV. We have no evidence for narrow peaks except for the Panofsky gamma produced with a branching ratio of 3.3 x 10('-3) from (pi)('-) stops in the target. Upper limits for (gamma) -transitions in the region between 80 to 180 MeV were set at about 10('-3). Gammas with one e+(e-) reflected and the other transversing the magnet (RP-gammas) for fields of about 6 and 12 Kgauss, covering the region (GREATERTHEQ) 200 MeV, which corresponds to missing mass (LESSTHEQ) 1664 MeV/c('2). The gamma energy resolution in MeV is 51(.)E('2) (GeV) and 25.5(.)E('2)(GeV) for the low and high field respectively. Finally the charged pion spectra for those transversing the magnet are given for both magnet settings and as a function of charge multiplicity, covering the momentum region from (GREATERTHEQ) 150 MeV/c. The momentum resolution is the same as that for the RP-gammas. The two body annihilations (pi)('+)(pi)('-) and (pi
Propagation of light in a circular array of elliptical fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Milione, G.; Pogrebnaya, A. O.; Yavorsky, M. A.
2016-02-01
We have studied transformation of discrete light beams in circular arrays of elliptical fibres, in which the orientation of ellipses' axes linearly depends on the angular position of the fibre in the array and makes an half-integer number p of full rotations while tracing along its contour. We have derived analytical expressions for the spectra and supermodes that allow for evanescent coupling between the fibres in the next-neighbour approximation. We have studied the transformative properties of such an array and shown that it can generate cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) of TE and TM types. We have shown that the type of generated beam depends on the orientation of linear polarization of the incident beam. In this way, the circular array of strongly elliptical fibres enables polarization control over the type of the generated CVB. We have also shown that such arrays can change the topological charge of an incoming discrete optical vortex by the doubled array's index p.
Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration
Carlson, B.C. |
1997-12-31
Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.
Hydroforming of elliptical cavities
Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter
2015-02-27
Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have
Hydroforming of elliptical cavities
Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter
2015-02-27
Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc} = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double
Cold dust in elliptical galaxies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiklind, T.; Henkel, C.
1995-05-01
We have observed the λ1250 µm flux in 8 elliptical galaxies using the MPIfR 7-channel bolometer system attachet to the IRAM 30-m telescope. Five of the galaxies are detected at more than 3σ, two are tentatively detected and for one we obtained an upper limit. For two of the detected galaxies, the CO(2-1) line makes a significant contribution to the measured λ1250 µm flux. A comparison of the λ1250 µm fluxes, corrected for the CO(2-1) line contribution, with IRAS 60 and 100µm data shows that there is a colt dust component (Td~<20K) in two of the ellipticals. The other galaxies have λ1250 µm fluxes consistent with a one-temperature component, with Td typically between 20-30K.
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.
1982-01-01
Fully flooded, elastohydrodynamically lubricated, elliptical contacts are discussed. The relevant equations used in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) of elliptical contacts are briefly described. Film thickness equations are developed for materials of high elastic modulus, such as metal, and for materials of low elastic modulus, such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, plots of pressure and film thickness are presented. A theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in hard and soft elliptical elastohydrodynamic contacts is presented. From the results for both hard and soft EHL contacts a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. It is also found that the film thickness for a starved condition can be written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions. The theoretical findings are compared directly with results obtained experimentally.
Transition on elliptic cones at Mach 8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huntley, Mark Bradford
2000-10-01
Flow visualizations of boundary layer transition on two sharp-nosed elliptic cones at Mach 8 are presented. The elliptic cone is a relevant three-dimensional flow field since it represents a generic hypersonic lifting vehicle shape. Experiments utilize carbon dioxide enhanced Filtered Rayleigh scattering to produce planar single-shot and motion picture images. CO2 is injected into the flow upstream of the tunnel stagnation chamber and subsequently condenses into nanoscale clusters during the nozzle expansion process. The clusters sublimate as they enter the hot boundary layer, and Rayleigh images capture the interface that exists between the regions of condensed (freestream) and sublimated (boundary layer) carbon dioxide. Boundary layers ranging from laminar to late-transitional in character are imaged using streamwise, spanwise, and planform laser sheet orientations. Characteristics of observed instabilities are quantified using pdf profiles, power spectrum analysis, and autocorrelation results derived from single-shot images. A new MHz-rate imaging system is also used to produce motion pictures images and volumetric reconstructions of the boundary layer. The pressure gradient and associated crossflow from the major axis to the minor axis of the cone causes increased growth and subsequent early transition of the centerline boundary layer. The convection velocity and temporal evolution of structures appearing on both the centerline and off-axis regions is studied using cross correlation procedures. Volumetric image sets of the centerline reveal hairpin structures characteristic of the early stages of subsonic turbulent spot formation. In the off-axis regions, planform single-shot images reveal a pattern of finger-like crests in the boundary layer. At higher Reynolds numbers the breakdown of these crests involves the formation of a series of chain-like structures. The behavior appears qualitatively similar to visualizations of crossflow vortex breakdown in
Commutative Families of the Elliptic Macdonald Operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Yosuke
2014-03-01
In the paper [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009), 095215, 42 pages], Feigin, Hashizume, Hoshino, Shiraishi, and Yanagida constructed two families of commuting operators which contain the Macdonald operator (commutative families of the Macdonald operator). They used the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the trigonometric Feigin-Odesskii algebra. In the previous paper [arXiv:1301.4912], the present author constructed the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the free field realization of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In this paper, we show that by using the elliptic Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the elliptic Feigin-Odesskii algebra, we can construct commutative families of the elliptic Macdonald operator. In Appendix, we will show a relation between the elliptic Macdonald operator and its kernel function by the free field realization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.
2016-04-01
The transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in proton-proton ( p - p , copper-copper (Cu-Cu), gold-gold (Au-Au), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), and proton-lead ( p -Pb) collisions for different centralities at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) energies are studied in the framework of a multisource thermal model. The experimental data measured by the STAR, CMS, and ALICE Collaborations are consistent with the results calculated by the multi-component Erlang distribution and Tsallis Statistics. The effective temperature and real temperature (kinetic freeze-out temperature) of the interacting system at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, the mean transverse flow velocity and mean flow velocity of particles, and the relationships between them are extracted. The dependences of effective temperature and mean (transverse) momentum on rest mass, moving mass, centrality, and center-of-mass energy, and the dependences of kinetic freeze-out temperature and mean (transverse) flow velocity on centrality, center-of-mass energy, and system size are obtained.
Do elliptical galaxies have thick disks?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomson, R. C.; Wright, A. E.
1990-01-01
The authors discuss new evidence which supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies. Numerical simulations of weak interactions with thick disk systems produce shell structures very similar in appearance to those observed in many shell galaxies. The authors think this model presents a more plausible explanation for the formation of shell structures in elliptical/SO galaxies than does the merger model and, if correct, supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies.
Differential Spectral Synthesis of Low-Luminosity Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Lewis Alexander
In this thesis, a study of the spectral variations in the integrated light of eight low-luminosity elliptical galaxies is presented. The unique opportunity provided by low-luminosity elliptical galaxies to study integrated spectra at high line definition is the motivation behind the observational approach for this study. A long wavelength baseline is sacrificed in favor of working at high resolution (~2 Å FWHM) with a large variety of narrow absorption features in a smaller wave-length window. A new spectral library has been developed with this approach in mind. The library consists of spectra of 684 stars all observed with the Coudé Feed Telescope and Spectrograph at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, covering the spectral ranges 3820-4500 Å and 4780-5450 Å and at a spectral resolution of ~2 Å FWHM. The coverage of the library is complete for spectral types A-K and luminosity classes I-V, in the range -2.5 <= FeH; <= +0.5, while the O, B, and M stars are near solar. The empirical investigation of the galaxy spectra in reference to the stellar sequences of the spectral library yields several key results. (1) There is a spread in the mean spectral types of the low-luminosity ellliptical galaxies. (2) The galaxies are similar in evolved star content, Fe line strengths, and their evolved star light is dominated by solar type giants. (3) Five of the eight galaxies are shown to contain less than a 5% hot star contribution, which is inconsistent with the prediction of ~10% from the simple model of chemical evolution (Worthey, Dorman, and Jones 1996). (4) From variations in the balance of dwarf and giant light in the galaxy spectra it is claimed that there is a spread in the mean stellar ages of the low-luminosity elliptical galaxies. These results are interpreted in the context of the evolutionary synthesis models of Worthey (1994). The main result from the comparison of the galaxies and models is that the low-luminosity elliptical galaxies show a large spread in
Rahmani, Z. Jazi, B.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.
2014-09-15
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in an elliptical plasma waveguide including strongly magnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is investigated. The dispersion relation of guided hybrid electromagnetic waves is obtained. Excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam will be studied. The time growth rate of electromagnetic waves is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, radius of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of the annular elliptical beam on the growth rate and the frequency spectra are numerically presented.
Lai, XuanYang; Wang, ChuanLiang; Chen, YongJu; Hu, ZiLong; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan; Becker, Wilhelm
2013-01-25
We demonstrate the significant role of long quantum orbits in strong-field atomic processes by investigating experimentally and theoretically the above-threshold ionization spectra of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser pulses. With increasing laser ellipticity, the yields of different energy regions of the measured electron spectrum in high-order above-threshold ionization drop at different rates. The experimental features can be reproduced by a theoretical simulation based on quantum-orbit theory, revealing that increasing ellipticity favors the contributions of the long quantum orbits in the high-order above-threshold ionization process.
Formation and Evolution of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chilingarian, Igor
2006-11-01
This thesis presents observational studies of evolution of dwarf elliptical galaxies. dE's are numerically dominant population in clusters of galaxies, but their origin and evolution is a matter of debate. Several scenarios of gas removal from dE's exist: galactic winds, ram pressure stripping, gravitaional harassment. We present new method to estimate stellar population parameters and internal kinematics, based on fitting observed spectra in the pixel space by PEGASE.HR synthetic populations. We apply this technique to 3D-spectroscopic observations of dE galaxies in the Virgo cluster and nearby groups and multiobject spectroscopy of several dozens of dE's in the Abell 496 cluster. We present discovery of young nuclei in bright dE galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Based on the analysis of observational data we conclude that: (1) there is an evolutionary connection between dE's and dIrr's, (2) the most probable scenario of gas removal is ram pressure stripping by the intergalactic medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Raymond E., III; Day, C. S. R.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hughes, John P.
1994-01-01
We analyze the Ginga Large Area Counters (LAC) and Einstein Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) spectra of four cooling flow clusters, A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199, each of which shows firm evidence of a relatively cool component. The inclusion of such cool spectral components in joint fits of SSS and LAC data leads to somewhat higher global temperatures than are derived from the high-energy LAC data alone. We find little evidence of cool emission outside the SSS field of view. Metal abundances appear to be centrally enhanced in all four clusters, with varying degrees of model dependence and statistical significance: the evidence is statistically strongest for A496 and A2142, somewhat weaker for A2199 and weakest for A1795. We also explore the model dependence in the amount of cold, X-ray-absorbing matter discovered in these clusters by White et al.
Dark matter in elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.
1995-01-01
We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Proga, Daniel
2010-07-01
We find, from high-resolution hydro simulations, that winds from active galactic nuclei effectively heat the inner parts (≈100 pc) of elliptical galaxies, reducing infall to the central black hole; and radiative (photoionization and X-ray) heating reduces cooling flows at the kpc scale. Including both types of feedback with (peak) efficiencies of 3 × 10-4 <~ epsilonw <~ 10-3 and of epsilonEM ~= 10-1.3 respectively, produces systems having duty cycles, central black hole masses, X-ray luminosities, optical light profiles, and E+A spectra in accord with the broad suite of modern observations of massive elliptical systems. Our main conclusion is that mechanical feedback (including energy, momentum, and mass) is necessary but the efficiency, based on several independent arguments, must be a factor of 10 lower than is commonly assumed. Bursts are frequent at z > 1 and decline in frequency toward the present epoch as energy and metal-rich gas are expelled from the galaxies into the surrounding medium. For a representative galaxy of final stellar mass sime3 × 1011 M sun, roughly 3 × 1010 M sun of recycled gas has been added to the interstellar medium (ISM) since z ~= 2 and, of that, roughly 63% has been expelled from the galaxy, 19% has been converted into new metal-rich stars in the central few hundred parsecs, and 2% has been added to the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the remaining 16% in the form of hot X-ray emitting ISM. The bursts occupy a total time of sime170 Myr, which is roughly 1.4% of the available time. Of this time, the central supermassive black hole would be seen as a UV or optical source for sime45% and sime71% of the time, respectively. Restricting to the last 8.5 Gyr, the bursts occupy sime44 Myr, corresponding to a fiducial duty cycle of sime5 × 10-3.
Isolated elliptical galaxies in the local Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacerna, I.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Avila-Reese, V.; Abonza-Sane, J.; del Olmo, A.
2016-04-01
Context. We have studied a sample of 89 very isolated, elliptical galaxies at z < 0.08 and compared their properties with elliptical galaxies located in a high-density environment such as the Coma supercluster. Aims: Our aim is to probe the role of environment on the morphological transformation and quenching of elliptical galaxies as a function of mass. In addition, we elucidate the nature of a particular set of blue and star-forming isolated ellipticals identified here. Methods: We studied physical properties of ellipticals, such as color, specific star formation rate, galaxy size, and stellar age, as a function of stellar mass and environment based on SDSS data. We analyzed the blue and star-forming isolated ellipticals in more detail, through photometric characterization using GALFIT, and infer their star formation history using STARLIGHT. Results: Among the isolated ellipticals ≈20% are blue, ≲8% are star forming, and ≈10% are recently quenched, while among the Coma ellipticals ≈8% are blue and just ≲1% are star forming or recently quenched. There are four isolated galaxies (≈4.5%) that are blue and star forming at the same time. These galaxies, with masses between 7 × 109 and 2 × 1010 h-2 M⊙, are also the youngest galaxies with light-weighted stellar ages ≲1 Gyr and exhibit bluer colors toward the galaxy center. Around 30-60% of their present-day luminosity, but only <5% of their present-day mass, is due to star formation in the last 1 Gyr. Conclusions: The processes of morphological transformation and quenching seem to be in general independent of environment since most of elliptical galaxies are "red and dead", although the transition to the red sequence should be faster for isolated ellipticals. In some cases, the isolated environment seems to propitiate the rejuvenation of ellipticals by recent (<1 Gyr) cold gas accretion.
Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omer, Harun
2016-09-01
I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.
Subsuns, Bottlinger's rings, and elliptical halos.
Lynch, D K; Gedzelman, S D; Fraser, A B
1994-07-20
Subsuns, Bottlinger's rings, and elliptical halos are simulated by the use of a Monte Carlo model; reflection of sunlight from almost horizontal ice crystals is assumed. Subsuns are circular or elliptical spots seen at the specular reflection point when one flies over cirrus or cirrostratus clouds. Bottlinger's rings are rare, almost elliptical rings centered about the subsun. Elliptical halos are small rings of light centered around the Sun or the Moon that rarely occur with other halo phenomena. Subsuns and Bottlinger's rings can be explained by reflection from a single crystal, whereas elliptical halos require reflection from two separate crystals. All three phenomena are colorless and vertically elongated with an eccentricity that increases with increasing solar zenith angle. For several cases of Bottlinger's rings the simulations are compared with density scans of photographs. Clouds that consist of large swinging or gyrating plates and dendritic crystals, which form near -15 °C, seem the most likely ca didates to produce the rings and elliptical halos. Meteorological evidence is presented that supports these conditions for elliptical halos. Simulations suggest that the most distinct elliptical halos may be produced by hybrid clouds that contain both horizontal and gyrating crystals.
Metallicity and the level of the ultraviolet rising branch in elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faber, S. M.
1986-01-01
This final report concerns a project to study the systematics of the ultraviolet flux level in elliptical galaxies. Prior to the inception of this work, the systematic behavior of the ultraviolet flux level was basically unknown and ultraviolet fluxes were observed to vary greatly from galaxy to galaxy. There was a suggestion, however, that there might be a dependence of ultraviolet flux on galaxy metallicity, but the correlation was based on just six galaxies. IUE spectra of elliptical galaxies have been reanalyzed and placed on a consistent, homogenous flux system. The major conclusion is a confirmation of the original hypothesis: galaxies with stronger Mg2 lines show enhanced ultraviolet flux.
Nonperturbative signatures in pair production for general elliptic polarization fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. L.; Lu, D.; Xie, B. S.; Shen, B. F.; Fu, L. B.; Liu, J.
2015-06-01
The momentum signatures in nonperturbative multiphoton pair production for general elliptic polarization electric fields are investigated by employing the real-time Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism. For a linearly polarized electric field we find that the positions of the nodes in momentum spectra of created pairs depend only on the electric-field frequency. The polarization of external fields could not only change the node structures or even make the nodes disappear but also change the thresholds of pair production. The momentum signatures associated to the node positions in which the even-number photon pair creation process is forbidden could be used to distinguish the orbital angular momentum of created pairs on the momentum spectra. These distinguishable momentum signatures could be relevant for providing the output information of created particles and also the input information of ultrashort laser pulses.
Thermopile detector of light ellipticity
Lu, Feng; Lee, Jongwon; Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Belkin, Mikhail A.
2016-01-01
Polarimetric imaging is widely used in applications from material analysis to biomedical diagnostics, vision and astronomy. The degree of circular polarization, or light ellipticity, is associated with the S3 Stokes parameter which is defined as the difference in the intensities of the left- and right-circularly polarized components of light. Traditional way of determining this parameter relies on using several external optical elements, such as polarizers and wave plates, along with conventional photodetectors, and performing at least two measurements to distinguish left- and right-circularly polarized light components. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a thermopile photodetector element that provides bipolar voltage output directly proportional to the S3 Stokes parameter of the incident light. PMID:27703152
Elliptic functions and maximal unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2015-04-01
Scattering amplitudes at loop level can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent Feynman integrals. The integral coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts which define algebraic varieties. The topology of an algebraic variety characterizes the difficulty of applying maximal cuts. In this work, we analyze a novel class of integrals of which the maximal cuts give rise to an algebraic variety with irrational irreducible components. As a phenomenologically relevant example, we examine the two-loop planar double-box contribution with internal massive lines. We derive unique projectors for all four master integrals in terms of multivariate residues along with Weierstrass' elliptic functions. We also show how to generate the leading-topology part of otherwise infeasible integration-by-parts identities analytically from exact meromorphic differential forms.
Starved elastohydrodynamic lubricated elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.
1980-01-01
A theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in hard and soft elliptical elastohydrodynamic contacts is presented. From the results for both hard and soft EHL contacts a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Furthermore it is found that the film thickness for a starved condition could be written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions. The theoretical findings are compared directly with results obtained experimentally.
Elliptical orbit performance computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myler, T. R.
1981-01-01
A FORTRAN coded computer program which generates and plots elliptical orbit performance capability of space boosters for presentation purposes is described. Orbital performance capability of space boosters is typically presented as payload weight as a function of perigee and apogee altitudes. The parameters are derived from a parametric computer simulation of the booster flight which yields the payload weight as a function of velocity and altitude at insertion. The process of converting from velocity and altitude to apogee and perigee altitude and plotting the results as a function of payload weight is mechanized with the ELOPE program. The program theory, user instruction, input/output definitions, subroutine descriptions and detailed FORTRAN coding information are included.
Thermopile detector of light ellipticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Feng; Lee, Jongwon; Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Belkin, Mikhail A.
2016-10-01
Polarimetric imaging is widely used in applications from material analysis to biomedical diagnostics, vision and astronomy. The degree of circular polarization, or light ellipticity, is associated with the S3 Stokes parameter which is defined as the difference in the intensities of the left- and right-circularly polarized components of light. Traditional way of determining this parameter relies on using several external optical elements, such as polarizers and wave plates, along with conventional photodetectors, and performing at least two measurements to distinguish left- and right-circularly polarized light components. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a thermopile photodetector element that provides bipolar voltage output directly proportional to the S3 Stokes parameter of the incident light.
An experimental analysis of elliptical adhesive contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sümer, Bilsay; Onal, Cagdas D.; Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin
2010-06-01
The elliptical adhesive contact is studied experimentally utilizing two hemicylinders of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Experimental results are compared with the recent approximate Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory for elliptical contacts, and the deviation of the experiments from this theory is discussed in detail. To do this, the cylinders are placed with different skew angles with respect to each other in order to emulate the effect of orientation. The maximum adhesion force and the size of the contact zone are determined experimentally under the action of surface energy. The difference of the maximum adhesion force between experiments and theory is found to increase as the contact area goes from mildly elliptical to slim elliptical contact. Similarly, it is observed that the contact area can be approximated to have elliptical geometry for a wide range of skew angles while a deviation is observed for slim elliptical contacts. Moreover, the reduction in the contact area is observed to be nonself-similar during detachment from an elliptical shape to a circular one.
Elliptic Functions with Disconnected Julia Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koss, Lorelei
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate elliptic functions of the form fΛ = 1/(1 + (℘Λ)2), where ℘Λ is the Weierstrass elliptic function on a real rhombic lattice. We show that a typical function in this family has a superattracting fixed point at the origin and five other equivalence classes of critical points. We investigate conditions on the lattice which guarantee that fΛ has a double toral band, and we show that this family contains the first known examples of elliptic functions for which the Julia set is disconnected but not Cantor.
Microwave gas breakdown in elliptical waveguides
Koufogiannis, I. D.; Sorolla, E. Mattes, M.
2014-01-15
This paper analyzes the microwave gas discharge within elliptical waveguides excited by the fundamental mode. The Rayleigh-Ritz method has been applied to solve the continuity equation. The eigenvalue problem defined by the breakdown condition has been solved and the effective diffusion length of the elliptical waveguide has been calculated, what is used to find the corona threshold. This paper extends the microwave breakdown model developed for circular waveguides and shows the better corona withstanding capabilities of elliptical waveguides. The corona breakdown electric field threshold obtained with the variational method has been compared with the one calculated with the Finite Elements Method, showing excellent agreement.
Elliptic and parabolic equations for measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogachev, Vladimir I.; Krylov, Nikolai V.; Röckner, Michael
2009-12-01
This article gives a detailed account of recent investigations of weak elliptic and parabolic equations for measures with unbounded and possibly singular coefficients. The existence and differentiability of densities are studied, and lower and upper bounds for them are discussed. Semigroups associated with second-order elliptic operators acting in L^p-spaces with respect to infinitesimally invariant measures are investigated. Bibliography: 181 titles.
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.
1981-01-01
The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.
Generation of Higher Flow Harmonics in Pb+Pb Collisions at LHC in HYDJET++ model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brusheim Johansson, B. H.
2016-01-01
The observed particle distributions in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC are under investigation. Monte Carlo simulations of the azimuthal anisotropy i.e. flow, and transverse momentum spectra provide insights in hadron genesis and in medio scattering. Simulations are made using the HYDJET++ model, which is based on parameterization of soft processes and generation of hard physics. The second and third event planes are implemented, thus generating the second and third order flows which are believed to provide the largest part of the observed azimuthal distribution. The elliptic and triangular flows are simulated in good agreement with experimental data for (pT < 3.5) GeV/c and centralities 0 — 50%, along with the associated transverse momentum spectra, which also displays a high degree of precision. Also, flow projections are investigated, which further differentiates the observables. These simulations can be further elaborated upon, thus investigating multiparticle and multiplane (nonlinear) correlations.
Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.
2012-06-15
The equations for the continuous spectra derived in our paper [V. P. Lakhin and V. I. Ilgisonis, Phys. Plasmas 18, 092103 (2011)] can be reduced to the matrix form used by Goedbloed et al.[Phys. Plasmas 11, 28 (2004)]. It is shown that the assumptions made in our paper provide the elliptic flow regime and guarantee the existence of plasma equilibrium with nested magnetic surfaces of circular cross-section. The new results on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities of such tokamak equilibria obtained in our paper but absent in the paper by Goedbloed et al. are emphasized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, R. L.
1977-01-01
Slender body methods were applied to some specialized problems associated with missile configurations with elliptic cross sections. Expressions are derived for computing the velocity distribution on the nose section when the ellipse eccentricity is varying longitudinally on the missile. The cross flow velocity on a triform fin section is also studied.
Two high-velocity encounters of elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balcells, Marc; Borne, Kirk D.; Hoessel, John G.
1989-01-01
This paper describes results obtained on a simulation of two high-velocity encounters of NGC 4782/4783 and NGC 2672/2673 binary elliptical galaxies which differ substantially in mass ratio (about 1 for the first pair, and about 10 for the second). CCD images and velocities obtained from digital spectra were used to constrain simulations of the galaxy collisions. The binary orbital elements, the orientation of the orbit in the sky, the time since pericenter, and the dynamical mass of the pair were derived. Results suggested that the dumb-bell galaxy NGC 4782/4783 is not a supermassive galaxy, as was claimed earlier on the basis of the high relative velocity and high central dispersion, but has a moderate mass to luminosity ratio M/L(B) of about 10. It was concluded that its trajectory changed from hyperbolic to elliptical as a result of energy lost during the collision. It was found that the NGC 2672/2673 also has a moderate M/L(B) of about 7.
Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.
2001-12-01
We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.
Vortex dynamics in thin elliptic ferromagnetic nanodisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wysin, G. M.
2015-10-01
Vortex gyrotropic motion in thin ferromagnetic nanodisks of elliptical shape is described here for a pure vortex state and for a situation with thermal fluctuations. The system is analyzed using numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations, including the demagnetization field calculated with a Green's function approach for thin film problems. At finite temperature the thermalized dynamics is found using a second order Heun algorithm for a magnetic Langevin equation based on the LLG equations. The vortex state is stable only within a limited range of ellipticity, outside of which a quasi-single-domain becomes the preferred minimum energy state. A vortex is found to move in an elliptical potential, whose force constants along the principal axes are determined numerically. The eccentricity of vortex motion is directly related to the force constants. Elliptical vortex motion is produced spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. The vortex position and velocity distributions in thermal equilibrium are Boltzmann distributions. The results show that vortex motion in elliptical disks can be described by a Thiele equation.
Pressure spectra and cross spectra at an area contraction in a ducted combustion system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, J. H.; Raftopoulos, D. D.
1980-01-01
Pressure spectra and cross-spectra at an area contraction in a liquid fuel, ducted, combustion noise test facility are analyzed. Measurements made over a range of air and fuel flows are discussed. Measured spectra are compared with spectra calculated using a simple analytical model.
Bridgeman, Devon; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica
2016-01-01
The development and performance characterization of a new differential pressure-based flow meter for human breath measurements is presented in this article. The device, called a “Confined Pitot Tube,” is comprised of a pipe with an elliptically shaped expansion cavity located in the pipe center, and an elliptical disk inside the expansion cavity. The elliptical disk, named Pitot Tube, is exchangeable, and has different diameters, which are smaller than the diameter of the elliptical cavity. The gap between the disk and the cavity allows the flow of human breath to pass through. The disk causes an obstruction in the flow inside the pipe, but the elliptical cavity provides an expansion for the flow to circulate around the disk, decreasing the overall flow resistance. We characterize the new sensor flow experimentally and theoretically, using Comsol Multiphysics® software with laminar and turbulent models. We also validate the sensor, using inhalation and exhalation tests and a reference method.
Magnetic flux studies in horizontally cooled elliptical superconducting cavities
Martinello, M. Checchin, M.; Grassellino, A. Crawford, A. C.; Melnychuk, O.; Romanenko, A.; Sergatskov, D. A.
2015-07-28
Previous studies on magnetic flux expulsion as a function of cooldown procedures for elliptical superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities showed that when the cavity beam axis is placed parallel to the helium cooling flow and sufficiently large thermal gradients are achieved, all magnetic flux could be expelled and very low residual resistance could be achieved. In this paper, we investigate flux trapping for the case of resonators positioned perpendicularly to the helium cooling flow, which is more representative of how SRF cavities are cooled in accelerators and for different directions of the applied magnetic field surrounding the resonator. We show that different field components have a different impact on the surface resistance, and several parameters have to be considered to fully understand the flux dynamics. A newly discovered phenomenon of concentration of flux lines at the cavity top leading to temperature rise at the cavity equator is presented.
The Advanced Light Source elliptically polarizing undulator
Marks, S.; Cortopassi, C.; DeVries, J.
1997-05-01
An elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been designed and is currently under construction. The magnetic design is a moveable quadrant pure permanent magnet structure featuring adjustable magnets to correct phase errors and on-axis field integrals. The device is designed with a 5.0 cm period and will produce variably polarized light of any ellipticity, including pure circular and linear. The spectral range at 1.9 GeV for typical elliptical polarization with a degree of circular polarization greater than 0.8 will be from 100 eV to 1,500 eV, using the first, third, and fifth harmonics. The device will be switchable between left and right circular modes at a frequency of up to 0.1 Hz. The 1.95 m long overall length will allow two such devices in a single ALS straight sector.
Spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Iida, Keita; Nagayama, Masaharu
2013-01-01
The coupling between deformation and motion in a self-propelled system has attracted broader interest. In the present study, we consider an elliptic camphor particle for investigating the effect of particle shape on spontaneous motion. It is concluded that the symmetric spatial distribution of camphor molecules at the water surface becomes unstable first in the direction of a short axis, which induces the camphor disk motion in this direction. Experimental results also support the theoretical analysis. From the present results, we suggest that when an elliptic particle supplies surface-active molecules to the water surface, the particle can exhibit translational motion only in the short-axis direction.
Elliptic pfaffians and solvable lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosengren, Hjalmar
2016-08-01
We introduce and study twelve multivariable theta functions defined by pfaffians with elliptic function entries. We show that, when the crossing parameter is a cubic root of unity, the domain wall partition function for the eight-vertex-solid-on-solid model can be written as a sum of two of these pfaffians. As a limit case, we express the domain wall partition function for the three-colour model as a sum of two Hankel determinants. We also show that certain solutions of the TQ-equation for the supersymmetric eight-vertex model can be expressed in terms of elliptic pfaffians.
How Does Abundance Affect the Strength of UV Emission in Elliptical Galaxies?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Brown, Thomas
2005-01-01
This program used the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to observe elliptical galaxies with the intention of measuring the chemical abundances in their hot stellar populations. It was designed to complement an earlier FUSE program that observed elliptical galaxies with strong UV emission. The current program originally planned observations of two ellipticals with weak UV emission (M32 and M49). Once FUSE encountered pointing control problems in certain regions of the sky (particularly Virgo, which is very unfortunate for the study of ellipticals in general), M49 was replaced with the bulge of M31, which has a similar UV-to-optical flux ratio as the center of M49. As the closest elliptical galaxy and the one with the weakest UV-to-optical flux ratio, M32 was an obvious choice of target, but M49 was the ideal complementary target, because it has a very low reddening (unlike M32). With the inability of FUSE to point at Virgo, nearly all of the best elliptical galaxies (bright galaxies with low foreground extinction) were also lost, and this severely hampered three FUSE programs of the PI, all focused on the hot stellar populations of ellipticals. M31 was the best replacement for M49, but like M32, it suffers from significant foreground reddening. Strong Galactic ISM lines heavily contaminate the FUSE spectra of M31 and M32. These ISM lines are coincident with the photospheric lines from the stellar populations (whereas M49, with little foreground ISM and significant redshift, would not have suffered from this problem). We have reduced the faint (and thus difficult) data for M31 and M32, producing final co-added spectra representing all of the exposures, but we have not yet finished our analysis, due to the complication of the contaminating ISM. The silver lining here is the set of CHI lines at 1175 Angstroms, which are not significantly contaminated by the ISM. A comparison of the M31 spectrum with other galaxies observed by FEE showed a surprising result
Data processing of absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z
Hall, I. M.; Durmaz, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.
2010-10-15
We discuss the processing of x-ray absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z. The data was recorded with an imaging spectrometer equipped with two elliptically bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals. Both time-integrated and time-resolved data were recorded. In both cases, the goal is to obtain the transmission spectra for quantitative analysis of plasma conditions.
Nomenclature of polarized light - Elliptical polarization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, D.
1974-01-01
Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of elliptical polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.
2016-04-01
This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.
Burau, G.; Bleibel, J.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, Amand; Bravina, L.V.; Zabrodin, E.E.
2005-05-01
The pseudorapidity behavior of the azimuthal anisotropy parameters v{sub 1} and v{sub 2} of inclusive charged (h{sup {+-}}) hadrons and their dependence on centrality has been studied in Au+Au collisions at full relativistic-heavy-ion-collider energy of {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV within the microscopic quark-gluon string model (QGSM). The QGSM simulation results for the directed flow v{sub 1} show antiflow alignment within the pseudorapidity range |{eta}|{<=}2 in fair agreement with the experimental v{sub 1}({eta}) data, but it cannot reproduce the further development of the antiflow up to |{eta}|{approx_equal}3.5. The {eta} dependence of the elliptic flow v{sub 2} extracted from the simulations agrees well with the experimental data in the whole pseudorapidity range for different centrality classes. The centrality dependence of the integrated elliptic flow of charged hadrons in the QGSM almost coincides with the PHOBOS experimental distribution. The transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow of identified ({pi}{sup {+-}},K{sup {+-}},p,p) and inclusive charged hadrons is studied also. The model reproduces quantitatively the low-p{sub T} part of the distributions rather well, but it underestimates the measured elliptic flow for transverse momenta p{sub T}>1 GeV/c. Qualitatively, however, the model can reproduce the saturation of the v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) spectra with rising p{sub T} as well as the crossing of the elliptic flow for mesons and baryons.
Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom
2015-02-01
Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor
Modelling elliptically polarised free electron lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, J. R.; Campbell, L. T.; Freund, H. P.; McNeil, B. W. J.
2016-06-01
A model of a free electron laser (FEL) operating with an elliptically polarised undulator is presented. The equations describing the FEL interaction, including resonant harmonic radiation fields, are averaged over an undulator period and generate a generalised Bessel function scaling factor, similar to that of planar undulator FEL theory. Comparison between simulations of the averaged model with those of an unaveraged model show very good agreement in the linear regime. Two unexpected results were found. Firstly, an increased coupling to harmonics for elliptical rather than planar polarisarised undulators. Secondly, and thought to be unrelated to the undulator polarisation, a significantly different evolution between the averaged and unaveraged simulations of the harmonic radiation evolution approaching FEL saturation.
The Stellar Halos of Massive Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.
2012-05-01
We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' × 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of ~20-70 pixel-1 in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions σ* > 150 km s-1, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by ~50%, and only a weak correlation between σ* and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are ~ an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 Re , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high α-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.
Generalized Harnack Inequality for Nonhomogeneous Elliptic Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julin, Vesa
2015-05-01
This paper is concerned with nonlinear elliptic equations in nondivergence form where F has a drift term which is not Lipschitz continuous. Under this condition the equations are nonhomogeneous and nonnegative solutions do not satisfy the classical Harnack inequality. This paper presents a new generalization of the Harnack inequality for such equations. As a corollary we obtain the optimal Harnack type of inequality for p( x)-harmonic functions which quantifies the strong minimum principle.
Wiener criterion for X-elliptic operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tralli, Giulio; Uguzzoni, Francesco
2015-12-01
In this note we prove a Wiener criterion of regularity of boundary points for the Dirichlet problem related to X-elliptic operators in divergence form enjoying the doubling condition and the Poincaré inequality. As a step towards this result, we exhibit some other characterizations of regularity in terms of the capacitary potentials. Finally, we also show that a cone-type criterion holds true in our setting.
MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.
Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-12-15
Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the
A Jacobian elliptic single-field inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villanueva, J. R.; Gallo, Emanuel
2015-06-01
In the scenario of single-field inflation, this field is described in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions. This approach provides, when constrained to particular cases, analytic solutions already known in the past, generalizing them to a bigger family of analytical solutions. The emergent cosmology is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi approach and then the main results are contrasted with the recent measurements obtained from the Planck 2015 data.
MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems
Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-01
Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm
Spectral methods for exterior elliptic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, C.; Hariharan, S. I.; Lustman, L.
1984-01-01
Spectral approximations for exterior elliptic problems in two dimensions are discussed. As in the conventional finite difference or finite element methods, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is limited by the order of the numerical farfield conditions. A spectral boundary treatment is introduced at infinity which is compatible with the infinite order interior spectral scheme. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy attainable. Although a simple Laplace problem is examined, the analysis covers more complex and general cases.
Fully flooded elastohydrodynamic lubricated elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.
1980-01-01
Emphasis is on fully flooded, elastohydrodynamic lubricated, elliptical contacts. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. A brief description of the relevant equations used in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts is given. The most important practical aspect of the elastohydrodynamic theory is the determination of the minimum film thickness within the contact. The maintenance of a fluid film of adequate magnitude is an essential feature of the correct operation of lubricated machine elements. The results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. Film thickness equations are developed for materials of high elastic modulus, such as metal, and for materials of low elastic modulus, such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, plots of pressure and film thickness are presented. These theoretical solutions for film thickness have all the essential features of previously reported experimental observations based on optical interferometry. Correlation between theory and experiments is also presented.
The elliptic model for communication fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera-Yagüe, C.; Schneider, C. M.; Smoreda, Z.; Couronné, T.; Zufiria, P. J.; González, M. C.
2014-04-01
In this paper, a model (called the elliptic model) is proposed to estimate the number of social ties between two locations using population data in a similar manner to how transportation research deals with trips. To overcome the asymmetry of transportation models, the new model considers that the number of relationships between two locations is inversely proportional to the population in the ellipse whose foci are in these two locations. The elliptic model is evaluated by considering the anonymous communications patterns of 25 million users from three different countries, where a location has been assigned to each user based on their most used phone tower or billing zip code. With this information, spatial social networks are built at three levels of resolution: tower, city and region for each of the three countries. The elliptic model achieves a similar performance when predicting communication fluxes as transportation models do when predicting trips. This shows that human relationships are influenced at least as much by geography as is human mobility.
The Abundance Ratio Pattern in Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worthey, Guy
1995-12-01
Non-solar abundance ratios in elliptical galaxies are readily detectable in a qualitative sense. The elements Mg, Na, and N appear overabundant compared to Ca and Fe. There is a probable variation of (Sc + V)/Ti. Abundance ratio effects are the single most serious barrier to the estimation of mean stellar ages: even more serious than the 35% model-to-model uncertainty. Isochrone grids allowing for the variation of many individual elements (He, O, C, and N at least, in addition to overall Z and alpha elements) are needed to quantitatively estimate the overabundances and mean ages of ellipticals. The tolerances for relative shifts in isochrone temperatures are tight: about 7 K if we hope for 5% accurate ages. The abundance pattern in elliptical galaxies matches neither the disk, nor the halo, nor the bulge our own Galaxy, although the bulge appears to provide the best match. This research was funded by NASA through grant HF-1066.01-94A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids
Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.
1999-06-03
We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.
Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper
2016-04-01
We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across the tunnel barrier separating the two superconducting electrodes. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the fluxon dynamics in an elliptic annulus does not differ from that of a circular annulus where the stationary fluxon speed merely is determined by the system losses. The interaction between the vortex magnetic moment and a spatially homogeneous in-plane magnetic field gives rise to a tunable periodic non-sinusoidal potential which is strongly dependent on the annulus aspect ratio. We study the escape of the vortex from a well in the tilted potential when the bias current exceeds the depinning current. The smallest depinning current as well as the lowest sensitivity of the annulus to the external field is achieved when the axes ratio is equal to √{2}. The presented extensive numerical results are in good agreement with the findings of the perturbative approach. We also probe the rectifying properties of an asymmetric potential implemented with an egg-shaped annulus formed by two semi-elliptic arcs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
portion is defined by the day/night boundary (known as the terminator).
These two images illustrate only a small fraction of the information contained in a single LEISA scan, highlighting just one aspect of the power of infrared spectra for atmospheric studies.
Modeling near wall effects in second moment closures by elliptic relaxation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laurence, D.; Durbin, P.
1994-01-01
The elliptic relaxation model of Durbin (1993) for modeling near-wall turbulence using second moment closures (SMC) is compared to DNS data for a channel flow at Re(sub t) = 395. The agreement for second order statistics and even the terms in their balance equation is quite satisfactory, confirming that very little viscous effects (via Kolmogoroff scales) need to be added to the high Reynolds versions of SMC for near-wall-turbulence. The essential near-wall feature is thus the kinematic blocking effect that a solid wall exerts on the turbulence through the fluctuating pressure, which is best modeled by an elliptic operator. Above the transition layer, the effect of the original elliptic operator decays rapidly, and it is suggested that the log-layer is better reproduced by adding a non-homogeneous reduction of the return to isotropy, the gradient of the turbulent length scale being used as a measure of the inhomogeneity of the log-layer. The elliptic operator was quite easily applied to the non-linear Craft & Launder pressure-strain model yielding an improved distinction between the spanwise and wall normal stresses, although at higher Reynolds number (Re) and away from the wall, the streamwise component is severely underpredicted, as well as the transition in the mean velocity from the log to the wake profiles. In this area a significant change of behavior was observed in the DNS pressure-strain term, entirely ignored in the models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-Salazar, C.; Hernández-Flores, O. A.
2016-02-01
The conventional elliptic critical-state models (ECSM) establish that the electric field vector is zero when it flows a critical current density in a type-II superconductor. This proposal incorporates a finite electric field on the ECSM to study samples with anisotropic-current-carrying capacity. Our theoretical scheme has the advantage of being able to dispense of a material law which drives the electric field magnitude, however, it does not consider the magnetic history of the superconductor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherstobitov, M. V.; Tsvyk, R. Sh.
2013-06-01
Results of experimental investigations of liquid fuel combustion in the regime of a twisted jet (model of a fire tornado) are presented. Flame radiation spectra were registered. In the chosen spectral range of registration (2.2-4.8 μm), six spectral intervals were clearly traced in which the main portion of radiated energy was concentrated. Using the ratio of the sums of spectral intensities in the vicinities of the 6th and 3rd maxima, we successfully distinguished the regimes of modeled fire tornado and free diffusion fuel combustion.
Bernety, Hossein M; Yakovlev, Alexander B
2015-05-13
In this paper, we present a novel analytical approach for cloaking of dielectric and metallic elliptical cylinders with a graphene monolayer and a nanostructured graphene metasurface at low-terahertz frequencies. The analytical approach is based on the solution of the electromagnetic scattering problem in terms of elliptical waves represented by the radial and angular even and odd Mathieu functions, with the use of sheet impedance boundary conditions at the metasurface. It is shown that scattering cancellation occurs for all incident and observation angles. A special case concerns cloaking of a 2D metallic strip represented by a degenerated ellipse, wherein the focal points of the cloak metasurface correspond to the edges of the strip. The analytical approach has been extended in order to cloak a cluster of elliptical objects for different cases of closely spaced, merging, and overlapping configurations. The results obtained by our analytical approach are validated with full-wave numerical simulations. PMID:25894518
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernety, Hossein M.; Yakovlev, Alexander B.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel analytical approach for cloaking of dielectric and metallic elliptical cylinders with a graphene monolayer and a nanostructured graphene metasurface at low-terahertz frequencies. The analytical approach is based on the solution of the electromagnetic scattering problem in terms of elliptical waves represented by the radial and angular even and odd Mathieu functions, with the use of sheet impedance boundary conditions at the metasurface. It is shown that scattering cancellation occurs for all incident and observation angles. A special case concerns cloaking of a 2D metallic strip represented by a degenerated ellipse, wherein the focal points of the cloak metasurface correspond to the edges of the strip. The analytical approach has been extended in order to cloak a cluster of elliptical objects for different cases of closely spaced, merging, and overlapping configurations. The results obtained by our analytical approach are validated with full-wave numerical simulations.
X-RAY ISOPHOTES IN A RAPIDLY ROTATING ELLIPTICAL GALAXY: EVIDENCE OF INFLOWING GAS
Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.
2009-11-10
We describe two-dimensional gasdynamical computations of the X-ray emitting gas in the rotating elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 that indicate an inflow of approx1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} at every radius. Such a large instantaneous inflow cannot have persisted over a Hubble time. The central constant-entropy temperature peak recently observed in the innermost 150 pc is explained by compressive heating as gas flows toward the central massive black hole. Since the cooling time of this gas is only a few million years, NGC 4649 provides the most acutely concentrated known example of the cooling flow problem in which the time-integrated apparent mass that has flowed into the galactic core exceeds the total mass observed there. This paradox can be resolved by intermittent outflows of energy or mass driven by accretion energy released near the black hole. Inflowing gas is also required at intermediate kpc radii to explain the ellipticity of X-ray isophotes due to spin-up by mass ejected by stars that rotate with the galaxy and to explain local density and temperature profiles. We provide evidence that many luminous elliptical galaxies undergo similar inflow spin-up. A small turbulent viscosity is required in NGC 4649 to avoid forming large X-ray luminous disks that are not observed, but the turbulent pressure is small and does not interfere with mass determinations that assume hydrostatic equilibrium.
Numerical calculations of flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, D. M.; Vogel, J. M.
1972-01-01
The solutions to the equations of motion for inviscid fluid flow around a pointed elliptic cone at incidence are presented. The numerical method used, MacCormack's second order preferential predictor-corrector finite difference approximation, is applied to the fluid flow equations derived in conservation-law form. The entropy boundary condition, hitherto unused for elliptic cone problems, is investigated and compared to reflection boundary condition solutions. The stagnation streamline movement of the inclined elliptic cone is noted and surface pressure coefficients are plotted. Also presented are solutions for an elliptic cone and a circular cone at zero incidence and a circular cone at a small angle of attack. Comparisons are made between these present solutions and previously published theory.
Elliptical X-ray analyzer spectrograph application to a laser-produced plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Tina J.; Palmer, Merrill A.; Henke, Burton L.
1985-08-01
A preliminary experimental study was conducted on the application of an elliptical analyzer spectrograph to X-ray diagnostics of pulsed plasmas. This spectrograph was designed to record a range of 100-2000 eV X-rays on calibrated Kodak RAR-21497 film. Using point calibrations and theoretical models, the spectrograph efficiency was predicted. Basic spectrograph geometry and photographic calibrations are presented in companion papers. A 20 J, 6 ns duration Nd:glass laser pulse was focussed upon planar targets of gold, aluminum, teflon and boron carbide. Sample spectra for line and X-ray yields analysis are presented.
Elliptic multiple zeta values and one-loop superstring amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broedel, Johannes; Mafra, Carlos R.; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver
2015-07-01
We investigate iterated integrals on an elliptic curve, which are a natural genus-one generalization of multiple polylogarithms. These iterated integrals coincide with the multiple elliptic polylogarithms introduced by Brown and Levin when constrained to the real line. At unit argument they reduce to an elliptic analogue of multiple zeta values, whose network of relations we start to explore. A simple and natural application of this framework are one-loop scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory. In particular, elliptic multiple zeta values are a suitable language to express their low energy limit. Similar to the techniques available at tree-level, our formalism allows to completely automatize the calculation.
Classification of isomonodromy problems on elliptic curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, A. M.; Olshanetsky, M. A.; Zotov, A. V.
2014-02-01
This paper describes isomonodromy problems in terms of flat G-bundles over punctured elliptic curves \\Sigma_\\tau and connections with regular singularities at marked points. The bundles are classified by their characteristic classes, which are elements of the second cohomology group H^2(\\Sigma_\\tau,{\\mathscr Z}(G)), where {\\mathscr Z}(G) is the centre of G. For any complex simple Lie group G and any characteristic class the moduli space of flat connections is defined, and for them the monodromy-preserving deformation equations are given in Hamiltonian form together with the corresponding Lax representation. In particular, they include the Painlevé VI equation, its multicomponent generalizations, and the elliptic Schlesinger equations. The general construction is described for punctured complex curves of arbitrary genus. The Drinfeld-Simpson (double coset) description of the moduli space of Higgs bundles is generalized to the case of the space of flat connections. This local description makes it possible to establish the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence for a wide class of monodromy-preserving problems classified by the characteristic classes of the underlying bundles. In particular, the Painlevé VI equation can be described in terms of \\operatorname{SL}(2,{ C})-bundles. Since {\\mathscr Z}(\\operatorname{SL}(2,{ C}))={ Z}_2, the Painlevé VI equation has two representations related by the Hecke transformation: 1) as the well-known elliptic form of the Painlevé VI equation (for trivial bundles); 2) as the non-autonomous Zhukovsky-Volterra gyrostat (for non-trivial bundles). Bibliography: 123 titles.
Vibration and buckling of super elliptical plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. M.; Wang, L.; Liew, K. M.
1994-03-01
This paper is concerned with the vibration and buckling of a new class of plates, the periphery shape of which is defined by a super elliptical function. Such a plate shape has practical applications, as the advantageous curved corners help to diffuse stress concentrations. The loading considered for the buckling problem is that of in-plane uniform pressure along the periphery. Accurate frequency and buckling factors are tabulated for such plates with either simply supported or clamped edges. The solutions are obtained using the pb - 2 Rayleigh-Ritz method.
Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathews, William G.
2004-01-01
This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.
Dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prugniel, Philippe; Combes, Francoise
1990-01-01
The authors present numerical experiments on dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies of unequal mass. They confirm that the self-gravity of the response is not important and show the drastic effect of the deformability of the companion which reduces the decay time by more than a factor of 2. Almost the same amount of orbital energy is dissipated within the satellite as within the large galaxy. Finally, the authors discuss the importance of distant encounters for the dynamical evolution of systems of galaxies.
Liouville field, modular forms and elliptic genera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eguchi, Tohru; Sugawara, Yuji; Taormina, Anne
2007-03-01
When we describe non-compact or singular Calabi-Yau manifolds by CFT, continuous as well as discrete representations appear in the theory. These representations mix in an intricate way under the modular transformations. In this article, we propose a method of combining discrete and continuous representations so that the resulting combinations have a simpler modular behavior and can be used as conformal blocks of the theory. We compute elliptic genera of ALE spaces and obtain results which agree with those suggested from the decompactification of K3 surface. Consistency of our approach is assured by some remarkable identity of theta functions whose proof, by D. Zagier, is included in an appendix.
A study of thin liquid sheet flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.
1993-01-01
This study was a theoretical and experimental investigation of thin liquid sheet flows in vacuum. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of width, W, coalesces to a point at a distance, L, as a result of surface tension forces acting at the sheet edges. As the flow coalesces, the fluid accumulates in the sheet edges. The observed triangular shape of the sheet agrees with the calculated triangular result. Experimental results for L/W as a function of Weber number, We, agree with the calculated result, L/W = the sq. root of 8We. The edge cross sectional shape is found to oscillate from elliptic to 'cigar' like to 'peanut' like and then back to elliptic in the flow direction. A theoretical one-dimensional model was developed that yielded only elliptic solutions for the edge cross section. At the points where the elliptic shapes occur, there is agreement between theory and experiment.
Localization of deformation and failure around elliptical perforations based on a polar continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanastasiou, P.
Stability analysis of elliptical shape perforations embedded in a compressive stress field is presented. The study is based on finite element analysis with an advanced material model capable of predicting surface buckling and localization of deformation in shear bands causing failure in a structure. The model is an extended flow theory of plasticity for a Mohr-Coulomb solid with Cosserat micro-structure. The application is related to the stability of perforation tunnels that are used for the flow of hydrocarbon in the wellbores. It is demonstrated that it is essential to carry out advanced localization analysis in order to reach correct results upon which a new perforation shape design can be based. Classical stress analysis predicts that an elliptical hole suffers less stress concentration than a circular hole when its major axis is aligned with the direction of the major principal stress and its axis ratio is the same as the applied stress ratio. However, failure analysis based on localization of deformation show that an elliptical hole will be stronger if its axis ratio is greater than the ratio of the applied stresses. Other practical applications can be found in the design of underground cavities in geotechnical, mining and petroleum engineering.
Aerodynamic Comparison of Hyper-Elliptic Cambered Span (HECS) Wings with Conventional Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lazos, Barry S.; Visser, Kenneth D.
2006-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to examine the aerodynamic and flow field characteristics of hyper-elliptic cambered span (HECS) wings and compare results with more conventional configurations used for induced drag reduction. Previous preliminary studies, indicating improved L/D characteristics when compared to an elliptical planform prompted this more detailed experimental investigation. Balance data were acquired on a series of swept and un-swept HECS wings, a baseline elliptic planform, two winglet designs and a raked tip configuration. Seven-hole probe wake surveys were also conducted downstream of a number of the configurations. Wind tunnel results indicated aerodynamic performance levels of all but one of the HECS wings exceeded that of the other configurations. The flow field data surveys indicate the HECS configurations displaced the tip vortex farther outboard of the wing than the Baseline configuration. Minimum drag was observed on the raked tip configuration and it was noted that the winglet wake lacked the cohesive vortex structure present in the wakes of the other configurations.
Bäcklund transformations for the elliptic Gaudin model and a Clebsch system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zullo, Federico
2011-07-01
A two-parameters family of Bäcklund transformations for the classical elliptic Gaudin model is constructed. The maps are explicit, symplectic, preserve the same integrals as for the continuous flows, and are a time discretization of each of these flows. The transformations can map real variables into real variables, sending physical solutions of the equations of motion into physical solutions. The starting point of the analysis is the integrability structure of the model. It is shown how the analogue transformations for the rational and trigonometric Gaudin model are a limiting case of this one. An application to a particular case of the Clebsch system is given.
Linear instability in the wake of an elliptic wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Wei; Tendero, Juan Ángel; Paredes, Pedro; Theofilis, Vassilis
2016-07-01
Linear global instability analysis has been performed in the wake of a low aspect ratio three-dimensional wing of elliptic cross section, constructed with appropriately scaled Eppler E387 airfoils. The flow field over the airfoil and in its wake has been computed by full three-dimensional direct numerical simulation at a chord Reynolds number of Rec=1750 and two angles of attack, {AoA}=0° and 5°. Point-vortex methods have been employed to predict the inviscid counterpart of this flow. The spatial BiGlobal eigenvalue problem governing linear small-amplitude perturbations superposed upon the viscous three-dimensional wake has been solved at several axial locations, and results were used to initialize linear PSE-3D analyses without any simplifying assumptions regarding the form of the trailing vortex system, other than weak dependence of all flow quantities on the axial spatial direction. Two classes of linearly unstable perturbations were identified, namely stronger-amplified symmetric modes and weaker-amplified antisymmetric disturbances, both peaking at the vortex sheet which connects the trailing vortices. The amplitude functions of both classes of modes were documented, and their characteristics were compared with those delivered by local linear stability analysis in the wake near the symmetry plane and in the vicinity of the vortex core. While all linear instability analysis approaches employed have delivered qualitatively consistent predictions, only PSE-3D is free from assumptions regarding the underlying base flow and should thus be employed to obtain quantitative information on amplification rates and amplitude functions in this class of configurations.
Thermodynamics of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klabbers, Rob
2016-06-01
We study the thermodynamic behaviour of Inozemtsev's long-range elliptic spin chain using the Bethe ansatz equations describing the spectrum of the model in the infinite-length limit. We classify all solutions of these equations in that limit and argue which of these solutions determine the spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, some of the solutions are not selfconjugate, which puts the model in sharp contrast to one of the model's limiting cases, the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. Invoking the string hypothesis we derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations (TBA-equations) from which we determine the Helmholtz free energy in thermodynamic equilibrium and derive the associated Y-system. We corroborate our results by comparing numerical solutions of the TBA-equations to a direct computation of the free energy for the finite-length hamiltonian. In addition we confirm numerically the interesting conjecture put forward by Finkel and González-López that the original and supersymmetric versions of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit.
Anisotropic elliptic PDEs for feature classification.
Wang, Shengfa; Hou, Tingbo; Li, Shuai; Su, Zhixun; Qin, Hong
2013-10-01
The extraction and classification of multitype (point, curve, patch) features on manifolds are extremely challenging, due to the lack of rigorous definition for diverse feature forms. This paper seeks a novel solution of multitype features in a mathematically rigorous way and proposes an efficient method for feature classification on manifolds. We tackle this challenge by exploring a quasi-harmonic field (QHF) generated by elliptic PDEs, which is the stable state of heat diffusion governed by anisotropic diffusion tensor. Diffusion tensor locally encodes shape geometry and controls velocity and direction of the diffusion process. The global QHF weaves points into smooth regions separated by ridges and has superior performance in combating noise/holes. Our method's originality is highlighted by the integration of locally defined diffusion tensor and globally defined elliptic PDEs in an anisotropic manner. At the computational front, the heat diffusion PDE becomes a linear system with Dirichlet condition at heat sources (called seeds). Our new algorithms afford automatic seed selection, enhanced by a fast update procedure in a high-dimensional space. By employing diffusion probability, our method can handle both manufactured parts and organic objects. Various experiments demonstrate the flexibility and high performance of our method. PMID:23929843
Elliptical Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura
2007-01-01
Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "elliptical orbit" [arrow right]…
Effect of the earth's ellipticity on the lunar tidal potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlen, F. A.
1993-01-01
The earth's orbital acceleration about the moon is influenced by its ellipticity. In this paper it shown that the ellipticity affects tidal gravity by contributing directly to the lunar tide-generating potential (in addition to effecting the elastic-gravitational response of the solid earth and oceans to this potential).
The Stability of Orthotropic Elliptic Cylinders in Pure Bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heck, O S
1937-01-01
The theoretical critical bending stress of elliptic cylindrical shells is determined on the assumption of infinite shell length and absence of local instability phenomena. The results of the tests on isotropic elliptic cylindrical shells stressed in bending are compared with the theoretical results. The practical applicability of the theory is discussed.
Stability of simply supported and clamped elliptical plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, A. V.; Rao, B. N.; Prasad, K. L.
1992-12-01
Formulas are developed for estimating the elastic stability of an elliptical plate under compressive forces uniformly distributed around the edge of the plate. Then, a Cartesian coordinate system is used to perform the stability analysis of simply supported and clamped elliptical plates by following the Rayleigh-Ritz technique with a three-term deflection function.
Hydrodynamic flow in heavy-ion collisions with large hadronic viscosity
Shen Chun; Heinz, Ulrich
2011-04-15
Using the (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code vish2+1 with a temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity ({eta}/s)(T), we present a detailed study of the influence of a large hadronic shear viscosity and its corresponding relaxation time {tau}{sub {pi}} on the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of hadrons produced in 200A GeV Au+Au collisions. Although theory, in principle, predicts a well-defined relation {tau}{sub {pi}T}={kappa}(T)x({eta}/s)(T), the precise form of {kappa}(T) for the matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is not known. For the popular choice {kappa}=3 the hadron spectra are found to be insensitive to a significant rise of {eta}/s in the hadronic stage, whereas their differential elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) is strongly suppressed by large hadronic viscosity. The large viscous effects on v{sub 2} are strongly reduced if (as theoretically expected) {kappa}(T) is allowed to grow with decreasing temperature in the hadronic stage. This implies that, until reliable calculations of {kappa}(T) become available, an extraction of the hadronic shear viscosity from a comparison between vish2+1 and a microscopic hadron cascade or experimental data requires a simultaneous fit of ({eta}/s)(T) and {kappa}(T).
Far-infrared mapping of dusty elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lees, Joanna F.; Harper, D. A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Knapp, G. R.
1994-01-01
Preliminary results from a program to map the thermal far-infrared emission from cool dust in elliptical galaxies using the Yerkes 60-Channel Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) are presented. The 160 micron emission from the elliptical NGC 6542 is apparently extended over the optical galaxy whereas the 100 micron emission is unresolved. This implies a dust temperature gradient consistent with that expected for dust with Galactic properties exposed to the general interstellar radiation field of the elliptical galaxy. Observations of the elliptical NGC 5666 and the NGC 7463/4/5 compact group (consisting of the elliptical NGC 7464, the S0 NGC 7465, and the spiral NGC 7463) are also discussed.
Busuladzic, M.; Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.
2009-07-15
We investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of diatomic molecules having different symmetries by an elliptically polarized laser field using the modified molecular strong-field approximation. The yields of high-energy electrons contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra strongly depend on the employed ellipticity. This is more pronounced if the major axis of the polarization ellipse is parallel or perpendicular to the molecular axis and at the end of the high-energy plateau. For the O{sub 2} molecule (characterized by {pi}{sub g} symmetry) the maximum yield is observed for some value of the ellipticity {epsilon} different from zero. On the other hand, in the same circumstances, the N{sub 2} molecule ({sigma}{sub g}) behaves as an atom, i.e., the yield is maximum for {epsilon}=0. These characteristics of the photoelectron spectra remain valid in a wide region of the molecular orientations and laser peak intensities. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra are considered in detail: by changing the molecular orientation one or other type of the symmetry emerges or disappears. Presenting differential ionization spectra in the ionized electron energy-emission angle plane we have observed similar interference effects as in the HATI spectra governed by a linearly polarized field.
Is AGN feedback necessary to form red elliptical galaxies?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalatyan, A.; Cattaneo, A.; Schramm, M.; Gottlöber, S.; Steinmetz, M.; Wisotzki, L.
2008-06-01
We have used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-2 to simulate the formation of an elliptical galaxy in a group-size cosmological dark matter halo with mass Mhalo ~= 3 × 1012h-1Msolar at z = 0. The use of a stellar population synthesis model has allowed us to compute magnitudes, colours and surface brightness profiles. We have included a model to follow the growth of a central black hole and we have compared the results of simulations with and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have studied the interplay between cold gas accretion and merging in the development of galactic morphologies, the link between colour and morphology evolution, the effect of AGN feedback on the photometry of early-type galaxies, the redshift evolution in the properties of quasar hosts, and the impact of AGN winds on the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We have found that the early phases of galaxy formation are driven by the accretion of cold filamentary flows, which form a disc galaxy at the centre of the dark matter halo. Disc star formation rates in this mode of galaxy growth are about as high as the peak star formation rates attained at a later epoch in galaxy mergers. When the dark matter halo is sufficiently massive to support the propagation of a stable shock, the gas in the filaments is heated to the virial temperature, cold accretion is shut down, and the star formation rate begins to decline. Mergers transform the spiral galaxy into an elliptical one, but they also reactivate star formation by bringing gas into the galaxy. Without a mechanism that removes gas from the merger remnants, the galaxy ends up with blue colours, which are atypical for its elliptical morphology. We have demonstrated that AGN feedback can solve this problem even with a fairly low heating efficiency. Our simulations support a picture where AGN feedback is important for quenching star formation in the remnant of wet mergers and for moving them to
Theoretical results for starved elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
Eighteen cases were used in the theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions. From the results a simple and important critical dimensionless inlet boundary distance at which lubricant starvation becomes significant was specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Furthermore, it was found that the film thickness for a starved condition is written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions.
Free vibrations of laminated composite elliptic plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersen, C. M.; Noor, A. K.
1976-01-01
The free vibrations are studied of laminated anisotropic elliptic plates with clamped edges. The analytical formulation is based on a Mindlin-Reissner type plate theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia, and bending-extensional coupling included. The frequencies and mode shapes are obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A computerized symbolic integration approach is used to develop analytic expressions for the stiffness and mass coefficients and is shown to be particularly useful in evaluating the derivatives of the eigenvalues with respect to certain geometric and material parameters. Numerical results are presented for the case of angle-ply composite plates with skew-symmetric lamination.
Mobile communications from highly elliptic orbits - ARCHIMEDES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuart, John
1992-03-01
ARCHIMEDES is an ongoing telecommunications program of the European Space Agency which considers the use of Highly Elliptic Orbits (HEO) to provide land mobile voice communications in Europe. To date feasibility studies have been completed which indicate the technical and economic viability of such a project. By using HEO orbits a line of sight path between the mobile user and satellite can be maintained even at northerly latitudes where signal fade and blockage will disrupt transmissions to and from a geostationary satellite. British Aerospace has led all the key studies to date and has most recently been concerned with the extension of the service from land mobile voice communications to include Satellite Sound Broadcast (SSB). This paper presents the main conclusions of the feasibility studies comparing the performance which could be achieved with a GEO alternative.
Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sentman, D. D.
1987-01-01
Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours.
Nonlinear, dispersive, elliptically polarized Alfven wavaes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.; Hada, T.; Pellat, R.
1988-01-01
The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation is derived by an efficient means that employs Lagrangian variables. An expression for the stationary wave solutions of the DNLS that contains vanishing and nonvanishing and modulated and nonmodulated boundary conditions as subcases is then obtained. The solitary wave solutions for elliptically polarized quasiparallel Alfven waves in the magnetohydrodynamic limit (nonvanishing, unmodulated boundary conditions) are obtained. These converge to the Korteweg-de Vries and the modified Korteweg-de Vries solitons obtained previously for oblique propagation, but are more general. It is shown that there are no envelope solitary waves if the point at infinity is unstable to the modulational instability. The periodic solutions of the DNLS are characterized.
Ultrasonic guided waves in elliptical annular cylinders.
Rajagopal, Prabhu; Pattanayak, Roson Kumar
2015-09-01
This paper studies the influence of cross-section ovalness or ellipticity on lower order axisymmetric guided wave modes in thin pipes. The second longitudinal mode L(0,2) and the fundamental torsional mode T(0,1) are studied, as these are of interest to current pipe inspection. The semi-analytical finite element (FE) method is mainly used, with three-dimensional FE simulations for visualization and cross-validation of results. The studies reveal that even a small degree of ovalness can affect mode shapes and velocities. The effect is more pronounced on the L(0,2) mode than on T(0,1) and this may be important for practical inspection applications. PMID:26428836
Ultrasonic guided waves in elliptical annular cylinders.
Rajagopal, Prabhu; Pattanayak, Roson Kumar
2015-09-01
This paper studies the influence of cross-section ovalness or ellipticity on lower order axisymmetric guided wave modes in thin pipes. The second longitudinal mode L(0,2) and the fundamental torsional mode T(0,1) are studied, as these are of interest to current pipe inspection. The semi-analytical finite element (FE) method is mainly used, with three-dimensional FE simulations for visualization and cross-validation of results. The studies reveal that even a small degree of ovalness can affect mode shapes and velocities. The effect is more pronounced on the L(0,2) mode than on T(0,1) and this may be important for practical inspection applications.
Winding light beams along elliptical helical trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan
2016-07-01
Conventional caustic methods in real or Fourier space produced accelerating optical beams only with convex trajectories. We developed a superposition caustic method capable of winding light beams along nonconvex trajectories. We ascertain this method by constructing a one-dimensional (1D) accelerating beam moving along a sinusoidal trajectory, and subsequently extending to two-dimensional (2D) accelerating beams along arbitrarily elliptical helical trajectories. We experimentally implemented the method with a compact and robust integrated optics approach by fabricating micro-optical structures on quartz glass plates to perform the spatial phase and amplitude modulation to the incident light, generating beam trajectories highly consistent with prediction. The theoretical and implementation methods can in principle be extended to the construction of accelerating beams with a wide variety of nonconvex trajectories, thereby opening up a route of manipulating light beams for fundamental research and practical applications.
Products of Independent Elliptic Random Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Rourke, Sean; Renfrew, David; Soshnikov, Alexander; Vu, Van
2015-07-01
For fixed , we study the product of independent elliptic random matrices as tends to infinity. Our main result shows that the empirical spectral distribution of the product converges, with probability , to the -th power of the circular law, regardless of the joint distribution of the mirror entries in each matrix. This leads to a new kind of universality phenomenon: the limit law for the product of independent random matrices is independent of the limit laws for the individual matrices themselves. Our result also generalizes earlier results of Götze-Tikhomirov (On the asymptotic spectrum of products of independent random matrices, available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2710) and O'Rourke-Soshnikov (J Probab 16(81):2219-2245, 2011) concerning the product of independent iid random matrices.
Interior models of Mercury with equatorial ellipticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumberry, M.
2012-09-01
The combination of planetary rotation observations and gravity field measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft can be used to constrain the internal structure of Mercury. A recently published model suggests a mean mantle density of ρm = 3650 ± 225 kg m-3, substantially larger than that expected of a silicate mantle (3300 kg m-3) and possibly hinting at the presence of an FeS-rich layer at the base of the mantle. Here, we show that a large ρm is only required if the core-mantle boundary (CMB) of the planet is assumed axially-symmetric. An equatorial ellipticity of CMB of the order of 2 · 10-5 allows to satisfy gravity and rotation constraints with a mean mantle density typical of silicate material. Possible origin of such topography include past mantle convection, aspherical planetary shrinking, remnant tidal deformation, or a combination thereof.
The outer haloes of massive, elliptical galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Payel; Gerhard, Ortwin; de Lorenzi, Flavio; McNeil, Emily; Churazov, Eugene; Coccato, Lodovico
2010-11-01
The outer haloes of massive elliptical galaxies are dark-matter dominated regions where stellar orbits have longer dynamical timescales than the central regions and therefore better preserve their formation history. Dynamical models out to large radii suffer from a degeneracy between mass and orbital structure, as the outer kinematics are unable to resolve higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution. We mitigate this degeneracy for a sample of quiescent, massive, nearby ellipticals by determining their mass distributions independently using a non-parametric method on X-ray observations of the surrounding hot interstellar medium. We then create dynamical models using photometric and kinematic constraints consisting of integral-eld, long-slit and planetary nebulae (PNe) data extending to ~50 kpc. The rst two galaxies of our sample, NGC 5846 and NGC 1399, were found to have very shallow pro jected light distributions with a power law index of ~1.5 and a dark matter content of 70-80% at 50 kpc. Spherical Jeans models of the data show that, in the outer haloes of both galaxies, the pro jected velocity dispersions are almost inde- pendent of the anisotropy and that the PNe prefer the lower end of the range of mass distributions consistent with the X-ray data. Using the N-body code NMAGIC, we cre- ated axisymmetric models of NGC 5846 using the individual PNe radial velocities in a likelihood method and found them to be more constraining than the binned velocity dispersions. Characterising the orbital structure in terms of spherically averaged proles of the velocity dispersions we nd σψ > σr > σθ.
Ridgeley, A; Goodman, D; Hall, T A
1995-01-01
Using an x-ray spectrometer with an elliptically curved crystal it is possible to study absorption spectra from a target placed at one focus of the ellipse using a backlighting source placed at the other focus. This principle has been used to develop a spectrometer for EXAFS studies of laser compressed materials. The backlighting source is placed at one focus of the ellipse and the laser compressed EXAFS sample at the other. Using this technique a small area of the EXAFS target can be probed, thereby minimizing any spatial variations in the compressed plasma due to nonuniformities in the laser beams. Also, the dispersive nature of the crystal ensures that it acts as a bandpass filter, so that the EXAFS sample is not probed by other x-ray wavelengths which may cause unwanted heating. Another advantage is that compressed and uncompressed EXAFS spectra can be compared on a single shot. The optical properties of the spectrometer are discussed analytically and using a computer ray-tracing program. The development and alignment of the elliptical spectrometer are discussed, and its performance using both x-ray film and a CCD detector is evaluated. The use of the elliptical spectrometer as a high-resolution x-ray instrument is presented. PMID:21307480
Elliptical vortices in shear: Hamiltonian moment formulation and Melnikov analysis
Ngan, K.; Meacham, S.; Morrison, P.J.
1995-07-01
The equations of motion for interacting, elliptical vortices in a background shear flow are derived using a Hamiltonian moment formulation. The equations reduce to the 6th order system of Melander et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 167, 95 (1986)] when a pair of vortices is considered and shear is neglected. The equations for a pair of identical vortices axe analyzed with a number of methods, with particular emphasis on the basic interactions and on the implications for vortex merger. The splitting distance between the stable and unstable manifolds connecting the hyperbolic fixed points of the intercentroidal motion-the separatrix splitting-is estimated with a Melnikov analysis. This analysis differs from the standard time-periodic Melnikov analysis on two counts: (a) the ``periodic`` perturbation arises from a second degree of freedom in the system which is not wholly independent of the first degree of freedom, the intercentroidal motion; (b) this perturbation has a faster time scale than the intercentroidal motion. The resulting Melnikov integral appears to be exponentially small in the perturbation as the latter goes to zero. Numerical simulations, notably Poincare sections, provide a global view of the dynamics and indicate that there are two modes of merger. The effect of the shear on chaotic motion and on chaotic scattering is also discussed.
Investigation on computation of elliptical microwave plasma cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Xiaoli; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Kai
2008-12-01
In recent years, the advance of the elliptical resonant cavity and focus cavity is known by many people. There are homogeneous and multipatternal virtues in the focus dimensional microwave field of the elliptical resonant cavity. It is very suitable for applying the low power microwave biological effect equipment. However, when designing the elliptical resonant cavity may meet the problems of complex and huge computation need to be solved. This paper proposed the simple way of approximate processing the Mathieu function. It can greatly simplify the difficulty and decrease the scale of computation. This method can satisfy the requirements of research and development within project permitted precision.
Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.
2013-01-01
Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.
Single optical tweezers based on elliptical core fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Li; Chen, Yunhao; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yaxun; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo
2016-04-01
We propose and demonstrate a new single optical tweezers based on an elliptical core fiber, which can realize the trapped yeast cell rotation with a precise and simple control. Due to the elliptical shape of the fiber core, the LP11 mode beam can propagate stably. When we rotate the fiber tip, the LP11 mode beam will also rotate along with the fiber tip, which helps to realize the trapped micro-particle rotation. By using this method, we can easily realize the rotation of the trapped yeast cells, the rotating angle of the yeast cell is same as the elliptical core fiber tip.
New Elliptic Solutions of the Yang-Baxter Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S. E.; Spiridonov, V. P.
2016-07-01
We consider finite-dimensional reductions of an integral operator with the elliptic hypergeometric kernel describing the most general known solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with a rank 1 symmetry algebra. The reduced R-operators reproduce at their bottom the standard Baxter's R-matrix for the 8-vertex model and Sklyanin's L-operator. The general formula has a remarkably compact form and yields new elliptic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation based on the finite-dimensional representations of the elliptic modular double. The same result is also derived using the fusion formalism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Stephen
1995-01-01
Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.
2016-06-01
I present results from the first global hydrodynamical simulations of the elliptical instability in a tidally deformed gaseous planet (or star) with a free surface. The elliptical instability is potentially important for tidal evolution of the shortest-period hot Jupiters. I model the planet as a spin-orbit aligned or anti-aligned, and non-synchronously rotating, tidally deformed, homogeneous fluid body. A companion paper presented an analysis of the global modes and instabilities of such a planet. Here I focus on the non-linear evolution of the elliptical instability. This is observed to produce bursts of turbulence that drive the planet towards synchronism with its orbit in an erratic manner. If the planetary spin is initially anti-aligned, the elliptical instability also drives spin-orbit alignment on a similar time-scale as the spin synchronization. The instability generates differential rotation inside the planet in the form of zonal flows, which play an important role in the saturation of the instability, and in producing the observed burstiness. These results are broadly consistent with the picture obtained using a local Cartesian model (where columnar vortices played the role of zonal flows). I also simulate the instability in a container that is rigid (but stress-free) rather than free, finding broad quantitative agreement. The dissipation resulting from the elliptical instability could explain why the shortest-period hot Jupiters tend to have circular orbits inside about 2-3 d, and predicts spin synchronization (and spin-orbit alignment) out to about 10-15 d. However, other mechanisms must be invoked to explain tidal circularization for longer orbital periods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, J. R.; Gatski, T. B.
2002-01-01
A formulation to include the effects of wall proximity in a second-moment closure model that utilizes a tensor representation for the redistribution terms in the Reynolds stress equations is presented. The wall-proximity effects are modeled through an elliptic relaxation process of the tensor expansion coefficients that properly accounts for both correlation length and time scales as the wall is approached. Direct numerical simulation data and Reynolds stress solutions using a full differential approach are compared for the case of fully developed channel flow.
Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries
Phillip, B.
2000-07-24
Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.
Stable equilibria of elliptic roly-poly toys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Seok-In
2016-11-01
As an instructive (gravitational potential) energy approach, we show that the elliptic roly-poly has a richer and more useful profile (including the tilted configuration) of stable equilibria than conventional spherical or cylindrical roly-polys.
Iterative methods for elliptic finite element equations on general meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz
1986-01-01
Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.
Toric elliptic fibrations and F-theory compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Volker
2013-01-01
The 102,581 flat toric elliptic fibrations over {{{P}}^2} are identified among the Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces that arise from the 473,800,776 reflexive 4-dimensional polytopes. In order to analyze their elliptic fibration structure, we describe the precise relation between the lattice polytope and the elliptic fibration. The fiber-divisor-graph is introduced as a way to visualize the embedding of the Kodaira fibers in the ambient toric fiber. In particular in the case of non-split discriminant components, this description is far more accurate than previous studies. The discriminant locus and Kodaira fibers of all 102,581 elliptic fibrations are computed. The maximal gauge group is SU(27), which would naively be in contradiction with 6-dimensional anomaly cancellation.
21. AN IMAGE OF THE FIRST LARGE, ELLIPTICAL RING ARCH ...
21. AN IMAGE OF THE FIRST LARGE, ELLIPTICAL RING ARCH ON THE WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. THE PARKWAY PASSES BENEATH A MINOR ARCH BEYOND. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN
New Observations Deepen Mystery Surrounding Water Masers in Elliptical Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
New observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have deepened the mystery surrounding water molecules in a galaxy 65 million light- years away. The water molecules are acting as natural masers -- amplifiers of microwave radio emissions -- and these cosmic masers within the galaxy NGC 1052 are raising difficult questions for astronomers trying to explain them. Results of the new observations, which pinpoint the location of water masers in NGC 1052, were announced today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario. The researchers are: Jim Braatz of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Mark Claussen and Phil Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico, Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland, and Christian Henkel of the Max Planck Institute fur Radioastronomie in Bonn, Germany. Water masers have been detected in several other galaxies. However, most galaxies containing water "megamasers" such as those in NGC 1052 are spiral galaxies. NGC 1052 is one of only two elliptical galaxies in which water megamasers have been detected. Because ellipticals tend to have much less gas and dust than spirals, the existence of the water masers in NGC 1052 is surprising by itself, though that galaxy does have more gas and dust than the typical elliptical. Located in the constellation Cetus, NGC 1052 also has an active nucleus, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of a supermassive black hole at its core. The new VLBA observations produced an additional mystery. In other galaxies with water megamasers, the masers are believed to lie within a disk of molecules orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. This is the case, for example, in the now-famous galaxy NGC 4258, where the movement of the orbiting disk can be traced by measuring both the Doppler shift of radio emission from the masers and by tracking the motion of
Numerical study of hydrogen-air supersonic combustion by using elliptic and parabolized equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, T.; Tiwari, S. N.
1986-01-01
The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species continuity equations are used to investigate supersonic chemically reacting flow problems which are related to scramjet-engine configurations. A global two-step finite-rate chemistry model is employed to represent the hydrogen-air combustion in the flow. An algebraic turbulent model is adopted for turbulent flow calculations. The explicit unsplit MacCormack finite-difference algorithm is used to develop a computer program suitable for a vector processing computer. The computer program developed is then used to integrate the system of the governing equations in time until convergence is attained. The chemistry source terms in the species continuity equations are evaluated implicitly to alleviate stiffness associated with fast chemical reactions. The problems solved by the elliptic code are re-investigated by using a set of two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes and species equations. A linearized fully-coupled fully-implicit finite difference algorithm is used to develop a second computer code which solves the governing equations by marching in spce rather than time, resulting in a considerable saving in computer resources. Results obtained by using the parabolized formulation are compared with the results obtained by using the fully-elliptic equations. The comparisons indicate fairly good agreement of the results of the two formulations.
High angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and elliptic wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandam, C. P.
1989-01-01
Static longitudinal and lateral-directional forces and moments were measured for elliptic- and crescent-wing models at high angles-of-attack in the NASA Langley 14 by 22-Ft Subsonic Tunnel. The forces and moments were obtained for an angle-of-attack range including stall and post-stall conditions at a Reynolds number based on the average wing chord of about 1.8 million. Flow-visualization photographs using a mixture of oil and titanium-dioxide were also taken for several incidence angles. The force and moment data and the flow-visualization results indicated that the crescent wing model with its highly swept tips produced much better high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics than the elliptic model. Leading-edge separation-induced vortex flow over the highly swept tips of the crescent wing is thought to produce this improved behavior at high angles-of-attack. The unique planform design could result in safer and more efficient low-speed airplanes.
Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials.
Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Novitsky, Andrey V; Galynsky, Vladimir M
2009-07-01
We employ a homogenization technique based on the Lorentz electronic theory to show that planar chiral structures (PCSs) can be described by an effective dielectric tensor similar to that of biaxial elliptically dichroic crystals. Such a crystal is shown to behave like a PCS insofar as it exhibits its characteristic optical properties, namely, corotating elliptical polarization eigenstates and asymmetric, direction-dependent transmission for left- or right-handed incident wave polarization.
Scatter of elastic waves by a thin flat elliptical inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.
1983-01-01
Elastodynamic fields of a single, flat, elliptical inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite elastic medium subjected to plane time harmonic waves are studied. Scattered displacement amplitudes and stress intensities are obtained in series form for an incident wave in an arbitrary direction. The cases of a penny shaped crack and an elliptical crack are given as examples. The analysis is valid for alpha a up to about two, where alpha is longitudinal wave number and a is a typical geometric parameter.
Bifurcations in elliptical, asymmetric non-neutral plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fajans, Joel; Gilson, Erik
1999-11-01
When subjected to a stationary, l=2 potential perturbation on the wall, a pure electron plasma will deform into an elliptical shape. At first, the plasma's ellipticity is proportional to the strength of the potential perturbation. Once the perturbation is increased beyond a critical value, the plasma equilibrium bifurcates into two off-axis states. This bifurcation has been observed experimentally and will be described in this poster. (see http://socrates.berkeley.edu/ fajans/EquilStab/EllipseBifurcation.avi)
Analysis of elliptical and circular microstrip antennas using moment method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.
1985-01-01
A method of calculating the input impedance of either a circular or a slightly elliptical microstrip antenna excited by a coaxial probe is presented. Using the reaction integral equation and the exact dyadic Green's function, the finite substrate thickness is taken into account in the formulation. Good agreement with experimental results for an elliptical patch is obtained and a design procedure for a circularly polarized antenna is presented.
Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.
2015-03-01
Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.
Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams
Ziemann, V.
1990-10-22
In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials.
Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Novitsky, Andrey V; Galynsky, Vladimir M
2009-07-01
We employ a homogenization technique based on the Lorentz electronic theory to show that planar chiral structures (PCSs) can be described by an effective dielectric tensor similar to that of biaxial elliptically dichroic crystals. Such a crystal is shown to behave like a PCS insofar as it exhibits its characteristic optical properties, namely, corotating elliptical polarization eigenstates and asymmetric, direction-dependent transmission for left- or right-handed incident wave polarization. PMID:19571975
Plane-wave expansion of elliptic cylindrical functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santini, Carlo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola
2015-08-01
Elliptic Cylindrical Waves (ECW), defined as the product of an angular Mathieu function by its corresponding radial Mathieu function, occur in the solution of scattering problems involving two-dimensional structures with elliptic cross sections. In this paper, we explicitly derive the expansion of ECW, along a plane surface, in terms of homogeneous and evanescent plane waves, showing the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the formulas and discussing possible applications of the result.
Remarks of Elliptic Curves Derived from Ant Colony Routing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Sangsu; Kim, Daeyeoul; Singh, Dhananjay
2011-09-01
We deal with an ant colony based routing model for wireless multi-hop networks. Our model adopts an elliptic curve equation, which is beneficial to design pheromone dynamics for load balancing and packet delivery robustness. Due to the attribute of an elliptic curve equation, our model prevents the over-utilization of a specific node, distinctively from conventional ant colony based schemes. Numerical simulations exhibit the characteristics of our model with respect to various parameters.
Depth-resolved measurements with elliptically polarized reflectance spectroscopy
Bailey, Maria J.; Sokolov, Konstantin
2016-01-01
The ability of elliptical polarized reflectance spectroscopy (EPRS) to detect spectroscopic alterations in tissue mimicking phantoms and in biological tissue in situ is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a linear relationship between light penetration depth and ellipticity. This dependence is used to demonstrate the feasibility of a depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging using EPRS. The advantages and drawbacks of EPRS in evaluation of biological tissue are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27446712
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian
2016-06-01
Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
Grid generation by elliptic partial differential equations for a tri-element Augmentor-Wing airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorenson, R. L.
1982-01-01
Two efforts to numerically simulate the flow about the Augmentor-Wing airfoil in the cruise configuration using the GRAPE elliptic partial differential equation grid generator algorithm are discussed. The Augmentor-Wing consists of a main airfoil with a slotted trailing edge for blowing and two smaller airfoils shrouding the blowing jet. The airfoil and the algorithm are described, and the application of GRAPE to an unsteady viscous flow simulation and a transonic full-potential approach is considered. The procedure involves dividing a complicated flow region into an arbitrary number of zones and ensuring continuity of grid lines, their slopes, and their point distributions across the zonal boundaries. The method for distributing the body-surface grid points is discussed.
STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF ELLIPTICAL AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES
Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf E-mail: dbfisher@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: bender@usm.uni-muenchen.de
2009-05-15
New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, ellipticity, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sersic log I {proportional_to} r {sup 1/n} functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all ellipticals remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our ellipticals with total absolute magnitudes M{sub VT} {<=} -21.66 have cuspy cores-'missing light'-at small radii. Cores are well known and naturally scoured by binary black holes (BHs) formed in dissipationless ('dry') mergers. All 17 ellipticals with -21.54 {<=} M{sub VT} {<=} -15.53 do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in these galaxies: all coreless ellipticals in our sample have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sersic profile. In large ellipticals, the excess light is spatially resolved and resembles the central components predicted in numerical simulations of mergers of galaxies that contain gas. In the simulations, the gas dissipates, falls toward the center, undergoes a starburst, and builds a compact stellar component that, as in our observations, is distinct from the Sersic-function main body of the elliptical. But ellipticals with extra light also contain supermassive BHs. We suggest that the starburst has swamped core scouring by binary BHs. That is, we interpret extra light components as a signature of formation in dissipative ('wet') mergers. Besides extra light, we find three new aspects to the ('E-E') dichotomy into two types of elliptical galaxies. Core galaxies are known to be slowly rotating, to have relatively anisotropic velocity distributions, and to have boxy isophotes. We show that they have
Formation, evolution and properties of isolated field elliptical galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemi, Sami-Matias; Heinämäki, Pekka; Nurmi, Pasi; Saar, Enn
2010-06-01
We study the properties, evolution and formation mechanisms of isolated field elliptical (IfE) galaxies. We create a `mock' catalogue of IfE galaxies from the Millennium Simulation Galaxy Catalogue, and trace their merging histories. The formation, identity and assembly redshifts of simulated isolated and non-isolated elliptical galaxies are studied and compared. Observational and numerical data are used to compare age, mass and the colour-magnitude relation. Our results, based on simulation data, show that almost 7 per cent of all elliptical galaxies brighter than -19mag in B band can be classified as IfE galaxies. Results also show that isolated elliptical galaxies have a rather flat luminosity function; a number density of ~3 × 10-6h3Mpc-3mag-1, throughout their B-band magnitudes. IfE galaxies show bluer colours than non-isolated elliptical galaxies and they appear younger, in a statistical sense, according to their mass-weighted age. IfE galaxies also form and assemble at lower redshifts compared to non-isolated elliptical galaxies. About 46 per cent of IfE galaxies have undergone at least one major merging event in their formation history, while the same fraction is only ~33 per cent for non-isolated ellipticals. Almost all (~98 per cent) isolated elliptical galaxies show merging activity during their evolution, pointing towards the importance of mergers in the formation of IfE galaxies. The mean time of the last major merging is at z ~ 0.6 or 6Gyr ago for isolated ellipticals, while non-isolated ellipticals experience their last major merging significantly earlier at z ~ 1.1 or 8Gyr ago. After inspecting merger trees of simulated IfE galaxies, we conclude that three different, yet typical, formation mechanisms can be identified: solitude, coupling and cannibalism. Our results also predict a previously unobserved population of blue, dim and light galaxies that fulfil observational criteria to be classified as IfE galaxies. This separate population comprises
A massive star origin for an unusual helium-rich supernova in an elliptical galaxy.
Kawabata, K S; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Taubenberger, S; Tanaka, M; Deng, J; Pian, E; Hattori, T; Itagaki, K
2010-05-20
The unusual helium-rich (type Ib) supernova SN 2005E is distinguished from all supernovae hitherto observed by its faint and rapidly fading light curve, prominent calcium lines in late-phase spectra and lack of any mark of recent star formation near the supernova location. These properties are claimed to be explained by a helium detonation in a thin surface layer of an accreting white dwarf. Here we report that the observed properties of SN 2005cz, which appeared in an elliptical galaxy, resemble those of SN 2005E. We argue that these properties are best explained by a core-collapse supernova at the low-mass end (8-12 solar masses) of the range of massive stars that explode. Such a low-mass progenitor lost its hydrogen-rich envelope through binary interaction, had very thin oxygen-rich and silicon-rich layers above the collapsing core, and accordingly ejected a very small amount of radioactive (56)Ni and oxygen. Although the host galaxy NGC 4589 is an elliptical, some studies have revealed evidence of recent star-formation activity, consistent with the core-collapse model. PMID:20485430
A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies.
van Dokkum, Pieter G; Conroy, Charlie
2010-12-16
The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the Na (I) doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3M(⊙) (where M(⊙) is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1M(⊙) to 1M(⊙).
A massive star origin for an unusual helium-rich supernova in an elliptical galaxy.
Kawabata, K S; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Taubenberger, S; Tanaka, M; Deng, J; Pian, E; Hattori, T; Itagaki, K
2010-05-20
The unusual helium-rich (type Ib) supernova SN 2005E is distinguished from all supernovae hitherto observed by its faint and rapidly fading light curve, prominent calcium lines in late-phase spectra and lack of any mark of recent star formation near the supernova location. These properties are claimed to be explained by a helium detonation in a thin surface layer of an accreting white dwarf. Here we report that the observed properties of SN 2005cz, which appeared in an elliptical galaxy, resemble those of SN 2005E. We argue that these properties are best explained by a core-collapse supernova at the low-mass end (8-12 solar masses) of the range of massive stars that explode. Such a low-mass progenitor lost its hydrogen-rich envelope through binary interaction, had very thin oxygen-rich and silicon-rich layers above the collapsing core, and accordingly ejected a very small amount of radioactive (56)Ni and oxygen. Although the host galaxy NGC 4589 is an elliptical, some studies have revealed evidence of recent star-formation activity, consistent with the core-collapse model.
An elliptic parameterisation of the Zamolodchikov model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Mangazeev, Vladimir V.; Okada, Yuichiro; Sergeev, Sergey M.
2013-06-01
The Zamolodchikov model describes an exact relativistic factorized scattering theory of straight strings in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. It also defines an integrable 3D lattice model of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The three-string S-matrix satisfies the tetrahedron equation which is a 3D analog of the Yang-Baxter equation. Each S-matrix depends on three dihedral angles formed by three intersecting planes, whereas the tetrahedron equation contains five independent spectral parameters, associated with angles of an Euclidean tetrahedron. The vertex weights are given by rather complicated expressions involving square roots of trigonometric function of the spectral parameters, which is quite unusual from the point of view of 2D solvable lattice models. In this paper we consider a particular four-parameter specialisation of the tetrahedron equation when one of its vertices goes to infinity and the tetrahedron itself degenerates into an infinite prism. We show that in this limit all the vertex weights in the tetrahedron equation can be represented as meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. Moreover we show that a special reduction of the tetrahedron equation in this case leads precisely to an example of the tetrahedral Zamolodchikov algebra, previously constructed by Korepanov. This algebra plays important role for a "layered" construction of the Shastry's R-matrix and the 2D S-matrix appearing in the problem of the ADS/CFT correspondence for N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Possible applications of our results in this field are briefly discussed.
Jacobi elliptic functions: A review of nonlinear oscillatory application problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovacic, Ivana; Cveticanin, Livija; Zukovic, Miodrag; Rakaric, Zvonko
2016-10-01
This review paper is concerned with the applications of Jacobi elliptic functions to nonlinear oscillators whose restoring force has a monomial or binomial form that involves cubic and/or quadratic nonlinearity. First, geometric interpretations of three basic Jacobi elliptic functions are given and their characteristics are discussed. It is shown then how their different forms can be utilized to express exact solutions for the response of certain free conservative oscillators. These forms are subsequently used as a starting point for a presentation of different quantitative techniques for obtaining an approximate response for free perturbed nonlinear oscillators. An illustrative example is provided. Further, two types of externally forced nonlinear oscillators are reviewed: (i) those that are excited by elliptic-type excitations with different exact and approximate solutions; (ii) those that are damped and excited by harmonic excitations, but their approximate response is expressed in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Characteristics of the steady-state response are discussed and certain qualitative differences with respect to the classical Duffing oscillator excited harmonically are pointed out. Parametric oscillations of the oscillators excited by an elliptic-type forcing are considered as well, and the differences with respect to the stability chart of the classical Mathieu equation are emphasized. The adjustment of the Melnikov method to derive the general condition for the onset of homoclinic bifurcations in a system parametrically excited by an elliptic-type forcing is provided and compared with those corresponding to harmonic excitations. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of Jacobi elliptic functions in nonlinear oscillatory application problems are discussed and some suggestions for future work are given.
Photographic spectra of fireballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovička, J.
2016-01-01
Two methods of spectroscopy of meteors using image intensified video cameras and classical photographic film cameras are compared. Video cameras provide large number of low resolution spectra of meteors of normal brightness, which can be used for statistical studies. Large format film cameras have been used through the history and provide high resolution spectra, which can be used to derive temperature, density and absolute abundances of various elements in the radiating plasma. The sensitivity of films is, however, low and only spectra of bright meteors (fireballs) can be studied. Examples of photographic fireball spectra are provided.
Spectra of stable sonoluminescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Stephen D.
1992-12-01
The continuous emission of picosecond pulses of light has been observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field in water and in water/glycerin mixtures. The spectra of this light in several solutions has been measured with a scanning monochrometer/photomultiplier detector system. The spectra are broadband and show strong emission in the UV region. A comparison of this measurement to two other independently produced spectra is made. The spectra are also modeled by a blackbody radiation distribution to determine an effective blackbody temperature and a size is deduced as if Sonoluminescence were characterized by blackbody radiation.
Tiernan, M.
1980-09-01
Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.
Classical description of strong-field double ionization by elliptical laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yueming; Zhang, Qingbin; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Peixiang
2012-10-01
Sequential double ionization of argon induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses at the over-the-barrier ionization regime is investigated with a fully classical model. We provide futher detail beyond that found in our previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.053004 109, 053004 (2012)] and show that all of the experimental observations, including the evolution of the ion momentum spectra as a function of laser intensity, the intensity-dependent ratio for the parallel and antiparallel electron emissions, and the release times of both electrons for various laser pulses, are excellently reproduced by our classical model. Our results indicate that the classical treatment is very valid and accurate in describing strong-field ionization, providing a simple and intuitive way to investigate the complex electron correlations in strong-field double and multiple ionizations.
System for calibrating the energy-dependent response of an elliptical Bragg-crystal spectrometer.
Marrs, R E; Brown, G V; Emig, J A; Heeter, R F
2014-11-01
A multipurpose spectrometer (MSPEC) with elliptical crystals is in routine use to obtain x-ray spectra from laser produced plasmas in the energy range 1.0-9.0 keV. Knowledge of the energy-dependent response of the spectrometer is required for an accurate comparison of the intensities of x-ray lines of different energy. The energy-dependent response of the MSPEC has now been derived from the spectrometer geometry and calibration information on the response of its components, including two different types of detectors. Measurements of the spectrometer response with a laboratory x-ray source are used to test the calculated response and provide information on crystal reflectivity and uniformity.
Line-of-Sight Velocity Distributions of Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, R.; Saglia, R. P.; Gerhard, O. E.
1994-08-01
The line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) have been measured to > R_e_/2 along the major axes of 44 elliptical galaxies (more than 80 per cent of all ellipticals north of δ = -10^deg^ and brighter than B_T_ = 12.0), together with stellar rotational velocity and velocity dispersion profiles. For 19 of these 44 objects, minor axis profiles are also given. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to estimate errors. LOSVDs are found to deviate from Gaussians by no more than ~10 per cent. If rotation is present, LOSVDs are asymmetric with the prograde wings being always steeper than the retrograde wings. The degree of asymmetry (measured by the H_3_ Gauss-Hermite coefficient) correlates with ν/σ. Round and boxy ellipticals have lower asymmetries than flat and discy ones. On the whole, both types must have intrinsically asymmetric velocity distributions. Symmetric deviations (measured by the H_4_ Gauss-Hermite coefficient) are generally smaller than asymmetric ones. On the basis of the observed LOSVD shapes, the validity of two- integral models can be ruled out for most of the non-discy objects observed here (discy ellipticals require detailed modelling before similar conclusions can be drawn). Discy ellipticals have H_3_ and H_4_ major and minor axis profiles which appear consistent with a bulge+disc superposition. The observed H_4_ profile in M87 argues for radially anisotropic spherical or oblate models. Velocity dispersion profiles show significant individuality, but typically become flat outside R_e_/4. Major and minor axis slopes are mostly correlated one to one. We confirm that, with increasing luminosity, ellipticals become more anisotropic and that discy ellipticals have more rotational support. The Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies is tighter if total kinetic energy is used instead of central velocity dispersion. Both the small scatter about the Fundamental Plane and the homogenous and systematic properties of the LOSVDs imply that only a small
EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA
Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.
2010-02-01
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 mum. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 mum bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 mum bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 mum, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.
Effects of Forsterite Grain Shape on Infrared Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.
2010-02-01
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150°C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200°C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.
Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, Leland H
1958-01-01
To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.
Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wei-Ming
2012-05-01
This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical-cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.
Applications of Elliptically Polarized, Few-Cycle Attosecond Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starace, Anthony F.
2016-05-01
Use of elliptically-polarized light opens the possibility of investigating effects that are not accessible with linearly-polarized pulses. This talk presents two new physical effects that are predicted for ionization of the helium atom by few-cycle, elliptically polarized attosecond pulses. For double ionization of He by an intense elliptically polarized attosecond pulse, we predict a nonlinear dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions in the polarization plane for opposite helicities of the ionizing pulse) that is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. For single ionization of He by two oppositely circularly polarized, time-delayed attosecond pulses we predict that the photoelectron momentum distributions in the polarization plane have helical vortex structures that are exquisitely sensitive to the time-delay between the pulses, their relative phase, and their handedness. Both of these effects manifest the ability to control the angular distributions of the ionized electrons by means of the attosecond pulse parameters. Our predictions are obtained numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the case of elliptically polarized attosecond pulses. They are interpreted analytically by means of perturbation theory analyses of the two ionization processes. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Award No. DE-FG03-96ER14646.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinze, Ravish; Limeye, M. D.; Prabhu, S. V.
2016-09-01
Experimental study is carried out to explore the influence of nozzle profile on heat transfer for underexpanded impinging jets. Circular and elliptical orifices are used to generate underexpanded jets for underexpantion ratio ranging from 1.25 to 2.67. The supply pressure maintained in the present study ranges from 2.36 to 5.08 times the ambient pressure. IR thermal imaging camera is used to measure surface temperature of thin foil at different nozzle to plate distances. Shadowgraph and pressure distribution are used to understand the flow structure and distribution of circular and elliptical nozzle. It is observed that plate shock and pressure distribution over the plate have significant influence on the local heat transfer. The performance of the circular orifice is far better at lower z/d. The axis switching is observed for an elliptical orifice. Correlation for local heat transfer predicts Nusselt number comparable within 15 % of experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Michael E.; Sunyaev, Rashid
2016-07-01
Non-thermal pressure from turbulence and bulk flows is a fundamental ingredient in hot gaseous haloes, and in the intracluster medium, it will be measured through emission line kinematics with calorimeters on future X-ray spacecraft. In this paper, we present a complementary method for measuring these effects, using forbidden FUV emission lines of highly ionized Iron which trace 107 K gas. The brightest of these is [Fe XXI] λ1354.1. We search for these lines in archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectra from the well-known elliptical galaxies M87 and NGC4696, which harbor large reservoirs of 107 K gas. We report a 2.2σ feature which we attribute to [Fe XXI] from a filament in M87, and positive residuals in the nuclei of M87 and NGC4696, for which the 90 per cent upper limits on the line flux are close to the predicted fluxes based on X-ray observations. In a newer reduction of the data from the Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive, these limits become tighter and the [Fe XXI] feature reaches a formal significance of 5.3σ, neglecting uncertainty in fitting the continuum. Using our constraints, we perform emission measure analysis, constraining the characteristic path length and column density of the ˜107 K gas. We also examine several sightlines towards filaments or cooling flows in other galaxy clusters, for which the fraction of gas at 107 K is unknown, and place upper limits on its emission measure in each case. A medium-resolution HST-COS observation of the M87 filament for ˜10 orbits would confirm our detection of [Fe XXI] and measure its width.
Structure and Evolution of Interstellar Gas in Flattened, Rotating Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.
1996-10-01
We study the time-dependent evolution of interstellar gas in a family of elliptical galaxies having identical masses and central densities but various ellipticities and total angular momenta. Dark halos are assumed to be flattened in the same manner as the stars. Normal mass loss from evolving galactic stars is sufficient to account for the amount of hot interstellar gas observed. Gas ejected from stars shares the random motions of the stars and the bulk stellar velocity relative to the local interstellar medium; the ejected gas thermalizes to a temperature similar to the virial temperature of the stellar system. The random stellar motions and galactic rotation are found by solving Jeans's equations in cylindrical geometry. For a sequence of galaxies differing only in degree of flattening-E0, E2, and E4-we find that the X-ray images and luminosities are not very different. As the hot interstellar gas loses energy by radiation, it cools to the very center of these nonrotating galaxies regardless of flattening. The X-ray surface brightness is generally slightly steeper than the optical surface brightness of starlight. However, when a small but typical galactic rotation is introduced, the evolution of the interstellar medium is radically altered. The average X- ray surface brightness {SIGMA}_X_ is lower in the galactic center compared to nonrotating galaxies. This lower {SIGMA}_X_ can be achieved without invoking an ad hoc mass dropout from the hot gas. As the gas cools in rotating galaxies, it is deposited in a large disk comparable in size to the effective radius. Alter evolving for several gigayears, most of the new gas in the cooling flow is constrained by angular momentum conservation to arrive at the outer edge of the disk, Causing a local enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness. This results in flattened inner X-ray surface brightness contours that have peanut shapes when viewed nearly perpendicular to the axis of galactic rotation. As gas approaches the
Dynamical properties of the soft-wall elliptical billiard.
Kroetz, Tiago; Oliveira, Hércules A; Portela, Jefferson S E; Viana, Ricardo L
2016-08-01
Physical systems such as optical traps and microwave cavities are realistically modeled by billiards with soft walls. In order to investigate the influence of the wall softness on the billiard dynamics, we study numerically a smooth two-dimensional potential well that has the elliptical (hard-wall) billiard as a limiting case. Considering two parameters, the eccentricity of the elliptical equipotential curves and the wall hardness, which defines the steepness of the well, we show that (1) whereas the hard-wall limit is integrable and thus completely regular, the soft wall elliptical billiard exhibits chaos, (2) the chaotic fraction of the phase space depends nonmonotonically on the hardness of the wall, and (3) the effect of the hardness on the dynamics depends strongly on the eccentricity of the billiard. We further show that the limaçon billiard can exhibit enhanced chaos induced by wall softness, which suggests that our findings generalize to quasi-integrable systems. PMID:27627309
Dynamical properties of the soft-wall elliptical billiard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroetz, Tiago; Oliveira, Hércules A.; Portela, Jefferson S. E.; Viana, Ricardo L.
2016-08-01
Physical systems such as optical traps and microwave cavities are realistically modeled by billiards with soft walls. In order to investigate the influence of the wall softness on the billiard dynamics, we study numerically a smooth two-dimensional potential well that has the elliptical (hard-wall) billiard as a limiting case. Considering two parameters, the eccentricity of the elliptical equipotential curves and the wall hardness, which defines the steepness of the well, we show that (1) whereas the hard-wall limit is integrable and thus completely regular, the soft wall elliptical billiard exhibits chaos, (2) the chaotic fraction of the phase space depends nonmonotonically on the hardness of the wall, and (3) the effect of the hardness on the dynamics depends strongly on the eccentricity of the billiard. We further show that the limaçon billiard can exhibit enhanced chaos induced by wall softness, which suggests that our findings generalize to quasi-integrable systems.
Systematic differences between the field and cluster elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Carvalho, R. R.; Djorgovski, S.
1992-01-01
Multivariate statistical techniques and fundamental plane fits are used here to study possible systematic differences between field ellipticals (FEs) and cluster ellipticals (CEs). The FEs show more intrinsic scatter in their properties, especially when stellar population variables are included. Pairwise correlations for the two samples are different; the correlations are systematically better for the cluster sample, meaning that ellipticals in the two samples populate their fundamental planes in different ways. Bivariate correlations are different for the two samples, implying that they have different fundamental planes. This is especially true for the correlations which include the population variables Mg2 and (B-V), which are sensitive both to the enrichment history and the storm formation history.
Cluster flight control for fractionated spacecraft on an elliptic orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ming; Liang, Yuying; Tan, Tian; Wei, Lixin
2016-08-01
This paper deals with the stabilization of cluster flight on an elliptic reference orbit by the Hamiltonian structure-preserving control using the relative position measurement only. The linearized Melton's relative equation is utilized to derive the controller and then the full nonlinear relative dynamics are employed to numerically evaluate the controller's performance. In this paper, the hyperbolic and elliptic eigenvalues and their manifolds are treated without distinction notations. This new treatment not only contributes to solving the difficulty in feedback of the unfixed-dimensional manifolds, but also allows more opportunities to set the controlled frequencies of foundational motions or to optimize control gains. Any initial condition can be stabilized on a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus near a controlled elliptic equilibrium. The motions are stabilized around the natural relative trajectories rather than track a reference relative configuration. In addition, the bounded quasi-periodic trajectories generated by the controller have advantages in rapid reconfiguration and unpredictable evolution.
Magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium of a self-confined elliptical plasma ball
Wu, H. P. O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 and Institute of Mechanics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, People's Republic of China ); Oakes, M.E. )
1991-08-01
A variational principle is applied to the problem of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium of a self-contained elliptical plasma ball, such as elliptical ball lightning. The principle is appropriate for an approximate solution of partial differential equations with arbitrary boundary shape. The method reduces the partial differential equation to a series of ordinary differential equations and is especially valuable for treating boundaries with nonlinear deformations. The calculations conclude that the pressure distribution and the poloidal current are more uniform in an oblate self-confined plasma ball than that of an elongated plasma ball. The ellipticity of the plasma ball is obviously restricted by its internal pressure, magnetic field, and ambient pressure. Qualitative evidence is presented for the absence of sighting of elongated ball lightning.
Calderón's method on an elliptical domain.
Muller, P A; Isaacson, D; Newell, J C; Saulnier, G J
2013-06-01
One possible application for electrical impedance tomography is in medical imaging where lung and heart function may be monitored. One drawback of current algorithms is that they are implemented for use in a circular domain, but a human thorax is more elliptical than circular. In this paper, a reconstruction algorithm based on the work of Calderón (1980 Seminar on Numerical Analysis and its Applications to Continuum Physics (Rio de Janeiro) pp 65-75) on the inverse conductivity problem is derived for an elliptical domain. It is explained how this reconstruction algorithm uses a transformed Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. Experimental results from an elliptical tank are given to show how correct domain modelling reduces the artefacts produced by this version of Calderón's reconstruction algorithm.
Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.
1996-01-01
Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.
Ball bearing lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1981-01-01
The history of ball bearings is examined, taking into account rollers and the wheel in the early civilizations, the development of early forms of rolling-element bearings in the classical civilizations, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of the precision ball bearing, scientific studies of contact mechanics and rolling friction, and the past fifty years. An introduction to ball bearings is presented, and aspects of ball bearing mechanics are explored. Basic characteristics of lubrication are considered along with lubrication equations, the lubrication of rigid ellipsoidal solids, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. Attention is given to the theoretical results for fully flooded elliptical hydrodynamic contacts, the theoretical results for starved elliptical contacts, experimental investigations, the elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus, the film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication, and applications.
Improved linac dose distributions for radiosurgery with elliptically shaped fields.
Serago, C F; Lewin, A A; Houdek, P V; Gonzalez-Arias, S; Abitbol, A A; Marcial-Vega, V A; Pisciotti, V; Schwade, J G
1991-10-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery techniques for a linear accelerator typically use circular radiation fields to produce an essentially spherical radiation distribution with a steep dose gradient. Target volumes are frequently irregular in shape, and circular distributions may irradiate normal tissues to high dose as well as the target volume. Improvements to the dose distribution have been made using multiple target points and optimizing the dose per arc to the target. A retrospective review of 20 radiosurgery patients has suggested that the use of elliptically shaped fields may further improve the match of the radiation distribution to the intended target volume. This hypothesis has been verified with film measurements of the radiation distribution obtained using elliptical radiation beam in a head phantom. Reductions of 40% of the high dose volume have been obtained with elliptical fields compared to circular fields without compromising the dose to the target volume. PMID:1938531
Precession and circularization of elliptical space-tether motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapel, Jim D.; Grosserode, Patrick
1993-01-01
In this paper, we present a simplified analytic model for predicting motion of long space tethers. The perturbation model developed here addresses skip rope motion, where each end of the tether is held in place and the middle of the tether swings with a motion similar to that of a child's skip rope. If the motion of the tether midpoint is elliptical rather than circular, precession of the ellipse complicates the procedures required to damp this motion. The simplified analytic model developed in this paper parametrically predicts the precession of elliptical skip rope motion. Furthermore, the model shows that elliptic skip rope motion will circularize when damping is present in the longitudinal direction. Compared with high-fidelity simulation results, this simplified model provides excellent predictions of these phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munshi, M. Jahirul Haque; Alim, M. A.; Bhuiyan, A. H.
2016-07-01
The problem of Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) field on buoyancy-driven free convection heat transfer in a square cavity with heated elliptic block at the centre has been investigated in this work. The governing differential equations are solved by using finite element method (Galerkin weighted residual method). The lower wall is adiabatic. The left wall is kept at heated Th. The right and upper wall is kept at cold Tc respectively. Also all the wall are assumed to be no-slip condition. The study is performed for different Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. A heated elliptic block is located at the centre of the cavity. The object of this study is to describe the effects of MHD on the field of buoyancy-driven and flow in presence of such heated block by visualization of graph. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.
Coohill, T P
1991-11-01
Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates
Non-linear tides in a homogeneous rotating planet or star: global modes and elliptical instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.; Braviner, Harry J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
We revisit the global modes and instabilities of homogeneous rotating ellipsoidal fluid masses, which are the simplest global models of rotationally and tidally deformed gaseous planets or stars. The tidal flow in a short-period planet may be unstable to the elliptical instability, a hydrodynamic instability that can drive tidal evolution. We perform a global (and local WKB) analysis to study this instability using the elegant formalism of Lebovitz & Lifschitz. We survey the parameter space of global instabilities with harmonic orders ℓ ≤ 5, for planets with spins that are purely aligned (prograde) or anti-aligned (retrograde) with their orbits. In general, the instability has a much larger growth rate if the planetary spin and orbit are anti-aligned rather than aligned. We have identified a violent instability for anti-aligned spins outside of the usual frequency range for the elliptical instability (when n/Ω ≲ -1, where n and Ω are the orbital and spin angular frequencies, respectively) if the tidal amplitude is sufficiently large. We also explore the instability in a rigid ellipsoidal container, which is found to be quantitatively similar to that with a realistic free surface. Finally, we study the effect of rotation and tidal deformation on mode frequencies. We find that larger rotation rates and larger tidal deformations both decrease the frequencies of the prograde sectoral surface gravity modes. This increases the prospect of their tidal excitation, potentially enhancing the tidal response over expectations from linear theory. In a companion paper, we use our results to interpret global simulations of the elliptical instability.
Plastic Deformation in Profile-Coated Elliptical KB Mirrors
Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A. T.; Ice, G. E.; Tischler, J. Z.
2012-01-01
Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now, precision elliptical KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si-, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron X-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.
Study of medium beta elliptical cavities for CADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Liangjian; Zhang, Shenghu; Li, Yongming; Wang, Ruoxu; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Cong; Jia, Huan; Jiang, Tiancai; Li, Chunlong; He, Yuan
2016-02-01
The China Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) is a high intensity proton facility to dispose of nuclear waste and generate electric power. CADS is based on a 1.5 GeV, 10 mA CW superconducting (SC) linac as a driver. The high energy section of the linac is composed of two families of SC elliptical cavities which are designed with geometrical beta 0.63 and 0.82. In this paper, the 650 MHz β=0.63 SC elliptical cavity is studied, including cavity optimization, multipacting, high order modes (HOMs) and generator RF power calculation. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303)
On the Dirichlet problem for a nonlinear elliptic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egorov, Yu V.
2015-04-01
We prove the existence of an infinite set of solutions to the Dirichlet problem for a nonlinear elliptic equation of the second order. Such a problem for a nonlinear elliptic equation with Laplace operator was studied earlier by Krasnosel'skii, Bahri, Berestycki, Lions, Rabinowitz, Struwe and others. We study the spectrum of this problem and prove the weak convergence to 0 of the sequence of normed eigenfunctions. Moreover, we obtain some estimates for the 'Fourier coefficients' of functions in W^1p,0(Ω). This allows us to improve the preceding results. Bibliography: 8 titles.
Plastic Deformation in Profile-Coated Elliptical KB Mirrors
Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A. T.; Ice, G. E.; Tischler, J. Z.
2012-01-01
Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now precision elliptical KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron x-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film-stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.
The postbuckling analysis of laminated circular plate with elliptic delamination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Deliang; Chen, Changping; Fu, Yiming
2011-01-01
Based on the Von Karman plate theory, considering the effect of transverse shear deformation, and using the method of the dissociated three regions, the postbuckling governing equations for the axisymmetric laminated circular plates with elliptical delamination are derived. By using the orthogonal point collocation method, the governing equations, boundary conditions and continuity conditions are transformed into a group of nonlinear algebraically equation and the equations are solved with the alternative method. In the numerical examples, the effects of various elliptical in shape, delamination depth and different material properties on buckling and postbuckling of the laminated circular plates are discussed and the numerical results are compared with available data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.
Optics ellipticity performance of an unobscured off-axis space telescope.
Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Guangwei; Wu, Hongbo
2014-10-20
With the development of astronomy, more and more attention is paid to the survey of dark matter. Dark matter cannot be seen directly but can be detected by weak gravitational lensing measurement. Ellipticity is an important parameter used to define the shape of a galaxy. Galaxy ellipticity changes with weak gravitational lensing and nonideal optics. With our design of an unobscured off-axis telescope, we implement the simulation and calculation of optics ellipticity. With an accurate model of optics PSF, the characteristic of ellipticity is modeled and analyzed. It is shown that with good optical design, the full field ellipticity can be quite small. The spatial ellipticity change can be modeled by cubic interpolation with very high accuracy. We also modeled the ellipticity variance with time and analyzed the tolerance. It is shown that the unobscured off-axis telescope has good ellipticity performance and fulfills the requirement of dark matter survey.
Thermodynamic analysis of spectra
Mitchell, G. E.; Shriner, J. F. Jr.
2008-04-04
Although random matrix theory had its initial application to neutron resonances, there is a relative scarcity of suitable nuclear data. The primary reason for this is the sensitivity of the standard measures used to evaluate spectra--the spectra must be essential pure (no state with a different symmetry) and complete (no states missing). Additional measures that are less sensitive to these experimental limitations are of significant value. The standard measure for long range order is the {delta}{sub 3} statistic. In the original paper that introduced this statistic, Dyson and Mehta also attempted to evaluate spectra with thermodynamic variables obtained from the circular orthogonal ensemble. We consider the thermodynamic 'internal energy' and evaluate its sensitivity to experimental limitations such as missing and spurious levels. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the internal energy is less sensitive to mistakes than is {delta}{sub 3}, and thus the internal energy can serve as a addition to the tool kit for evaluating experimental spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali
2016-07-01
In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.
Lagrangian coherent structures in the planar elliptic restricted three-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawlik, Evan S.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Du Toit, Philip C.; Campagnola, Stefano
2009-03-01
This study investigates Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) in the planar elliptic restricted three-body problem (ER3BP), a generalization of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) that asks for the motion of a test particle in the presence of two elliptically orbiting point masses. Previous studies demonstrate that an understanding of transport phenomena in the CR3BP, an autonomous dynamical system (when viewed in a rotating frame), can be obtained through analysis of the stable and unstable manifolds of certain periodic solutions to the CR3BP equations of motion. These invariant manifolds form cylindrical tubes within surfaces of constant energy that act as separatrices between orbits with qualitatively different behaviors. The computation of LCS, a technique typically applied to fluid flows to identify transport barriers in the domains of time-dependent velocity fields, provides a convenient means of determining the time-dependent analogues of these invariant manifolds for the ER3BP, whose equations of motion contain an explicit dependency on the independent variable. As a direct application, this study uncovers the contribution of the planet Mercury to the Interplanetary Transport Network, a network of tubes through the solar system that can be exploited for the construction of low-fuel spacecraft mission trajectories.
Towards a cladistics of double Yangians and elliptic algebras*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnaudon, D.; Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Rossi, M.
2000-09-01
A self-contained description of algebraic structures, obtained by combinations of various limit procedures applied to vertex and face sl(2) elliptic quantum affine algebras, is given. New double Yangian structures of dynamical type are defined. Connections between these structures are established. A number of them take the form of twist-like actions. These are conjectured to be evaluations of universal twists.
Adaptive control and orbit determination for elliptical rendezvous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lijia; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Tiantian
2016-10-01
In this paper, we study the control and orbit determination problems for elliptical rendezvous. Autonomous rendezvous is achieved by the proposed adaptive control based on the measurements of relative position and velocity between the chaser and target spacecraft. Moreover, the target orbital elements can be estimated during the rendezvous process. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by simulations.
Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves and crustal structure in northern Italy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.
2016-04-01
Horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratio of elliptically-polarised ground motion of Rayleigh waves depends on the local crustal structure. Its measurement therefore adds another, seldom used, tool to image shallow earth structure. Frequency-dependent sensitivity kernels are dominated by shear-wave velocity and are rather shallow, so they are a convenient tool to model sedimentary layers that nicely complement surface wave studies. We perform extensive measurements, in the period range between 10 and 110 s, on traces from about 500 globally-distributed earthquakes, occurred in years 2008 ÷ 2014, recorded by 95 stations in northern Italy - - a region including the wide basin of the Po Plain and encircling Alps and northern Apennines. The observations are well correlated with known strucure: high ellipticity correlates well with low seismic velocity (such as in the Po Plain), and low ellipticity corresponds to fast seismic velocity in hard rock environments in correspondence of Alps and Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region (Molinari et al., 2015) shows substantial fit. Sensitivity to vS is quite non linear, but inversion is possible and may provide very useful complementary information to, e.g., surface wave phase or group velocity or receiver functions.
Elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide.
Zhang, Li; Xiong, Qiulin; Li, Xiaopeng; Ma, Junxian
2015-08-10
We researched an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide and evaluated its mode characteristics using the finite element method software COMSOL. The waveguide consists of three parts: an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire, a silver film layer, and a silica covering layer between them. All of the components are surrounded by air. After optimizing the geometrical parameters of the waveguide, we can achieve the waveguide's strong field confinement (ranging from λ^{2}/270 to λ^{2}/27) and long propagation distances (119-485 μm). In order to further understand the impact of the waveguide's architecture on its performance, we also studied the ridge hybrid waveguide. The results show that the ridge waveguide has moderate local field confinement ranging from λ^{2}/190 to λ^{2}/20 and its maximum propagation distance is about 340 μm. We compared the elliptic cylindrical and ridge nanowire hybrid waveguides with the cylindrical hybrid waveguide that we studied before. The elliptic cylindrical waveguide achieves a better trade-off between reasonable mode confinement and maximum propagation length in the three waveguides. The researched hybrid surface plasmon polaritons waveguides are useful to construct devices such as a directional coupler and may find potential applications in photonic integrated circuits or other novel SPP devices.
On the elliptic restricted three-body problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broucke, R.
1972-01-01
This article describes the most important features of the elliptic restricted three-body problem. The methods of numerical integration with recurrent power series are developed for both the equations of motion and the variational equations. The conditions for the existence of periodic orbits and families of periodic orbits are also outlined in detail, and finally illustrated with a family of symmetric periodic orbits.
Elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
The influence of the ellipticity parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved elliptical, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, elliptical, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.
Listening to Elliptic Speech: Pay Attention to Stressed Vowels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bond, Z. S.
University students were the subjects of three experiments designed to determine the usefulness of elliptic speech in investigating the perception of the phonological structure of continuous speech. Five naturally spoken and five synthesized paragraphs were recorded in two different randomizations of phonological distortions and at two different…
Elliptical polarization of Saturn Kilometric Radiation observed from high latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Lamy, L.; Ye, S.-Y.; Taubenschuss, U.; Macher, W.; Zarka, P.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.
2009-08-01
The high-inclination orbits of the Cassini spacecraft from autumn 2006 until spring 2007 allowed the Cassini/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument to observe Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) from latitudes up to 60° for the first time. This has revealed a surprising new property of SKR: above ˜30° in observational latitude, a significant amount of SKR is strongly elliptically polarized, in marked contrast to previous observations from low latitudes, which showed only circular polarization. There are transitional latitudes where the elliptical polarization occurs in “patches” in the time-frequency spectrograms next to regions of still completely circularly polarized SKR. From ˜45° to 60° in northern latitude, it is found that most of the SKR is elliptically polarized throughout its entire frequency range with an average degree of ˜0.7 in linear polarization. We demonstrate the ellipticity of SKR by using the concept of “apparent polarization” in case of two-antenna measurements, but also show three-antenna measurements from which the polarization can be unambiguously determined. Possible reasons for the variation of SKR polarization with the observer's latitude will be discussed.
Micromagnetic simulation of hysteresis loop of elliptic permalloy nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Amaresh Chandra
2016-09-01
Magnetic hysteresis behavior of isotropic permalloy elliptic nanorings of outer semi-major axis length (aout) 100 nm and thickness (t) 20 nm were studied with respect to the variation of two parameters: outer semiminor axis length (bout) and the difference between outer and inner dimensions (r). The outer semiminor axis length (bout) varied from 90 nm to 20 nm which covers from nearly circular nanoring to elliptic nanoring of high aspect ratio. The value of r varied in steps of 10 nm. Micromagnetic simulation of in-plane hysteresis curve of these nanorings revealed that the remanent state of all of these elliptic rings are onion states if the magnetic field is applied along the longer side of the elliptic rings. If the magnetic field is applied along the shorter side, then the remanent states turn out to be vortex state. The hysteresis loss indicated by area of the hysteresis loop was found to be decreasing gradually with the increment of either r or bout. On the other hand, the remanent magnetization increased with increment of r but decreased with the increment of bout. The changes were attributed to three parameters mainly: inner curvature, exchange energy and demagnetization energy. The changes in loop area were discussed in light of variation of these three parameters.
The use of MACSYMA for solving elliptic boundary value problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thejll, Peter; Gilbert, Robert P.
1990-01-01
A boundary method is presented for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems. An approach based on the use of complete systems of solutions is emphasized. The discussion is limited to the Dirichlet problem, even though the present method can possibly be adapted to treat other boundary value problems.
Elliptical galaxies kinematics within general relativity with renormalization group effects
Rodrigues, Davi C.
2012-09-01
The renormalization group framework can be applied to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-time, but there is no proof whether the beta-function of the gravitational coupling indeed goes to zero in the far infrared or not. In a recent paper [1] we have shown that the amount of dark matter inside spiral galaxies may be negligible if a small running of the General Relativity coupling G is present (δG/G{sub 0}∼<10{sup −7} across a galaxy). Here we extend the proposed model to elliptical galaxies and present a detailed analysis on the modeling of NGC 4494 (an ordinary elliptical) and NGC 4374 (a giant elliptical). In order to compare our results to a well known alternative model to the standard dark matter picture, we also evaluate NGC 4374 with MOND. In this galaxy MOND leads to a significative discrepancy with the observed velocity dispersion curve and has a significative tendency towards tangential anisotropy. On the other hand, the approach based on the renormalization group and general relativity (RGGR) could be applied with good results to these elliptical galaxies and is compatible with lower mass-to-light ratios (of about the Kroupa IMF type)
Molecular gas in elliptical galaxies with dust lanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Zhong; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Ishizuki, Sumio
1992-01-01
We have searched for CO(1-0) line emission in eight dust lane elliptical and lenticular galaxies using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. Five of the eight galaxies, including the well-studied elliptical NGC 1052, have CO emission at above the 5-sigma level, with inferred molecular gas masses ranging from 10 exp 8 to a few times 10 exp 9 solar masses. Our selection criterion differs from previous surveys in that it does not depend on the FIR fluxes, and thus is less sensitive to the sizes and distances of the host galaxies or to the degree to which dust is heated. The relatively high detection rate of CO in these ellipticals suggests a close correlation between molecular mass and cold dust. Compared with previously studied samples of FIR selected early-type galaxies, our sample has on average four times more CO emission per unit FIR (40-120 microns) luminosity. If the intrinsic gas-to-dust ratio of these galaxies as similar to that of the Milky Way, then only about 5 percent of the dust mass in dust lane ellipticals radiates substantially at 60 and 100 microns, and the remaining dust must be colder than about 30 K.
The infrared emission from the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becklin, E. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.
1982-01-01
Multi-aperture IR photometry of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 shows that its IR excess is confined to a region smaller than 2 arc sec (300 pc) in diameter coincident with the visible nucleus. It is suggested that the emission in the 5-20 micron range arises from dust heated by the nonthermal source seen at other wavelengths.
Massey products for elliptic curves of rank 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Minhyong
2010-07-01
For an elliptic curve over {Q} of rank 1, integral j -invariant, and suitable finiteness in the Tate-Shafarevich group, we use the level-two Selmer variety and secondary cohomology products to find explicit analytic defining equations for global integral points inside the set of p -adic points.
Source identification problem for an elliptic-hyperbolic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Tetikoglu, Fatma Songul Ozesenli; Kahraman, Tulay
2016-08-01
In the present paper, a boundary value problem for the differential equation with parameter in a Hilbert space with self-adjoint definite operator is investigated. The well-posedness of this problem is presented. The stability inequalities for the solution of source identification problem for elliptic-hyperbolic equations are given.
Elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide.
Zhang, Li; Xiong, Qiulin; Li, Xiaopeng; Ma, Junxian
2015-08-10
We researched an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide and evaluated its mode characteristics using the finite element method software COMSOL. The waveguide consists of three parts: an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire, a silver film layer, and a silica covering layer between them. All of the components are surrounded by air. After optimizing the geometrical parameters of the waveguide, we can achieve the waveguide's strong field confinement (ranging from λ^{2}/270 to λ^{2}/27) and long propagation distances (119-485 μm). In order to further understand the impact of the waveguide's architecture on its performance, we also studied the ridge hybrid waveguide. The results show that the ridge waveguide has moderate local field confinement ranging from λ^{2}/190 to λ^{2}/20 and its maximum propagation distance is about 340 μm. We compared the elliptic cylindrical and ridge nanowire hybrid waveguides with the cylindrical hybrid waveguide that we studied before. The elliptic cylindrical waveguide achieves a better trade-off between reasonable mode confinement and maximum propagation length in the three waveguides. The researched hybrid surface plasmon polaritons waveguides are useful to construct devices such as a directional coupler and may find potential applications in photonic integrated circuits or other novel SPP devices. PMID:26368373
Spectroscopic ellipsometer based on direct measurement of polarization ellipticity
Watkins, Lionel R.
2011-06-20
A polarizer-sample-Wollaston prism analyzer ellipsometer is described in which the ellipsometric angles {psi} and {Delta} are determined by direct measurement of the elliptically polarized light reflected from the sample. With the Wollaston prism initially set to transmit p- and s-polarized light, the azimuthal angle P of the polarizer is adjusted until the two beams have equal intensity. This condition yields {psi}={+-}P and ensures that the reflected elliptically polarized light has an azimuthal angle of {+-}45 deg. and maximum ellipticity. Rotating the Wollaston prism through 45 deg. and adjusting the analyzer azimuth until the two beams again have equal intensity yields the ellipticity that allows {Delta} to be determined via a simple linear relationship. The errors produced by nonideal components are analyzed. We show that the polarizer dominates these errors but that for most practical purposes, the error in {psi} is negligible and the error in {Delta} may be corrected exactly. A native oxide layer on a silicon substrate was measured at a single wavelength and multiple angles of incidence and spectroscopically at a single angle of incidence. The best fit film thicknesses obtained were in excellent agreement with those determined using a traditional null ellipsometer.
Stable Bundles on Non-Kähler Elliptic Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brînzănescu, Vasile; Moraru, Ruxandra
2005-03-01
In this paper, we study the moduli spaces of stable rank-2 vector bundles on non-Kähler elliptic surfaces, thus giving a classification of these bundles; in the case of Hopf and Kodaira surfaces, these moduli spaces admit the structure of an algebraically completely integrable Hamiltonian system.
A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brizard, Alain J.
2009-01-01
The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…
Free vibration of simply supported and clamped elliptical plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, K. L.; Rao, A. V.; Rao, B. N.
1992-10-01
An approximate formulation of a simply supported and clamped elliptical plate is described which is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz technique with a three-term deflection function. A comparison of the fundamental frequency parameters for the case under consideration is presented.
The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies
Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.
2014-02-10
The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.
Exploring Strange Nonchaotic Attractors through Jacobian Elliptic Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garcia-Hoz, A. Martinez; Chacon, R.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the effectiveness of Jacobian elliptic functions (JEFs) for inquiring into the reshaping effect of quasiperiodic forces in nonlinear nonautonomous systems exhibiting strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). Specifically, we characterize analytically and numerically some reshaping-induced transitions starting from SNAs in the context of…
Uniting old stellar systems: from globular clusters to giant ellipticals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forbes, Duncan A.; Lasky, Paul; Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee
2008-10-01
Elliptical galaxies and globular clusters (GCs) have traditionally been regarded as physically distinct entities due to their discontinuous distribution in key scaling diagrams involving size, luminosity and velocity dispersion. Recently this distinctness has been challenged by the discovery of stellar systems with mass intermediate between those of GCs and dwarf ellipticals (such as ultracompact dwarfs and dwarf galaxy transition objects). Here we examine the relationship between the virial and stellar mass for a range of old stellar systems, from GCs to giant ellipticals, and including such intermediate-mass objects (IMOs). Improvements on previous work in this area include the use of (i) near-infrared magnitudes from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), (ii) aperture corrections to velocity dispersions, (iii) homogeneous half-light radii and (iv) accounting for the effects of non-homology in galaxies. We find a virial-to-stellar mass relation that ranges from ~104Msolar systems (GCs) to ~1012Msolar systems (elliptical galaxies). The lack of measured velocity dispersions for dwarf ellipticals with -16 > MK > -18 (~108Msolar) currently inhibits our ability to determine how, or indeed if, these galaxies connect continuously with GCs in terms of their virial-to-stellar mass ratios. We find elliptical galaxies to have roughly equal fractions of dark and stellar matter within a virial radius; only in the most massive (greater than 1012Msolar) ellipticals does dark matter dominate the virial mass. Although the IMOs reveal slightly higher virial-to-stellar mass ratios than lower mass GCs, this may simply reflect our limited understanding of their initial mass function (and hence their stellar mass-to-light ratios) or structural properties. We argue that most of these IMOs have similar properties to massive GCs, i.e. IMOs are essentially massive star clusters. Only the dwarf spheroidal galaxies exhibit behaviour notably distinct from the other stellar systems examined
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulas, Evangelos; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Podladchikov, Yuri
2014-09-01
Shear zones and competent layers and boudins represent viscosity heterogeneities within the rock mass. Differences in viscosity impel differences in strain rates between the background material and the heterogeneities. In this work, we represent the viscosity heterogeneities as elliptical inclusions. We use the Kolosov-Muskhelishvili equations for the incompressible viscous flow problem in and around elliptical inclusions. Systematic investigation of the stress equilibrium at the matrix-inclusion interface shows that the mean stress, equivalent to the total pressure, is not continuous across viscosity boundaries. The results predict that pressure and stress perturbations depend strongly on the orientation of the elliptical heterogeneity with respect to the far-field stresses. A viscosity ratio of 10 between the inclusion and the surrounding material is sufficient to produce pressure discontinuities approximately equal to the magnitude of the effective shear stress of the strongest rock under the considered physical conditions. Comparison of the analytical solutions with thermo-mechanical models confirms pressure incongruity and suggests that dynamic parameters such as pressure and effective shear stress vary spatially and temporally within deforming, two-viscosity rock systems. As a corollary, the dependence of metamorphic phase equilibria on thermodynamic pressure implies that shear zones, taken as weak inclusions, and boudins, taken as hard inclusions, may record non-lithostatic pressure during deformation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.
1993-01-01
Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.
Elliptical Galaxy Kinematics and Dark Matter Halos with VIRUS-P
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.
2012-01-01
Dark matter is now ubiquitous in galactic astronomy, yet our understanding of both its extent, shape, and influence on the evolution of galaxies remains poorly understood. In the case of giant elliptical galaxies, which typically reside in dense environments and accumulate their mass via a range of processes, yet maintain tight scaling relations between a wide variety of their parameters, our understanding of the dizzying variety of mechanisms involved is a work in progress. To this end I will discuss an ongoing project being carried out at McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph to characterize the dark matter halos, stellar anisotropy and stellar abundance patterns of the most massive galaxies in the local universe from measurements of integrated stellar light. We have observed 23 giant elliptical galaxies over a range of environments. Seven of the 23 galaxies in our data set our Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG). I will present spectra and kinematics for a subsample of the survey. Three-integral axisymmetric dynamical modeling, based on Schwarzschild's method of orbit-superposition, will be presented for 3 BCGs in our sample (NGC 4472, M87 and NGC 2832). For the case of M87 we have data extending to 5 effective radii which allows for a direct comparison between stellar kinematics and other mass tracers typically used at large radial distances where the stellar light has historically been too faint to extract reliable kinematics. The mass distribution of all 3 of these galaxies is dominated by their dark matter halo at large radii. The degree of stellar radial and tangential anisotropy of the stars is returned from the modeling process. I will discuss how the stellar anisotropy, combined with stellar abundance patterns from measurements of the Lick indices, can be used to infer how the most massive galaxies accumulated their mass over time.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access) This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.
Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.
Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming
2016-05-30
The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application. PMID:27410080
Sole Inversion Precomputation for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahmen, Erik; Okeya, Katsuyuki
This paper presents a new approach to precompute points [3]P, [5]P, ..., [2k-1]P, for some k ≥ 2 on an elliptic curve over \\mathbb{F}_p. Those points are required for the efficient evaluation of a scalar multiplication, the most important operation in elliptic curve cryptography. The proposed method precomputes the points in affine coordinates and needs only one single field inversion for the computation. The new method is superior to all known methods that also use one field inversion, if the required memory is taken into consideration. Compared to methods that require several field inversions for the precomputation, the proposed method is faster for a broad range of ratios of field inversions and field multiplications. The proposed method benefits especially from ratios as they occur on smart cards.
Tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots using exchange bias.
Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Menendez, E.; Salazar-Alvarez, G.; Baro, M. D.; Miron, M.; Rodamcq, B.; Dieny, B.; ICREA; Univ. Autonoma of Barcelona; Insti. Catala de Nanotecnologia; SPINTEC
2008-01-01
Exchange bias effects have been studied in elliptical dots composed of ferromagnetic Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-antiferromagnetic Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} bilayers. The magnetization reversal mechanisms and magnetic configurations have been investigated by magneto-optic Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy. Although the obtained bias fields in these dots are relatively small, the magnetization reversal is found to be influenced by the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic coupling. Namely, for some off-axis angles of measurement, the magnetization reversal mechanism of the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} ellipses depends on whether exchange bias is induced along the minor or major axis of the ellipses. Hence, exchange bias is shown to be an effective means for tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots after sample fabrication.
Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M. Bernety, Hossein; Yakovlev, Alexander B.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight elliptical metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the intrinsic properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal elliptical metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well.
Analysis of multigrid algorithms for nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic problems
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, J.
1988-10-01
We prove some new estimates for the convergence of multigrid algorithms applied to nonsymmetric and indefinite elliptic boundary value problems. We provide results for the so-called 'symmetric' multigrid schemes. We show that for the variable V-script-cycle and the W-script-cycle schemes, multigrid algorithms with any amount of smoothing on the finest grid converge at a rate that is independent of the number of levels or unknowns, provided that the initial grid is sufficiently fine. We show that the V-script-cycle algorithm also converges (under appropriate assumptions on the coarsest grid) but at a rate which may deteriorate as the number of levels increases. This deterioration for the V-script-cycle may occur even in the case of full elliptic regularity. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are given which illustrate the convergence behavior suggested by the theory.
Elliptic complexes over C∗-algebras of compact operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krýsl, Svatopluk
2016-03-01
For a C∗-algebra A of compact operators and a compact manifold M, we prove that the Hodge theory holds for A-elliptic complexes of pseudodifferential operators acting on smooth sections of finitely generated projective A-Hilbert bundles over M. For these C∗-algebras and manifolds, we get a topological isomorphism between the cohomology groups of an A-elliptic complex and the space of harmonic elements of the complex. Consequently, the cohomology groups appear to be finitely generated projective C∗-Hilbert modules and especially, Banach spaces. We also prove that in the category of Hilbert A-modules and continuous adjointable Hilbert A-module homomorphisms, the property of a complex of being self-adjoint parametrix possessing characterizes the complexes of Hodge type.
Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?
Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio
2016-01-01
Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495
Artist concept of Magellan spacecraft in elliptical orbit around Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
Magellan spacecraft is shown in elliptical orbit around Venus, collecting data (radar mapping), and then transmitting data back to Earth in this artist concept. When the spacecraft orbit is close to Venus the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) will image a swath between 9 and 15 nautical miles (10 and 17 statute miles), beginning at or near the north pole and continuing to the southern hemisphere. Subsequent swaths will slightly overlap and, during its primary mission, the spacecraft will map most of the planet. When the spacecraft moves into the part of its elliptical orbit farthest from Venus, the spacecraft high-gain antenna will be turned toward Earth and will send the data collected during the imaging to Earth. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Air
Artist concept of Magellan spacecraft in elliptical orbit around Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
Magellan spacecraft is shown in elliptical orbit around Venus, collecting data (radar mapping), and then transmitting data back to Earth in this artist concept. When the spacecraft orbit is close to Venus the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) will image a swath between 9 and 15 nautical miles (10 and 17 statute miles) (highlighted in image), beginning at or near the north pole and continuing to the southern hemisphere. Subsequent swaths will slightly overlap and, during its primary mission, the spacecraft will map most of the planet. When the spacecraft moves into the part of its elliptical orbit farthest from Venus, the spacecraft high-gain antenna will be turned toward Earth and will send the data collected during the imaging to Earth. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta is developing the sp
Resonances and bifurcations in systems with elliptical equipotentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchesiello, Antonella; Pucacco, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
We present a general analysis of the orbit structure of 2D potentials with self-similar elliptical equipotentials by applying the method of Lie transform normalization. We study the most relevant resonances and related bifurcations. We find that the 1:1 resonance is associated only with the appearance of the loops and leads to the destabilization of either one or the other normal modes, depending on the ellipticity of equipotentials. Inclined orbits are never present and may appear only when the equipotentials are heavily deformed. The 1:2 resonance determines the appearance of bananas and antibanana orbits: the first family is stable and always appears at a lower energy than the second, which is unstable. The bifurcation sequence also produces the variations in the stability character of the major-axis orbit and is modified only by very large deformations of the equipotentials. Higher order resonances appear at intermediate or higher energies and can be described with good accuracy.
Fast ellipse detection by elliptical arcs extracting and grouping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yipeng; Zhao, Chunhui
2015-03-01
A novel and simple ellipse detection method is proposed in this paper. First, Canny operator is carried on the gray image to get edge image. Second, all the edge segments are obtained from edge image and output gradients of edge segments for further analysis. According to gradient direction, the edge segments are split into primitive lines and arcs. Then elliptical arcs are extracted from the results of splitting and an efficient grouping strategy is proposed to group elliptical arcs coming from the same ellipse as candidate ellipse. Finally, least-square fitting method is implemented to estimate the parameters of these candidate ellipses. Experiment results show that the proposed method is robust to noise and fast for real-time implementation.
Mott scattering in an elliptically polarized laser field
Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Taj, S.
2004-08-01
We study Mott scattering in the presence of a strong elliptically polarized field. Using the first Born approximation and the Dirac-Volkov states for the electron, we obtain an analytic formula for the unpolarized differential cross section. This generalizes the results found for the linearly polarized field by Li et al. [ 67, 063409 (2003)] and for the circularly polarized field by Attaourti and Manaut [ 68, 067401 (2003)].
A dearth of dark matter in ordinary elliptical galaxies.
Romanowsky, Aaron J; Douglas, Nigel G; Arnaboldi, Magda; Kuijken, Konrad; Merrifield, Michael R; Napolitano, Nicola R; Capaccioli, Massimo; Freeman, Kenneth C
2003-09-19
The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies were studied with the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. The galaxies' velocity-dispersion profiles were found to decline with the radius, and dynamical modeling of the data indicates the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies' halos. This unexpected result conflicts with findings in other galaxy types and poses a challenge to current galaxy formation theories. PMID:12947033
Two elliptic closed geodesics on positively curved Finsler spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Huagui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we prove that for every Finsler n-dimensional sphere (Sn , F) with reversibility λ and flag curvature K satisfying (λ/1+λ) 2 < K ≤ 1, either there exist infinitely many closed geodesics, or there exist at least two elliptic closed geodesics and each linearized Poincaré map has at least one eigenvalue of the form e √{ - 1 } θ with θ being an irrational multiple of π.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn
2015-11-01
Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.
Instability of a supersonic shock free elliptic jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baty, Roy S.; Seiner, John M.; Ponton, Michael K.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of the measured and the computed spatial stability properties of an aspect ratio 2 supersonic shock free elliptic jet. The shock free nature of the elliptic jet provides an ideal test of validity of modeling the large scale coherent structures in the initial mixing region of noncircular supersonic jets with linear hydrodynamic stability theory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic data were measured. The data are used to compute the mean velocity profiles and to provide a description of the spatial composition of pressure waves in the elliptic jet. A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Rayleigh problem governing the inviscid linear spatial stability of the jet. The measured mean velocity profiles are used to provide a qualitative model for the cross sectional geometry and the smooth velocity profiles used in the stability analysis. Computational results are presented for several modes of instability at two jet cross sections. The acoustic measurements show that a varicose instability is the jet's perferred mode of motion. The stability analysis predicts that the Strouhal number varies linearly as a function of axial distance in the jet's initial mixing region, which is in good qualitative agreement with previous measurements.
Elliptic surface grid generation on minimal and parmetrized surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spekreijse, S. P.; Nijhuis, G. H.; Boerstoel, J. W.
1995-01-01
An elliptic grid generation method is presented which generates excellent boundary conforming grids in domains in 2D physical space. The method is based on the composition of an algebraic and elliptic transformation. The composite mapping obeys the familiar Poisson grid generation system with control functions specified by the algebraic transformation. New expressions are given for the control functions. Grid orthogonality at the boundary is achieved by modification of the algebraic transformation. It is shown that grid generation on a minimal surface in 3D physical space is in fact equivalent to grid generation in a domain in 2D physical space. A second elliptic grid generation method is presented which generates excellent boundary conforming grids on smooth surfaces. It is assumed that the surfaces are parametrized and that the grid only depends on the shape of the surface and is independent of the parametrization. Concerning surface modeling, it is shown that bicubic Hermite interpolation is an excellent method to generate a smooth surface which is passing through a given discrete set of control points. In contrast to bicubic spline interpolation, there is extra freedom to model the tangent and twist vectors such that spurious oscillations are prevented.
Theoretical results for fully flooded, elliptical hydrodynamic contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1982-01-01
The influence of the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters on minimum film thickness was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plate configuration) to 8 (a configuration approaching a line contact). The dimensionless speed parameter was varied over a range of nearly two orders of magnitude. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of bronze, steel, and silicon nitride and lubricants of praffinic and naphthemic mineral oils were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. Thirty-four different cases were used in obtaining the minimum film thickness formula H min = 3.63U to the 0.68 power G to the 0.49 power W to the -0.073 power 1-e to the 0.68K power). A simplified expression for the ellipticity parameter was found where k = 1.03 (r(y)/r(x)) to the 0.64 power. Contour plots were also shown which indicate in detail the pressure spike and two side lobes in which the minimum film thickness occurs. These theoretical solutions of film thickness have all the essential features of the previously reported experimental observations based upon optical interferometry.
Shape measurement biases from underfitting and ellipticity gradients
Bernstein, Gary M.
2010-08-21
With this study, precision weak gravitational lensing experiments require measurements of galaxy shapes accurate to <1 part in 1000. We investigate measurement biases, noted by Voigt and Bridle (2009) and Melchior et al. (2009), that are common to shape measurement methodologies that rely upon fitting elliptical-isophote galaxy models to observed data. The first bias arises when the true galaxy shapes do not match the models being fit. We show that this "underfitting bias" is due, at root, to these methods' attempts to use information at high spatial frequencies that has been destroyed by the convolution with the point-spread function (PSF) and/or by sampling. We propose a new shape-measurement technique that is explicitly confined to observable regions of k-space. A second bias arises for galaxies whose ellipticity varies with radius. For most shape-measurement methods, such galaxies are subject to "ellipticity gradient bias". We show how to reduce such biases by factors of 20–100 within the new shape-measurement method. The resulting shear estimator has multiplicative errors < 1 part in 10^{3} for high-S/N images, even for highly asymmetric galaxies. Without any training or recalibration, the new method obtains Q = 3000 in the GREAT08 Challenge of blind shear reconstruction on low-noise galaxies, several times better than any previous method.
Fast magnetohydrodynamic oscillations in an elliptical coronal arcade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz, A. J.
2006-09-01
Aims.A model of a elliptically shaped coronal arcade with piecewise constant density is discussed to explore the effects of curvature on radially polarised fast modes. It is important to test whether the main results in the straight and cylindrical geometries can be extrapolated to these more complex equilibria. Methods: .An equilibrium model for a force-free, line-tied elliptical arcade is introduced and a partial differential equation is derived for the velocity perturbation of the fast modes, which is solved analytically. The properties of the modes are studied in terms of the dispersion relation, which depends on the eccentricity, the arcade width, and the density contrast. Results: .Modes mainly contained in the cavity below the arcade are also present, and have avoided crossings with the modes of the arcade. Even the fundamental mode becomes leaky due to curvature. Approximated relations are deduced for the frequency of the modes and the spatial structure is discussed, focusing on the different families through which a rich mode spectrum can be classified. Conclusions: .The different types of modes of the spectrum are described and its relevance to observations is discussed. The periods obtained in Cartesian geometry provide a reasonable approximation, but this geometry lacks some other key ingredients: the damping rates are different and some types of modes present in the elliptical geometry are not sustained in the straight slab.
Tunnel Point Cloud Filtering Method Based on Elliptic Cylindrical Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhua, Ningning; Jiaa, Yonghong; Luo, Lun
2016-06-01
The large number of bolts and screws that attached to the subway shield ring plates, along with the great amount of accessories of metal stents and electrical equipments mounted on the tunnel walls, make the laser point cloud data include lots of non-tunnel section points (hereinafter referred to as non-points), therefore affecting the accuracy for modeling and deformation monitoring. This paper proposed a filtering method for the point cloud based on the elliptic cylindrical model. The original laser point cloud data was firstly projected onto a horizontal plane, and a searching algorithm was given to extract the edging points of both sides, which were used further to fit the tunnel central axis. Along the axis the point cloud was segmented regionally, and then fitted as smooth elliptic cylindrical surface by means of iteration. This processing enabled the automatic filtering of those inner wall non-points. Experiments of two groups showed coincident results, that the elliptic cylindrical model based method could effectively filter out the non-points, and meet the accuracy requirements for subway deformation monitoring. The method provides a new mode for the periodic monitoring of tunnel sections all-around deformation in subways routine operation and maintenance.
Major and minor axis kinematics of 22 ellipticals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth; Heckman, Timothy
1989-09-01
Rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles have been determined for the major and the minor axes of 22 elliptical galaxies. Rotation was detected in all but one galaxy, even though the sample was biased toward round ellipticals. Minor axis rotation larger than major axis rotation was measured in two galaxies, NGC 4406 and NGC 7507. Roughly 10 percent of ellipticals may show large minor axis velocities relative to those on the major axis. A simple model is used to derive a rotational axis from the observed minor and major axis velocities to a typical accuracy of 6 deg. The rotational and photometric minor axes aligned to better than 10 deg for 60 percent of the sample, implying that the direction of the angular momentum is related to the orientation of the figure of the galaxy. IC 1459 has a kinematically distinct core with its angular momentum opposite to the angular momentum of the outer parts, and NGC 4406 has a core with its angular momentum perpendicular to that of the outer parts.
Coherent effects in the field of elliptically polarized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreeva, Ch.; Biancalana, Valerio; Cartaleva, Stefka S.; Dancheva, Yordanka V.; Karaulanov, Todor S.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Nasyrov, K. A.
2004-06-01
In the present communication we report on the investigation of the effect of elliptically polarized laser light exciting the Fg=3 Cs D2 absorption line. Coherent resonances in Cs have been studied, obtained in Hanle configuration by scanning of magnetic field parallel to the light propagation direction. The resonances were investigated depending on the polarization of the irradiating light field. It has been observed that for linear polarization dark resonances in the fluorescence are registered, while for circularly polarized light, bright resonances are obtained, probably due to stray orthogonal magnetic field. For elliptical polarization a narrow peak appears superimposed on a broader dip. Theoretical description has been made, which shows that at elliptical polarization and orthogonal magnetic field in the case of weak light fields, a single peak in the excited state population is observed, while strong fields lead to the splitting of this peak into two peaks. The presence of both weak and strong light fields, probably due to reflection of the light beam on the cell walls, could lead to the experimentally observed fluorescence behaviour.
Elliptically polarized terahertz radiation from a chiral oxide
Takeda, R.; Kida, N. Sotome, M.; Okamoto, H.
2015-09-28
Polarization control of terahertz wave is a challenging subject in terahertz science and technology. Here, we report a simple method to control polarization state of the terahertz wave in terahertz generation process. At room temperature, terahertz radiation from a noncentrosymmetric and chiral oxide, sillenite Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}, is observed by the irradiation of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. The polarization state of the emitted terahertz wave is found to be elliptic with an ellipticity of ∼0.37 ± 0.10. Furthermore, the ellipticity was altered to a nearly zero (∼0.01 ± 0.01) by changing the polarization of the incident linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. Such a terahertz radiation characteristic is attributable to variation of the polarization state of the emitted terahertz waves, which is induced by retardation due to the velocity mismatch between the incident femtosecond laser pulse and generated terahertz wave and by the polarization tilting due to the optical activity at 800 nm.
Lost and found dark matter in elliptical galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekel, A.; Stoehr, F.; Mamon, G. A.; Cox, T. J.; Novak, G. S.; Primack, J. R.
2005-09-01
There is strong evidence that the mass of the Universe is dominated by dark matter, which exerts gravitational attraction but whose exact nature is unknown. In particular, all galaxies are believed to be embedded in massive haloes of dark matter. This view has recently been challenged by the observation of surprisingly low random stellar velocities in the outskirts of ordinary elliptical galaxies, which has been interpreted as indicating a lack of dark matter. Here we show that the low velocities are in fact compatible with galaxy formation in dark-matter haloes. Using numerical simulations of disk-galaxy mergers, we find that the stellar orbits in the outer regions of the resulting ellipticals are very elongated. These stars were torn by tidal forces from their original galaxies during the first close passage and put on outgoing trajectories. The elongated orbits, combined with the steeply falling density profile of the observed tracers, explain the observed low velocities even in the presence of large amounts of dark matter. Projection effects when viewing a triaxial elliptical can lead to even lower observed velocities along certain lines of sight.
Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kang, Soon Ahm
1991-01-01
The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.
Shape measurement biases from underfitting and ellipticity gradients
Bernstein, Gary M.
2010-08-21
With this study, precision weak gravitational lensing experiments require measurements of galaxy shapes accurate to <1 part in 1000. We investigate measurement biases, noted by Voigt and Bridle (2009) and Melchior et al. (2009), that are common to shape measurement methodologies that rely upon fitting elliptical-isophote galaxy models to observed data. The first bias arises when the true galaxy shapes do not match the models being fit. We show that this "underfitting bias" is due, at root, to these methods' attempts to use information at high spatial frequencies that has been destroyed by the convolution with the point-spread function (PSF)more » and/or by sampling. We propose a new shape-measurement technique that is explicitly confined to observable regions of k-space. A second bias arises for galaxies whose ellipticity varies with radius. For most shape-measurement methods, such galaxies are subject to "ellipticity gradient bias". We show how to reduce such biases by factors of 20–100 within the new shape-measurement method. The resulting shear estimator has multiplicative errors < 1 part in 103 for high-S/N images, even for highly asymmetric galaxies. Without any training or recalibration, the new method obtains Q = 3000 in the GREAT08 Challenge of blind shear reconstruction on low-noise galaxies, several times better than any previous method.« less
Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure from Gemini South
Asztalos, S J; Treadway, T; de Vries, W H; Rosenberg, L J; Burke, D; Claver, C; Saha, A; Puxley, P
2006-12-21
Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.
Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure From Gemini South
Asztalos, Stephen J.; de Vries, W.H.; Rosenberg, L.J; Treadway, T.; Burke, D.; Claver, C.; Saha, A.; Puxley, P.; /Gemini Observ., La Serena
2007-01-17
Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plana, H.; Boulesteix, J.; Amram, Ph.; Carignan, C.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.
1998-02-01
For the last ten years faint ionized gas detection has been carried out for elliptical galaxies with success. The kinematics is essential to understand galaxy gas origin and fate. Here we present a sample of 11 elliptical and lenticular galaxies observed with the ``Cigale" scanning Perot-Fabry instrument. For each galaxy monochromatic and velocity map of ionized gas is presented. Geometrical properties such as viewing angles and axis ratios are also derived from observations. Double gaseous components are found in 3 galaxies of our sample, implying an external origin for at least part of the observed gas. % Based on observations collected with the S.A.O. 6 m telescope located in Nizhnij Arkhyz (Russia), the 3.6 m CFH telescope and the 3.6 m telescope at ESO.
DISSIPATION AND EXTRA LIGHT IN GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. 'CUSP' ELLIPTICALS
Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Dutta, Suvendra N.; Hernquist, Lars; Kormendy, John; Lauer, Tod R.
2009-03-15
We study the origin and properties of 'extra' or 'excess' central light in the surface brightness profiles of cusp or power-law elliptical galaxies. Dissipational mergers give rise to two-component profiles: an outer profile established by violent relaxation acting on stars already present in the progenitor galaxies prior to the final stages of the merger, and an inner stellar population comprising the extra light, formed in a compact central starburst. By combining a large set of hydrodynamical simulations with data that span a broad range of profiles at various masses, we show that observed cusp ellipticals appear consistent with the predicted 'extra light' structure, and we use our simulations to motivate a two-component description of the observations that allows us to examine how the properties and mass of this component scale with, e.g., the mass, gas content, and other properties of the galaxies. We show how to robustly separate the physically meaningful extra light and outer, violently relaxed profile, and demonstrate that the observed cusps and 'extra light' are reliable tracers of the degree of dissipation in the spheroid-forming merger. We show that the typical degree of dissipation is a strong function of stellar mass, roughly tracing the observed gas fractions of disks of the same mass over the redshift range z {approx} 0-2. We demonstrate a correlation between the strength of this component and effective radius at fixed mass, in the sense that systems with more dissipation are more compact, sufficient to explain the discrepancy in the maximum phase-space and mass densities of ellipticals and their progenitor spirals. We show that the outer shape of the light profile in simulated and observed systems (when fit to properly account for the central light) does not depend on mass, with a mean outer Sersic index {approx}2.5. We also explore how this relates to, e.g., the shapes, kinematic properties, and stellar population gradients of ellipticals. Extra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cornish, C. R.
1983-01-01
Following reception and analog to digital conversion (A/D) conversion, atmospheric radar backscatter echoes need to be processed so as to obtain desired information about atmospheric processes and to eliminate or minimize contaminating contributions from other sources. Various signal processing techniques have been implemented at mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar facilities to estimate parameters of interest from received spectra. Such estimation techniques need to be both accurate and sufficiently efficient to be within the capabilities of the particular data-processing system. The various techniques used to parameterize the spectra of received signals are reviewed herein. Noise estimation, electromagnetic interference, data smoothing, correlation, and the Doppler effect are among the specific points addressed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The color image on the lower left shows a rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, looking north, and was acquired on the 4th sol, or martian day, of the rover's mission (Jan. 27, 2004). The yellow box outlines an area detailed in the top left image, which is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera. The top image uses solid colors to show several regions on or near the rock outcrop from which spectra were extracted: the dark soil above the outcrop (yellow), the distant horizon surface (aqua), a bright rock in the outcrop (green), a darker rock in the outcrop (red), and a small dark cobblestone (blue). Spectra from these regions are shown in the plot to the right.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
These IMP spectra show the characteristics of the rock surface measured by the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (blue), the soil trapped in pits on the rock surface (red), and the deposit of bright drift on the top of the rock. The area measured by the APXS has the properties expected for nearly unweathered igneous rock, and the soil trapped in the pits is intermediate to the unweathered rock and the highly weathered drift material.
An upper bound solution for the spread extrusion of elliptical sections
Abrinia, K.; Makaremi, M.
2007-04-07
The three dimensional problem of extrusion of elliptical sections with side material flow or spread has been formulated using the upper bound theory. The shape of the die for such a process is such that it could allow the material to flow sideways as well as in the forward direction. When flat faced dies are used a deforming region is developed with dead metal zones. Therefore this deforming region has been represented in the formulation based on the definitions of streamlines and stream surfaces. A generalized kinematically admissible velocity field was then derived for this formulation and strain rate components obtained for the upper bound solution. The general formulation for the deforming region and the velocity and strain rate fields allow for the optimization of the upper bound solution so that the nearest geometry of the deforming region and dead metal zone to the actual one was obtained.Using this geometry a die with similar surfaces to those of the dead metal zone is designed having converging and diverging surfaces to lead the material flow. The analysis was also carried out for this die and results were obtained showing a reduction in the extrusion pressure compared to the flat faced die. Effects of reduction of area, shape complexity, spread ratio and friction on the extrusion process were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.
1992-01-01
A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.
Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Shu-Jing; He, Xing-Dao
2016-06-01
A compact plasmonic waveguide system consisting of a rotating elliptical core ring (ECR) coupled two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides is proposed. Influences of the eccentricity and rotation angle of the elliptical core on the transmission characteristics are studied in detail, by using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. Compared with circular core in ring resonator, the elliptical core will lead to the asymmetric field distributions of intrinsic mode. Based on this, a 1×2 splitter is designed, in which the beam-splitting ratio can be adjusted by changing the eccentricity of the elliptical core. In addition, we find that the intrinsic mode of ECR rotate with elliptical core and gradually convert to its orthogonal mode. Separation of the pair orthogonal modes increases with growth of the eccentricity of the elliptical core. And, the higher order intrinsic mode corresponds to the shorter rotation angle of mode conversion.
Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole.
Miller, Jon M; Kaastra, Jelle S; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial
2015-10-22
Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/ultraviolet flares in galactic centres. Prior studies based on modelling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of hot, ionized gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event, ASASSN-14li in the galaxy PGC 043234. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow linewidths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometres per second are observed; these are below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocentre of an elliptical orbit. Flows of this sort are predicted by fundamental analytical theory and more recent numerical simulations. PMID:26490619
Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole.
Miller, Jon M; Kaastra, Jelle S; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial
2015-10-22
Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/ultraviolet flares in galactic centres. Prior studies based on modelling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of hot, ionized gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event, ASASSN-14li in the galaxy PGC 043234. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow linewidths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometres per second are observed; these are below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocentre of an elliptical orbit. Flows of this sort are predicted by fundamental analytical theory and more recent numerical simulations.
The demagnetizing energies of a uniformly magnetized cylinder with an elliptic cross-section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goode, D. A.; Rowlands, G.
2003-12-01
Analytic expressions for the demagnetizing energies are obtained in the form of partial series, for long elliptic cylinders and for squat ones where the ellipticity of the cross-section is unrestrained. This leaves just a small range where the demagnetizing energies are not well defined. It is found that by replacing the elliptic cylinders with rectangular blocks, a good approximation to the demagnetizing energy may be made in this small range.
Brane Constructions and BPS Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastogi, Ashwin
The object of this work is to exploit various constructions of string theory and M-theory to yield new insights into supersymmetric theories in both four and three dimensions. In 4d, we extend work on Seiberg-Witten theory to study and compute BPS spectra of the class of complete N = 2 theories. The approach we take is based on the program of geometric engineering, in which 4d theories are constructed from compactifications of type IIB strings on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this setup, the natural candidates for BPS states are D3 branes wrapped on supersymmetric 3-cycles in the Calabi-Yau. Our study makes use of the mathematical structure of quivers, whose representation theory encodes the notion of stability of BPS particles. Except for 11 exceptional cases, all complete theories can be constructed by wrapping stacks of two M5 branes on Riemann surfaces. By exploring the connection between quivers and M5 brane theories, we develop a powerful algorithm for computing BPS spectra, and give an in-depth study of its applications. In particular, we compute BPS spectra for all asymptotically free complete theories, as well as an infinite set of conformal SU(2)k theories with certain matter content. From here, we go on to apply the insight gained from our 4d study to 3d gauge theories. We consider the analog of the M5 brane construction in the case of 3d N = 2 theories: pairs of M5 branes wrapped on a 3-manifold. Using the ansantz of R-flow, we study 3-manifolds consisting of Riemann surfaces fibered over R. When the construction is non-singular, the resulting IR physics is described by a free abelian Chern-Simons theory. The mathematical data of a tangle captures the data of the gauge theory, and the Reidemeister equivalances on tangles correspond to dualities of physical descriptions. To obtain interacting matter, we allow singularities in the construction. By extending the tangle description to these singular cases, we find a set of generalized Reidemeister moves that
Cahill, Adam D. Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.
2014-10-15
X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Shali; Pan, Yingjun; Zhong, Xianxin; Xiong, Xiancai; Yang, Guohong; Liu, Zongli; Ding, Yongkun
2004-08-01
The X-ray spectrum emitted from laser-produced plasma contains plentiful information. X-ray spectrometer is a powerful tool for plasma diagnosis and studying the information and evolution of the plasma. X-ray concave (elliptical) curved crystals analyzer was designed and manufactured to investigate the properties of laser-produced plasma. The experiment was carried out on Mianyang Xingguang-II Facility and aimed at investigating the characteristics of a high density iron plasma. Experimental results using KAP, LIF, PET, and MICA curved crystal analyzers are described, and the spectra of Au, Ti laser-produced plasma are shown. The focusing crystal analyzer clearly gave an increase in sensitivity over a flat crystal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Edward C.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Heap, Sara R.; West, Donald K.; Schmitz, Marion
1988-01-01
The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Satellite has been in continuous operation since January 26, 1978. To date, approximately 65,000 spectra have been stored in an archive at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. A number of procedures have been generated to facilitate access to the data in the IUE spectral archive. This document describes the procedures which include on-line quick look of the displays, search of an observation data base for selected observations, and several methods for ordering data from the archive.
Excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the WMAP data?
Berntsen, Eirik; Hansen, Frode K. E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no
2013-12-10
We investigate claims of excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. Using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from 7 yr of observations by the WMAP satellite, we find, contrary to previous claims of a 10σ detection of excess ellipticity in the 3 yr data, that the ellipticity of hot and cold spots is perfectly consistent with simulated CMB maps based on the concordance cosmology. We further test for excess obliquity and excess skewness/kurtosis of ellipticity and obliquity and find the WMAP7 data consistent with Gaussian simulated maps.
On finiteness of type IIB compactifications: magnetized branes on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetič, Mirjam; Halverson, James; Klevers, Denis; Song, Peng
2014-06-01
The string landscape satisfies interesting finiteness properties imposed by supersymmetry and string-theoretical consistency conditions. We study = 1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type IIB string theory on smooth elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds at large volume with magnetized D9-branes and D5-branes. We prove that supersymmetry and tadpole cancellation conditions imply that there is a finite number of such configurations. In particular, we derive an explicitly computable bound on the number of magnetic flux quanta, as well as the number of D5-branes, which is independent of the continuous moduli of the setup. The proof applies if a number of easy to check geometric conditions of the twofold base are met. We show that these geometric conditions are satisfied for the almost Fano twofold bases given by each toric variety associated to a reflexive two-dimensional polytope as well as by the generic del Pezzo surfaces dP n with n = 0 ,…,8. Physically, this finiteness proof shows that there exist a finite collection of four-dimensional gauge groups and chiral matter spectra in the 4D supergravity theories realized by these compactifications. As a by-product we explicitly construct all generators of the Kähler cones of dP n and work out their relation to representation theory.
Stellar velocity dispersion in ARP 220 and NGC 6240: Elliptical galaxies in formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Rene; Wells, M.; Wright, G. S.; Joseph, R. D.; Nadeau, D.; James, P. A.
1994-12-01
We present high-resolution (R is approximately 7000) spectra of the 2.3 micron CO absorption bandhead of two luminous merging galaxies, NGC 6240 and Arp 220, obtained with CGS4 on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. We have also secured subarcsecond images of NGC 6240 at 2.2 micron using the Montreal Infrared Camera (MONICA) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The velocity dispersion (sigmaobs = FWHM/2.354) inferred from the broadening of the CO bandhead in the central 2 sec of the brightest nucleus of NGC 6240 is 359 +/- 21 km/s, which is among the highest values ever found in the center of a galaxy. Arp 220 shows a velocity dispersion of 150 +/- 21 km/s. The infrared light profile of NGC 6240 beyond a radius of 0.7 sec is well fitted by an r1/4 law, but the overall brightness distribution is best represented by a shallower profile such as a King (1966) profile with a core radius of 0.20 kpc. Both Arp 220 and NGC 6240 have mass densities, velocity dispersions, and central surface brightnesses consistent with the fundamental parameter plane of elliptical galaxies.
Multigrid lattice Boltzmann method for accelerated solution of elliptic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Dhiraj V.; Premnath, Kannan N.; Banerjee, Sanjoy
2014-05-01
A new solver for second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the multigrid (MG) technique is presented. Several benchmark elliptic equations are solved numerically with the inclusion of multiple grid-levels in two-dimensional domains at an optimal computational cost within the LB framework. The results are compared with the corresponding analytical solutions and numerical solutions obtained using the Stone's strongly implicit procedure. The classical PDEs considered in this article include the Laplace and Poisson equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, with the latter involving both constant and variable coefficients. A detailed analysis of solution accuracy, convergence and computational efficiency of the proposed solver is given. It is observed that the use of a high-order stencil (for smoothing) improves convergence and accuracy for an equivalent number of smoothing sweeps. The effect of the type of scheduling cycle (V- or W-cycle) on the performance of the MG-LBM is analyzed. Next, a parallel algorithm for the MG-LBM solver is presented and then its parallel performance on a multi-core cluster is analyzed. Lastly, a practical example is provided wherein the proposed elliptic PDE solver is used to compute the electro-static potential encountered in an electro-chemical cell, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this new solver in complex coupled systems. Several orders of magnitude gains in convergence and parallel scaling for the canonical problems, and a factor of 5 reduction for the multiphysics problem are achieved using the MG-LBM.
Direct Detections of Young Stars in Nearby Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, H. Alyson; Bregman, Joel N.
2013-06-01
Small amounts of star formation in elliptical galaxies are suggested by several results: surprisingly young ages from optical line indices, cooling X-ray gas, and mid-infrared dust emission. Such star formation has previously been difficult to directly detect, but using ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging, we have identified individual young stars and star clusters in four nearby ellipticals. Ongoing star formation is detected in all galaxies, including three ellipticals that have previously exhibited potential signposts of star-forming conditions (NGC 4636, NGC 4697, and NGC 4374), as well as the typical "red and dead" NGC 3379. The current star formation in our closest targets, where we are most complete, is between 2.0 and 9.8 × 10-5 M ⊙ yr-1. The star formation history was roughly constant from 0.5 to 1.5 Gyr (at (3-5) × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1), but decreased by a factor of several in the past 0.3 Gyr. Most star clusters have a mass between 102 and 104 M ⊙. The specific star formation rates of ~10-16 yr-1 (at the present day) or ~10-14 yr-1 (when averaging over the past Gyr) imply that a fraction 10-8 of the stellar mass is younger than 100 Myr and 10-5 is younger than 1 Gyr, quantifying the level of frosting of recent star formation over the otherwise passive stellar population. There is no obvious correlation between either the presence or spatial distribution of postulated star formation indicators and the star formation we detect. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 11583.
Orbital structure and mass distribution in elliptical galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kronawitter, Andi; Saglia, R. P.; Gerhard, Ortwin; Bender, Ralf
2000-05-01
We report on a homogeneous dynamical analysis of a sample of 21 round (17 E0/E1, 4 E2) elliptical galaxies. We present new kinematic data for eight of these galaxies and new photometry for one object. The remaining kinematic and photometric data and the required distance information are taken from the literature. The analysis uses non-parametric spherical models and takes into account line profile information as well as velocity dispersions. We present model fits to the kinematic data and the derived radial profiles of orbital anisotropy and B-band mass-to-light ratio, including confidence intervals. The circular velocity curves resulting from our model fits are all consistent with being flat outside R~ 0.3 R_e. Generally, the M/L ratio profiles show an outward increase, although models based on luminous matter are ruled out at 95% confidence only for three galaxies (NGC 2434, NGC 7507, NGC 7626). For NGC 1399, NGC 4472, NGC 4486, and NGC 4636, where X-ray observations are available, the mass profiles of the best fit models match the ones derived from the X-ray analysis. The best models for most galaxies are isotropic to slightly radially anisotropic, with typical beta <~0.3, in a few cases beta <~0 .5 at R_e/2. We discuss the generally small effects of flattening along the line-of-sight (the expected
DIRECT DETECTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN NEARBY ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Ford, H. Alyson; Bregman, Joel N.
2013-06-20
Small amounts of star formation in elliptical galaxies are suggested by several results: surprisingly young ages from optical line indices, cooling X-ray gas, and mid-infrared dust emission. Such star formation has previously been difficult to directly detect, but using ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging, we have identified individual young stars and star clusters in four nearby ellipticals. Ongoing star formation is detected in all galaxies, including three ellipticals that have previously exhibited potential signposts of star-forming conditions (NGC 4636, NGC 4697, and NGC 4374), as well as the typical ''red and dead'' NGC 3379. The current star formation in our closest targets, where we are most complete, is between 2.0 and 9.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The star formation history was roughly constant from 0.5 to 1.5 Gyr (at (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), but decreased by a factor of several in the past 0.3 Gyr. Most star clusters have a mass between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The specific star formation rates of {approx}10{sup -16} yr{sup -1} (at the present day) or {approx}10{sup -14} yr{sup -1} (when averaging over the past Gyr) imply that a fraction 10{sup -8} of the stellar mass is younger than 100 Myr and 10{sup -5} is younger than 1 Gyr, quantifying the level of frosting of recent star formation over the otherwise passive stellar population. There is no obvious correlation between either the presence or spatial distribution of postulated star formation indicators and the star formation we detect.
Lipschitz Regularity for Elliptic Equations with Random Coeffici