Science.gov

Sample records for speech justifications trump

  1. Dysphagic Independent Feeders' Justifications for Noncompliance with Recommendations by a Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colodny, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the various ways in which independent-feeding patients with dysphagia justified their noncompliance with swallowing recommendations suggested by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Sixty-three independent-feeding dysphagia patients between the ages of 65 and 100 years who had been identified by the SLP or…

  2. Why Confessions Trump Innocence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassin, Saul M.

    2012-01-01

    As illustrated by the story of Amanda Knox and many others wrongfully convicted, false confessions often trump factual innocence. Focusing on consequences, recent research suggests that confessions are powerfully persuasive as a matter of logic and common sense; that many false confessions contain richly detailed narratives and accurate crime…

  3. NEWS: TRUMP resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2000-05-01

    Support for astronomy in A-level physics aslogo Help is at hand for teachers and students choosing astronomy as part of A-level physics. The Teaching Resources Unit for Modern Physics (TRUMP) has produced a resource package covering all the astronomical options in the Edexcel, OCR and AQA (NEAB) syllabuses. The forerunner to TRUMP was the project that produced the highly successful Particle Physics Pack, sponsored by the Institute of Physics, which was instrumental in introducing particle physics into A-level syllabuses. The TRUMP Astrophysics Resource Package fills a gap between the colourful stimulus of popular materials on the one hand, and professional texts on the other. But this is not just another A-level textbook; the six-part resource pack has a similar structure and purpose to the Particle Physics Pack. It provides over 400 pages of comprehensive information for teachers, building on their existing subject knowledge and bringing them up to date as well as giving suggestions for teaching and notes on syllabus coverage. The package includes nearly 40 photocopiable sheets for students. The emphasis is on the physics that underpins the astronomy. There are details of student activities requiring no specialist equipment beyond that normally found in A-level labs, exercises using authentic data, and plenty of questions (all with worked solutions). The development of the TRUMP Astrophysics Package was funded by the Nuffield Foundation, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the Institute of Physics and York University. The package is available by mail order, price £48 (inc. UK p&p) from the TRUMP Project, Science Education Group, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD. Some parts may be purchased separately; for details contact the project's director, Elizabeth Swinbank (tel: 01904 434537, fax: 01904 434078, e-mail: es14@york.ac.uk) or consult the web page www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/trump. The BaBar experiment balogo In the spring of 1999

  4. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  5. Trump's policy may undermine pro-growth intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giberson, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In terms of energy policy, the Trump presidential campaign is largely aligned with mainstream Republican positions, evoking independence and deregulation. However, Trump's rhetoric and personality might inject uncertainties into long-term energy policies, increasing the risk inherent in energy related businesses.

  6. 3D TRUMP - A GBI launch window tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karels, Steven N.; Hancock, John; Matchett, Gary

    3D TRUMP is a novel GPS and communicatons-link software analysis tool developed for the SDIO's Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) program. 3D TRUMP uses a computationally efficient analysis tool which provides key GPS-based performance measures for an entire GBI mission's reentry vehicle and interceptor trajectories. Algorithms and sample outputs are presented.

  7. Scientific Integrity in Washington: Politics Trumps Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2005-04-01

    Numerous documented examples exist in which the current administration has either censored or distorted the recommendations and/or the results of government scientific advisory panels and agencies, or has interfered with the makeup of scientific advisory panels for apparently political purposes. These instances seem more broad ranging than any recent administration, republican or democrat, and have continued despite various public outcries. I will describe several examples from the physical sciences, and the biological sciences, and then discuss what we might do as a community to encourage the administration in its second term to work to ensure that politics does not trump science.

  8. Speech, Speech!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the nature of computer-generated speech and voice synthesis today. State-of-the-art devices for home computers are called text-to-speech (TTS) systems. Details about the operation and use of TTS synthesizers are provided, and the time saving in programing over previous methods is emphasized. (MP)

  9. Justification: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    This report analyses justifications gathered in a series of studies which led intellectually normal infants' school and nursery school children and mildly mentally retarded special day school children to acquire conservation understanding. Two hundred and five children were given a pretest of number, mass, length, liquid, and weight conservation.…

  10. TRUMP. Transient & S-State Temperature Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.C.; Turner, W.D.

    1992-03-03

    TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady-state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time-steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.

  11. Hate Speech or Free Speech: Can Broad Campus Speech Regulations Survive Current Judicial Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Gregory M.; Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    Federal courts have found speech regulations overbroad in suits against the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin System. Attempts to assess the theoretical justification and probable fate of broad speech regulations that have not been explicitly rejected by the courts. Concludes that strong arguments for broader regulation will…

  12. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  13. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Cancer.gov

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  14. NOTRUMP, an updated version of TRUMP. [For CDC-7600 and CRAY-1

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, L.D.

    1980-09-29

    A description is given of a new version of the TRUMP (UCRL-14754) computer code, NOTRUMP, which runs on both the CDC-7600 and CRAY-1. There are slight differences in the input and major changes in output capability. A postprocessor, AFTER, is available to manipulate some of the new output features. Old data decks for TRUMP will normally run with only minor changes.

  15. Exploring Justifications and Enactment of Justification Curriculum in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Store, Jessie C.

    2015-01-01

    Standards for mathematics teaching require teachers to employ teaching practices that promote justification of mathematical ideas. This expected teaching practice is situated in substantial research on students' and teachers' difficulties with justifying mathematical ideas. This study shows different ways elementary school students in grades three…

  16. [Rate Justification for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) for Central Florida, Inc., Orlando.

    This brief report argues against the cost analysis process currently used as a form of rate justification by states and central agencies who are purchasing child care. Instead, a logic is proposed for negotiated rates based on expected levels of necessary costs and reasonable rates in comparison with open market levels as shown on day care…

  17. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  18. Parameter justification report for DRSPALL.

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Hansen, Francis D.; Lord, David L.

    2003-10-01

    A new conceptual model has been developed for drilling intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The model is implemented in a new code, DRSPALL, which captures the physics of the spallings release phenomena. The new conceptual model and code required parallel development of a family of parameters that adequately describe the properties of the system. This report introduces the various parameters implemented in the new spallings model, and provides justification for values and ranges of new parameters not currently in the performance assessment database.

  19. Introduction of Transplant Registry Unified Management Program 2 (TRUMP2): scripts for TRUMP data analyses, part I (variables other than HLA-related data).

    PubMed

    Atsuta, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Collection and analysis of information on diseases and post-transplant courses of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients have played important roles in improving therapeutic outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Efficient, high-quality data collection systems are essential. The introduction of the Second-Generation Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP2) is intended to improve data quality and more efficient data management. The TRUMP2 system will also expand possible uses of data, as it is capable of building a more complex relational database. The construction of an accessible data utilization system for adequate data utilization by researchers would promote greater research activity. Study approval and management processes and authorship guidelines also need to be organized within this context. Quality control of processes for data manipulation and analysis will also affect study outcomes. Shared scripts have been introduced to define variables according to standard definitions for quality control and improving efficiency of registry studies using TRUMP data.

  20. Justification Beliefs and Multiple-Documents Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bråten, Ivar; Ferguson, Leila E.; Strømsø, Helge I.; Anmarkrud, Øistein

    2013-01-01

    Building on the multidimensional framework of epistemic cognition proposed by Greene et al. ("Educational Psychologist" 43:142--160, 2008), this study examined beliefs about justification of knowledge claims in science among 65 Norwegian 10th graders. The first research question asked whether beliefs in personal justification,…

  1. Doing the Math: Supporting Student Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carolyn; Philiben, Lyn; Knievel, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Teachers have found that engaging students in justification can help students deepen and retain mathematical knowledge, gain a greater sense of ownership over the material, and improve communication and representation skills (Staples, Bartlo, and Thanheiser 2012). Student engagement in a justification activity can also lead to more equitable…

  2. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  3. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  4. The Development of Justifications for Moral Judgements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Peter E.; Claydon, Leslie F.

    This document reports on two studies that used a novel approach to categorize justifications for moral judgments made by Australian subjects from 7 to 15 and from 7 to 21 years of age. The coding categories consisted of levels of abstraction and reflection. Level of abstraction was determined by the reference group used in justifications. Levels…

  5. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  6. The Illusion of Argument Justification

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Argumentation is an important way to reach new understanding. Strongly caring about an issue, which is often evident when dealing with controversial issues, has been shown to lead to biases in argumentation. We suggest that people are not well calibrated in assessing their ability to justify a position through argumentation, an effect we call the illusion of argument justification. Furthermore we find that caring about the issue further clouds this introspection. We first show this illusion by measuring the difference between ratings before and after producing an argument for one’s own position. The strength of the illusion is predicted by the strength of care for a given issue (Study 1). The tacit influences of framing and priming do not override the effects of emotional investment in a topic (Study 2). However, explicitly considering counterarguments removes the effect of care when initially assessing the ability to justify a position (Study 3). Finally, we consider our findings in light of other recent research and discuss the potential benefits of group reasoning. PMID:23506085

  7. The illusion of argument justification.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C

    2014-02-01

    Argumentation is an important way to reach a new understanding. Strongly caring about an issue, which is often evident when dealing with controversial issues, has been shown to lead to biases in argumentation. We suggest that people are not well calibrated in assessing their ability to justify a position through argumentation, an effect we call the illusion of argument justification. Furthermore, we find that caring about the issue further clouds this introspection. We first show this illusion by measuring the difference between ratings before and after producing an argument for one's own position. The strength of the illusion is predicted by the strength of care for a given issue (Study 1). The tacit influences of framing and priming do not override the effects of emotional investment in a topic (Study 2). However, explicitly considering counterarguments removes the effect of care when initially assessing the ability to justify a position (Study 3). Finally, we consider our findings in light of other recent research and discuss the potential benefits of group reasoning.

  8. Signals Can Trump Rewards in Attracting Seed-Dispersing Ants

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kyle M.; Frederickson, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes) of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds. PMID:23967257

  9. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kyle M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes) of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds. PMID:23967257

  10. Speech Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutoit, Thierry; Bozkurt, Baris

    Text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is the art of designing talking machines. It is often seen by engineers as an easy task, compared to speech recognition.1 It is true, indeed, that it is easier to create a bad, first trial text-to-speech (TTS) system than to design a rudimentary speech recognizer.

  11. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J

    1995-01-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics. PMID:7776343

  12. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  13. Guidance and justification in particularistic ethics.

    PubMed

    Kihlbom, U

    2000-10-01

    This paper argues that, contrary to a common line of criticism followed by scholars such as Helga Kuhse, a particularistic version of virtue ethics properly elaborated, can provide sound moral guidance and a satisfactory account for moral justification of our opinions regarding, for instance, health care practice. In the first part of the paper, three criteria for comparing normative theories with respect to action-guiding power are outlined, and it is argued that the presented particularistic version of virtue ethics actually can provide more guidance than the universalistic theories followed by Kuhse and others. In the second part of the paper it is claimed that universalist normative theories have serious problems accounting for the role that moral principles are supposed to play in the justification, of moral opinions, whereas the present version of virtue ethics accommodates a plausible alternative idea of justification without invoking moral principles or eschewing objectivity. PMID:11758585

  14. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  15. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  16. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  17. Justification Enlightenment and Combining Constructions of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    This case study deals with a solitary learner's process of mathematical justification during her investigation of bifurcation points in dynamic systems. Her motivation to justify the bifurcation points drove the learning process. Methodologically, our analysis used the nested epistemic actions model for abstraction in context. In previous work, we…

  18. Can the Justification Defence Be Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Byrdena M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a Newfoundland (Canada) Supreme Court case overturning a teacher's conviction for assault for slapping an unruly child. Discusses the Canadian Criminal Code's "justification" provision that allows parents and teachers to use "reasonable" force to correct a child, and efforts to abolish the provision that argue it institutionalizes…

  19. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  20. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  1. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  2. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    PubMed

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications. PMID:27120823

  3. Accent trumps race in guiding children’s social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; DeJesus, Jasmine; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers’ language, accent, and race on children’s social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose same-race children as friends when the target children were silent, but they chose other-race children with a native accent when accent was pitted against race. A control experiment provided evidence that children’s privileging of accent over race was not due to the relative familiarity of each dimension. The results, discussed in an evolutionary framework, suggest that children preferentially evaluate others along dimensions that distinguished social groups in prehistoric human societies. PMID:21603154

  4. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... of speech disorders may disappear on their own. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or speech ... the disorder. Speech can often be improved with speech therapy. Early treatment is likely to have better results.

  5. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  6. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  7. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. PLAYING THE TRUMP OF DUALITY IN DISCUSS: UPGRADING POCER WITH QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS.

    PubMed

    Wustenberghs, H; Fevery, D; De Schaetzen, C; Delcour, I; D'Haene, K; Lauwers, L; Marchand, F; Taragola, N; Steurbaut, W; Spanoghe, P

    2014-01-01

    DISCUSS, the Dual Indicator Set for Sustainable Crop protection Sustainability Surveys, was designed to help farmers achieve more sustainable crop protection. The indicator set pairs risk indicators--POCER--, with response indicators--a management questionnaire. Both parts of DISCUSS are indicators in their own right, but the dual risk-response setup has the additional trump that the questionnaire reveals farm level information, by which POCER calculations are refined. Simulations with personal protection and drift mitigation measures illustrate how DISCUSS can be used to support the farmers' crop protection decisions.

  9. On the justification for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Høyer, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores some of the controversies in the debate regarding the justification of civil commitment. The sometimes conflicting values reflected in the mental health legislation, human rights principles, moral philosophy and psychiatric professional standards are discussed. In spite of the often substantial use of civil commitment in many countries, there are almost no scientifically sound studies addressing the outcome of coercive treatment. The paper establishes that the traditional arguments in favour of civil commitment, like lack of insight and competence as well as the effectiveness of civil commitment, are poorly founded. The paper concludes that there seems to be a general agreement that civil commitment of patients who are dangerous to themselves or others should be the responsibility of the mental health care system, while civil commitment for treatment purposes is more controversial and hard to justify.

  10. Justification of the hybrid nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Garcheva-Tsacheva, Marina B

    2015-07-01

    The annual frequency of nuclear medicine examinations is increasing worldwide. This is partly a consequence of the recently introduced single photon emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, techniques, which combine functional, metabolic and morphological information important for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, since the effective radiation dose is the sum of the dose of two components, the hybrid examinations result in increased patient exposure. Accordingly, their justification becomes mandatory. It starts with their clinical importance-the opportunity to resolve a clinical problem decisive for patients' management. Knowledge of the indications, contraindications and the examinations' limitations is the responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician, as well as the choice of the most adequate examination and protocol. In conclusion, the cost and the accessibility of the examinations should not be the principal consideration as opposed to the diagnostic value and the exposure. Flexible protocols and algorithms should be used for hybrid nuclear medicine examinations.

  11. R. S. Peters' "The Justification of Education" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2012-01-01

    In his 1973 paper "The Justification of Education" R. S. Peters aspired to give a non-instrumental justification of education. Ever since, his so-called "transcendental argument" has been under attack and most critics conclude that it does not work. They have, however, thrown the baby away with the bathwater, when they furthermore concluded that…

  12. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  13. Fostering Argument Justification Using Collaboration Scripts and Content Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Birgitta; Mandl, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the manner in which learners' justifications for arguments are supported during collaborative task-solving in a virtual learning setting. In particular, it investigates the effects of a collaboration script and a content scheme on the learners' ability to provide adequate justifications for arguments pertaining to collaborative…

  14. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  15. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  16. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  17. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  18. 48 CFR 570.502-1 - Justification and approval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the alteration project will not exceed the micro-purchase threshold identified in FAR 2.101(b), no justification and approval is required. (b) If the alteration project will exceed the micro-purchase...

  19. 48 CFR 570.502-1 - Justification and approval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the alteration project will not exceed the micro-purchase threshold identified in FAR 2.101(b), no justification and approval is required. (b) If the alteration project will exceed the micro-purchase...

  20. 48 CFR 570.502-1 - Justification and approval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the alteration project will not exceed the micro-purchase threshold identified in FAR 2.101(b), no justification and approval is required. (b) If the alteration project will exceed the micro-purchase...

  1. 48 CFR 570.502-1 - Justification and approval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the alteration project will not exceed the micro-purchase threshold identified in FAR 2.101(b), no justification and approval is required. (b) If the alteration project will exceed the micro-purchase...

  2. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  3. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  4. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  5. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  6. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

  7. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  8. Justification of staff positions in a tightening marketplace.

    PubMed

    Burt, C

    1988-01-01

    Recend economic and political changes in the health care environment have made justification of both new and vacant staff positions increasingly difficult. Occupational therapy managers have been forced with balancing higher program costs with reduced reimbursement. As a result, requests to increase or refill positions are closely scrutinized. Managers must be able to develop staff justifications utilizing program, productivity, wst, revenue and reimbursement projections based on viable marketing surveys. This paer resents guidelines for development of a marketing survey. &a& and rogram options based on the results of such a survey are examine ! and discussed. A staffing justification proposal is included which demonstrates an effective method whtch can use to develop dynamic programs and services to ensure continued growth of the profession of occupational therapy.nd=yes&

  9. Ethics, justification and the prevention of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Gagen, Wendy Jane; Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    During the 1970s, prenatal screening technologies were in their infancy, but were being swiftly harnessed to uncover and prevent spina bifida. The historical rise of this screening process and prevention programme is analysed in this paper, and the role of ethical debates in key studies, editorials and letters reported in the Lancet, and other related texts and governmental documents between 1972 and 1983, is considered. The silence that surrounded rigorous ethical debate served to highlight where discussion lay—namely, within the justifications offered for the prevention of spina bifida, and the efficacy and benefits of screening. In other words, the ethical justification for screening and prevention of spina bifida, when the authors are not explicitly interested in ethics, is considered. These justifications held certain notions of disability as costly to society, with an imperative to screen and prevent spina bifida for the good of the society. PMID:17761816

  10. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  11. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  12. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R

    1995-10-24

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  13. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  14. Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change: University Education Trumps Value Profile

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Erik; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Do forest owners’ levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT) has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are more concerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientific literacy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump the positive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here, using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany, we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelated with, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained without reference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientific literacy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported by the forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found to reduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university education increased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university education was not dependent on the individuals' value profile. PMID:27223473

  15. The Cultural Evolution of Human Communication Systems in Different Sized Populations: Usability Trumps Learnability

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability. PMID:23967243

  16. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  17. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability. PMID:23967243

  18. Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change: University Education Trumps Value Profile.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Persson, Erik; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Do forest owners' levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT) has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are more concerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientific literacy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump the positive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here, using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany, we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelated with, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained without reference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientific literacy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported by the forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found to reduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university education increased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university education was not dependent on the individuals' value profile.

  19. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  20. Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change: University Education Trumps Value Profile.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Persson, Erik; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Do forest owners' levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT) has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are more concerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientific literacy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump the positive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here, using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany, we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelated with, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained without reference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientific literacy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported by the forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found to reduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university education increased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university education was not dependent on the individuals' value profile. PMID:27223473

  1. Verification of combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code FLOWNET/TRUMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Soh; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the verification results of the combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code, FLOWNET/TRUMP which has been utilized for the core thermal hydraulic design, especially for the analysis of flow distribution among fuel block coolant channels, the determination of thermal boundary conditions for fuel block stress analysis and the estimation of fuel temperature in the case of fuel block coolant channel blockage accident in the design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR), which the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been planning to construct in order to establish basic technologies for future advanced very high temperature gas-cooled reactors and to be served as an irradiation test reactor for promotion of innovative high temperature new frontier technologies. The verification of the code was done through the comparison between the analytical results and experimental results of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop Multi-channel Test Section(HENDEL T(sub 1-M)) with simulated fuel rods and fuel blocks.

  2. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  3. Middle School Mathematics Students' Justification Schemes for Dividing Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Melina Michele

    2010-01-01

    Three theoretical frameworks were used to guide this intervention case study: dividing fractions; sociomathematical norms, and justification. Middle school mathematics students were given the opportunity to solve partitive and measurement division of fraction word problems with different contexts. The teacher purposefully implemented a…

  4. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  5. 41 CFR 109-26.501-52 - Justification for purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justification for purchase. 109-26.501-52 Section 109-26.501-52 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... purchase. (a) Requisitions for additions to the passenger motor vehicle fleet must contain adequate...

  6. 48 CFR 6.305 - Availability of the justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publicly available— (1) At the Government Point of Entry (GPE) www.fedbizopps.gov; (2) On the website of... contractor proprietary data and remove all such data, and such references and citations as are necessary to protect the proprietary data, before making the justifications available for public...

  7. 28 CFR 570.33 - Justification for furlough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Justification for furlough. 570.33 Section 570.33 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND..., social, civic, and religious activities which will facilitate release transition; (f) Appear in court...

  8. 28 CFR 570.33 - Justification for furlough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Justification for furlough. 570.33 Section 570.33 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND..., social, civic, and religious activities which will facilitate release transition; (f) Appear in court...

  9. 28 CFR 570.33 - Justification for furlough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Justification for furlough. 570.33 Section 570.33 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND..., social, civic, and religious activities which will facilitate release transition; (f) Appear in court...

  10. 28 CFR 570.32 - Justification for furlough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justification for furlough. 570.32 Section 570.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND... plans; (3) To reestablish family and community ties; (4) To participate in selected educational,...

  11. 28 CFR 570.33 - Justification for furlough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Justification for furlough. 570.33 Section 570.33 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND..., social, civic, and religious activities which will facilitate release transition; (f) Appear in court...

  12. How choice modifies preference: neural correlates of choice justification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jungang; Kimel, Sasha; Kitayama, Shinobu; Wang, Xiaoying; Yang, Xuedong; Han, Shihui

    2011-03-01

    When making a difficult choice, people often justify the choice by increasing their liking for the chosen object and decreasing their liking for the rejected object. To uncover the neural signatures of choice justification, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor neural activity when subjects rated their preference for chosen and rejected musical CDs before and after they made their choices. We observed that the trial-by-trial attitude change (i.e., increase of preference for chosen items and decrease of preference for rejected items) was predicted by post-choice activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), right temporal-parietal junction, anterior insula, and bilateral cerebellum. Furthermore, individual difference in choice justification (i.e., increased preference for chosen items minus decreased preference for rejected items) was predicted by post-choice neural activity in the dorsal MPFC, left lateral prefrontal cortex, and right precentral cortex positively. In addition, interdependent self-construal was correlated with decreased activity in the ventral MPFC in the post-choice than pre-choice sessions. These findings suggest that both negative arousal/regulation and self-reflection are associated with choice justification. This provides evidence for the self-threat theory of choice justification.

  13. 48 CFR 206.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Technology, and Logistics) may delegate this authority to— (A) An Assistant Secretary of Defense; or (B) For a defense agency, an officer or employee serving in, assigned, or detailed to that agency who— (1... justification. 206.304 Section 206.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  14. 48 CFR 206.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Technology, and Logistics) may delegate this authority to— (A) An Assistant Secretary of Defense; or (B) For a defense agency, an officer or employee serving in, assigned, or detailed to that agency who— (1... justification. 206.304 Section 206.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  15. 48 CFR 206.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Technology, and Logistics) may delegate this authority to— (A) An Assistant Secretary of Defense; or (B) For a defense agency, an officer or employee serving in, assigned, or detailed to that agency who— (1... justification. 206.304 Section 206.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  16. 48 CFR 206.304 - Approval of the justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Technology, and Logistics) may delegate this authority to— (A) An Assistant Secretary of Defense; or (B) For a defense agency, an officer or employee serving in, assigned, or detailed to that agency who— (1... justification. 206.304 Section 206.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  17. 16 CFR 1702.7 - Justification for the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Justification for the exemption. 1702.7 Section 1702.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS;...

  18. 16 CFR 1702.7 - Justification for the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Justification for the exemption. 1702.7 Section 1702.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS;...

  19. 16 CFR 1702.7 - Justification for the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Justification for the exemption. 1702.7 Section 1702.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS;...

  20. 16 CFR 1702.7 - Justification for the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Justification for the exemption. 1702.7 Section 1702.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS;...

  1. 16 CFR 1702.7 - Justification for the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Justification for the exemption. 1702.7 Section 1702.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS;...

  2. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  3. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  4. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  5. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  6. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  7. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    SciTech Connect

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  8. Speech research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Atal, B.S.; Rabiner, L.R.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current activities in speech research. The authors discuss the state of the art in speech coding, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition. In the speech coding area, current algorithms perform well at bit rates down to 9.6 kb/s, and the research is directed at bringing the rate for high-quality speech coding down to 2.4 kb/s. In text-to-speech synthesis, what we currently are able to produce is very intelligible but not yet completely natural. Current research aims at providing higher quality and intelligibility to the synthetic speech that these systems produce. Finally, today's systems for speech and speaker recognition provide excellent performance on limited tasks; i.e., limited vocabulary, modest syntax, small talker populations, constrained inputs, etc.

  9. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  10. 48 CFR 1306.303-70 - Documentation and legal review of justifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation and legal review of justifications. 1306.303-70 Section 1306.303-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Competition 1306.303-70 Documentation and legal review of justifications. The justification for providing...

  11. When Does Diversity Trump Ability (and Vice Versa) in Group Decision Making? A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Shenghua; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.; Reimer, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    It is often unclear which factor plays a more critical role in determining a group's performance: the diversity among members of the group or their individual abilities. In this study, we addressed this “diversity vs. ability” issue in a decision-making task. We conducted three simulation studies in which we manipulated agents' individual ability (or accuracy, in the context of our investigation) and group diversity by varying (1) the heuristics agents used to search task-relevant information (i.e., cues); (2) the size of their groups; (3) how much they had learned about a good cue search order; and (4) the magnitude of errors in the information they searched. In each study, we found that a manipulation reducing agents' individual accuracy simultaneously increased their group's diversity, leading to a conflict between the two. These conflicts enabled us to identify certain conditions under which diversity trumps individual accuracy, and vice versa. Specifically, we found that individual accuracy is more important in task environments in which cues differ greatly in the quality of their information, and diversity matters more when such differences are relatively small. Changing the size of a group and the amount of learning by an agent had a limited impact on this general effect of task environment. Furthermore, we found that a group achieves its highest accuracy when there is an intermediate amount of errors in the cue information, regardless of the environment and the heuristic used, an effect that we believe has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. PMID:22359562

  12. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... environment and keep external stimuli to a minimum. Speak in a normal tone of voice (this condition ...

  13. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  14. SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…

  15. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  16. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  17. Speech 7 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7 through 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Speech. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Following the foreward, philosophy and objectives, this guide presents a speech curriculum. The curriculum covers junior high and Speech I, II, III (senior high). Thirteen units of study are presented for junior high, each unit is divided into…

  18. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  19. The Limits of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Colleges and universities are finding it difficult to mold administrative policy concerning freedom of speech on campus. Even when speech or harassment codes mirror federal guidelines for antidiscrimination policy, controversy is common. Potential infringement on rights to free speech is the central issue. (MSE)

  20. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  1. System Justification, Mental Health, and Behavior Among Disadvantaged Mothers and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating social psychological research with work in child development, this study explored relationships between system justification (Jost & Banaji, 1994), maternal mental health and child externalizing behavior among low-income immigrants and racial/ethnic minorities. Dominican, Mexican and African-American families (N = 239) were assessed when children were 14-, 24- and 36-months old. SEM was used to explore longitudinal relationships between maternal system justification and mental health and associations with child behavior. Earlier mental health was negatively related to later system justification and system justification was negatively related to children’s externalizing behavior. Implications for system justification theory, child development and immigration are discussed. PMID:25035527

  2. Epistemic Beliefs about Justification Employed by Physics Students and Faculty in Two Different Problem Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağlayan Mercan, Fatih

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs about justification employed by physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a standard classical physics problem and a frontier physics problem. Data were collected by a think-aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50 participants, 10 participants at freshmen, seniors, masters, PhD, and faculty levels. Seven modes of justification were identified and used for exploring the relationships between each justification mode and problem context, and expertise level. The data showed that justification modes were not mutually exclusive and many respondents combined different modes in their responses in both problem contexts. Success on solving the standard classical physics problem was not related to any of the justification modes and was independent of expertise level. The strength of the association across the problem contexts for the authoritative, rational, and empirical justification modes fell in the medium range and for the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. Expertise level was not related with the empirical and religious justification modes. The strength of the association between the expertise level and the authoritative, rational, experiential, and relativistic justification modes fell in the medium range, and the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. The results provide support for the importance of context for the epistemic beliefs about justification and are discussed in terms of the implications for teaching and learning science.

  3. Machine Translation from Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  4. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia.

  5. Speech recognition: Acoustic-phonetic knowledge acquisition and representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, Victor W.

    1988-09-01

    The long-term research goal is to develop and implement speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is believed that the proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for such advanced systems. This research is thus directed toward the acquisition, quantification, and representation, of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge, and the application of this knowledge to speech recognition algorithms. In addition, we are exploring new speech recognition alternatives based on artificial intelligence and connectionist techniques. We developed a statistical model for predicting the acoustic realization of stop consonants in various positions in the syllable template. A unification-based grammatical formalism was developed for incorporating this model into the lexical access algorithm. We provided an information-theoretic justification for the hierarchical structure of the syllable template. We analyzed segmented duration for vowels and fricatives in continuous speech. Based on contextual information, we developed durational models for vowels and fricatives that account for over 70 percent of the variance, using data from multiple, unknown speakers. We rigorously evaluated the ability of human spectrogram readers to identify stop consonants spoken by many talkers and in a variety of phonetic contexts. Incorporating the declarative knowledge used by the readers, we developed a knowledge-based system for stop identification. We achieved comparable system performance to that to the readers.

  6. Home Care Nursing via Computer Networks: Justification and Design Specifications

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    1988-01-01

    High-tech home care includes the use of information technologies, such as computer networks, to provide direct care to patients in the home. This paper presents the justification and design of a project using a free, public access computer network to deliver home care nursing. The intervention attempts to reduce isolation and improve problem solving among home care patients and their informal caregivers. Three modules comprise the intervention: a decision module, a communications module, and an information data base. This paper describes the experimental evaluation of the project, and discusses issues in the delivery of nursing care via computers.

  7. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  8. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  9. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  10. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  11. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  12. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Speech-Language Therapy Print ... with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech disorder refers ...

  13. Free Speech Yearbook 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The eleven articles in this collection explore various aspects of freedom of speech. Topics include the lack of knowledge on the part of many judges regarding the complex act of communication; the legislatures and free speech in colonial Connecticut and Rhode Island; contributions of sixteenth century Anabaptist heretics to First Amendment…

  14. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the production…

  15. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  16. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but apparently inevitable…

  17. Free Speech Yearbook 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The nine articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics discussed include the following: (1) freedom of expression in Thailand and India; (2) metaphors and analogues in several landmark free speech cases; (3) Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas's views of the First Amendment; (4) the San…

  18. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  19. Free Speech Yearbook: 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Editor

    This publication of ten scholarly articles provides perspectives on problems and forces that inhibit freedom of speech. 1) "Freedom of Speech and Change in American Education" suggests that a more communicative society, and increasing academic freedoms, helps schools adapt to social change; 2) "Syllabus and Bibliography for 'Issues in Freedom of…

  20. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976" (William A. Linsley), "'Arnett v.…

  1. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  2. The Discipline of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Loren

    1967-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of subjects subsumed under the generic term speech, all areas of this discipline are based on oral communication with its essential elements--voice, action, thought, and language. Speech may be viewed as a community of persons with a common tradition participating in a common dialog, described in part by the memberships…

  3. Free Speech. No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds Voted For Schorr Inquiry" by Richard Lyons, "Erosion of the…

  4. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  5. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  6. Physical Justification for Negative Remanent Magnetization in Homogeneous Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H.; Wagner, Michael J.; Torre, Edward Della; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations. PMID:25183061

  7. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  8. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees. PMID:17115518

  9. SPEECH FRIGHT IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SPEECH ABILITY AND ITS POSSIBLE IMPLICATION FOR SPEECH READINESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, IRWIN

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SPEECH FRIGHT TO THEIR SPEECH ABILITY, SPEECH ATTITUDES, AND SPEECH READINESS WAS STUDIED. SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA WERE COLLECTED ON SPEECH FRIGHT LEVELS AND SPEECH ABILITY OF 1,166 STUDENTS IN SELECTED ELEMENTARY GRADES. ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS TOWARD SPEECH FRIGHT WERE ALSO…

  10. Speech Correction in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenson, Jon; Ogilvie, Mardel

    An introduction to the problems and therapeutic needs of school age children whose speech requires remedial attention, the text is intended for both the classroom teacher and the speech correctionist. General considerations include classification and incidence of speech defects, speech correction services, the teacher as a speaker, the mechanism…

  11. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  12. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  13. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  14. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors. PMID:27507954

  15. "Should We Kill the Grey Squirrels?" A Study Exploring Students' Justifications and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evagorou, Maria; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Osborne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A problem that is still unexplored in the field of socioscientific issues (SSI) and that was explored in this study is how different students decide upon a SSI they are discussing, how their justifications change during the instruction and how they use (or not) the evidence from the learning environment to support their justifications. For the…

  16. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  17. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  18. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  19. Student Perceptions of Justification in Two Disparate Domains: Education and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Christi L.; Hennessey, Maeghan N.; Higley, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of epistemic justification of students in two disparate domains of study to determine if any similarities and differences in their methods of justification exist. Two samples of students, or a total of 513 undergraduates from educational psychology (n = 193) and biology (n = 320) courses, completed a…

  20. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  1. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  2. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  3. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  4. 30 CFR 203.84 - What is in a net revenue and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 CFR 1220.013 or: (1) OCS rental payments on the lease(s) in the application; (2) Damages and... justification report? 203.84 Section 203.84 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Sulfur General § 203.84 What is in a net revenue and relief justification report? This report...

  5. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors. PMID:27507954

  6. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  7. 48 CFR 2406.304-70 - Approval of the justification-field procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... justification-field procurements. 2406.304-70 Section 2406.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other Than Full and Open Competition 2406.304-70 Approval of the justification—field procurements. (a) The justification for other than full and open competition for field procurements shall be approved...

  8. 48 CFR 2406.304-70 - Approval of the justification-field procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... justification-field procurements. 2406.304-70 Section 2406.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other Than Full and Open Competition 2406.304-70 Approval of the justification—field procurements. (a) The justification for other than full and open competition for field procurements shall be approved...

  9. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  10. Performing Arts Program, Badger High School: Justification, Proposal, Implementation, Stage One Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Dan

    This document presents a justification, proposal, and implementation plan for a comprehensive theatre arts program at Badger High School, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin that would offer a full schedule of amateur and professional arts programs involving the students and the community. The brief Justification section notes that every elementary and…

  11. 48 CFR 1513.170-1 - Contents of sole source justifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contents of sole source justifications. 1513.170-1 Section 1513.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170-1 Contents of sole source justifications....

  12. The acoustic salience of prosody trumps infants' acquired knowledge of language-specific prosodic patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Kara; Mazuka, Reiko; Gerken, LouAnn

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that prosody facilitates grouping the speech stream into syntactically-relevant units (e.g., Hawthorne & Gerken, 2014; Soderstrom, Kemler Nelson, & Jusczyk, 2005). We ask whether prosody's role in syntax acquisition relates to its general acoustic salience or to the learner's acquired knowledge of correlations between prosody and syntax in her native language. English- and Japanese-acquiring 19-month-olds listened to sentences from an artificial grammar with non-native prosody (Japanese or English, respectively), then were tested on their ability to recognize prosodically-marked constituents when the constituents had moved to a new position in the sentence. Both groups were able to use non-native prosody to parse speech into cohesive, reorderable, syntactic constituent-like units. Comparison with Hawthorne & Gerken (2014), in which English-acquiring infants were tested on sentences with English prosody, suggests that 19-month-olds are equally adept at using native and non-native prosody for at least some types of learning tasks and, therefore, that prosody is useful in early syntactic segmentation because of its acoustic salience. PMID:25870497

  13. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  14. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  15. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  16. Auditory speech preprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, G.

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear transmission line model of the cochlea (Zweig 1988) is proposed as the basis for a novel speech preprocessor. Sounds of different intensities, such as voiced and unvoiced speech, are preprocessed in radically different ways. The Q's of the preprocessor's nonlinear filters vary with input amplitude, higher Q's (longer integration times) corresponding to quieter sounds. Like the cochlea, the preprocessor acts as a ''subthreshold laser'' that traps and amplifies low level signals, thereby aiding in their detection and analysis. 17 refs.

  17. Computer-generated speech

    SciTech Connect

    Aimthikul, Y.

    1981-12-01

    This thesis reviews the essential aspects of speech synthesis and distinguishes between the two prevailing techniques: compressed digital speech and phonemic synthesis. It then presents the hardware details of the five speech modules evaluated. FORTRAN programs were written to facilitate message creation and retrieval with four of the modules driven by a PDP-11 minicomputer. The fifth module was driven directly by a computer terminal. The compressed digital speech modules (T.I. 990/306, T.S.I. Series 3D and N.S. Digitalker) each contain a limited vocabulary produced by the manufacturers while both the phonemic synthesizers made by Votrax permit an almost unlimited set of sounds and words. A text-to-phoneme rules program was adapted for the PDP-11 (running under the RSX-11M operating system) to drive the Votrax Speech Pac module. However, the Votrax Type'N Talk unit has its own built-in translator. Comparison of these modules revealed that the compressed digital speech modules were superior in pronouncing words on an individual basis but lacked the inflection capability that permitted the phonemic synthesizers to generate more coherent phrases. These findings were necessarily highly subjective and dependent on the specific words and phrases studied. In addition, the rapid introduction of new modules by manufacturers will necessitate new comparisons. However, the results of this research verified that all of the modules studied do possess reasonable quality of speech that is suitable for man-machine applications. Furthermore, the development tools are now in place to permit the addition of computer speech output in such applications.

  18. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions. PMID:27036287

  19. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  20. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-04-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents.

  1. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents. PMID:27094554

  2. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  3. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  4. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  5. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  6. Comparison of computer codes (CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT) with data from the NRU-LOCA thermal hydraulic tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, C.L.; Rausch, W.N.; Hesson, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    The LOCA Simulation Program in the NRU reactor is the first set of experiments to provide data on the behavior of full-length, nuclear-heated PWR fuel bundles during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). This paper compares the temperature time histories of 4 experimental test cases with 4 computer codes: CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT. The preliminary comparisons between prediction and experiment show that the state-of-the art fuel codes have large uncertainties and are not necessarily conservative in predicting peak temperatures, turn around times, and bundle quench times.

  7. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  8. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  9. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  10. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; McCartney, M. L.

    1980-12-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  11. Continued cost justification of an operating room satellite pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fiala, D; Grady, K P; Smigla, R

    1993-03-01

    Cost justification for the establishment and continued operation of an operating room satellite pharmacy is described. Establishment of an operating room satellite pharmacy can be justified based on the need to recover lost revenue, regulate controlled substances, monitor inventory, and enhance communication between operating room personnel and the department of pharmacy. At a 510-bed community hospital, an internal audit performed before the satellite pharmacy was opened revealed an average loss of $14.53 in drug charges per surgical procedure; 16 months after the pharmacy opened, changes in the way drugs are distributed to the departments of surgery and anesthesia has resulted in a decrease in this loss to $9.61, or a 34% improvement. To regulate controlled substances, the pharmacy attaches a drug-use log to each dispensing kit, which has resulted in 98% agreement between recorded administration of controlled substances and actual amounts signed out and ultimately returned. Recommendations made by the department of pharmacy regarding the use of high-cost drugs during surgery has resulted in an annual savings of more than $100,000, and improvements in drug packaging reduced, and in some cases eliminated, wastage. Direct contact between operating room personnel and pharmacists has fostered discussions regarding cost-effective application of pharmacotherapy, and the potential for cost savings is substantial. Although the remaining loss of $9.61 per case must still be addressed, considerable progress has been made in a relatively short period of time. The satellite pharmacy in the operating room has led to increased revenue recovery, improved regulation of controlled substances and monitoring of drug inventory, and better communication among the involved personnel.

  12. 19 CFR 10.227 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act Textile and Apparel Articles Under the United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act § 10.227 Verification and justification of claim for...

  13. [Justification of violence as a mediator between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior in children].

    PubMed

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of the justification of violence schema in the relationship between exposure to violence and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. We differentiated between direct and indirect exposure in four contexts: home, neighborhood, school and TV. A total of 675 children, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. They answered questionnaires about exposure to violence, justification of violence, and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior in two waves six months apart. The results showed that witnessing violence at home and on TV predicted aggressive behavior, and this relationship was mediated by the justification of violence. Victimization in all contexts predicted aggressive behavior and this relationship was generally mediated by the justification of violence.

  14. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE IN SPEECH CORRECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEALEY, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN PRIMARILY FOR SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, PRINCIPALS, SPEECH CLINICIANS, AND SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE OUTLINES THE MECHANICS OF ORGANIZING AND CONDUCTING SPEECH CORRECTION ACTIVITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT INCLUDES THE REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION OF A SPEECH CLINICIAN IN MISSOURI AND DESCRIBES ESSENTIAL STEPS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A…

  16. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  17. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  19. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  20. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition).

  1. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition). PMID:24811719

  2. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  3. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  4. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... SLP) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the ... ASHA | American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Information in Spanish | Información en español. 1.800.638.8255 | actioncenter@ ...

  5. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  6. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  7. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  8. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  9. From the Speech Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can Vocat J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In a speech, Looking Ahead in Vocational Education", to a group of Hamilton educators, D.O. Davis, Vice-President, Engineering, Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited, Hamilton, Ontario spoke of the challenge of change and what educators and industry must do to help the future of vocational education. (Editor)

  10. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  11. Measuring Speech Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin C.

    Improving the quality of undergraduate speech communication education depends to a large extent on effectively measuring student achievement in college level communication skills. While formal tests are not as well developed for speaking skills as for other areas of the curriculum, they are available. The two used most frequently are the…

  12. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  13. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  14. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  15. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  16. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Hate Speech: Power in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jack B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of hate speech and freedom of speech on college campuses examines the difference between hate speech from normal, objectionable interpersonal comments and looks at Supreme Court decisions on the limits of student free speech. Two cases specifically concerning regulation of hate speech on campus are considered: Chaplinsky v. New…

  18. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  19. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  20. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  1. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  2. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  3. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  4. Speech audiometry by a speech synthesizer. I. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rahko, T; Karjalainen, M A; Laine, U K; Lavonen, S

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report on speech test results with a portable, text-to-speech synthesizer is presented. The differentiation scores achieved at speed 80 words/min vary. So far the best mean differentiation scores in normal material are 75%. The increase of the presentation level improves the differentiation score, as does the decrease of word speed and training. The future and present uses of this system are discussed. These include: devices for the handicapped, e.g. to produce speech for the mute, man-machine communication through speech in industry control, data processing systems and uses in audiological diagnostics. The study is continued. PMID:435169

  5. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  6. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  7. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  8. [A method of speech donorship and speech discourse for the speech restoration in aphasia].

    PubMed

    Rudnev, V A; Shteĭnerdt, V V

    2012-01-01

    An objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of speech restoration in aphasia in outpatients using audiovisual samples of the speech of first-degree relatives of the patient with the following transformation of the restoration into the feedback with the own audiovisual material (a method of speech donorship and speech discourse). We studied 53 outpatients with different severity of aphasia (28 patients with moderate severity, 12 patients with mild severity and 13 patients with marked severity) that was pathogenetically associated with stroke or brain injury. We used the following algorithm of speech restoration: 1) the work in the regime of biological feedback with the audiovisual sample of the speech of the close relative (7th-14th days); 2) the DVD recording of the own speech of the patient and the work with the own audiovisual sample (14th-21st days). Sessions were carried out twice a day. After the rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement (p<0,001) in the speech function including the decrease in the frequency of literal and verbal paraphasias, literal perseverations as well as the improvement of speech initiation and nonverbal speech component (intonation and kinesthetic appearances). The results of the restoration were worse in patients with severe aphasia than in those with moderate and mild aphasia, for the latter patients the method was very effective.

  9. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    PubMed

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    PubMed

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20008965

  11. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex.

    PubMed

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T

    2016-03-16

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca's area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  12. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca’s area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  13. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  14. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  15. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the course of the disease. What do speech-language pathologists do when working with people with Huntington's ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  16. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development Birth to 2 Years Encourage your baby ... or light) of the packages. Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  17. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Development What Is Language? What Is Speech? [ en Español ] Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard time ...

  18. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  19. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  20. Speech-in-Speech Recognition: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify aspects of speech-in-noise recognition that are susceptible to training, focusing on whether listeners can learn to adapt to target talkers ("tune in") and learn to better cope with various maskers ("tune out") after short-term training. Listeners received training on English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise…

  1. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  2. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  3. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  4. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  5. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  6. Taking a Stand for Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne D.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that freedom of speech issues were among the first major confrontations in U.S. constitutional law. Maintains that lessons from the controversies surrounding the Sedition Act of 1798 have continuing practical relevance. Describes and discusses the significance of freedom of speech to the U.S. political system. (CFR)

  7. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  8. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  9. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  10. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  11. Perceptual Aspects of Cluttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Myers, Florence L.; Faragasso, Kristine; Townsend, Paula S.; Gallaher, Amanda J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to explore perceptual judgments of speech naturalness, compared to judgments of articulation, language, disfluency, and speaking rate, in the speech of two youths who differed in cluttering severity. Two groups of listeners, 48 from New York and 48 from West Virginia, judged 93 speaking samples on…

  12. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  13. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  14. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES...

  15. Verification or Proof: Justification of Pythagoras' Theorem in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Rongjin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of my research on the approaches to justification by investigating how a sample of teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai taught the topic Pythagoras theorem. In this study, 8 Hong Kong videos taken from TIMSS 1999 Video Study and 11 Shanghai videos videotaped by the researcher comprised the database. It was found that…

  16. Students' Reported Justifications for Their Representational Choices in Linear Function Problems: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo Nistal, Ana; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six secondary school students aged 14-16 were interviewed while they chose between a table, a graph or a formula to solve three linear function problems. The justifications for their choices were classified as (1) task-related if they explicitly mentioned the to-be-solved problem, (2) subject-related if students mentioned their own…

  17. The Labours of Hercules: Ethical Embodiment and an Erasmian Justification for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Barros, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a popular American dorm-room poster luminously asserted crass materialism as "JUSTIFICATION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION". Self-consciously premised on the paradoxical success of my failure or failure of my success as a professor of Renaissance literature and culture, this essay draws on Erasmus's educational theory of…

  18. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  19. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  20. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  1. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O’reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. Methods The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. Results This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Conclusion Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the “3 As”: awareness, appropriateness and audit. PMID:21343316

  2. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  3. Epistemic Beliefs about Justification Employed by Physics Students and Faculty in Two Different Problem Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Fatih Caglayan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs about justification employed by physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a standard classical physics problem and a frontier physics problem. Data were collected by a think-aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50…

  4. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  5. 76 FR 14559 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... the meeting notice that was published in the Federal Register on August 31, 2010 at 75 FR 53269... Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES: Department of...) sole-source contracts over $20 million, as required by section 811. DATES: Effective Date: March...

  6. Elementary Children's Judgments of the Epistemic Status of Sources of Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, William A.; Cam, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated children's judgments of the epistemic status of justifications for causal claims. Twenty-six children (14 boys, 12 girls) between the ages of 8 and 10 were asked to help two story characters choose the "best reason" for believing a claim. The reasons included appeals to an authority, to a plausible causal mechanism, or to…

  7. Why men (and women) do and don't rebel: effects of system justification on willingness to protest.

    PubMed

    Jost, John T; Chaikalis-Petritsis, Vagelis; Abrams, Dominic; Sidanius, Jim; van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Bratt, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that system justification is negatively associated with collective protest against ingroup disadvantage. Effects of uncertainty salience, ingroup identification, and disruptive versus nondisruptive protest were also investigated. In Study 1, college students who were exposed to an uncertainty salience manipulation and who scored higher on system justification were less likely to protest against the governmental bailout of Wall Street. In Study 2, May Day protesters in Greece who were primed with a system-justifying stereotype exhibited less group-based anger and willingness to protest. In Study 3, members of a British teachers union who were primed with a "system-rejecting" mind-set exhibited decreased system justification and increased willingness to protest. The effect of system justification on nondisruptive protest was mediated by group-based anger. Across very different contexts, measures, and methods, the results reveal that, even among political activists, system justification plays a significant role in undermining willingness to protest. PMID:21911420

  8. An examination of domestic partner violence and its justification in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little research on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and social perceptions toward this behavior has been disseminated from Eastern Europe. This study explores the prevalence and risk factors of IPV and the justification of this behavior among women in the Republic of Georgia. It seeks to better understand how IPV and IPV justification relate and how social justification of IPV differs across socio-economic measures among this population of women. Methods This study utilizes a national sample of ever-married women from the Republic of Georgia (N = 4,302). We describe the factors that predict IPV justification among these women and the relationship between of the acceptability of IPV and victimization overall and across socio-demographic factors. Results While the overall lifetime prevalence of IPV in this sample was relatively low (4%), these women were two to four times more likely to justify IPV, Just under one-quarter of the sample agreed that IPV was justified in at least one scenario, namely when the wife was unfaithful, compared with women who had no experience being abused by a partner. Georgian women who were poor, from a rural community, had lower education, were not working and who experienced child abuse or IPV among their parents were more likely to justify this behavior. Conclusions These findings begin to fill a gap in our understanding of IPV experienced by women in Eastern Europe. In addition, these findings emphasize the need for researchers, practitioners and policy makers to contextualize IPV in terms of the justification of this behavior among the population being considered as this can play an important role in perpetration, victimization and response. PMID:24180483

  9. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  10. Hate Speech/Free Speech: Using Feminist Perspectives To Foster On-Campus Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Nancy; Orbe, Mark P.; Warren, Kiesha

    1999-01-01

    Explores the complex issues inherent in the tension between hate speech and free speech, focusing on the phenomenon of hate speech on college campuses. Describes the challenges to hate speech made by critical race theorists and explains how a feminist critique can reorient the parameters of hate speech. (SLD)

  11. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. PMID:26944220

  12. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  13. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  14. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  15. Linguistic Units and Speech Production Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeilage, Peter F.

    This paper examines the validity of the concept of linguistic units in a theory of speech production. Substantiating data are drawn from the study of the speech production process itself. Secondarily, an attempt is made to reconcile the postulation of linguistic units in speech production theory with their apparent absence in the speech signal.…

  16. Multifractal nature of unvoiced speech signals

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyemi, O.A.; Hartt, K.; Boudreaux-Bartels, G.F.

    1996-06-01

    A refinement is made in the nonlinear dynamic modeling of speech signals. Previous research successfully characterized speech signals as chaotic. Here, we analyze fricative speech signals using multifractal measures to determine various fractal regimes present in their chaotic attractors. Results support the hypothesis that speech signals have multifractal measures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  18. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  19. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  20. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  1. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  2. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  3. Speech processing: An evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crochiere, R.E.; Flanagan, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    As we enter the information age, speech processing is emerging as an important technology for making machines easier and more convenient for humans to use. It is both an old and a new technology - dating back to the invention of the telephone and forward, at least in aspirations, to the capabilities of HAL in 2001. Explosive advances in microelectronics now make it possible to implement economical real-time hardware for sophisticated speech processing - processing that formerly could be demonstrated only in simulations on main-frame computers. As a result, fundamentally new product concepts - as well as new features and functions in existing products - are becoming possible and are being explored in the marketplace. As the introductory piece to this issue, the authors draw a brief perspective on the evolving field of speech processing and assess the technology in the the three constituent sectors: speech coding, synthesis, and recognition.

  4. Turbo Processing for Speech Recognition.

    PubMed

    Moon, Todd K; Gunther, Jacob H; Broadus, Cortnie; Hou, Wendy; Nelson, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Speech recognition is a classic example of a human/machine interface, typifying many of the difficulties and opportunities of human/machine interaction. In this paper, speech recognition is used as an example of applying turbo processing principles to the general problem of human/machine interface. Speech recognizers frequently involve a model representing phonemic information at a local level, followed by a language model representing information at a nonlocal level. This structure is analogous to the local (e.g., equalizer) and nonlocal (e.g., error correction decoding) elements common in digital communications. Drawing from the analogy of turbo processing for digital communications, turbo speech processing iteratively feeds back the output of the language model to be used as prior probabilities for the phonemic model. This analogy is developed here, and the performance of this turbo model is characterized by using an artificial language model. Using turbo processing, the relative error rate improves significantly, especially in high-noise settings.

  5. What you see isn't always what you get: Auditory word signals trump consciously perceived words in lexical access.

    PubMed

    Ostrand, Rachel; Blumstein, Sheila E; Ferreira, Victor S; Morgan, James L

    2016-06-01

    Human speech perception often includes both an auditory and visual component. A conflict in these signals can result in the McGurk illusion, in which the listener perceives a fusion of the two streams, implying that information from both has been integrated. We report two experiments investigating whether auditory-visual integration of speech occurs before or after lexical access, and whether the visual signal influences lexical access at all. Subjects were presented with McGurk or Congruent primes and performed a lexical decision task on related or unrelated targets. Although subjects perceived the McGurk illusion, McGurk and Congruent primes with matching real-word auditory signals equivalently primed targets that were semantically related to the auditory signal, but not targets related to the McGurk percept. We conclude that the time course of auditory-visual integration is dependent on the lexicality of the auditory and visual input signals, and that listeners can lexically access one word and yet consciously perceive another.

  6. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  7. Decommissioning the Research Nuclear Reactor Vvr-S Magurele - Analyze, Justification and Selection of Decommissioning Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragusin, M.; Popa, V.; Boicu, A.; Tuca, C.; Iorga, I.; Mustata, C.

    2004-09-01

    The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor VVR-S Magurele - Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to permit the facility to be released without representing a further risk to human health and the environment [1-3]. A very important aspect of decommissioning is the analyze, justification and selection of the decommissioning strategy. Two strategies: DECON (Immediate Dismantling) and SAFSTOR (Safe Enclosure) are in study (see Table 1)... Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  8. On objects and actions: situating self-objectification in a system justification context.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Integrating objectification and system justification perspectives, this chapter offers a conception of self-objectification as a dominant cultural lens through which women come to view themselves that garners their compliance in the sexist status quo. This chapter begins with an overview of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) and system justification theory (Jost and Banaji, 1994). Then, an integration of the two perspectives is presented that situates self-objectification in a system justification context, extending the scope of impact of self-objectification beyond the domains of body image and mental health. Empirical evidence is reviewed to demonstrate the direct and indirect ways that self-objectification works as a system-justifying device for many women. For example, as a self-perspective that increases in response to benevolently sexist ideology or as a potential obstacle to taking collective action on behalf of women, self-objectification functions as a motivational and ideological force that rationalizes and legitimizes a gender role hierarchy. This developing program of research attempts to deepen our understanding of self-objectification and the broader system-level implications of this self-perspective. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential next steps and a call for continued scientific inquiry into the broader functions of self-objectification. PMID:23947280

  9. Infant perception of atypical speech signals.

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M

    2013-05-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how visual context influences infant speech perception. Nine-month-olds heard speech and nonspeech sounds produced by either a human or a parrot, concurrently with 1 of 2 visual displays: a static checkerboard or a static image of a human face. Using an infant-controlled looking task, we examined infants' preferences for speech and nonspeech sounds. Infants listened equally to parrot speech and nonspeech when paired with a checkerboard. However, in the presence of faces, infants listened longer to parrot speech than to nonspeech sounds, such that their preference for parrot speech was similar to their preference for human speech sounds. These data are consistent with the possibility that infants treat parrot speech similarly to human speech relative to nonspeech vocalizations but only in some visual contexts. Like adults, infants may perceive a range of signals as speech.

  10. Snake oil salesmen or purveyors of knowledge: off-label promotions and the commercial speech doctrine.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Constance E; Mitts, Joshua; Tinsley, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The Second Circuit's December 2012 decision in United States v. Caronia striking down the prohibition on off-label marketing of pharmaceutical drugs has profound implications for economic regulation in general, calling into question the constitutionality of restrictions on the offer and sale of securities under the Securities Act of 1933, the solicitation of shareholder proxies and periodic reporting under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, mandatory labels on food, tobacco, and pesticides, and a wide range of privacy protections. In this Article we suggest that Caronia misconstrues the Supreme Court's holding in Sorrell v. IMS Health, which was motivated by concerns of favoring one industry participant over another rather than a desire to return to the anti-regulator fervor of the Lochner era. Reexamining the theoretical justification for limiting truthful commercial speech shows that a more nuanced approach to regulating off-label marketing with the purpose of promoting public health and safety would pass constitutional muster. We argue that as long as the government both has a rational basis for subjecting a particular industry to limits on commercial speech intended to further a legitimate public interest, rather than unfounded paternalism, and does not discriminate against disfavored industry participants, those limits should be subject to intermediate scrutiny under the Central Hudson standard. We believe that our articulation of the commercial speech doctrine post-Sorrell will help resolve the current split in the Circuits on the appropriate standard of review in cases involving both restrictions on commercial speech and mandated speech. Finally, we critique the FDA's 2011 Guidance for Responding to Unsolicited Requests for Off- Label Information (draft) and present a proposal for new rules for regulating the off-label marketing of pharmaceutical drugs based on transparency, the sophistication of the listener and the type of information offered, and the

  11. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  12. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  13. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  14. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  15. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech.

    PubMed

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R

    2010-08-01

    It has been reported that listeners can benefit from a release in masking when the masker speech is spoken in a language that differs from the target speech compared to when the target and masker speech are spoken in the same language [Freyman, R. L. et al. (1999). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 3578-3588; Van Engen, K., and Bradlow, A. (2007), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 519-526]. It is unclear whether listeners benefit from this release in masking due to the lack of linguistic interference of the masker speech, from acoustic and phonetic differences between the target and masker languages, or a combination of these differences. In the following series of experiments, listeners' sentence recognition was evaluated using speech and noise maskers that varied in the amount of linguistic content, including native-English, Mandarin-accented English, and Mandarin speech. Results from three experiments indicated that the majority of differences observed between the linguistic maskers could be explained by spectral differences between the masker conditions. However, when the recognition task increased in difficulty, i.e., at a more challenging signal-to-noise ratio, a greater decrease in performance was observed for the maskers with more linguistically relevant information than what could be explained by spectral differences alone. PMID:20707455

  16. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  17. Revisiting speech interference in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Picard, M; Bradley, J S

    2001-01-01

    A review of the effects of ambient noise and reverberation on speech intelligibility in classrooms has been completed because of the long-standing lack of agreement on preferred acoustical criteria for unconstrained speech accessibility and communication in educational facilities. An overwhelming body of evidence has been collected to suggest that noise levels in particular are usually far in excess of any reasonable prescription for optimal conditions for understanding speech in classrooms. Quite surprisingly, poor classroom acoustics seem to be the prevailing condition for both normally-hearing and hearing-impaired students with reported A-weighted ambient noise levels 4-37 dB above values currently agreed upon to provide optimal understanding. Revision of currently proposed room acoustic performance criteria to ensure speech accessibility for all students indicates the need for a guideline weighted for age and one for more vulnerable groups. For teens (12-year-olds and older) and young adults having normal speech processing in noise, ambient noise levels not exceeding 40 dBA are suggested as acceptable, and reverberation times of about 0.5 s are concluded to be optimum. Younger students, having normal speech processing in noise for their age, would require noise levels ranging from 39 dBA for 10-11-year-olds to only 28.5 dBA for 6-7-year-olds. By contrast, groups suspected of delayed speech processing in noise may require levels as low as only 21.5 dBA at age 6-7. As one would expect, these more vulnerable students would include the hearing-impaired in the course of language development and non-native listeners. PMID:11688542

  18. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  2. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either “pure” background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials. PMID:24993234

  3. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  4. Determining the threshold for usable speech within co-channel speech with the SPHINX automated speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.

    2004-10-01

    Much research has been and is continuing to be done in the area of separating the original utterances of two speakers from co-channel speech. This is very important in the area of automated speech recognition (ASR), where the current state of technology is not nearly as accurate as human listeners when the speech is co-channel. It is desired to determine what types of speech (voiced, unvoiced, and silence) and at what target to interference ratio (TIR) two speakers can speak at the same time and not reduce speech intelligibility of the target speaker (referred to as usable speech). Knowing which segments of co-channel speech are usable in ASR can be used to improve the reconstruction of single speaker speech. Tests were performed using the SPHINX ASR software and the TIDIGITS database. It was found that interfering voiced speech with a TIR of 6 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech. It was further found that interfering unvoiced speech with a TIR of 18 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech.

  5. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  6. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: A case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E.; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. However, the exact role of the motor system in auditory speech processing remains elusive. Here we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. The patient’s spontaneous speech was marked by frequent phonological/articulatory errors, and those errors were caused, at least in part, by motor-level impairments with speech production. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two nonwords that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the nonword stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labeling impairment. These data suggest that the identification (i.e. labeling) of nonword speech sounds may involve the speech motor system, but that the perception of speech sounds (i.e., discrimination) does not require the motor system. This means that motor processes are not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, and suggest that the motor system may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  7. The Contribution of Sensitivity to Speech Rhythm and Non-Speech Rhythm to Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2010-01-01

    Both sensitivity to speech rhythm and non-speech rhythm have been associated with successful phonological awareness and reading development in separate studies. However, the extent to which speech rhythm, non-speech rhythm and literacy skills are interrelated has not been examined. As a result, five- to seven-year-old English-speaking children…

  8. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  9. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  10. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  11. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  12. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  13. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  14. Amplitude-temporal method of speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababii, Victor; Sudacevschi, Viorica

    2005-02-01

    A method of speech coding and decoding is proposed. The speech coding algorithm is based on first derivate calculation of input speech signal, identification of critical points and input signal amplitude in these points, time period measurement between critical points. The result of codification represents a sequence of amplitudes and time periods. The decoding algorithm utilizes values of COS or SIN functions for reconstruction on the input speech. The codec structure that consists from encoder and decoder units is proposed.

  15. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  16. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  17. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  18. Justification doctrine in the prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the legacy of a justification doctrine evident in early international jurisprudence that set the threshold for treatment prohibited under international law as torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment [hereafter the prohibition], excusing from its reach deliberately inflicted, potentially severe, suffering proportionately inflicted for a legitimate purpose. Debates over a 'threshold' at which point the prohibition engages, or at which point 'inhumane' treatment reaches a level sufficient to be deemed 'torture', typically invoke an implicit 'severity' threshold. This paper is not primarily concerned with severity or the instrumentality of any 'severity threshold' either in engaging the prohibition or in distinguishing categories of prohibited treatment. Neither is the article concerned directly with the legal distinction between categories of prohibited treatment (i.e. the distinction between 'torture', other 'inhuman', or even any subcategory 'degrading' treatment). Rather the article focuses on the distinction between (i) treatment prohibited, as either torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading, and (ii) treatment prima facie 'justified'. What the article looks at is the operation of a 'justification' threshold in triggering the prohibition, one that understands 'justified' treatment as never reaching the level of, or never amounting to inhuman, cruel or degrading treatment under the prohibition. The article interprets the current prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as one on 'unjustified' inflicted suffering, suggesting that the notion of 'justifiability' active in this definition is problematic in encouraging arguments seeking to circumvent the protection afforded under the prohibition. In the absence of a clearly defined notion of the 'victim', or circumscribed class afforded protection, this paper both identifies and addresses a correlation between (i) a broadly inclusive contextual scope for

  19. Speech Communication and Telephone Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlich, H. W.

    Speech communication over telephone networks has one major constraint: The communication has to be “real time”. The basic principle since the beginning of all telephone networks has been to provide a communication system capable of substituting the air path between two persons having a conversation at 1-m distance. This is the so-called orthotelephonic reference position [7]. Although many technical compromises must be made to enable worldwide communication over telephone networks, it is still the goal to achieve speech quality performance which is close to this reference.

  20. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  1. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  3. NEW SPEECH PATTERNS IN THE FRENCH QUARTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRADDOCK, CLAYTON

    BUSINESSMEN IN NEW ORLEANS CITED POOR SPEECH AMONG NEGRO APPLICANTS FOR SECRETARIAL AND STENOGRAPHIC POSITIONS AS THE MAJOR REASON FOR NOT HIRING THEM. AS A RESULT, ST. MARY'S DOMINICAN COLLEGE EMBARKED ON AN 8-MONTH PROGRAM IN 1965 TO TEACH STANDARD SPEECH TO 90 YOUNG WOMEN, 75 OF WHOM WERE NEGRO. STANDARD SPEECH WAS TAUGHT AS A SECOND LANGUAGE.…

  4. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  5. Hate Speech on Campus: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Looks at arguments concerning hate speech and speech codes on college campuses, arguing that speech codes are likely to be of limited value in achieving civil rights objectives, and that there are alternatives less harmful to civil liberties and more successful in promoting civil rights. Identifies specific goals, and considers how restriction of…

  6. Intelligibility of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the overall intelligibility of speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking Boothroyd's (1985) forced-choice phonetic contrast material designed for measurement of speech intelligibility. Twelve…

  7. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  8. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  9. Audiovisual Speech Integration and Lipreading in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth G.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: During speech perception, the ability to integrate auditory and visual information causes speech to sound louder and be more intelligible, and leads to quicker processing. This integration is important in early language development, and also continues to affect speech comprehension throughout the lifespan. Previous research shows that…

  10. Free Speech in the College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    This book discusses freedom of speech issues affecting the college community, in light of "speech codes" imposed by some institutions, new electronic technology such as the Internet, and recent court decisions. Chapter 1 addresses campus speech codes, the advantages and disadvantages of such codes, and their conflict with the First Amendment of…

  11. Syllable Structure in Dysfunctional Portuguese Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candeias, Sara; Perdigao, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate whether children with speech dysfunctions (SD) show a deficit in planning some Portuguese syllable structures (PSS) in continuous speech production. Knowledge of which aspects of speech production are affected by SD is necessary for efficient improvement in the therapy techniques. The case-study is focused…

  12. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  13. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  14. Vygotskian Inner Speech and the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of Vygotskian influenced inner speech research in relation to the reading process. Those few studies which have examined Vygotskian inner speech from a reading perspective tend to support the notion that inner speech is an important covert function that is crucial to the reading process and to reading acquisition in general.…

  15. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  16. Speech Synthesis Applied to Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The experimental addition of speech output to computer-based Esperanto lessons using speech synthesized from text is described. Because of Esperanto's phonetic spelling and simple rhythm, it is particularly easy to describe the mechanisms of Esperanto synthesis. Attention is directed to how the text-to-speech conversion is performed and the ways…

  17. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  18. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  19. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  20. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  1. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  2. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made lexical…

  3. Requiring Clinical Justification to Override Repeat Imaging Decision Support: Impact on CT Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Stacy D.; Sodickson, Aaron D.; Ip, Ivan K.; Raja, Ali S.; Healey, Michael J.; Schneider, Louise I.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of requiring clinical justification to override decision support alerts on repeat use of CT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This before and after intervention study was conducted at a 793-bed tertiary hospital with computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. When a CT order is placed, decision support alerts the orderer if the patient’s same body part has undergone CT within the past 90 days. The study cohort included all 28,420 CT orders triggering a repeat alert in 2010. The intervention required clinical justification, selected from a predetermined menu, to override repeat CT decision support alerts to place a CT order; otherwise the order could not be placed and was dropped. The primary outcome, dropped repeat CT orders, was analyzed using three methods: chi-square tests to compare proportions dropped before and after intervention; multiple logistic regression tests to control for orderer, care setting, and patient factors; and statistical process control for temporal trends. RESULTS The repeat CT order drop rate had an absolute increase of 1.4%; 6.1% (682/11,230) before to 7.5% (1290/17,190) after intervention, which was a 23% relative change (7.5 – 6.1) / 6.1 × 100 = 23%; p < 0.0001). Orders were dropped more often after intervention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4; p < 0.0001). Statistical control analysis supported the association between the increase in the drop rate with intervention rather than underlying trends. CONCLUSION Adding a requirement for clinical justification to override alerts modestly but significantly improves the impact of repeat CT decision support (23% relative change), with the overall effect of preventing one in 13 repeat CT orders. PMID:25341162

  4. Speech Perception in Children with Speech Output Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception disorders, thus lower-order production problems…

  5. Critical Thinking in Speech Communication: Survey of Speech Communication Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruminski, Henry; And Others

    The interests of all communication educators would best be served if those educators could agree on a single broad definition of critical thinking that incorporates a variety of perspectives. Toward this end, questionnaires were sent to a ramdom sampling of 300 members of the Speech Communication Association; 88 were returned. The questionnaire…

  6. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  7. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  8. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  9. Very high temperature chemistry: Science justification for containerless experimentation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the justification for application of containerless processing in space to high temperature science. Low earth orbit offers a gravitational environment that allows samples to be positioned in an experimental apparatus by very small forces. Well controlled experiments become possible on reactive materials at high temperatures in a reasonably quiescent state and without container contamination. This provides an opportunity to advance the science of high temperature chemistry that can only be realized with a commitment by NASA to provide advanced facilities for in-space containerless study of materials at very high temperature.

  10. Justification of a nonlinear Schrödinger model for laser beams in photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2014-06-01

    A nonstationary model that relies on the spatial nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the time-dependent refractive index describes laser beams in photopolymers. We consider a toy problem, when the rate of change of refractive index is proportional to the squared amplitude of the electric field and the spatial domain is a plane. After formal derivation of the NLS approximation from a two-dimensional quasilinear wave equation, we establish local well-posedness of the original and reduced models and perform rigorous justification analysis to control smallness of the approximation error for appropriately small times.

  11. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  12. Feasibility of Technology Enabled Speech Disorder Screening.

    PubMed

    Duenser, Andreas; Ward, Lauren; Stefani, Alessandro; Smith, Daniel; Freyne, Jill; Morgan, Angela; Dodd, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    One in twenty Australian children suffers from a speech disorder. Early detection of such problems can significantly improve literacy and academic outcomes for these children, reduce health and educational burden and ongoing social costs. Here we present the development of a prototype and feasibility tests of a screening and decision support tool to assess speech disorders in young children. The prototype incorporates speech signal processing, machine learning and expert knowledge to automatically classify phonemes of normal and disordered speech. We discuss these results and our future work towards the development of a mobile tool to facilitate broad, early speech disorder screening by non-experts. PMID:27440284

  13. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and "sat-in"…

  14. Speech Errors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in error…

  15. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  16. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to provide a…

  17. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  18. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  19. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  20. Linguistic aspects of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1995-10-24

    The conversion of text to speech is seen as an analysis of the input text to obtain a common underlying linguistic description, followed by a synthesis of the output speech waveform from this fundamental specification. Hence, the comprehensive linguistic structure serving as the substrate for an utterance must be discovered by analysis from the text. The pronunciation of individual words in unrestricted text is determined by morphological analysis or letter-to-sound conversion, followed by specification of the word-level stress contour. In addition, many text character strings, such as titles, numbers, and acronyms, are abbreviations for normal words, which must be derived. To further refine these pronunciations and to discover the prosodic structure of the utterance, word part of speech must be computed, followed by a phrase-level parsing. From this structure the prosodic structure of the utterance can be determined, which is needed in order to specify the durational framework and fundamental frequency contour of the utterance. In discourse contexts, several factors such as the specification of new and old information, contrast, and pronominal reference can be used to further modify the prosodic specification. When the prosodic correlates have been computed and the segmental sequence is assembled, a complete input suitable for speech synthesis has been determined. Lastly, multilingual systems utilizing rule frameworks are mentioned, and future directions are characterized. PMID:7479807

  1. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  2. Phrase-programmable digital speech system

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

  3. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    PubMed

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  4. The ethical justification for minor sibling bone marrow donation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Haight, Ann E; Noll, Robert B; Barfield, Raymond; Pelletier, Wendy; Davies, Stella; Alderfer, Melissa A; Hinds, Pamela S

    2008-02-01

    Using a case study of a mentally delayed minor sibling donating bone marrow for his older sister, we discuss an alternative ethical justification for minor donation. The accepted justification for permitting minor siblings to donate bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells is that the donor will benefit because of the greater likelihood of survival and less suffering of the sibling. Based on the limited data from four small retrospective studies of the risks and benefits for minor donors, we argue that there is a possibility, illustrated by this case, that the donor may not benefit, particularly if the transplant is unsuccessful. We, therefore, encourage the oncology community to increase support for minor donors, particularly mentally delayed ones. We also argue that the donation can be ethically justified based on the donor's familial duty to his sister. The basis of familial duties is complex, including such factors as the nature, intimacy, and history of the relationship and the specific risks and benefits to all involved. We examine each of these factors for our case study.

  5. In the best interests of the deceased: a possible justification for organ removal without consent?

    PubMed

    den Hartogh, Govert

    2011-08-01

    Opt-out systems of postmortem organ procurement are often supposed to be justifiable by presumed consent, but this justification turns out to depend on a mistaken mental state conception of consent. A promising alternative justification appeals to the analogical situation that occurs when an emergency decision has to be made about medical treatment for a patient who is unable to give or withhold his consent. In such cases, the decision should be made in the best interests of the patient. The analogous suggestion to be considered, then, is, if the potential donor has not registered either his willingness or his refusal to donate, the probabilities that he would or would not have preferred the removal of his organs need to be weighed. And in some actual cases the probability of the first alternative may be greater. This article considers whether the analogy to which this argument appeals is cogent, and concludes that there are important differences between the emergency and the organ removal cases, both as regards the nature of the interests involved and the nature of the right not to be treated without one's consent. Rather, if opt-out systems are to be justified, the needs of patients with organ failure and/or the possibility of tacit consent should be considered. PMID:21594614

  6. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization.

  7. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the “Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine”, and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  8. Speech Motor Learning in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs — audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles, and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input on its own may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that with training implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation. Moreover, the corrections we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimetres, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is significantly dependent on somatosensory input. PMID:18794839

  9. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  10. Speaker identification utilizing noncontemporary speech.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; Schwartz, R

    2001-01-01

    The noncontemporariness of speech is important to both of the two general approaches to speaker identification. Ear-witness identification is one of them; in that instance, the time at which the identification is made is noncontemporary. A substantial amount of research has been carried out on this relationship and it now is well established that an auditor's memory for a voice decays sharply over time. It is the second approach to speaker identification which is of present interest. In this case, samples of a speaker's utterances are obtained at different points in time. For example, a threat call will be recorded and then sometime later (often very much later), a suspect' s exemplar recording will be obtained. In this instance, it is the speech samples that are noncontemporary and they are the materials that are subjected to some form of speaker identification. Prevailing opinion is that noncontemporary speech itself poses just as difficult a challenge to the identification process as does the listener's memory decay in earwitness identification. Accordingly, series of aural-perceptual speaker identification projects were carried out on noncontemporary speech: first, two with latencies of 4 and 8 weeks followed by 4 and 32 weeks plus two more with the pairs separated by 6 and 20 years. Mean correct noncontemporary identification initially dropped to 75-80% at week 4 and this general level was sustained for up to six years. It was only after 20 years had elapsed that a significant drop (to 33%) was noted. It can be concluded that a listener's competency in identifying noncontemporary speech samples will show only modest decay over rather substantial periods of time and, hence, this factor should have only a minimal negative effect on the speaker identification process.

  11. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  12. Adaptive Redundant Speech Transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on Estimation of Perceived Speech Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Ah; Kim, Hong Kook

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive redundant speech transmission (ARST) approach to improve the perceived speech quality (PSQ) of speech streaming applications over wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach estimates the PSQ as well as the packet loss rate (PLR) from the received speech data. Subsequently, it decides whether the transmission of redundant speech data (RSD) is required in order to assist a speech decoder to reconstruct lost speech signals for high PLRs. According to the decision, the proposed ARST approach controls the RSD transmission, then it optimizes the bitrate of speech coding to encode the current speech data (CSD) and RSD bitstream in order to maintain the speech quality under packet loss conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed ARST approach is then demonstrated using the adaptive multirate-narrowband (AMR-NB) speech codec and ITU-T Recommendation P.563 as a scalable speech codec and the PSQ estimation, respectively. It is shown from the experiments that a speech streaming application employing the proposed ARST approach significantly improves speech quality under packet loss conditions in WMSNs. PMID:22164086

  13. Intelligibility of laryngectomees' substitute speech: automatic speech recognition and subjective rating.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Maria; Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Lohscheller, Jörg; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Substitute speech after laryngectomy is characterized by restricted aero-acoustic properties in comparison with laryngeal speech and has therefore lower intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility has not existed, although the intelligibility can serve as a global outcome parameter of voice restoration after laryngectomy. An automatic speech recognition system was applied on recordings of a standard text read by 18 German male laryngectomees with tracheoesophageal substitute speech. The system was trained with normal laryngeal speakers and not adapted to severely disturbed voices. Substitute speech was compared to laryngeal speech of a control group. Subjective evaluation of intelligibility was performed by a panel of five experts and compared to automatic speech evaluation. Substitute speech showed lower syllables/s and lower word accuracy than laryngeal speech. Automatic speech recognition for substitute speech yielded word accuracy between 10.0 and 50% (28.7+/-12.1%) with sufficient discrimination. It complied with experts' subjective evaluations of intelligibility. The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone did not differ from the multi-rater kappa of experts and the recognizer. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of laryngectomees. For clinical use, the speech recognition system will be adapted to disturbed voices and can also be applied in other languages. PMID:16001246

  14. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  15. Changing Speech Styles: Strategies in Read Speech and Casual and Careful Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    A study examined segmental and suprasegmental elements which contribute to an impression of one speaking style as opposed to another. A corpus containing three styles of speech, casual, careful, and read, for the same linguistic content was gathered. Thirteen speakers from Paris, France (aged 24-35) were given a scenario to be acted out over the…

  16. A hardware preprocessor for use in speech recognition: Speech Input Device SID3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, R. E.; Manning, D. R.

    1983-05-01

    A device which reduces the amount of data sent to the computer for speech recognition, by extracting from the speech signal the information that conveys the meaning of the speech, all other data being discarded is presented. The design includes signal to noise ratios as low as 10 dB, public telephone frequency bandwidth and unconstrained speech. It produces continuously at its output 64 bits of digital information, which represents the way 16 speech parameters vary. The parameters cover speech quality, voice pitch, resonant frequency, level of resonance and unvoiced spectrum color. The receiving computer must have supporting software containing recognition algorithms adapted to SID3 parameters.

  17. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  18. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment. PMID:25989443

  19. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  20. Speech and language delay in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  1. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  2. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  3. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  4. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment.

  5. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  6. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  7. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  8. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  9. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Bernd J.; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  10. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  11. Apraxia of speech: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Jennifer; Slama, Hilary; Dronkers, Nina; Amici, Serena; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2005-12-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that can occur in the absence of aphasia or dysarthria. AOS has been the subject of some controversy since the disorder was first named and described by Darley and his Mayo Clinic colleagues in the 1960s. A recent revival of interest in AOS is due in part to the fact that it is often the first symptom of neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary progressive aphasia and corticobasal degeneration. This article will provide a brief review of terminology associated with AOS, its clinical hallmarks and neuroanatomical correlates. Current models of motor programming will also be addressed as they relate to AOS and finally, typical treatment strategies used in rehabilitating the articulation and prosody deficits associated with AOS will be summarized. PMID:16393756

  12. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  13. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  14. System justification and electrophysiological responses to feedback: support for a positivity bias.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Peterson, Jordan B; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Conservatives, compared to liberals, are consistently found to exhibit physiological sensitivity to aversive stimuli. However, it remains unknown whether conservatives are also sensitive to salient positively valenced stimuli. We therefore used event-related potentials to determine the relationship between system justification (SJ), a fundamental component of conservative political ideology, and neural processing of negative and positive feedback. Participants (N = 29) filled out questionnaire assessments of SJ. Feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potential component thought to index activity in neural regions associated with reward processing, was assessed in response to positive and negative feedback on a time estimation task. A significant interaction was noted between SJ and feedback type in predicting FRN. Simple effects tests suggested that SJ predicted greater FRN in response to positive but not to negative feedback. Conservatives may experience salient positive information with a heightened intensity. PMID:24274321

  15. Codex dietary fibre definition - Justification for inclusion of carbohydrates from 3 to 9 degrees of polymerisation.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Sardá, Fabiana Andréa Hoffmann; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-10-01

    The main controversy about the DF definition, adopted by the commission of Codex Alimentarius, refers to the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 degrees of polymerisation (DP), decision which may be made individually by the authorities of each country. Due to the possibility of having two definitions and the negative impact it would cause over the harmonisation of nutritional information, a bibliographic review was carried, from 2009 to 2011, aiming to gather justifications for the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition. The current review presents scientific bases that are directed to three topics: physiological aspects; repercussion over the analytical method; and impact on consumers and other users. The decision of including unavailable carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition of DF may cause effective global harmonisation in the nutritional labelling, considering that the main goal is to help consumers choose healthy foods.

  16. Justification of remediation strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Chupov, A; Bogdevich, I; Sanzharova, N; Kashparov, V; Panov, A; Zhuchenka, Yu

    2013-05-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl a number of different remedial actions were developed and implemented in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Recommendations on the application of countermeasures and remedial actions were published by the IAEA as "Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides" in 1994. Since then, new information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and effectiveness of countermeasures in the long term has been obtained and reviewed by many projects, including the Chernobyl Forum. Additionally, new approaches to derive remediation strategies were developed and successfully implemented in the most affected countries. This paper describes a justification of the remediation strategies suggested for rehabilitation of the areas most affected by the Chernobyl accident based on this experience.

  17. Effects of gaze and speech rate on receivers' evaluations of persuasive speech.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hitomi; Daibo, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    This study examined how gaze and speech rate affect perceptions of a speaker. Participants viewed a video recording of one of four persuasive messages delivered by a female speaker. Analysis of speech rate, gaze, and listener's sex revealed that when combined with a small amount of gaze, slow speech rate decreased trustworthiness as compared to a fast speech rate. For women, slow speech rate was thought to be indicative of less expertise as compared to a fast speech rate, again when combined with low gaze. There were no significant interactions, but there were main effects of gaze and speech rate on persuasiveness. High levels of gaze and slow speech rate each enhanced perceptions of the speaker's persuasiveness.

  18. Discriminating between auditory and motor cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth sounds

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Z.K.; McGettigan, C.; Scott, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Several perspectives on speech perception posit a central role for the representation of articulations in speech comprehension, supported by evidence for premotor activation when participants listen to speech. However no experiments have directly tested whether motor responses mirror the profile of selective auditory cortical responses to native speech sounds, or whether motor and auditory areas respond in different ways to sounds. We used fMRI to investigate cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth (ingressive click) sounds. Speech sounds activated bilateral superior temporal gyri more than other sounds, a profile not seen in motor and premotor cortices. These results suggest that there are qualitative differences in the ways that temporal and motor areas are activated by speech and click sounds: anterior temporal lobe areas are sensitive to the acoustic/phonetic properties while motor responses may show more generalised responses to the acoustic stimuli. PMID:21812557

  19. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  20. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  1. The Neural Bases of Difficult Speech Comprehension and Speech Production: Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti

    2012-01-01

    The role of speech production mechanisms in difficult speech comprehension is the subject of on-going debate in speech science. Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were conducted on neuroimaging studies investigating difficult speech comprehension or speech production. Meta-analysis 1 included 10 studies contrasting comprehension…

  2. Self-Evaluation and Pre-Speech Planning: A Strategy for Sharing Responsibility for Progress in the Speech Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Linda A.

    Speech class teachers can implement a pre- and post-speech strategy, using pre-speech and self-evaluation forms, to help students become active in directing their own progress, and acknowledge their own accomplishments. Every speech is tape-recorded in class. Students listen to their speeches later and fill in the self-evaluation form, which asks…

  3. Making the case for mastery learning assessments: key issues in validation and justification.

    PubMed

    Lineberry, Matthew; Soo Park, Yoon; Cook, David A; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical support is increasing for mastery learning, in which learners must demonstrate a minimum level of proficiency before completing a given educational unit. Mastery learning approaches aim for uniform achievement of key objectives by allowing learning time to vary and as such are a course-level analogue to broader competency-based curricular strategies. Sound assessment is the cornerstone of mastery learning systems, yet the nature of assessment validity and justification for mastery learning differs in important ways from standard assessment models. Specific validity issues include (1) the need for careful definition of what is meant by "mastery" in terms of learners' achievement or readiness to proceed, the expected retention of mastery over time, and the completeness of content mastery required in a particular unit; (2) validity threats associated with increased retesting; (3) the need for reliability estimates that account for the specific measurement error at the mastery versus nonmastery cut score; and (4) changes in item- and test-level score variance over retesting, which complicate the analysis of evidence related to reliability, internal structure, and relationships to other variables. The positive and negative consequences for learners, educational systems, and patients resulting from the use of mastery learning assessments must be explored to determine whether a given mastery assessment and pass/fail cut score are valid and justified. In this article, the authors outline key considerations for the validation and justification of mastery learning assessments, with the goal of supporting insightful research and sound practice as the mastery model becomes more widespread.

  4. The neural processing of masked speech.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2013-09-01

    Spoken language is rarely heard in silence, and a great deal of interest in psychoacoustics has focused on the ways that the perception of speech is affected by properties of masking noise. In this review we first briefly outline the neuroanatomy of speech perception. We then summarise the neurobiological aspects of the perception of masked speech, and investigate this as a function of masker type, masker level and task. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Annual Reviews 2013". PMID:23685149

  5. Investigating Holistic Measures of Speech Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Dana Aliel

    2012-01-01

    Speech prosody is a multi-faceted dimension of speech which can be measured and analyzed in a variety of ways. In this study, the speech prosody of Mandarin L1 speakers, English L2 speakers, and English L1 speakers was assessed by trained raters who listened to sound clips of the speakers responding to a graph prompt and reading a short passage.…

  6. Inducing Attitude Change toward Online Gaming among Adolescent Players Based on Dissonance Theory: The Role of Threats and Justification of Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…

  7. Effects of the Multiple Solutions and Question Prompts on Generalization and Justification for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving in a Computer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang; Chang, Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of solution methods and question prompts on generalization and justification of non-routine problem solving for Grade 9 students. The learning activities are based on the context of the frog jumping game. In addition, related computer tools were used to support generalization and justification of…

  8. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal education, its…

  9. Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech (CAPS-A): A Comprehensive Training Package for Speech Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, D.; John, A.; Harding-Bell, A.; Sweeney, T.; Hegarty, F.; Freeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The previous literature has largely focused on speech analysis systems and ignored process issues, such as the nature of adequate speech samples, data acquisition, recording and playback. Although there has been recognition of the need for training on tools used in speech analysis associated with cleft palate, little attention has been…

  10. Vocoders and Speech Perception: Uses of Computer-Based Speech Analysis-Synthesis in Stimulus Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Joseph; Mack, Molly

    1987-01-01

    Stimuli used in research on the perception of the speech signal have often been obtained from simple filtering and distortion of the speech waveform, sometimes accompanied by noise. However, for more complex stimulus generation, the parameters of speech can be manipulated, after analysis and before synthesis, using various types of algorithms to…

  11. Statistical modeling of infant-directed versus adult-directed speech: Insights from speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Schimmel, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Studies on infant speech perception have shown that infant-directed speech (motherese) exhibits exaggerated acoustic properties, which are assumed to guide infants in the acquisition of phonemic categories. Training an automatic speech recognizer on such data might similarly lead to improved performance since classes can be expected to be more clearly separated in the training material. This claim was tested by training automatic speech recognizers on adult-directed (AD) versus infant-directed (ID) speech and testing them under identical versus mismatched conditions. 32 mother-infant conversations and 32 mother-adult conversations were used as training and test data. Both sets of conversations included a set of cue words containing unreduced vowels (e.g., sheep, boot, top, etc.), which mothers were encouraged to use repeatedly. Experiments on continuous speech recognition of the entire data set showed that recognizers trained on infant-directed speech did perform significantly better than those trained on adult-directed speech. However, isolated word recognition experiments focusing on the above-mentioned cue words showed that the drop in performance of the ID-trained speech recognizer on AD test speech was significantly smaller than vice versa, suggesting that speech with over-emphasized phonetic contrasts may indeed constitute better training material for speech recognition. [Work supported by CMBL, University of Washington.

  12. Private and Inner Speech and the Regulation of Social Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Martin Martinez, Conchi; Boada i Calbet, Humbert; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To further investigate the possible regulatory role of private and inner speech in the context of referential social speech communications, a set of clear and systematically applied measures is needed. This study addresses this need by introducing a rigorous method for identifying private speech and certain sharply defined instances of inaudible…

  13. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech.

    PubMed

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise. PMID:27630552

  14. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise.

  15. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise. PMID:27630552

  16. Speech and Language Skills of Parents of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Miscimarra, Lara; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared parents with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) to parents without known histories on measures of speech sound production, phonological processing, language, reading, and spelling. Familial aggregation for speech and language disorders was also examined. Method: The participants were 147 parents of children with…

  17. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  18. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be protected by the…

  19. DELAYED SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT, PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOOD, NANCY E.

    WRITTEN FOR SPEECH PATHOLOGY STUDENTS AND PROFESSIONAL WORKERS, THE BOOK BEGINS BY DEFINING LANGUAGE AND SPEECH AND TRACING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE FROM THE INFANT THROUGH THE 4-YEAR OLD. CAUSAL FACTORS OF DELAYED DEVELOPMENT ARE GIVEN, INCLUDING CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPAIRMENT AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORAL CLUES AND LANGUAGE…

  20. Normal and Time-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Short-term and long-term learning effects were investigated for the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) using original and time-compressed fast speech in noise. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants completed six lists of the OLSA in five sessions. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners (24 and 12 listeners) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (9 listeners each) performed the test with original or time-compressed speech. In general, original speech resulted in better speech recognition thresholds than time-compressed speech. Thresholds decreased with repetition for both speech materials. Confirming earlier results, the largest improvements were observed within the first measurements of the first session, indicating a rapid initial adaptation phase. The improvements were larger for time-compressed than for original speech. The novel results on long-term learning effects when using the OLSA indicate a longer phase of ongoing learning, especially for time-compressed speech, which seems to be limited by a floor effect. In addition, for normal-hearing participants, no complete transfer of learning benefits from time-compressed to original speech was observed. These effects should be borne in mind when inviting listeners repeatedly, for example, in research settings.

  1. Adaptation to spectrally-rotated speech.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart; Faulkner, Andrew; Paterson, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    Much recent interest surrounds listeners' abilities to adapt to various transformations that distort speech. An extreme example is spectral rotation, in which the spectrum of low-pass filtered speech is inverted around a center frequency (2 kHz here). Spectral shape and its dynamics are completely altered, rendering speech virtually unintelligible initially. However, intonation, rhythm, and contrasts in periodicity and aperiodicity are largely unaffected. Four normal hearing adults underwent 6 h of training with spectrally-rotated speech using Continuous Discourse Tracking. They and an untrained control group completed pre- and post-training speech perception tests, for which talkers differed from the training talker. Significantly improved recognition of spectrally-rotated sentences was observed for trained, but not untrained, participants. However, there were no significant improvements in the identification of medial vowels in /bVd/ syllables or intervocalic consonants. Additional tests were performed with speech materials manipulated so as to isolate the contribution of various speech features. These showed that preserving intonational contrasts did not contribute to the comprehension of spectrally-rotated speech after training, and suggested that improvements involved adaptation to altered spectral shape and dynamics, rather than just learning to focus on speech features relatively unaffected by the transformation.

  2. Segregation of unvoiced speech from nonspeech interference.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoning; Wang, DeLiang

    2008-08-01

    Monaural speech segregation has proven to be extremely challenging. While efforts in computational auditory scene analysis have led to considerable progress in voiced speech segregation, little attention has been given to unvoiced speech, which lacks harmonic structure and has weaker energy, hence more susceptible to interference. This study proposes a new approach to the problem of segregating unvoiced speech from nonspeech interference. The study first addresses the question of how much speech is unvoiced. The segregation process occurs in two stages: Segmentation and grouping. In segmentation, the proposed model decomposes an input mixture into contiguous time-frequency segments by a multiscale analysis of event onsets and offsets. Grouping of unvoiced segments is based on Bayesian classification of acoustic-phonetic features. The proposed model for unvoiced speech segregation joins an existing model for voiced speech segregation to produce an overall system that can deal with both voiced and unvoiced speech. Systematic evaluation shows that the proposed system extracts a majority of unvoiced speech without including much interference, and it performs substantially better than spectral subtraction. PMID:18681616

  3. Speech coding research at Bell Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Bishnu S.

    2001-05-01

    The field of speech coding is now over 70 years old. It started from the desire to transmit voice signals over telegraph cables. The availability of digital computers in the mid 1960s made it possible to test complex speech coding algorithms rapidly. The introduction of linear predictive coding (LPC) started a new era in speech coding. The fundamental philosophy of speech coding went through a major shift, resulting in a new generation of low bit rate speech coders, such as multi-pulse and code-excited LPC. The semiconductor revolution produced faster and faster DSP chips and made linear predictive coding practical. Code-excited LPC has become the method of choice for low bit rate speech coding applications and is used in most voice transmission standards for cell phones. Digital speech communication is rapidly evolving from circuit-switched to packet-switched networks to provide integrated transmission of voice, data, and video signals. The new communication environment is also moving the focus of speech coding research from compression to low cost, reliable, and secure transmission of voice signals on digital networks, and provides the motivation for creating a new class of speech coders suitable for future applications.

  4. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    PubMed

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  5. Preschoolers Benefit From Visually Salient Speech Cues

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3- and 4-year-old children completed 3 audiovisual (AV) speech integration tasks: matching, discrimination, and recognition. The authors compared AV benefit for visually salient and less visually salient speech discrimination contrasts and assessed the visual saliency of consonant confusions in auditory-only and AV word recognition. Results Four-year-olds and adults demonstrated visual influence on all measures. Three-year-olds demonstrated visual influence on speech discrimination and recognition measures. All groups demonstrated greater AV benefit for the visually salient discrimination contrasts. AV recognition benefit in 4-year-olds and adults depended on the visual saliency of speech sounds. Conclusions Preschoolers can demonstrate AV speech integration. Their AV benefit results from efficient use of visually salient speech cues. Four-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, used visual phonological knowledge to take advantage of visually salient speech cues, suggesting possible developmental differences in the mechanisms of AV benefit. PMID:25322336

  6. Speech Enhancement based on Compressive Sensing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulong, Amart; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Chebil, Jalel

    2013-12-01

    There are various methods, in performance of speech enhancement, have been proposed over the years. The accurate method for the speech enhancement design mainly focuses on quality and intelligibility. The method proposed with high performance level. A novel speech enhancement by using compressive sensing (CS) is a new paradigm of acquiring signals, fundamentally different from uniform rate digitization followed by compression, often used for transmission or storage. Using CS can reduce the number of degrees of freedom of a sparse/compressible signal by permitting only certain configurations of the large and zero/small coefficients, and structured sparsity models. Therefore, CS is significantly provides a way of reconstructing a compressed version of the speech in the original signal by taking only a small amount of linear and non-adaptive measurement. The performance of overall algorithms will be evaluated based on the speech quality by optimise using informal listening test and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Experimental results show that the CS algorithm perform very well in a wide range of speech test and being significantly given good performance for speech enhancement method with better noise suppression ability over conventional approaches without obvious degradation of speech quality.

  7. Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Frequently Asked Questions: Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting What types of speech and language disorders affect school-age children ? Do speech-language ...

  8. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  9. 77 FR 35624 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... justification and approval for an 8(a) sole-source contract exceeding $20 million dollars. Correction In rule FR..., which was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 23369, April 18, 2012. DATES: Effective Date: June... the Federal Register at 77 FR 23369, April 18, 2012. The correction removes language indicating...

  10. 28 CFR 541.20 - Justification for placement in disciplinary segregation and review of inmates in disciplinary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline and Special Housing Units § 541.20 Justification for placement in... Discipline Hearing Officer following a hearing in which the inmate has been found to have committed...

  11. What We Talk About When We Talk About Morality: Deontological, Consequentialist, and Emotive Language Use in Justifications Across Foundation-Specific Moral Violations.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Melissa A; Laham, Simon M

    2016-09-01

    Morality is inherently social, yet much extant work in moral psychology ignores the central role of social processes in moral phenomena. To partly address this, this article examined the content of persuasive moral communication-the way people justify their moral attitudes in persuasive contexts. Across two studies, we explored variation in justification content (deontological, consequentialist, or emotive) as a function of moral foundations. Using justification selection techniques (Study 1) and open-ended justification production (Study 2), results demonstrate a preference (a) for deontological appeals in justifications for the sanctity foundation, (b) for consequentialist appeals for the individualizing foundations (care and fairness), and (c) for emotive appeals in justifications for the binding foundations (loyalty, authority and sanctity). The present research questions the generality of inferences about the primacy of emotions/intuition in moral psychology research and highlights the important role of reasons in persuasive moral communication. PMID:27340149

  12. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  13. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  14. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy. PMID

  15. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  16. Speech detection in spatial and nonspatial speech maskers.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Uma; Freyman, Richard L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of perceived spatial differences on masking release was examined using a 4AFC speech detection paradigm. Targets were 20 words produced by a female talker. Maskers were recordings of continuous streams of nonsense sentences spoken by two female talkers and mixed into each of two channels (two talker, and the same masker time reversed). Two masker spatial conditions were employed: "RF" with a 4 ms time lead to the loudspeaker 60 degrees horizontally to the right, and "FR" with the time lead to the front (0 degrees ) loudspeaker. The reference nonspatial "F" masker was presented from the front loudspeaker only. Target presentation was always from the front loudspeaker. In Experiment 1, target detection threshold for both natural and time-reversed spatial maskers was 17-20 dB lower than that for the nonspatial masker, suggesting that significant release from informational masking occurs with spatial speech maskers regardless of masker understandability. In Experiment 2, the effectiveness of the FR and RF maskers was evaluated as the right loudspeaker output was attenuated until the two-source maskers were indistinguishable from the F masker, as measured independently in a discrimination task. Results indicated that spatial release from masking can be observed with barely noticeable target-masker spatial differences.

  17. Open Microphone Speech Understanding: Correct Discrimination Of In Domain Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieronymus, James; Aist, Greg; Dowding, John

    2006-01-01

    An ideal spoken dialogue system listens continually and determines which utterances were spoken to it, understands them and responds appropriately while ignoring the rest This paper outlines a simple method for achieving this goal which involves trading a slightly higher false rejection rate of in domain utterances for a higher correct rejection rate of Out of Domain (OOD) utterances. The system recognizes semantic entities specified by a unification grammar which is specialized by Explanation Based Learning (EBL). so that it only uses rules which are seen in the training data. The resulting grammar has probabilities assigned to each construct so that overgeneralizations are not a problem. The resulting system only recognizes utterances which reduce to a valid logical form which has meaning for the system and rejects the rest. A class N-gram grammar has been trained on the same training data. This system gives good recognition performance and offers good Out of Domain discrimination when combined with the semantic analysis. The resulting systems were tested on a Space Station Robot Dialogue Speech Database and a subset of the OGI conversational speech database. Both systems run in real time on a PC laptop and the present performance allows continuous listening with an acceptably low false acceptance rate. This type of open microphone system has been used in the Clarissa procedure reading and navigation spoken dialogue system which is being tested on the International Space Station.

  18. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  19. Monaural speech intelligibility and detection in maskers with varying amounts of spectro-temporal speech features.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-07-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly affected by the presence of maskers. Depending on the spectro-temporal structure of the masker and its similarity to the target speech, different masking aspects can occur which are typically referred to as energetic, amplitude modulation, and informational masking. In this study speech intelligibility and speech detection was measured in maskers that vary systematically in the time-frequency domain from steady-state noise to a single interfering talker. Male and female target speech was used in combination with maskers based on speech for the same or different gender. Observed data were compared to predictions of the speech intelligibility index, extended speech intelligibility index, multi-resolution speech-based envelope-power-spectrum model, and the short-time objective intelligibility measure. The different models served as analysis tool to help distinguish between the different masking aspects. Comparison shows that overall masking can to a large extent be explained by short-term energetic masking. However, the other masking aspects (amplitude modulation an informational masking) influence speech intelligibility as well. Additionally, it was obvious that all models showed considerable deviations from the data. Therefore, the current study provides a benchmark for further evaluation of speech prediction models. PMID:27475175

  20. Reasons why current speech-enhancement algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility and suggested solutions

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Philipos C.; Kim, Gibak

    2011-01-01

    Existing speech enhancement algorithms can improve speech quality but not speech intelligibility, and the reasons for that are unclear. In the present paper, we present a theoretical framework that can be used to analyze potential factors that can influence the intelligibility of processed speech. More specifically, this framework focuses on the fine-grain analysis of the distortions introduced by speech enhancement algorithms. It is hypothesized that if these distortions are properly controlled, then large gains in intelligibility can be achieved. To test this hypothesis, intelligibility tests are conducted with human listeners in which we present processed speech with controlled speech distortions. The aim of these tests is to assess the perceptual effect of the various distortions that can be introduced by speech enhancement algorithms on speech intelligibility. Results with three different enhancement algorithms indicated that certain distortions are more detrimental to speech intelligibility degradation than others. When these distortions were properly controlled, however, large gains in intelligibility were obtained by human listeners, even by spectral-subtractive algorithms which are known to degrade speech quality and intelligibility. PMID:21909285

  1. Speech levels in meeting rooms and the probability of speech privacy problems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J S; Gover, B N

    2010-02-01

    Speech levels were measured in a large number of meetings and meeting rooms to better understand their influence on the speech privacy of closed meeting rooms. The effects of room size and number of occupants on average speech levels, for meetings with and without sound amplification, were investigated. The characteristics of the statistical variations of speech levels were determined in terms of speech levels measured over 10 s intervals at locations inside, but near the periphery of the meeting rooms. A procedure for predicting the probability of speech being audible or intelligible at points outside meeting rooms is proposed. It is based on the statistics of meeting room speech levels, in combination with the sound insulation characteristics of the room and the ambient noise levels at locations outside the room. PMID:20136204

  2. Method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrash, Victor (Inventor); Cesari, Federico (Inventor); Franco, Horacio (Inventor); George, Christopher (Inventor); Zheng, Jing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications. In one embodiment, the method continuously records an audio stream comprising a sequence of frames to a circular buffer. When a user command to commence or terminate speech recognition is received, the method obtains a number of frames of the audio stream occurring before or after the user command in order to identify an augmented audio signal for speech recognition processing. In further embodiments, the method analyzes the augmented audio signal in order to locate starting and ending speech endpoints that bound at least a portion of speech to be processed for recognition. At least one of the speech endpoints is located using a Hidden Markov Model.

  3. [Electrographic Correlations of Inner Speech].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M; Aslanyan, E V; Kiroy, R I

    2015-01-01

    On the purpose to detect in EEG specific patterns associated with any verbal performance the gamma activity were investigated. The technique which allows the subject to initiate the mental pronunciation of words and phrases (inner speech) was created. Wavelet analysis of EEG has been experimentally demonstrated that the preparation and implementation stages are related to the specific spatio-temporal patterns in frequency range 64-68 Hz. Sustainable reproduction and efficient identification of such patterns can solve the fundamentally problem of alphabet control commands formation for Brain Computer Interface and Brain to Braine Interface systems. PMID:26860004

  4. Speech recognition technology: a critique.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, S E

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the session on advanced speech recognition technology. The two papers comprising this session argue that current technology yields a performance that is only an order of magnitude in error rate away from human performance and that incremental improvements will bring us to that desired level. I argue that, to the contrary, present performance is far removed from human performance and a revolution in our thinking is required to achieve the goal. It is further asserted that to bring about the revolution more effort should be expended on basic research and less on trying to prematurely commercialize a deficient technology. PMID:7479808

  5. Speech activity detection using accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Matic, Aleksandar; Osmani, Venet; Mayora, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    The level of social activity is linked to the overall wellbeing and to various disorders, including stress. In this regard, a myriad of automatic solutions for monitoring social interactions have been proposed, usually including audio data analysis. Such approaches often face legal and ethical issues and they may also raise privacy concerns in monitored subjects thus affecting their natural behaviour. In this paper we present an accelerometer-based speech detection which does not require capturing sensitive data while being an easily applicable and a cost-effective solution.

  6. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna M; Zion Golumbic, Elana; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-07-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech's temporal envelope ("speech-tracking"), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural versus vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech-tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech-tracking more similar to vocoded speech.

  7. Teaching Speech to Your Language Delayed Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Roger J.; Pryor, Jan, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Intended for parents, the booklet focuses on the speech and language development of children with language delays. The following topics are among those considered: the parent's role in the initial diagnosis of deafness, intellectual handicap, and neurological difficulties; diagnoses and single causes of difficultiy with speech; what to say to…

  8. Pulmonic Ingressive Speech in Shetland English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundkvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial…

  9. Only Speech Codes Should Be Censored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the enforcement of "hate speech" codes and confirms research that considers why U.S. colleges and universities continue to promulgate student disciplinary rules prohibiting expression that "subordinates" others or is "demeaning, offensive, or hateful." Such continued adherence to speech codes is by now…

  10. Speech Genres in Writing Cognitive Artifacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambaugh, R. Neal

    This paper reports on the analysis of an instructional text on the basis of M. Bakhtin's (1986) notion of speech genres, which is used to theorize the different influences on the writing of an instructional text. Speech genres are used to reveal the multiple voices inherent in any text: the writer's, the reader's, and the text's. The…

  11. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Boyd V.

    This monograph on the anatomical and physiological aspects of the speech mechanism stresses the importance of a general understanding of the process of verbal communication. Contents include "Positions of the Body,""Basic Concepts Linked with the Speech Mechanism,""The Nervous System,""The Respiratory System--Sound-Power Source,""The…

  12. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  13. Localization of Sublexical Speech Perception Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Models of speech perception are in general agreement with respect to the major cortical regions involved, but lack precision with regard to localization and lateralization of processing units. To refine these models we conducted two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature on sublexical speech perception.…

  14. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  15. A Foster Home Approach to Speech Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatten, John T.; Hatten, Pequetti A.

    1971-01-01

    A language development program for a 6-year-old boy with limited language development combined an operant approach in the foster home, where both parents were speech clinicians, and daily 3-hour therapy sessions at a university speech and hearing clinic. (KW)

  16. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  17. The Lombard Effect on Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeine, Lina; Brandt, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The study investigated the Lombard effect (evoking increased speech intensity by applying masking noise to ears of talker) on the speech of esophageal talkers, artificial larynx users, and normal speakers. The noise condition produced the highest intensity increase in the esophageal speakers. (Author/DB)

  18. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  19. Tampa Bay International Business Summit Keynote Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A keynote speech outlining the importance of collaboration and diversity in the workplace. The 20-minute speech describes NASA's challenges and accomplishments over the years and what lies ahead. Topics include: diversity and inclusion principles, international cooperation, Kennedy Space Center planning and development, opportunities for cooperation, and NASA's vision for exploration.

  20. Building Searchable Collections of Enterprise Speech Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James W.; Viswanathan, Mahesh; Byron, Donna; Chan, Margaret

    The study has applied speech recognition and text-mining technologies to a set of recorded outbound marketing calls and analyzed the results. Since speaker-independent speech recognition technology results in a significantly lower recognition rate than that found when the recognizer is trained for a particular speaker, a number of post-processing…

  1. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  2. Mothers' Speech in Three Social Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, C. E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Functional and linguistic aspects of the speech of Dutch-speaking mothers from three social classes to their two-year-old children were studied to test the hypothesis that simplified speech is crucial to language acquisition. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  3. Acoustic characteristics of listener-constrained speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Simone; Cummins, Fred

    2003-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the acoustical modifications speakers employ to meet the various constraints-auditory, linguistic and otherwise-of their listeners. Similarly, the manner by which perceived listener constraints interact with speakers' adoption of specialized speech registers is poorly Hypo (H&H) theory offers a framework for examining the relationship between speech production and output-oriented goals for communication, suggesting that under certain circumstances speakers may attempt to minimize phonetic ambiguity by employing a ``hyperarticulated'' speaking style (Lindblom, 1990). It remains unclear, however, what the acoustic correlates of hyperarticulated speech are, and how, if at all, we might expect phonetic properties to change respective to different listener-constrained conditions. This paper is part of a preliminary investigation concerned with comparing the prosodic characteristics of speech produced across a range of listener constraints. Analyses are drawn from a corpus of read hyperarticulated speech data comprising eight adult, female speakers of English. Specialized registers include speech to foreigners, infant-directed speech, speech produced under noisy conditions, and human-machine interaction. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Irish Higher Education Authority, allocated to Fred Cummins for collaborative work with Media Lab Europe.

  4. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  5. Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

    2007-01-01

    Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

  6. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

    Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

  7. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  8. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  9. Portable Tactile Aids for Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using portable tactile aids in speech perception are reviewed, focusing on training studies, additive benefit studies, and device comparison studies (including the "Tactaid II,""Tactaid V,""Tacticon 1600," and "Tickle Talker"). The potential of tactual information in perception of the overall speech code by hearing-impaired individuals…

  10. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  11. Effects of Syllable Frequency in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholin, Joana; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2006-01-01

    In the speech production model proposed by [Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. "Behavioral and Brain Sciences," 22, pp. 1-75.], syllables play a crucial role at the interface of phonological and phonetic encoding. At this interface, abstract phonological syllables are translated…

  12. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  13. Education in the 80's: Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Gustav W., Ed.

    Taken together, the 20 chapters in this book provide many suggestions, predictions, alternatives, innovations, and improvements in the speech communication curriculum that can be either undertaken or accomplished during the 1980s. The first five chapters speculate positively about the future of speech communication instruction in five of its most…

  14. Reliability of Speech Diadochokinetic Test Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadesmann, Miriam; Miller, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Measures of articulatory diadochokinesis (DDK) are widely used in the assessment of motor speech disorders and they play a role in detecting abnormality, monitoring speech performance changes and classifying syndromes. Although in clinical practice DDK is generally measured perceptually, without support from instrumental methods that…

  15. [Thematic Issue: Career Trends in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Robert, Ed.

    To analyze historical trends in job opportunities available to speech communications graduates, a content analysis was conducted of Speech Communication Association bulletins over a ten-year period (1967 to 1977). All bulletin listings were analyzed for state, type of institution, rank, areas of specialization, job requirements, and salary range.…

  16. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  17. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  18. Repeated Speech Errors: Evidence for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Karin R.; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological…

  19. The Effects of TV on Speech Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gocen, Gokcen; Okur, Alpaslan

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the speaking aspect is not properly debated when discussing the positive and negative effects of television (TV), especially on children. So, to highlight this point, this study was first initialized by asking the question: "What are the effects of TV on speech?" and secondly, to transform the effects that TV has on speech in a…

  20. Methodological Choices in Rating Speech Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2016-01-01

    Much pronunciation research critically relies upon listeners' judgments of speech samples, but researchers have rarely examined the impact of methodological choices. In the current study, 30 German native listeners and 42 German L2 learners (L1 English) rated speech samples produced by English-German L2 learners along three continua: accentedness,…

  1. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  2. Speech and Language Delays in Identical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Pat

    Following a literature review on speech and language development of twins, case studies are presented of six sets of identical twins screened for entrance into kindergarten. Five sets of the twins and one boy from the sixth set failed to pass the screening test, particularly the speech and language section, and were referred for therapy to correct…

  3. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  4. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic criticism"…

  5. Pitch-Learning Algorithm For Speech Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, B. R. Udaya

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive algorithm detects and corrects errors in sequence of estimates of pitch period of speech. Algorithm operates in conjunction with techniques used to estimate pitch period. Used in such parametric and hybrid speech coders as linear predictive coders and adaptive predictive coders.

  6. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  7. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  8. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  9. Visual speech gestures modulate efferent auditory system.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Sharma, Dinaay; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Visual and auditory systems interact at both cortical and subcortical levels. Studies suggest a highly context-specific cross-modal modulation of the auditory system by the visual system. The present study builds on this work by sampling data from 17 young healthy adults to test whether visual speech stimuli evoke different responses in the auditory efferent system compared to visual non-speech stimuli. The descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly assessed by examining the effects of contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz under three conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) contralateral noise + observing facial speech gestures related to productions of vowels /a/ and /u/ and (c) contralateral noise + observing facial non-speech gestures related to smiling and frowning. The results are based on 7 individuals whose data met strict recording criteria and indicated a significant difference in TEOAE suppression between observing speech gestures relative to the non-speech gestures, but only at the 1 kHz frequency. These results suggest that observing a speech gesture compared to a non-speech gesture may trigger a difference in MOC activity, possibly to enhance peripheral neural encoding. If such findings can be reproduced in future research, sensory perception models and theories positing the downstream convergence of unisensory streams of information in the cortex may need to be revised.

  10. The Modulation Transfer Function for Speech Intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2009-01-01

    We systematically determined which spectrotemporal modulations in speech are necessary for comprehension by human listeners. Speech comprehension has been shown to be robust to spectral and temporal degradations, but the specific relevance of particular degradations is arguable due to the complexity of the joint spectral and temporal information in the speech signal. We applied a novel modulation filtering technique to recorded sentences to restrict acoustic information quantitatively and to obtain a joint spectrotemporal modulation transfer function for speech comprehension, the speech MTF. For American English, the speech MTF showed the criticality of low modulation frequencies in both time and frequency. Comprehension was significantly impaired when temporal modulations <12 Hz or spectral modulations <4 cycles/kHz were removed. More specifically, the MTF was bandpass in temporal modulations and low-pass in spectral modulations: temporal modulations from 1 to 7 Hz and spectral modulations <1 cycles/kHz were the most important. We evaluated the importance of spectrotemporal modulations for vocal gender identification and found a different region of interest: removing spectral modulations between 3 and 7 cycles/kHz significantly increases gender misidentifications of female speakers. The determination of the speech MTF furnishes an additional method for producing speech signals with reduced bandwidth but high intelligibility. Such compression could be used for audio applications such as file compression or noise removal and for clinical applications such as signal processing for cochlear implants. PMID:19266016

  11. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  12. Hate Speech: A Call to Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, William M.; Bakken, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the history of First Amendment rulings as they relate to speech codes and of other regulations directed at the content of speech. A case study, based on an experience at Trenton State College, details the legal constraints, principles, and practices that Student Affairs administrators should be aware of regarding such situations.…

  13. Fighting Words. The Politics of Hateful Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Laurence R.

    This book explores issues typified by a series of hateful speech events at Kean College (New Jersey) and on other U.S. campuses in the early 1990s, by examining the dichotomies that exist between the First and the Fourteenth Amendments and between civil liberties and civil rights, and by contrasting the values of free speech and academic freedom…

  14. Crossed Apraxia of Speech: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, Venu; Max, Ludo

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports on the first case of crossed apraxia of speech (CAS) in a 69-year-old right-handed female (SE). The possibility of occurrence of apraxia of speech (AOS) following right hemisphere lesion is discussed in the context of known occurrences of ideomotor apraxias and acquired neurogenic stuttering in several cases with right…

  15. General-Purpose Monitoring during Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Stephanie; Janssen, Niels; Dufau, Stephane; Alario, F.-Xavier; Burle, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "monitoring" refers to our ability to control our actions on-line. Monitoring involved in speech production is often described in psycholinguistic models as an inherent part of the language system. We probed the specificity of speech monitoring in two psycholinguistic experiments where electroencephalographic activities were…

  16. Electrocardiographic anxiety profiles improve speech anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seung Ae; Jung, Keun-Hwa

    2012-12-01

    The present study was to set out in efforts to determine the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) feedback on the performance in speech anxiety. Forty-six high school students participated in a speech performance educational program. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group with ECG feedback (N = 21) and a control group (N = 25). Feedback was given with video recording in the control, whereas in the experimental group, an additional ECG feedback was provided. Speech performance was evaluated by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) speech ability test, which determines the 10 different speaking categories. ECG was recorded during rest and speech, together with a video recording of the speech performance. Changes in R-R intervals were used to reflect anxiety profiles. Three trials were performed for 3-week program. Results showed that the subjects with ECG feedback revealed a significant improvement in speech performance and anxiety states, which compared to those in the control group. These findings suggest that visualization of the anxiety profile feedback with ECG can be a better cognitive therapeutic strategy in speech anxiety. PMID:22714138

  17. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech and against…

  18. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  19. The Development of Preschoolers' Private Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.

    The intent of this study was to examine the development of three aspects of preschoolers' private speech: coefficients of egocentricism, the extent to which speech regulates actions, and the syntactic and semantic structures of individual utterances. Forty-one randomly chosen preschoolers (26 females, 15 males) were placed in three age groups (3,…

  20. Scaffolded-Language Intervention: Speech Production Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Credeur-Pampolina, Maggie E.; LeBoeuf, Lexie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a scaffolded-language intervention using cloze procedures, semantically contingent expansions, contrastive word pairs, and direct models on speech abilities in two preschoolers with speech and language impairment speaking African American English. Effects of the lexical and phonological characteristics (i.e.,…