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Sample records for speech

  1. Speech, Speech!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the nature of computer-generated speech and voice synthesis today. State-of-the-art devices for home computers are called text-to-speech (TTS) systems. Details about the operation and use of TTS synthesizers are provided, and the time saving in programing over previous methods is emphasized. (MP)

  2. Speech Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutoit, Thierry; Bozkurt, Baris

    Text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is the art of designing talking machines. It is often seen by engineers as an easy task, compared to speech recognition.1 It is true, indeed, that it is easier to create a bad, first trial text-to-speech (TTS) system than to design a rudimentary speech recognizer.

  3. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  4. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  5. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... of speech disorders may disappear on their own. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or speech ... the disorder. Speech can often be improved with speech therapy. Early treatment is likely to have better results.

  6. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  7. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  8. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  9. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  10. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  11. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  12. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  13. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  14. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  15. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  16. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R

    1995-10-24

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  17. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  18. Speech research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Atal, B.S.; Rabiner, L.R.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current activities in speech research. The authors discuss the state of the art in speech coding, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition. In the speech coding area, current algorithms perform well at bit rates down to 9.6 kb/s, and the research is directed at bringing the rate for high-quality speech coding down to 2.4 kb/s. In text-to-speech synthesis, what we currently are able to produce is very intelligible but not yet completely natural. Current research aims at providing higher quality and intelligibility to the synthetic speech that these systems produce. Finally, today's systems for speech and speaker recognition provide excellent performance on limited tasks; i.e., limited vocabulary, modest syntax, small talker populations, constrained inputs, etc.

  19. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  20. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... environment and keep external stimuli to a minimum. Speak in a normal tone of voice (this condition ...

  1. SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…

  2. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  3. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  4. Speech 7 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7 through 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Speech. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Following the foreward, philosophy and objectives, this guide presents a speech curriculum. The curriculum covers junior high and Speech I, II, III (senior high). Thirteen units of study are presented for junior high, each unit is divided into…

  5. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  6. The Limits of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Colleges and universities are finding it difficult to mold administrative policy concerning freedom of speech on campus. Even when speech or harassment codes mirror federal guidelines for antidiscrimination policy, controversy is common. Potential infringement on rights to free speech is the central issue. (MSE)

  7. Machine Translation from Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  8. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia.

  9. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  10. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  11. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  12. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  13. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Speech-Language Therapy Print ... with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech disorder refers ...

  14. Free Speech Yearbook 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The eleven articles in this collection explore various aspects of freedom of speech. Topics include the lack of knowledge on the part of many judges regarding the complex act of communication; the legislatures and free speech in colonial Connecticut and Rhode Island; contributions of sixteenth century Anabaptist heretics to First Amendment…

  15. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the production…

  16. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  17. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but apparently inevitable…

  18. Free Speech Yearbook 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The nine articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics discussed include the following: (1) freedom of expression in Thailand and India; (2) metaphors and analogues in several landmark free speech cases; (3) Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas's views of the First Amendment; (4) the San…

  19. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  20. Free Speech Yearbook: 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Editor

    This publication of ten scholarly articles provides perspectives on problems and forces that inhibit freedom of speech. 1) "Freedom of Speech and Change in American Education" suggests that a more communicative society, and increasing academic freedoms, helps schools adapt to social change; 2) "Syllabus and Bibliography for 'Issues in Freedom of…

  1. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976" (William A. Linsley), "'Arnett v.…

  2. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  3. The Discipline of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Loren

    1967-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of subjects subsumed under the generic term speech, all areas of this discipline are based on oral communication with its essential elements--voice, action, thought, and language. Speech may be viewed as a community of persons with a common tradition participating in a common dialog, described in part by the memberships…

  4. Free Speech. No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds Voted For Schorr Inquiry" by Richard Lyons, "Erosion of the…

  5. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  6. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  7. SPEECH FRIGHT IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SPEECH ABILITY AND ITS POSSIBLE IMPLICATION FOR SPEECH READINESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, IRWIN

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SPEECH FRIGHT TO THEIR SPEECH ABILITY, SPEECH ATTITUDES, AND SPEECH READINESS WAS STUDIED. SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA WERE COLLECTED ON SPEECH FRIGHT LEVELS AND SPEECH ABILITY OF 1,166 STUDENTS IN SELECTED ELEMENTARY GRADES. ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS TOWARD SPEECH FRIGHT WERE ALSO…

  8. Speech Correction in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenson, Jon; Ogilvie, Mardel

    An introduction to the problems and therapeutic needs of school age children whose speech requires remedial attention, the text is intended for both the classroom teacher and the speech correctionist. General considerations include classification and incidence of speech defects, speech correction services, the teacher as a speaker, the mechanism…

  9. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  10. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  11. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  12. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  13. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  14. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  15. Auditory speech preprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, G.

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear transmission line model of the cochlea (Zweig 1988) is proposed as the basis for a novel speech preprocessor. Sounds of different intensities, such as voiced and unvoiced speech, are preprocessed in radically different ways. The Q's of the preprocessor's nonlinear filters vary with input amplitude, higher Q's (longer integration times) corresponding to quieter sounds. Like the cochlea, the preprocessor acts as a ''subthreshold laser'' that traps and amplifies low level signals, thereby aiding in their detection and analysis. 17 refs.

  16. Computer-generated speech

    SciTech Connect

    Aimthikul, Y.

    1981-12-01

    This thesis reviews the essential aspects of speech synthesis and distinguishes between the two prevailing techniques: compressed digital speech and phonemic synthesis. It then presents the hardware details of the five speech modules evaluated. FORTRAN programs were written to facilitate message creation and retrieval with four of the modules driven by a PDP-11 minicomputer. The fifth module was driven directly by a computer terminal. The compressed digital speech modules (T.I. 990/306, T.S.I. Series 3D and N.S. Digitalker) each contain a limited vocabulary produced by the manufacturers while both the phonemic synthesizers made by Votrax permit an almost unlimited set of sounds and words. A text-to-phoneme rules program was adapted for the PDP-11 (running under the RSX-11M operating system) to drive the Votrax Speech Pac module. However, the Votrax Type'N Talk unit has its own built-in translator. Comparison of these modules revealed that the compressed digital speech modules were superior in pronouncing words on an individual basis but lacked the inflection capability that permitted the phonemic synthesizers to generate more coherent phrases. These findings were necessarily highly subjective and dependent on the specific words and phrases studied. In addition, the rapid introduction of new modules by manufacturers will necessitate new comparisons. However, the results of this research verified that all of the modules studied do possess reasonable quality of speech that is suitable for man-machine applications. Furthermore, the development tools are now in place to permit the addition of computer speech output in such applications.

  17. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions. PMID:27036287

  18. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  19. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  20. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  1. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  2. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  3. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  4. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  5. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  6. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; McCartney, M. L.

    1980-12-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  7. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  8. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE IN SPEECH CORRECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEALEY, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN PRIMARILY FOR SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, PRINCIPALS, SPEECH CLINICIANS, AND SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE OUTLINES THE MECHANICS OF ORGANIZING AND CONDUCTING SPEECH CORRECTION ACTIVITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT INCLUDES THE REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION OF A SPEECH CLINICIAN IN MISSOURI AND DESCRIBES ESSENTIAL STEPS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A…

  9. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  10. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  11. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  12. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  13. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  14. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  15. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... SLP) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the ... ASHA | American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Information in Spanish | Información en español. 1.800.638.8255 | actioncenter@ ...

  16. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  17. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  18. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  19. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  20. From the Speech Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can Vocat J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In a speech, Looking Ahead in Vocational Education", to a group of Hamilton educators, D.O. Davis, Vice-President, Engineering, Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited, Hamilton, Ontario spoke of the challenge of change and what educators and industry must do to help the future of vocational education. (Editor)

  1. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  2. Measuring Speech Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin C.

    Improving the quality of undergraduate speech communication education depends to a large extent on effectively measuring student achievement in college level communication skills. While formal tests are not as well developed for speaking skills as for other areas of the curriculum, they are available. The two used most frequently are the…

  3. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  4. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  5. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  6. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  7. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Hate Speech: Power in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jack B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of hate speech and freedom of speech on college campuses examines the difference between hate speech from normal, objectionable interpersonal comments and looks at Supreme Court decisions on the limits of student free speech. Two cases specifically concerning regulation of hate speech on campus are considered: Chaplinsky v. New…

  9. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  10. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  11. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  12. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  13. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  14. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  15. Speech audiometry by a speech synthesizer. I. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rahko, T; Karjalainen, M A; Laine, U K; Lavonen, S

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report on speech test results with a portable, text-to-speech synthesizer is presented. The differentiation scores achieved at speed 80 words/min vary. So far the best mean differentiation scores in normal material are 75%. The increase of the presentation level improves the differentiation score, as does the decrease of word speed and training. The future and present uses of this system are discussed. These include: devices for the handicapped, e.g. to produce speech for the mute, man-machine communication through speech in industry control, data processing systems and uses in audiological diagnostics. The study is continued. PMID:435169

  16. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  17. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  18. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  19. [A method of speech donorship and speech discourse for the speech restoration in aphasia].

    PubMed

    Rudnev, V A; Shteĭnerdt, V V

    2012-01-01

    An objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of speech restoration in aphasia in outpatients using audiovisual samples of the speech of first-degree relatives of the patient with the following transformation of the restoration into the feedback with the own audiovisual material (a method of speech donorship and speech discourse). We studied 53 outpatients with different severity of aphasia (28 patients with moderate severity, 12 patients with mild severity and 13 patients with marked severity) that was pathogenetically associated with stroke or brain injury. We used the following algorithm of speech restoration: 1) the work in the regime of biological feedback with the audiovisual sample of the speech of the close relative (7th-14th days); 2) the DVD recording of the own speech of the patient and the work with the own audiovisual sample (14th-21st days). Sessions were carried out twice a day. After the rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement (p<0,001) in the speech function including the decrease in the frequency of literal and verbal paraphasias, literal perseverations as well as the improvement of speech initiation and nonverbal speech component (intonation and kinesthetic appearances). The results of the restoration were worse in patients with severe aphasia than in those with moderate and mild aphasia, for the latter patients the method was very effective.

  20. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex.

    PubMed

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T

    2016-03-16

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca's area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  1. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca’s area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  2. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  3. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  4. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the course of the disease. What do speech-language pathologists do when working with people with Huntington's ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  5. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development Birth to 2 Years Encourage your baby ... or light) of the packages. Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  6. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Development What Is Language? What Is Speech? [ en Español ] Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard time ...

  7. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  8. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  9. Speech-in-Speech Recognition: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify aspects of speech-in-noise recognition that are susceptible to training, focusing on whether listeners can learn to adapt to target talkers ("tune in") and learn to better cope with various maskers ("tune out") after short-term training. Listeners received training on English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise…

  10. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  11. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  12. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  13. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  14. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  15. Taking a Stand for Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne D.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that freedom of speech issues were among the first major confrontations in U.S. constitutional law. Maintains that lessons from the controversies surrounding the Sedition Act of 1798 have continuing practical relevance. Describes and discusses the significance of freedom of speech to the U.S. political system. (CFR)

  16. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  17. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  18. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  19. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  20. Perceptual Aspects of Cluttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Myers, Florence L.; Faragasso, Kristine; Townsend, Paula S.; Gallaher, Amanda J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to explore perceptual judgments of speech naturalness, compared to judgments of articulation, language, disfluency, and speaking rate, in the speech of two youths who differed in cluttering severity. Two groups of listeners, 48 from New York and 48 from West Virginia, judged 93 speaking samples on…

  1. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  2. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  3. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  4. Hate Speech or Free Speech: Can Broad Campus Speech Regulations Survive Current Judicial Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Gregory M.; Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    Federal courts have found speech regulations overbroad in suits against the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin System. Attempts to assess the theoretical justification and probable fate of broad speech regulations that have not been explicitly rejected by the courts. Concludes that strong arguments for broader regulation will…

  5. Hate Speech/Free Speech: Using Feminist Perspectives To Foster On-Campus Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Nancy; Orbe, Mark P.; Warren, Kiesha

    1999-01-01

    Explores the complex issues inherent in the tension between hate speech and free speech, focusing on the phenomenon of hate speech on college campuses. Describes the challenges to hate speech made by critical race theorists and explains how a feminist critique can reorient the parameters of hate speech. (SLD)

  6. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. PMID:26944220

  7. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  8. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  9. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  10. Linguistic Units and Speech Production Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeilage, Peter F.

    This paper examines the validity of the concept of linguistic units in a theory of speech production. Substantiating data are drawn from the study of the speech production process itself. Secondarily, an attempt is made to reconcile the postulation of linguistic units in speech production theory with their apparent absence in the speech signal.…

  11. Multifractal nature of unvoiced speech signals

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyemi, O.A.; Hartt, K.; Boudreaux-Bartels, G.F.

    1996-06-01

    A refinement is made in the nonlinear dynamic modeling of speech signals. Previous research successfully characterized speech signals as chaotic. Here, we analyze fricative speech signals using multifractal measures to determine various fractal regimes present in their chaotic attractors. Results support the hypothesis that speech signals have multifractal measures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  13. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  14. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  15. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  16. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  17. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  18. Speech processing: An evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crochiere, R.E.; Flanagan, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    As we enter the information age, speech processing is emerging as an important technology for making machines easier and more convenient for humans to use. It is both an old and a new technology - dating back to the invention of the telephone and forward, at least in aspirations, to the capabilities of HAL in 2001. Explosive advances in microelectronics now make it possible to implement economical real-time hardware for sophisticated speech processing - processing that formerly could be demonstrated only in simulations on main-frame computers. As a result, fundamentally new product concepts - as well as new features and functions in existing products - are becoming possible and are being explored in the marketplace. As the introductory piece to this issue, the authors draw a brief perspective on the evolving field of speech processing and assess the technology in the the three constituent sectors: speech coding, synthesis, and recognition.

  19. Turbo Processing for Speech Recognition.

    PubMed

    Moon, Todd K; Gunther, Jacob H; Broadus, Cortnie; Hou, Wendy; Nelson, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Speech recognition is a classic example of a human/machine interface, typifying many of the difficulties and opportunities of human/machine interaction. In this paper, speech recognition is used as an example of applying turbo processing principles to the general problem of human/machine interface. Speech recognizers frequently involve a model representing phonemic information at a local level, followed by a language model representing information at a nonlocal level. This structure is analogous to the local (e.g., equalizer) and nonlocal (e.g., error correction decoding) elements common in digital communications. Drawing from the analogy of turbo processing for digital communications, turbo speech processing iteratively feeds back the output of the language model to be used as prior probabilities for the phonemic model. This analogy is developed here, and the performance of this turbo model is characterized by using an artificial language model. Using turbo processing, the relative error rate improves significantly, especially in high-noise settings.

  20. Infant perception of atypical speech signals.

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M

    2013-05-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how visual context influences infant speech perception. Nine-month-olds heard speech and nonspeech sounds produced by either a human or a parrot, concurrently with 1 of 2 visual displays: a static checkerboard or a static image of a human face. Using an infant-controlled looking task, we examined infants' preferences for speech and nonspeech sounds. Infants listened equally to parrot speech and nonspeech when paired with a checkerboard. However, in the presence of faces, infants listened longer to parrot speech than to nonspeech sounds, such that their preference for parrot speech was similar to their preference for human speech sounds. These data are consistent with the possibility that infants treat parrot speech similarly to human speech relative to nonspeech vocalizations but only in some visual contexts. Like adults, infants may perceive a range of signals as speech.

  1. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  2. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  3. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech.

    PubMed

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R

    2010-08-01

    It has been reported that listeners can benefit from a release in masking when the masker speech is spoken in a language that differs from the target speech compared to when the target and masker speech are spoken in the same language [Freyman, R. L. et al. (1999). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 3578-3588; Van Engen, K., and Bradlow, A. (2007), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 519-526]. It is unclear whether listeners benefit from this release in masking due to the lack of linguistic interference of the masker speech, from acoustic and phonetic differences between the target and masker languages, or a combination of these differences. In the following series of experiments, listeners' sentence recognition was evaluated using speech and noise maskers that varied in the amount of linguistic content, including native-English, Mandarin-accented English, and Mandarin speech. Results from three experiments indicated that the majority of differences observed between the linguistic maskers could be explained by spectral differences between the masker conditions. However, when the recognition task increased in difficulty, i.e., at a more challenging signal-to-noise ratio, a greater decrease in performance was observed for the maskers with more linguistically relevant information than what could be explained by spectral differences alone. PMID:20707455

  4. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  5. Revisiting speech interference in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Picard, M; Bradley, J S

    2001-01-01

    A review of the effects of ambient noise and reverberation on speech intelligibility in classrooms has been completed because of the long-standing lack of agreement on preferred acoustical criteria for unconstrained speech accessibility and communication in educational facilities. An overwhelming body of evidence has been collected to suggest that noise levels in particular are usually far in excess of any reasonable prescription for optimal conditions for understanding speech in classrooms. Quite surprisingly, poor classroom acoustics seem to be the prevailing condition for both normally-hearing and hearing-impaired students with reported A-weighted ambient noise levels 4-37 dB above values currently agreed upon to provide optimal understanding. Revision of currently proposed room acoustic performance criteria to ensure speech accessibility for all students indicates the need for a guideline weighted for age and one for more vulnerable groups. For teens (12-year-olds and older) and young adults having normal speech processing in noise, ambient noise levels not exceeding 40 dBA are suggested as acceptable, and reverberation times of about 0.5 s are concluded to be optimum. Younger students, having normal speech processing in noise for their age, would require noise levels ranging from 39 dBA for 10-11-year-olds to only 28.5 dBA for 6-7-year-olds. By contrast, groups suspected of delayed speech processing in noise may require levels as low as only 21.5 dBA at age 6-7. As one would expect, these more vulnerable students would include the hearing-impaired in the course of language development and non-native listeners. PMID:11688542

  6. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  7. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  8. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  9. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  10. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either “pure” background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials. PMID:24993234

  11. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  12. Determining the threshold for usable speech within co-channel speech with the SPHINX automated speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.

    2004-10-01

    Much research has been and is continuing to be done in the area of separating the original utterances of two speakers from co-channel speech. This is very important in the area of automated speech recognition (ASR), where the current state of technology is not nearly as accurate as human listeners when the speech is co-channel. It is desired to determine what types of speech (voiced, unvoiced, and silence) and at what target to interference ratio (TIR) two speakers can speak at the same time and not reduce speech intelligibility of the target speaker (referred to as usable speech). Knowing which segments of co-channel speech are usable in ASR can be used to improve the reconstruction of single speaker speech. Tests were performed using the SPHINX ASR software and the TIDIGITS database. It was found that interfering voiced speech with a TIR of 6 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech. It was further found that interfering unvoiced speech with a TIR of 18 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech.

  13. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  14. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: A case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E.; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. However, the exact role of the motor system in auditory speech processing remains elusive. Here we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. The patient’s spontaneous speech was marked by frequent phonological/articulatory errors, and those errors were caused, at least in part, by motor-level impairments with speech production. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two nonwords that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the nonword stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labeling impairment. These data suggest that the identification (i.e. labeling) of nonword speech sounds may involve the speech motor system, but that the perception of speech sounds (i.e., discrimination) does not require the motor system. This means that motor processes are not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, and suggest that the motor system may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  15. The Contribution of Sensitivity to Speech Rhythm and Non-Speech Rhythm to Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2010-01-01

    Both sensitivity to speech rhythm and non-speech rhythm have been associated with successful phonological awareness and reading development in separate studies. However, the extent to which speech rhythm, non-speech rhythm and literacy skills are interrelated has not been examined. As a result, five- to seven-year-old English-speaking children…

  16. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  17. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  18. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  19. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  20. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  1. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  2. Amplitude-temporal method of speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababii, Victor; Sudacevschi, Viorica

    2005-02-01

    A method of speech coding and decoding is proposed. The speech coding algorithm is based on first derivate calculation of input speech signal, identification of critical points and input signal amplitude in these points, time period measurement between critical points. The result of codification represents a sequence of amplitudes and time periods. The decoding algorithm utilizes values of COS or SIN functions for reconstruction on the input speech. The codec structure that consists from encoder and decoder units is proposed.

  3. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  4. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  5. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  6. Speech Communication and Telephone Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlich, H. W.

    Speech communication over telephone networks has one major constraint: The communication has to be “real time”. The basic principle since the beginning of all telephone networks has been to provide a communication system capable of substituting the air path between two persons having a conversation at 1-m distance. This is the so-called orthotelephonic reference position [7]. Although many technical compromises must be made to enable worldwide communication over telephone networks, it is still the goal to achieve speech quality performance which is close to this reference.

  7. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  8. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  10. NEW SPEECH PATTERNS IN THE FRENCH QUARTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRADDOCK, CLAYTON

    BUSINESSMEN IN NEW ORLEANS CITED POOR SPEECH AMONG NEGRO APPLICANTS FOR SECRETARIAL AND STENOGRAPHIC POSITIONS AS THE MAJOR REASON FOR NOT HIRING THEM. AS A RESULT, ST. MARY'S DOMINICAN COLLEGE EMBARKED ON AN 8-MONTH PROGRAM IN 1965 TO TEACH STANDARD SPEECH TO 90 YOUNG WOMEN, 75 OF WHOM WERE NEGRO. STANDARD SPEECH WAS TAUGHT AS A SECOND LANGUAGE.…

  11. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  12. Hate Speech on Campus: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Looks at arguments concerning hate speech and speech codes on college campuses, arguing that speech codes are likely to be of limited value in achieving civil rights objectives, and that there are alternatives less harmful to civil liberties and more successful in promoting civil rights. Identifies specific goals, and considers how restriction of…

  13. Intelligibility of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the overall intelligibility of speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking Boothroyd's (1985) forced-choice phonetic contrast material designed for measurement of speech intelligibility. Twelve…

  14. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  15. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  16. Audiovisual Speech Integration and Lipreading in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth G.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: During speech perception, the ability to integrate auditory and visual information causes speech to sound louder and be more intelligible, and leads to quicker processing. This integration is important in early language development, and also continues to affect speech comprehension throughout the lifespan. Previous research shows that…

  17. Free Speech in the College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    This book discusses freedom of speech issues affecting the college community, in light of "speech codes" imposed by some institutions, new electronic technology such as the Internet, and recent court decisions. Chapter 1 addresses campus speech codes, the advantages and disadvantages of such codes, and their conflict with the First Amendment of…

  18. Syllable Structure in Dysfunctional Portuguese Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candeias, Sara; Perdigao, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate whether children with speech dysfunctions (SD) show a deficit in planning some Portuguese syllable structures (PSS) in continuous speech production. Knowledge of which aspects of speech production are affected by SD is necessary for efficient improvement in the therapy techniques. The case-study is focused…

  19. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  20. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  1. Vygotskian Inner Speech and the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of Vygotskian influenced inner speech research in relation to the reading process. Those few studies which have examined Vygotskian inner speech from a reading perspective tend to support the notion that inner speech is an important covert function that is crucial to the reading process and to reading acquisition in general.…

  2. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  3. Speech Synthesis Applied to Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The experimental addition of speech output to computer-based Esperanto lessons using speech synthesized from text is described. Because of Esperanto's phonetic spelling and simple rhythm, it is particularly easy to describe the mechanisms of Esperanto synthesis. Attention is directed to how the text-to-speech conversion is performed and the ways…

  4. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  5. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  6. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  7. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  8. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  9. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made lexical…

  10. Speech Perception in Children with Speech Output Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception disorders, thus lower-order production problems…

  11. Critical Thinking in Speech Communication: Survey of Speech Communication Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruminski, Henry; And Others

    The interests of all communication educators would best be served if those educators could agree on a single broad definition of critical thinking that incorporates a variety of perspectives. Toward this end, questionnaires were sent to a ramdom sampling of 300 members of the Speech Communication Association; 88 were returned. The questionnaire…

  12. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  13. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  14. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  15. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  16. Feasibility of Technology Enabled Speech Disorder Screening.

    PubMed

    Duenser, Andreas; Ward, Lauren; Stefani, Alessandro; Smith, Daniel; Freyne, Jill; Morgan, Angela; Dodd, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    One in twenty Australian children suffers from a speech disorder. Early detection of such problems can significantly improve literacy and academic outcomes for these children, reduce health and educational burden and ongoing social costs. Here we present the development of a prototype and feasibility tests of a screening and decision support tool to assess speech disorders in young children. The prototype incorporates speech signal processing, machine learning and expert knowledge to automatically classify phonemes of normal and disordered speech. We discuss these results and our future work towards the development of a mobile tool to facilitate broad, early speech disorder screening by non-experts. PMID:27440284

  17. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and "sat-in"…

  18. Speech Errors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in error…

  19. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  20. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to provide a…

  1. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  2. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  3. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  4. Linguistic aspects of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1995-10-24

    The conversion of text to speech is seen as an analysis of the input text to obtain a common underlying linguistic description, followed by a synthesis of the output speech waveform from this fundamental specification. Hence, the comprehensive linguistic structure serving as the substrate for an utterance must be discovered by analysis from the text. The pronunciation of individual words in unrestricted text is determined by morphological analysis or letter-to-sound conversion, followed by specification of the word-level stress contour. In addition, many text character strings, such as titles, numbers, and acronyms, are abbreviations for normal words, which must be derived. To further refine these pronunciations and to discover the prosodic structure of the utterance, word part of speech must be computed, followed by a phrase-level parsing. From this structure the prosodic structure of the utterance can be determined, which is needed in order to specify the durational framework and fundamental frequency contour of the utterance. In discourse contexts, several factors such as the specification of new and old information, contrast, and pronominal reference can be used to further modify the prosodic specification. When the prosodic correlates have been computed and the segmental sequence is assembled, a complete input suitable for speech synthesis has been determined. Lastly, multilingual systems utilizing rule frameworks are mentioned, and future directions are characterized. PMID:7479807

  5. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  6. Phrase-programmable digital speech system

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

  7. Speech Motor Learning in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs — audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles, and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input on its own may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that with training implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation. Moreover, the corrections we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimetres, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is significantly dependent on somatosensory input. PMID:18794839

  8. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  9. Speaker identification utilizing noncontemporary speech.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; Schwartz, R

    2001-01-01

    The noncontemporariness of speech is important to both of the two general approaches to speaker identification. Ear-witness identification is one of them; in that instance, the time at which the identification is made is noncontemporary. A substantial amount of research has been carried out on this relationship and it now is well established that an auditor's memory for a voice decays sharply over time. It is the second approach to speaker identification which is of present interest. In this case, samples of a speaker's utterances are obtained at different points in time. For example, a threat call will be recorded and then sometime later (often very much later), a suspect' s exemplar recording will be obtained. In this instance, it is the speech samples that are noncontemporary and they are the materials that are subjected to some form of speaker identification. Prevailing opinion is that noncontemporary speech itself poses just as difficult a challenge to the identification process as does the listener's memory decay in earwitness identification. Accordingly, series of aural-perceptual speaker identification projects were carried out on noncontemporary speech: first, two with latencies of 4 and 8 weeks followed by 4 and 32 weeks plus two more with the pairs separated by 6 and 20 years. Mean correct noncontemporary identification initially dropped to 75-80% at week 4 and this general level was sustained for up to six years. It was only after 20 years had elapsed that a significant drop (to 33%) was noted. It can be concluded that a listener's competency in identifying noncontemporary speech samples will show only modest decay over rather substantial periods of time and, hence, this factor should have only a minimal negative effect on the speaker identification process.

  10. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  11. Adaptive Redundant Speech Transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on Estimation of Perceived Speech Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Ah; Kim, Hong Kook

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive redundant speech transmission (ARST) approach to improve the perceived speech quality (PSQ) of speech streaming applications over wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach estimates the PSQ as well as the packet loss rate (PLR) from the received speech data. Subsequently, it decides whether the transmission of redundant speech data (RSD) is required in order to assist a speech decoder to reconstruct lost speech signals for high PLRs. According to the decision, the proposed ARST approach controls the RSD transmission, then it optimizes the bitrate of speech coding to encode the current speech data (CSD) and RSD bitstream in order to maintain the speech quality under packet loss conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed ARST approach is then demonstrated using the adaptive multirate-narrowband (AMR-NB) speech codec and ITU-T Recommendation P.563 as a scalable speech codec and the PSQ estimation, respectively. It is shown from the experiments that a speech streaming application employing the proposed ARST approach significantly improves speech quality under packet loss conditions in WMSNs. PMID:22164086

  12. Intelligibility of laryngectomees' substitute speech: automatic speech recognition and subjective rating.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Maria; Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Lohscheller, Jörg; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Substitute speech after laryngectomy is characterized by restricted aero-acoustic properties in comparison with laryngeal speech and has therefore lower intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility has not existed, although the intelligibility can serve as a global outcome parameter of voice restoration after laryngectomy. An automatic speech recognition system was applied on recordings of a standard text read by 18 German male laryngectomees with tracheoesophageal substitute speech. The system was trained with normal laryngeal speakers and not adapted to severely disturbed voices. Substitute speech was compared to laryngeal speech of a control group. Subjective evaluation of intelligibility was performed by a panel of five experts and compared to automatic speech evaluation. Substitute speech showed lower syllables/s and lower word accuracy than laryngeal speech. Automatic speech recognition for substitute speech yielded word accuracy between 10.0 and 50% (28.7+/-12.1%) with sufficient discrimination. It complied with experts' subjective evaluations of intelligibility. The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone did not differ from the multi-rater kappa of experts and the recognizer. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of laryngectomees. For clinical use, the speech recognition system will be adapted to disturbed voices and can also be applied in other languages. PMID:16001246

  13. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  14. Changing Speech Styles: Strategies in Read Speech and Casual and Careful Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    A study examined segmental and suprasegmental elements which contribute to an impression of one speaking style as opposed to another. A corpus containing three styles of speech, casual, careful, and read, for the same linguistic content was gathered. Thirteen speakers from Paris, France (aged 24-35) were given a scenario to be acted out over the…

  15. A hardware preprocessor for use in speech recognition: Speech Input Device SID3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, R. E.; Manning, D. R.

    1983-05-01

    A device which reduces the amount of data sent to the computer for speech recognition, by extracting from the speech signal the information that conveys the meaning of the speech, all other data being discarded is presented. The design includes signal to noise ratios as low as 10 dB, public telephone frequency bandwidth and unconstrained speech. It produces continuously at its output 64 bits of digital information, which represents the way 16 speech parameters vary. The parameters cover speech quality, voice pitch, resonant frequency, level of resonance and unvoiced spectrum color. The receiving computer must have supporting software containing recognition algorithms adapted to SID3 parameters.

  16. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment. PMID:25989443

  18. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  19. Speech and language delay in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  20. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  1. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  2. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  3. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment.

  4. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  5. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  6. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  7. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  8. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Bernd J.; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  9. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  10. Apraxia of speech: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Jennifer; Slama, Hilary; Dronkers, Nina; Amici, Serena; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2005-12-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that can occur in the absence of aphasia or dysarthria. AOS has been the subject of some controversy since the disorder was first named and described by Darley and his Mayo Clinic colleagues in the 1960s. A recent revival of interest in AOS is due in part to the fact that it is often the first symptom of neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary progressive aphasia and corticobasal degeneration. This article will provide a brief review of terminology associated with AOS, its clinical hallmarks and neuroanatomical correlates. Current models of motor programming will also be addressed as they relate to AOS and finally, typical treatment strategies used in rehabilitating the articulation and prosody deficits associated with AOS will be summarized. PMID:16393756

  11. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  12. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  13. Effects of gaze and speech rate on receivers' evaluations of persuasive speech.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hitomi; Daibo, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    This study examined how gaze and speech rate affect perceptions of a speaker. Participants viewed a video recording of one of four persuasive messages delivered by a female speaker. Analysis of speech rate, gaze, and listener's sex revealed that when combined with a small amount of gaze, slow speech rate decreased trustworthiness as compared to a fast speech rate. For women, slow speech rate was thought to be indicative of less expertise as compared to a fast speech rate, again when combined with low gaze. There were no significant interactions, but there were main effects of gaze and speech rate on persuasiveness. High levels of gaze and slow speech rate each enhanced perceptions of the speaker's persuasiveness.

  14. Discriminating between auditory and motor cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth sounds

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Z.K.; McGettigan, C.; Scott, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Several perspectives on speech perception posit a central role for the representation of articulations in speech comprehension, supported by evidence for premotor activation when participants listen to speech. However no experiments have directly tested whether motor responses mirror the profile of selective auditory cortical responses to native speech sounds, or whether motor and auditory areas respond in different ways to sounds. We used fMRI to investigate cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth (ingressive click) sounds. Speech sounds activated bilateral superior temporal gyri more than other sounds, a profile not seen in motor and premotor cortices. These results suggest that there are qualitative differences in the ways that temporal and motor areas are activated by speech and click sounds: anterior temporal lobe areas are sensitive to the acoustic/phonetic properties while motor responses may show more generalised responses to the acoustic stimuli. PMID:21812557

  15. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  16. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  17. The Neural Bases of Difficult Speech Comprehension and Speech Production: Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti

    2012-01-01

    The role of speech production mechanisms in difficult speech comprehension is the subject of on-going debate in speech science. Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were conducted on neuroimaging studies investigating difficult speech comprehension or speech production. Meta-analysis 1 included 10 studies contrasting comprehension…

  18. Self-Evaluation and Pre-Speech Planning: A Strategy for Sharing Responsibility for Progress in the Speech Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Linda A.

    Speech class teachers can implement a pre- and post-speech strategy, using pre-speech and self-evaluation forms, to help students become active in directing their own progress, and acknowledge their own accomplishments. Every speech is tape-recorded in class. Students listen to their speeches later and fill in the self-evaluation form, which asks…

  19. The neural processing of masked speech.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2013-09-01

    Spoken language is rarely heard in silence, and a great deal of interest in psychoacoustics has focused on the ways that the perception of speech is affected by properties of masking noise. In this review we first briefly outline the neuroanatomy of speech perception. We then summarise the neurobiological aspects of the perception of masked speech, and investigate this as a function of masker type, masker level and task. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Annual Reviews 2013". PMID:23685149

  20. Investigating Holistic Measures of Speech Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Dana Aliel

    2012-01-01

    Speech prosody is a multi-faceted dimension of speech which can be measured and analyzed in a variety of ways. In this study, the speech prosody of Mandarin L1 speakers, English L2 speakers, and English L1 speakers was assessed by trained raters who listened to sound clips of the speakers responding to a graph prompt and reading a short passage.…

  1. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal education, its…

  2. Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech (CAPS-A): A Comprehensive Training Package for Speech Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, D.; John, A.; Harding-Bell, A.; Sweeney, T.; Hegarty, F.; Freeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The previous literature has largely focused on speech analysis systems and ignored process issues, such as the nature of adequate speech samples, data acquisition, recording and playback. Although there has been recognition of the need for training on tools used in speech analysis associated with cleft palate, little attention has been…

  3. Vocoders and Speech Perception: Uses of Computer-Based Speech Analysis-Synthesis in Stimulus Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Joseph; Mack, Molly

    1987-01-01

    Stimuli used in research on the perception of the speech signal have often been obtained from simple filtering and distortion of the speech waveform, sometimes accompanied by noise. However, for more complex stimulus generation, the parameters of speech can be manipulated, after analysis and before synthesis, using various types of algorithms to…

  4. Statistical modeling of infant-directed versus adult-directed speech: Insights from speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Schimmel, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Studies on infant speech perception have shown that infant-directed speech (motherese) exhibits exaggerated acoustic properties, which are assumed to guide infants in the acquisition of phonemic categories. Training an automatic speech recognizer on such data might similarly lead to improved performance since classes can be expected to be more clearly separated in the training material. This claim was tested by training automatic speech recognizers on adult-directed (AD) versus infant-directed (ID) speech and testing them under identical versus mismatched conditions. 32 mother-infant conversations and 32 mother-adult conversations were used as training and test data. Both sets of conversations included a set of cue words containing unreduced vowels (e.g., sheep, boot, top, etc.), which mothers were encouraged to use repeatedly. Experiments on continuous speech recognition of the entire data set showed that recognizers trained on infant-directed speech did perform significantly better than those trained on adult-directed speech. However, isolated word recognition experiments focusing on the above-mentioned cue words showed that the drop in performance of the ID-trained speech recognizer on AD test speech was significantly smaller than vice versa, suggesting that speech with over-emphasized phonetic contrasts may indeed constitute better training material for speech recognition. [Work supported by CMBL, University of Washington.

  5. Private and Inner Speech and the Regulation of Social Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Martin Martinez, Conchi; Boada i Calbet, Humbert; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To further investigate the possible regulatory role of private and inner speech in the context of referential social speech communications, a set of clear and systematically applied measures is needed. This study addresses this need by introducing a rigorous method for identifying private speech and certain sharply defined instances of inaudible…

  6. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech.

    PubMed

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise. PMID:27630552

  7. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise.

  8. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise. PMID:27630552

  9. Speech and Language Skills of Parents of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Miscimarra, Lara; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared parents with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) to parents without known histories on measures of speech sound production, phonological processing, language, reading, and spelling. Familial aggregation for speech and language disorders was also examined. Method: The participants were 147 parents of children with…

  10. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  11. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be protected by the…

  12. DELAYED SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT, PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOOD, NANCY E.

    WRITTEN FOR SPEECH PATHOLOGY STUDENTS AND PROFESSIONAL WORKERS, THE BOOK BEGINS BY DEFINING LANGUAGE AND SPEECH AND TRACING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE FROM THE INFANT THROUGH THE 4-YEAR OLD. CAUSAL FACTORS OF DELAYED DEVELOPMENT ARE GIVEN, INCLUDING CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPAIRMENT AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORAL CLUES AND LANGUAGE…

  13. Normal and Time-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Short-term and long-term learning effects were investigated for the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) using original and time-compressed fast speech in noise. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants completed six lists of the OLSA in five sessions. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners (24 and 12 listeners) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (9 listeners each) performed the test with original or time-compressed speech. In general, original speech resulted in better speech recognition thresholds than time-compressed speech. Thresholds decreased with repetition for both speech materials. Confirming earlier results, the largest improvements were observed within the first measurements of the first session, indicating a rapid initial adaptation phase. The improvements were larger for time-compressed than for original speech. The novel results on long-term learning effects when using the OLSA indicate a longer phase of ongoing learning, especially for time-compressed speech, which seems to be limited by a floor effect. In addition, for normal-hearing participants, no complete transfer of learning benefits from time-compressed to original speech was observed. These effects should be borne in mind when inviting listeners repeatedly, for example, in research settings.

  14. Adaptation to spectrally-rotated speech.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart; Faulkner, Andrew; Paterson, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    Much recent interest surrounds listeners' abilities to adapt to various transformations that distort speech. An extreme example is spectral rotation, in which the spectrum of low-pass filtered speech is inverted around a center frequency (2 kHz here). Spectral shape and its dynamics are completely altered, rendering speech virtually unintelligible initially. However, intonation, rhythm, and contrasts in periodicity and aperiodicity are largely unaffected. Four normal hearing adults underwent 6 h of training with spectrally-rotated speech using Continuous Discourse Tracking. They and an untrained control group completed pre- and post-training speech perception tests, for which talkers differed from the training talker. Significantly improved recognition of spectrally-rotated sentences was observed for trained, but not untrained, participants. However, there were no significant improvements in the identification of medial vowels in /bVd/ syllables or intervocalic consonants. Additional tests were performed with speech materials manipulated so as to isolate the contribution of various speech features. These showed that preserving intonational contrasts did not contribute to the comprehension of spectrally-rotated speech after training, and suggested that improvements involved adaptation to altered spectral shape and dynamics, rather than just learning to focus on speech features relatively unaffected by the transformation.

  15. Segregation of unvoiced speech from nonspeech interference.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoning; Wang, DeLiang

    2008-08-01

    Monaural speech segregation has proven to be extremely challenging. While efforts in computational auditory scene analysis have led to considerable progress in voiced speech segregation, little attention has been given to unvoiced speech, which lacks harmonic structure and has weaker energy, hence more susceptible to interference. This study proposes a new approach to the problem of segregating unvoiced speech from nonspeech interference. The study first addresses the question of how much speech is unvoiced. The segregation process occurs in two stages: Segmentation and grouping. In segmentation, the proposed model decomposes an input mixture into contiguous time-frequency segments by a multiscale analysis of event onsets and offsets. Grouping of unvoiced segments is based on Bayesian classification of acoustic-phonetic features. The proposed model for unvoiced speech segregation joins an existing model for voiced speech segregation to produce an overall system that can deal with both voiced and unvoiced speech. Systematic evaluation shows that the proposed system extracts a majority of unvoiced speech without including much interference, and it performs substantially better than spectral subtraction. PMID:18681616

  16. Speech coding research at Bell Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Bishnu S.

    2001-05-01

    The field of speech coding is now over 70 years old. It started from the desire to transmit voice signals over telegraph cables. The availability of digital computers in the mid 1960s made it possible to test complex speech coding algorithms rapidly. The introduction of linear predictive coding (LPC) started a new era in speech coding. The fundamental philosophy of speech coding went through a major shift, resulting in a new generation of low bit rate speech coders, such as multi-pulse and code-excited LPC. The semiconductor revolution produced faster and faster DSP chips and made linear predictive coding practical. Code-excited LPC has become the method of choice for low bit rate speech coding applications and is used in most voice transmission standards for cell phones. Digital speech communication is rapidly evolving from circuit-switched to packet-switched networks to provide integrated transmission of voice, data, and video signals. The new communication environment is also moving the focus of speech coding research from compression to low cost, reliable, and secure transmission of voice signals on digital networks, and provides the motivation for creating a new class of speech coders suitable for future applications.

  17. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    PubMed

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  18. Preschoolers Benefit From Visually Salient Speech Cues

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3- and 4-year-old children completed 3 audiovisual (AV) speech integration tasks: matching, discrimination, and recognition. The authors compared AV benefit for visually salient and less visually salient speech discrimination contrasts and assessed the visual saliency of consonant confusions in auditory-only and AV word recognition. Results Four-year-olds and adults demonstrated visual influence on all measures. Three-year-olds demonstrated visual influence on speech discrimination and recognition measures. All groups demonstrated greater AV benefit for the visually salient discrimination contrasts. AV recognition benefit in 4-year-olds and adults depended on the visual saliency of speech sounds. Conclusions Preschoolers can demonstrate AV speech integration. Their AV benefit results from efficient use of visually salient speech cues. Four-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, used visual phonological knowledge to take advantage of visually salient speech cues, suggesting possible developmental differences in the mechanisms of AV benefit. PMID:25322336

  19. Speech Enhancement based on Compressive Sensing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulong, Amart; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Chebil, Jalel

    2013-12-01

    There are various methods, in performance of speech enhancement, have been proposed over the years. The accurate method for the speech enhancement design mainly focuses on quality and intelligibility. The method proposed with high performance level. A novel speech enhancement by using compressive sensing (CS) is a new paradigm of acquiring signals, fundamentally different from uniform rate digitization followed by compression, often used for transmission or storage. Using CS can reduce the number of degrees of freedom of a sparse/compressible signal by permitting only certain configurations of the large and zero/small coefficients, and structured sparsity models. Therefore, CS is significantly provides a way of reconstructing a compressed version of the speech in the original signal by taking only a small amount of linear and non-adaptive measurement. The performance of overall algorithms will be evaluated based on the speech quality by optimise using informal listening test and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Experimental results show that the CS algorithm perform very well in a wide range of speech test and being significantly given good performance for speech enhancement method with better noise suppression ability over conventional approaches without obvious degradation of speech quality.

  20. Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Frequently Asked Questions: Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting What types of speech and language disorders affect school-age children ? Do speech-language ...

  1. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  2. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  3. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy. PMID

  4. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  5. Speech detection in spatial and nonspatial speech maskers.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Uma; Freyman, Richard L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of perceived spatial differences on masking release was examined using a 4AFC speech detection paradigm. Targets were 20 words produced by a female talker. Maskers were recordings of continuous streams of nonsense sentences spoken by two female talkers and mixed into each of two channels (two talker, and the same masker time reversed). Two masker spatial conditions were employed: "RF" with a 4 ms time lead to the loudspeaker 60 degrees horizontally to the right, and "FR" with the time lead to the front (0 degrees ) loudspeaker. The reference nonspatial "F" masker was presented from the front loudspeaker only. Target presentation was always from the front loudspeaker. In Experiment 1, target detection threshold for both natural and time-reversed spatial maskers was 17-20 dB lower than that for the nonspatial masker, suggesting that significant release from informational masking occurs with spatial speech maskers regardless of masker understandability. In Experiment 2, the effectiveness of the FR and RF maskers was evaluated as the right loudspeaker output was attenuated until the two-source maskers were indistinguishable from the F masker, as measured independently in a discrimination task. Results indicated that spatial release from masking can be observed with barely noticeable target-masker spatial differences.

  6. Open Microphone Speech Understanding: Correct Discrimination Of In Domain Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieronymus, James; Aist, Greg; Dowding, John

    2006-01-01

    An ideal spoken dialogue system listens continually and determines which utterances were spoken to it, understands them and responds appropriately while ignoring the rest This paper outlines a simple method for achieving this goal which involves trading a slightly higher false rejection rate of in domain utterances for a higher correct rejection rate of Out of Domain (OOD) utterances. The system recognizes semantic entities specified by a unification grammar which is specialized by Explanation Based Learning (EBL). so that it only uses rules which are seen in the training data. The resulting grammar has probabilities assigned to each construct so that overgeneralizations are not a problem. The resulting system only recognizes utterances which reduce to a valid logical form which has meaning for the system and rejects the rest. A class N-gram grammar has been trained on the same training data. This system gives good recognition performance and offers good Out of Domain discrimination when combined with the semantic analysis. The resulting systems were tested on a Space Station Robot Dialogue Speech Database and a subset of the OGI conversational speech database. Both systems run in real time on a PC laptop and the present performance allows continuous listening with an acceptably low false acceptance rate. This type of open microphone system has been used in the Clarissa procedure reading and navigation spoken dialogue system which is being tested on the International Space Station.

  7. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  8. Monaural speech intelligibility and detection in maskers with varying amounts of spectro-temporal speech features.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-07-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly affected by the presence of maskers. Depending on the spectro-temporal structure of the masker and its similarity to the target speech, different masking aspects can occur which are typically referred to as energetic, amplitude modulation, and informational masking. In this study speech intelligibility and speech detection was measured in maskers that vary systematically in the time-frequency domain from steady-state noise to a single interfering talker. Male and female target speech was used in combination with maskers based on speech for the same or different gender. Observed data were compared to predictions of the speech intelligibility index, extended speech intelligibility index, multi-resolution speech-based envelope-power-spectrum model, and the short-time objective intelligibility measure. The different models served as analysis tool to help distinguish between the different masking aspects. Comparison shows that overall masking can to a large extent be explained by short-term energetic masking. However, the other masking aspects (amplitude modulation an informational masking) influence speech intelligibility as well. Additionally, it was obvious that all models showed considerable deviations from the data. Therefore, the current study provides a benchmark for further evaluation of speech prediction models. PMID:27475175

  9. Reasons why current speech-enhancement algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility and suggested solutions

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Philipos C.; Kim, Gibak

    2011-01-01

    Existing speech enhancement algorithms can improve speech quality but not speech intelligibility, and the reasons for that are unclear. In the present paper, we present a theoretical framework that can be used to analyze potential factors that can influence the intelligibility of processed speech. More specifically, this framework focuses on the fine-grain analysis of the distortions introduced by speech enhancement algorithms. It is hypothesized that if these distortions are properly controlled, then large gains in intelligibility can be achieved. To test this hypothesis, intelligibility tests are conducted with human listeners in which we present processed speech with controlled speech distortions. The aim of these tests is to assess the perceptual effect of the various distortions that can be introduced by speech enhancement algorithms on speech intelligibility. Results with three different enhancement algorithms indicated that certain distortions are more detrimental to speech intelligibility degradation than others. When these distortions were properly controlled, however, large gains in intelligibility were obtained by human listeners, even by spectral-subtractive algorithms which are known to degrade speech quality and intelligibility. PMID:21909285

  10. Speech levels in meeting rooms and the probability of speech privacy problems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J S; Gover, B N

    2010-02-01

    Speech levels were measured in a large number of meetings and meeting rooms to better understand their influence on the speech privacy of closed meeting rooms. The effects of room size and number of occupants on average speech levels, for meetings with and without sound amplification, were investigated. The characteristics of the statistical variations of speech levels were determined in terms of speech levels measured over 10 s intervals at locations inside, but near the periphery of the meeting rooms. A procedure for predicting the probability of speech being audible or intelligible at points outside meeting rooms is proposed. It is based on the statistics of meeting room speech levels, in combination with the sound insulation characteristics of the room and the ambient noise levels at locations outside the room. PMID:20136204

  11. Method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrash, Victor (Inventor); Cesari, Federico (Inventor); Franco, Horacio (Inventor); George, Christopher (Inventor); Zheng, Jing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications. In one embodiment, the method continuously records an audio stream comprising a sequence of frames to a circular buffer. When a user command to commence or terminate speech recognition is received, the method obtains a number of frames of the audio stream occurring before or after the user command in order to identify an augmented audio signal for speech recognition processing. In further embodiments, the method analyzes the augmented audio signal in order to locate starting and ending speech endpoints that bound at least a portion of speech to be processed for recognition. At least one of the speech endpoints is located using a Hidden Markov Model.

  12. [Electrographic Correlations of Inner Speech].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M; Aslanyan, E V; Kiroy, R I

    2015-01-01

    On the purpose to detect in EEG specific patterns associated with any verbal performance the gamma activity were investigated. The technique which allows the subject to initiate the mental pronunciation of words and phrases (inner speech) was created. Wavelet analysis of EEG has been experimentally demonstrated that the preparation and implementation stages are related to the specific spatio-temporal patterns in frequency range 64-68 Hz. Sustainable reproduction and efficient identification of such patterns can solve the fundamentally problem of alphabet control commands formation for Brain Computer Interface and Brain to Braine Interface systems. PMID:26860004

  13. Speech recognition technology: a critique.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, S E

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the session on advanced speech recognition technology. The two papers comprising this session argue that current technology yields a performance that is only an order of magnitude in error rate away from human performance and that incremental improvements will bring us to that desired level. I argue that, to the contrary, present performance is far removed from human performance and a revolution in our thinking is required to achieve the goal. It is further asserted that to bring about the revolution more effort should be expended on basic research and less on trying to prematurely commercialize a deficient technology. PMID:7479808

  14. Speech activity detection using accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Matic, Aleksandar; Osmani, Venet; Mayora, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    The level of social activity is linked to the overall wellbeing and to various disorders, including stress. In this regard, a myriad of automatic solutions for monitoring social interactions have been proposed, usually including audio data analysis. Such approaches often face legal and ethical issues and they may also raise privacy concerns in monitored subjects thus affecting their natural behaviour. In this paper we present an accelerometer-based speech detection which does not require capturing sensitive data while being an easily applicable and a cost-effective solution.

  15. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna M; Zion Golumbic, Elana; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-07-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech's temporal envelope ("speech-tracking"), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural versus vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech-tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech-tracking more similar to vocoded speech.

  16. Teaching Speech to Your Language Delayed Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Roger J.; Pryor, Jan, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Intended for parents, the booklet focuses on the speech and language development of children with language delays. The following topics are among those considered: the parent's role in the initial diagnosis of deafness, intellectual handicap, and neurological difficulties; diagnoses and single causes of difficultiy with speech; what to say to…

  17. Pulmonic Ingressive Speech in Shetland English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundkvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial…

  18. Only Speech Codes Should Be Censored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the enforcement of "hate speech" codes and confirms research that considers why U.S. colleges and universities continue to promulgate student disciplinary rules prohibiting expression that "subordinates" others or is "demeaning, offensive, or hateful." Such continued adherence to speech codes is by now…

  19. Speech Genres in Writing Cognitive Artifacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambaugh, R. Neal

    This paper reports on the analysis of an instructional text on the basis of M. Bakhtin's (1986) notion of speech genres, which is used to theorize the different influences on the writing of an instructional text. Speech genres are used to reveal the multiple voices inherent in any text: the writer's, the reader's, and the text's. The…

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Boyd V.

    This monograph on the anatomical and physiological aspects of the speech mechanism stresses the importance of a general understanding of the process of verbal communication. Contents include "Positions of the Body,""Basic Concepts Linked with the Speech Mechanism,""The Nervous System,""The Respiratory System--Sound-Power Source,""The…

  1. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  2. Localization of Sublexical Speech Perception Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Models of speech perception are in general agreement with respect to the major cortical regions involved, but lack precision with regard to localization and lateralization of processing units. To refine these models we conducted two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature on sublexical speech perception.…

  3. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  4. A Foster Home Approach to Speech Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatten, John T.; Hatten, Pequetti A.

    1971-01-01

    A language development program for a 6-year-old boy with limited language development combined an operant approach in the foster home, where both parents were speech clinicians, and daily 3-hour therapy sessions at a university speech and hearing clinic. (KW)

  5. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  6. The Lombard Effect on Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeine, Lina; Brandt, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The study investigated the Lombard effect (evoking increased speech intensity by applying masking noise to ears of talker) on the speech of esophageal talkers, artificial larynx users, and normal speakers. The noise condition produced the highest intensity increase in the esophageal speakers. (Author/DB)

  7. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  8. Tampa Bay International Business Summit Keynote Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A keynote speech outlining the importance of collaboration and diversity in the workplace. The 20-minute speech describes NASA's challenges and accomplishments over the years and what lies ahead. Topics include: diversity and inclusion principles, international cooperation, Kennedy Space Center planning and development, opportunities for cooperation, and NASA's vision for exploration.

  9. Building Searchable Collections of Enterprise Speech Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James W.; Viswanathan, Mahesh; Byron, Donna; Chan, Margaret

    The study has applied speech recognition and text-mining technologies to a set of recorded outbound marketing calls and analyzed the results. Since speaker-independent speech recognition technology results in a significantly lower recognition rate than that found when the recognizer is trained for a particular speaker, a number of post-processing…

  10. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  11. Mothers' Speech in Three Social Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, C. E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Functional and linguistic aspects of the speech of Dutch-speaking mothers from three social classes to their two-year-old children were studied to test the hypothesis that simplified speech is crucial to language acquisition. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  12. Acoustic characteristics of listener-constrained speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Simone; Cummins, Fred

    2003-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the acoustical modifications speakers employ to meet the various constraints-auditory, linguistic and otherwise-of their listeners. Similarly, the manner by which perceived listener constraints interact with speakers' adoption of specialized speech registers is poorly Hypo (H&H) theory offers a framework for examining the relationship between speech production and output-oriented goals for communication, suggesting that under certain circumstances speakers may attempt to minimize phonetic ambiguity by employing a ``hyperarticulated'' speaking style (Lindblom, 1990). It remains unclear, however, what the acoustic correlates of hyperarticulated speech are, and how, if at all, we might expect phonetic properties to change respective to different listener-constrained conditions. This paper is part of a preliminary investigation concerned with comparing the prosodic characteristics of speech produced across a range of listener constraints. Analyses are drawn from a corpus of read hyperarticulated speech data comprising eight adult, female speakers of English. Specialized registers include speech to foreigners, infant-directed speech, speech produced under noisy conditions, and human-machine interaction. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Irish Higher Education Authority, allocated to Fred Cummins for collaborative work with Media Lab Europe.

  13. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  14. Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

    2007-01-01

    Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

  15. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

    Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

  16. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  17. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  18. Portable Tactile Aids for Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using portable tactile aids in speech perception are reviewed, focusing on training studies, additive benefit studies, and device comparison studies (including the "Tactaid II,""Tactaid V,""Tacticon 1600," and "Tickle Talker"). The potential of tactual information in perception of the overall speech code by hearing-impaired individuals…

  19. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  20. Effects of Syllable Frequency in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholin, Joana; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2006-01-01

    In the speech production model proposed by [Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. "Behavioral and Brain Sciences," 22, pp. 1-75.], syllables play a crucial role at the interface of phonological and phonetic encoding. At this interface, abstract phonological syllables are translated…

  1. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  2. Education in the 80's: Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Gustav W., Ed.

    Taken together, the 20 chapters in this book provide many suggestions, predictions, alternatives, innovations, and improvements in the speech communication curriculum that can be either undertaken or accomplished during the 1980s. The first five chapters speculate positively about the future of speech communication instruction in five of its most…

  3. Reliability of Speech Diadochokinetic Test Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadesmann, Miriam; Miller, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Measures of articulatory diadochokinesis (DDK) are widely used in the assessment of motor speech disorders and they play a role in detecting abnormality, monitoring speech performance changes and classifying syndromes. Although in clinical practice DDK is generally measured perceptually, without support from instrumental methods that…

  4. [Thematic Issue: Career Trends in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Robert, Ed.

    To analyze historical trends in job opportunities available to speech communications graduates, a content analysis was conducted of Speech Communication Association bulletins over a ten-year period (1967 to 1977). All bulletin listings were analyzed for state, type of institution, rank, areas of specialization, job requirements, and salary range.…

  5. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  6. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  7. Repeated Speech Errors: Evidence for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Karin R.; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological…

  8. The Effects of TV on Speech Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gocen, Gokcen; Okur, Alpaslan

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the speaking aspect is not properly debated when discussing the positive and negative effects of television (TV), especially on children. So, to highlight this point, this study was first initialized by asking the question: "What are the effects of TV on speech?" and secondly, to transform the effects that TV has on speech in a…

  9. Methodological Choices in Rating Speech Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2016-01-01

    Much pronunciation research critically relies upon listeners' judgments of speech samples, but researchers have rarely examined the impact of methodological choices. In the current study, 30 German native listeners and 42 German L2 learners (L1 English) rated speech samples produced by English-German L2 learners along three continua: accentedness,…

  10. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  11. Speech and Language Delays in Identical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Pat

    Following a literature review on speech and language development of twins, case studies are presented of six sets of identical twins screened for entrance into kindergarten. Five sets of the twins and one boy from the sixth set failed to pass the screening test, particularly the speech and language section, and were referred for therapy to correct…

  12. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  13. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic criticism"…

  14. Pitch-Learning Algorithm For Speech Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, B. R. Udaya

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive algorithm detects and corrects errors in sequence of estimates of pitch period of speech. Algorithm operates in conjunction with techniques used to estimate pitch period. Used in such parametric and hybrid speech coders as linear predictive coders and adaptive predictive coders.

  15. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  16. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  17. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  18. Visual speech gestures modulate efferent auditory system.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Sharma, Dinaay; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Visual and auditory systems interact at both cortical and subcortical levels. Studies suggest a highly context-specific cross-modal modulation of the auditory system by the visual system. The present study builds on this work by sampling data from 17 young healthy adults to test whether visual speech stimuli evoke different responses in the auditory efferent system compared to visual non-speech stimuli. The descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly assessed by examining the effects of contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz under three conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) contralateral noise + observing facial speech gestures related to productions of vowels /a/ and /u/ and (c) contralateral noise + observing facial non-speech gestures related to smiling and frowning. The results are based on 7 individuals whose data met strict recording criteria and indicated a significant difference in TEOAE suppression between observing speech gestures relative to the non-speech gestures, but only at the 1 kHz frequency. These results suggest that observing a speech gesture compared to a non-speech gesture may trigger a difference in MOC activity, possibly to enhance peripheral neural encoding. If such findings can be reproduced in future research, sensory perception models and theories positing the downstream convergence of unisensory streams of information in the cortex may need to be revised.

  19. The Modulation Transfer Function for Speech Intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2009-01-01

    We systematically determined which spectrotemporal modulations in speech are necessary for comprehension by human listeners. Speech comprehension has been shown to be robust to spectral and temporal degradations, but the specific relevance of particular degradations is arguable due to the complexity of the joint spectral and temporal information in the speech signal. We applied a novel modulation filtering technique to recorded sentences to restrict acoustic information quantitatively and to obtain a joint spectrotemporal modulation transfer function for speech comprehension, the speech MTF. For American English, the speech MTF showed the criticality of low modulation frequencies in both time and frequency. Comprehension was significantly impaired when temporal modulations <12 Hz or spectral modulations <4 cycles/kHz were removed. More specifically, the MTF was bandpass in temporal modulations and low-pass in spectral modulations: temporal modulations from 1 to 7 Hz and spectral modulations <1 cycles/kHz were the most important. We evaluated the importance of spectrotemporal modulations for vocal gender identification and found a different region of interest: removing spectral modulations between 3 and 7 cycles/kHz significantly increases gender misidentifications of female speakers. The determination of the speech MTF furnishes an additional method for producing speech signals with reduced bandwidth but high intelligibility. Such compression could be used for audio applications such as file compression or noise removal and for clinical applications such as signal processing for cochlear implants. PMID:19266016

  20. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  1. Hate Speech: A Call to Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, William M.; Bakken, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the history of First Amendment rulings as they relate to speech codes and of other regulations directed at the content of speech. A case study, based on an experience at Trenton State College, details the legal constraints, principles, and practices that Student Affairs administrators should be aware of regarding such situations.…

  2. Fighting Words. The Politics of Hateful Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Laurence R.

    This book explores issues typified by a series of hateful speech events at Kean College (New Jersey) and on other U.S. campuses in the early 1990s, by examining the dichotomies that exist between the First and the Fourteenth Amendments and between civil liberties and civil rights, and by contrasting the values of free speech and academic freedom…

  3. Crossed Apraxia of Speech: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, Venu; Max, Ludo

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports on the first case of crossed apraxia of speech (CAS) in a 69-year-old right-handed female (SE). The possibility of occurrence of apraxia of speech (AOS) following right hemisphere lesion is discussed in the context of known occurrences of ideomotor apraxias and acquired neurogenic stuttering in several cases with right…

  4. General-Purpose Monitoring during Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Stephanie; Janssen, Niels; Dufau, Stephane; Alario, F.-Xavier; Burle, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "monitoring" refers to our ability to control our actions on-line. Monitoring involved in speech production is often described in psycholinguistic models as an inherent part of the language system. We probed the specificity of speech monitoring in two psycholinguistic experiments where electroencephalographic activities were…

  5. Electrocardiographic anxiety profiles improve speech anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seung Ae; Jung, Keun-Hwa

    2012-12-01

    The present study was to set out in efforts to determine the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) feedback on the performance in speech anxiety. Forty-six high school students participated in a speech performance educational program. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group with ECG feedback (N = 21) and a control group (N = 25). Feedback was given with video recording in the control, whereas in the experimental group, an additional ECG feedback was provided. Speech performance was evaluated by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) speech ability test, which determines the 10 different speaking categories. ECG was recorded during rest and speech, together with a video recording of the speech performance. Changes in R-R intervals were used to reflect anxiety profiles. Three trials were performed for 3-week program. Results showed that the subjects with ECG feedback revealed a significant improvement in speech performance and anxiety states, which compared to those in the control group. These findings suggest that visualization of the anxiety profile feedback with ECG can be a better cognitive therapeutic strategy in speech anxiety. PMID:22714138

  6. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech and against…

  7. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  8. The Development of Preschoolers' Private Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.

    The intent of this study was to examine the development of three aspects of preschoolers' private speech: coefficients of egocentricism, the extent to which speech regulates actions, and the syntactic and semantic structures of individual utterances. Forty-one randomly chosen preschoolers (26 females, 15 males) were placed in three age groups (3,…

  9. Scaffolded-Language Intervention: Speech Production Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Credeur-Pampolina, Maggie E.; LeBoeuf, Lexie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a scaffolded-language intervention using cloze procedures, semantically contingent expansions, contrastive word pairs, and direct models on speech abilities in two preschoolers with speech and language impairment speaking African American English. Effects of the lexical and phonological characteristics (i.e.,…

  10. The effects of stimulus variability on the perceptual learning of speech and non-speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest fundamental differences between the perceptual learning of speech and non-speech stimuli. One major difference is in the way variability in the training set affects learning and its generalization to untrained stimuli: training-set variability appears to facilitate speech learning, while slowing or altogether extinguishing non-speech auditory learning. We asked whether the reason for this apparent difference is a consequence of the very different methodologies used in speech and non-speech studies. We hypothesized that speech and non-speech training would result in a similar pattern of learning if they were trained using the same training regimen. We used a 2 (random vs. blocked pre- and post-testing) × 2 (random vs. blocked training) × 2 (speech vs. non-speech discrimination task) study design, yielding 8 training groups. A further 2 groups acted as untrained controls, tested with either random or blocked stimuli. The speech task required syllable discrimination along 4 minimal-pair continua (e.g., bee-dee), and the non-speech stimuli required duration discrimination around 4 base durations (e.g., 50 ms). Training and testing required listeners to pick the odd-one-out of three stimuli, two of which were the base duration or phoneme continuum endpoint and the third varied adaptively. Training was administered in 9 sessions of 640 trials each, spread over 4-8 weeks. Significant learning was only observed following speech training, with similar learning rates and full generalization regardless of whether training used random or blocked schedules. No learning was observed for duration discrimination with either training regimen. We therefore conclude that the two stimulus classes respond differently to the same training regimen. A reasonable interpretation of the findings is that speech is perceived categorically, enabling learning in either paradigm, while the different base durations are not well-enough differentiated to allow for

  11. Improving robustness of speech recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Vikramjit

    2010-11-01

    Current Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems fail to perform nearly as good as human speech recognition performance due to their lack of robustness against speech variability and noise contamination. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate these critical robustness issues, put forth different ways to address them and finally present an ASR architecture based upon these robustness criteria. Acoustic variations adversely affect the performance of current phone-based ASR systems, in which speech is modeled as 'beads-on-a-string', where the beads are the individual phone units. While phone units are distinctive in cognitive domain, they are varying in the physical domain and their variation occurs due to a combination of factors including speech style, speaking rate etc.; a phenomenon commonly known as 'coarticulation'. Traditional ASR systems address such coarticulatory variations by using contextualized phone-units such as triphones. Articulatory phonology accounts for coarticulatory variations by modeling speech as a constellation of constricting actions known as articulatory gestures. In such a framework, speech variations such as coarticulation and lenition are accounted for by gestural overlap in time and gestural reduction in space. To realize a gesture-based ASR system, articulatory gestures have to be inferred from the acoustic signal. At the initial stage of this research an initial study was performed using synthetically generated speech to obtain a proof-of-concept that articulatory gestures can indeed be recognized from the speech signal. It was observed that having vocal tract constriction trajectories (TVs) as intermediate representation facilitated the gesture recognition task from the speech signal. Presently no natural speech database contains articulatory gesture annotation; hence an automated iterative time-warping architecture is proposed that can annotate any natural speech database with articulatory gestures and TVs. Two natural

  12. Strategies for distant speech recognitionin reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, Marc; Yoshioka, Takuya; Ogawa, Atsunori; Kubo, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Masakiyo; Ito, Nobutaka; Kinoshita, Keisuke; Espi, Miquel; Araki, Shoko; Hori, Takaaki; Nakatani, Tomohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reverberation and noise are known to severely affect the automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance of speech recorded by distant microphones. Therefore, we must deal with reverberation if we are to realize high-performance hands-free speech recognition. In this paper, we review a recognition system that we developed at our laboratory to deal with reverberant speech. The system consists of a speech enhancement (SE) front-end that employs long-term linear prediction-based dereverberation followed by noise reduction. We combine our SE front-end with an ASR back-end that uses neural networks for acoustic and language modeling. The proposed system achieved top scores on the ASR task of the REVERB challenge. This paper describes the different technologies used in our system and presents detailed experimental results that justify our implementation choices and may provide hints for designing distant ASR systems.

  13. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Socoró, Joan Claudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM) was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics. PMID:24587738

  14. Predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a number of speech intelligibility indices in terms of predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Design Noise-corrupted sentences were vocoded in a total of 80 conditions, involving three different SNR levels (-5, 0 and 5 dB) and two types of maskers (steady-state noise and two-talker). Tone-vocoder simulations were used as well as simulations of combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). The vocoded sentences were presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification, and the resulting intelligibility scores were used to assess the correlation of various speech intelligibility measures. These included measures designed to assess speech intelligibility, including the speech-transmission index (STI) and articulation index (AI) based measures, as well as distortions in hearing aids (e.g., coherence-based measures). These measures employed primarily either the temporal-envelope or the spectral-envelope information in the prediction model. The underlying hypothesis in the present study is that measures that assess temporal envelope distortions, such as those based on the speech-transmission index, should correlate highly with the intelligibility of vocoded speech. This is based on the fact that vocoder simulations preserve primarily envelope information, similar to the processing implemented in current cochlear implant speech processors. Similarly, it is hypothesized that measures such as the coherence-based index that assess the distortions present in the spectral envelope could also be used to model the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Results Of all the intelligibility measures considered, the coherence-based and the STI-based measures performed the best. High correlations (r=0.9-0.96) were maintained with the coherence-based measures in all noisy conditions. The highest correlation obtained with the STI-based measure was 0.92, and that was obtained when high modulation rates (100

  15. The Functional Connectome of Speech Control.

    PubMed

    Fuertinger, Stefan; Horwitz, Barry; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-07-01

    In the past few years, several studies have been directed to understanding the complexity of functional interactions between different brain regions during various human behaviors. Among these, neuroimaging research installed the notion that speech and language require an orchestration of brain regions for comprehension, planning, and integration of a heard sound with a spoken word. However, these studies have been largely limited to mapping the neural correlates of separate speech elements and examining distinct cortical or subcortical circuits involved in different aspects of speech control. As a result, the complexity of the brain network machinery controlling speech and language remained largely unknown. Using graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data in healthy subjects, we quantified the large-scale speech network topology by constructing functional brain networks of increasing hierarchy from the resting state to motor output of meaningless syllables to complex production of real-life speech as well as compared to non-speech-related sequential finger tapping and pure tone discrimination networks. We identified a segregated network of highly connected local neural communities (hubs) in the primary sensorimotor and parietal regions, which formed a commonly shared core hub network across the examined conditions, with the left area 4p playing an important role in speech network organization. These sensorimotor core hubs exhibited features of flexible hubs based on their participation in several functional domains across different networks and ability to adaptively switch long-range functional connectivity depending on task content, resulting in a distinct community structure of each examined network. Specifically, compared to other tasks, speech production was characterized by the formation of six distinct neural communities with specialized recruitment of the prefrontal cortex, insula, putamen, and thalamus, which collectively forged the formation

  16. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, Alison G.; Danielson, D. Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception–production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants’ speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants’ tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants’ articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral–motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced “impairment” in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral–motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  17. The Functional Connectome of Speech Control

    PubMed Central

    Fuertinger, Stefan; Horwitz, Barry; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, several studies have been directed to understanding the complexity of functional interactions between different brain regions during various human behaviors. Among these, neuroimaging research installed the notion that speech and language require an orchestration of brain regions for comprehension, planning, and integration of a heard sound with a spoken word. However, these studies have been largely limited to mapping the neural correlates of separate speech elements and examining distinct cortical or subcortical circuits involved in different aspects of speech control. As a result, the complexity of the brain network machinery controlling speech and language remained largely unknown. Using graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data in healthy subjects, we quantified the large-scale speech network topology by constructing functional brain networks of increasing hierarchy from the resting state to motor output of meaningless syllables to complex production of real-life speech as well as compared to non-speech-related sequential finger tapping and pure tone discrimination networks. We identified a segregated network of highly connected local neural communities (hubs) in the primary sensorimotor and parietal regions, which formed a commonly shared core hub network across the examined conditions, with the left area 4p playing an important role in speech network organization. These sensorimotor core hubs exhibited features of flexible hubs based on their participation in several functional domains across different networks and ability to adaptively switch long-range functional connectivity depending on task content, resulting in a distinct community structure of each examined network. Specifically, compared to other tasks, speech production was characterized by the formation of six distinct neural communities with specialized recruitment of the prefrontal cortex, insula, putamen, and thalamus, which collectively forged the formation

  18. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Casper, Maureen A; Raphael, Lawrence J; Harris, Katherine S; Geibel, Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy speakers and six with ataxia. The speaking task was designed to elicit six different prosodic conditions and four contrastive prosodic events. Distinct prosodic patterns were elicited by the examiner for cerebellar patients and healthy speakers. These utterances were digitally recorded and analysed acoustically and statistically. The healthy speakers showed statistically significant differences among all four prosodic contrasts. The normal model described by the prosodic contrasts provided a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic analyses. A significant interaction between subject groups and prosodic conditions revealed a compromised prosody in cerebellar patients. Significant differences were found for durational parameters, F0 and formant frequencies. The cerebellar speakers demonstrated different patterns of syllable lengthening and syllable reduction from that of the healthy speakers. PMID:17613097

  19. Intonation contour in synchronous speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Cummins, Fred

    2003-10-01

    Synchronous Speech (Syn-S), obtained by having pairs of speakers read a prepared text together, has been shown to result in interesting properties in the temporal domain, especially in the reduction of inter-speaker variability in supersegmental timing [F. Cummins, ARLO 3, 7-11 (2002)]. Here we investigate the effect of synchronization among speakers on the intonation contour, with a view to informing models of intonation. Six pairs of speakers (all females) read a short text (176 words) both synchronously and solo. Results show that (1) the pitch accent height above a declining baseline is reduced in Syn-S, compared with solo speech, while the pitch accent location is consistent across speakers in both conditions; (2) in contrast to previous findings on duration matching, there is an asymmetry between speakers, with one speaker exerting a stronger influence on the observed intonation contour than the other; (3) agreement on the boundaries of intonational phrases is greater in Syn-S and intonation contours are well matched from the first syllable of the phrase and throughout.

  20. Vestibular hearing and speech processing.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seyede Faranak; Pourbakht, Akram; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Kamali, Mohammad; Behnoud, Fatholah; Daneshi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular hearing in human is evoked as a result of the auditory sensitivity of the saccule to low-frequency high-intensity tone. The objective was to investigate the relationship between vestibular hearing using cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) and speech processing via word recognition scores in white noise (WRSs in wn). Intervention comprised of audiologic examinations, cVEMPs, and WRS in wn. All healthy subjects had detectable cVEMPs (safe vestibular hearing). WRSs in wn were obtained for them (66.9 ± 9.3% in the right ears and 67.5 ± 11.8% in the left ears). Dizzy patients in the affected ears, had the cVEMPs abnormalities (insecure vestibular hearing) and decreased the WRS in wn (51.4 ± 3.8% in the right ears and 52.2 ± 3.5% in the left ears). The comparison of the cVEMPs between the subjects revealed significant differences (P < 0.05). Therefore, the vestibular hearing can improve the speech processing in the competing noisy conditions. PMID:23724272

  1. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  2. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna M.; Golumbic, Elana Zion; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech’s temporal envelope (“speech-tracking”), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural vs. vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine-structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech tracking more similar to vocoded speech. PMID:25650107

  3. An articulatorily constrained, maximum entropy approach to speech recognition and speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    Hidden Markov models (HMM`s) are among the most popular tools for performing computer speech recognition. One of the primary reasons that HMM`s typically outperform other speech recognition techniques is that the parameters used for recognition are determined by the data, not by preconceived notions of what the parameters should be. This makes HMM`s better able to deal with intra- and inter-speaker variability despite the limited knowledge of how speech signals vary and despite the often limited ability to correctly formulate rules describing variability and invariance in speech. In fact, it is often the case that when HMM parameter values are constrained using the limited knowledge of speech, recognition performance decreases. However, the structure of an HMM has little in common with the mechanisms underlying speech production. Here, the author argues that by using probabilistic models that more accurately embody the process of speech production, he can create models that have all the advantages of HMM`s, but that should more accurately capture the statistical properties of real speech samples--presumably leading to more accurate speech recognition. The model he will discuss uses the fact that speech articulators move smoothly and continuously. Before discussing how to use articulatory constraints, he will give a brief description of HMM`s. This will allow him to highlight the similarities and differences between HMM`s and the proposed technique.

  4. Statistical properties of infant-directed versus adult-directed speech: Insights from speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Schimmel, Steven

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that infant-directed speech (`motherese') exhibits overemphasized acoustic properties which may facilitate the acquisition of phonetic categories by infant learners. It has been suggested that the use of infant-directed data for training automatic speech recognition systems might also enhance the automatic learning and discrimination of phonetic categories. This study investigates the properties of infant-directed vs. adult-directed speech from the point of view of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm underlying automatic speech recognition. Isolated-word speech recognizers were trained on adult-directed vs. infant-directed data sets and were tested on both matched and mismatched data. Results show that recognizers trained on infant-directed speech did not always exhibit better recognition performance; however, their relative loss in performance on mismatched data was significantly less severe than that of recognizers trained on adult-directed speech and presented with infant-directed test data. An analysis of the statistical distributions of a subset of phonetic classes in both data sets showed that this pattern is caused by larger class overlaps in infant-directed speech. This finding has implications for both automatic speech recognition and theories of infant speech perception. .

  5. Development of The Viking Speech Scale to classify the speech of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Lindsay; Virella, Daniel; Mjøen, Tone; da Graça Andrada, Maria; Murray, Janice; Colver, Allan; Himmelmann, Kate; Rackauskaite, Gija; Greitane, Andra; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Andersen, Guro; de la Cruz, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Surveillance registers monitor the prevalence of cerebral palsy and the severity of resulting impairments across time and place. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy can affect children's speech production and limit their intelligibility. We describe the development of a scale to classify children's speech performance for use in cerebral palsy surveillance registers, and its reliability across raters and across time. Speech and language therapists, other healthcare professionals and parents classified the speech of 139 children with cerebral palsy (85 boys, 54 girls; mean age 6.03 years, SD 1.09) from observation and previous knowledge of the children. Another group of health professionals rated children's speech from information in their medical notes. With the exception of parents, raters reclassified children's speech at least four weeks after their initial classification. Raters were asked to rate how easy the scale was to use and how well the scale described the child's speech production using Likert scales. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to substantial (k>.58 for all comparisons). Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect for all groups (k>.68). Over 74% of raters found the scale easy or very easy to use; 66% of parents and over 70% of health care professionals judged the scale to describe children's speech well or very well. We conclude that the Viking Speech Scale is a reliable tool to describe the speech performance of children with cerebral palsy, which can be applied through direct observation of children or through case note review.

  6. Modulation of Auditory Responses to Speech vs. Nonspeech Stimuli during Speech Movement Planning

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that the N100 amplitude in long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) elicited by pure tone probe stimuli is modulated when the stimuli are delivered during speech movement planning as compared with no-speaking control conditions. Given that we probed the auditory system only with pure tones, it remained unknown whether the nature and magnitude of this pre-speech auditory modulation depends on the type of auditory stimulus. Thus, here, we asked whether the effect of speech movement planning on auditory processing varies depending on the type of auditory stimulus. In an experiment with nine adult subjects, we recorded LLAEPs that were elicited by either pure tones or speech syllables when these stimuli were presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. a silent reading control condition. Results showed no statistically significant difference in pre-speech modulation of the N100 amplitude (early stages of auditory processing) for the speech stimuli as compared with the nonspeech stimuli. However, the amplitude of the P200 component (later stages of auditory processing) showed a statistically significant pre-speech modulation that was specific to the speech stimuli only. Hence, the overall results from this study indicate that, immediately prior to speech onset, modulation of the auditory system has a general effect on early processing stages but a speech-specific effect on later processing stages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that pre-speech auditory modulation may play a role in priming the auditory system for its role in monitoring auditory feedback during speech production. PMID:27242494

  7. [Dependence of 'audio-phonatoric coupling' of speech rate and speech loudness].

    PubMed

    Jäncke, L

    1992-01-01

    The 'audio-phonatoric coupling' (APC) was investigated in two independent experiments. Slightly delayed auditory feedback (delay time 40 ms) of the subjects' own speech was used as experimental method. The first experiment was conducted to examine whether the strength of the APC depends on the speech rate. In this experiment 16 male Subjects (Ss) were required to utter the testword/tatatas/either with stress placing on the first or second syllable at two different speech rates (fast and slow). In 16% of the randomly chosen speech trials, the delayed auditory feedback (DAF; 40 ms delay) was introduced. It could be shown that the stressed phonation was significantly lengthened under the DAF condition. This lengthening was greater when Ss spoke slowly. The unstressed phonations were not influenced by the DAF condition. The second experiment was conducted to examine whether or not speech intensity effects APC. Nine male Ss were required to utter the testword/tatatas/either with stress placing on the first or second syllable using three different speech intensities (30 dB, 50 dB and 70 dB). In 16% of the randomly chosen speech trials DAF condition was introduced. It could be shown that speech intensity does not influence the DAF effect (lengthening of stressed phonation). These findings were taken as evidence that the auditory feedback of the subjects' own speech can be incorporated into speech control during ongoing speech. Obviously, this feedback information is efficient only during the production of stressed syllables, and varies as a function of speech rate. In addition, the significance of stressed syllables for the structuring of speech is discussed. PMID:1295272

  8. Computational Differences between Whispered and Non-Whispered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Boon Pang

    2011-01-01

    Whispering is a common type of speech which is not often studied in speech technology. Perceptual and physiological studies show us that whispered speech is subtly different from phonated speech, and is surprisingly able to carry a tremendous amount of information. In this dissertation we consider the question: What makes whispering a good form of…

  9. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  10. Compressed Speech Technology: Implications for Learning and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, LeRoy L.

    This paper first traces the historical development of speech compression technology, which has made it possible to alter the spoken rate of a pre-recorded message without excessive distortion. Terms used to describe techniques employed as the technology evolved are discussed, including rapid speech, rate altered speech, cut-and-spliced speech, and…

  11. The Interpersonal Metafunction Analysis of Barack Obama's Victory Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Ruijuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative interpersonal metafunction analysis of Barack Obama's victory speech from the interpersonal metafunction, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability, thus to provide some guidance for readers to make better speeches. This study has promising implications for speeches as…

  12. Visual and Auditory Input in Second-Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies in second-language (L2) speech processing have involved unimodal (i.e., auditory) input; however, in many instances, speech communication involves both visual and auditory sources of information. Some researchers have argued that multimodal speech is the primary mode of speech perception (e.g., Rosenblum 2005). Research on…

  13. Contemporary Reflections on Speech-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In "The Relation of Language to Mental Development and of Speech to Language Teaching," S.G. Davidson displayed several timeless insights into the role of speech in developing language and reasons for using speech as the basis for instruction for children who are deaf and hard of hearing. His understanding that speech includes more than merely…

  14. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  15. Transcribing Disordered Speech: By Target or by Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to transcribe disordered speech is a vital tool for speech-language pathologists, as accurate description of a client's speech output is needed for both diagnosis and effective intervention. Clients in the speech clinic often use sounds that are not part of the target sound system and which may, in some cases, be sounds not found in…

  16. Incorporating Women's Speeches as Models in the Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marvin D.

    Studies indicate that there is a general lack of availability and use of women's speeches in college speech curricula. By incorporating more women's speeches as models, instructors of the basic course in speech can present a more complete picture of American public speaking while also encouraging women in these classes to feel less muted in their…

  17. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  18. Monkey Lipsmacking Develops Like the Human Speech Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Ryan J.; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved "de novo" in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial…

  19. SPEECH DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, BARBARA

    GOALS OF A SPEECH IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN WISCONSIN ARE DESCRIBED. THE FOLLOWING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE SPEECH PROGRAM ARE PRESENTED--(1) DEVELOPMENT OF A DELAYED SPEECH PROGRAM, (2) USE OF SOCIAL SKILLS FOR SPEECH PRACTICE, (3) REMEDIAL PROGRAM FOR DEFECTIVE ARTICULATION, AND (4) AUDITORY TRAINING. TYPES OF DEFECTS, A…

  20. Increasing Parental Involvement in Speech-Sound Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Micah Renee Ferguson

    2014-01-01

    Speech therapy homework is a key component of a successful speech therapy program, increasing carryover of learned speech sounds. Poor return rate of homework assigned, with a lack of parental involvement, is a problem. The purpose of this project study was to examine what may increase parental participation in speech therapy homework. Guided by…

  1. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  2. Ahab's Speeches: Bombs or Bombastics? A Rhetorical Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, Dean

    In an attempt to define rhetorical discourse, the paper examines the speeches of Ahab, the main character from Herman Melville's book, "Moby-Dick." The paper first determines if Ahab's speeches actually fall into the category of rhetorical discourse by examining his major speeches, and then ascertains whether his speeches are bombs (successful…

  3. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  4. Speech Characteristics Associated with Three Genotypes of Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.; Ahn, Ji Sook; Gomez, Christopher; Sidtis, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in neurobiology are providing new opportunities to investigate the neurological systems underlying motor speech control. This study explores the perceptual characteristics of the speech of three genotypes of spino-cerebellar ataxia (SCA) as manifest in four different speech tasks. Methods: Speech samples from 26 speakers with SCA…

  5. Auditory free classification of nonnative speech.

    PubMed

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2013-11-01

    Through experience with speech variability, listeners build categories of indexical speech characteristics including categories for talker, gender, and dialect. The auditory free classification task-a task in which listeners freely group talkers based on audio samples-has been a useful tool for examining listeners' representations of some of these characteristics including regional dialects and different languages. The free classification task was employed in the current study to examine the perceptual representation of nonnative speech. The category structure and salient perceptual dimensions of nonnative speech were investigated from two perspectives: general similarity and perceived native language background. Talker intelligibility and whether native talkers were included were manipulated to test stimulus set effects. Results showed that degree of accent was a highly salient feature of nonnative speech for classification based on general similarity and on perceived native language background. This salience, however, was attenuated when listeners were listening to highly intelligible stimuli and attending to the talkers' native language backgrounds. These results suggest that the context in which nonnative speech stimuli are presented-such as the listeners' attention to the talkers' native language and the variability of stimulus intelligibility-can influence listeners' perceptual organization of nonnative speech.

  6. Imitation and speech: commonalities within Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    The so-called embodiment of communication has attracted considerable interest. Recently a growing number of studies have proposed a link between Broca's area's involvement in action processing and its involvement in speech. The present quantitative meta-analysis set out to test whether neuroimaging studies on imitation and overt speech show overlap within inferior frontal gyrus. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we investigated concurrence of brain regions activated by object-free hand imitation studies as well as overt speech studies including simple syllable and more complex word production. We found direct overlap between imitation and speech in bilateral pars opercularis (BA 44) within Broca's area. Subtraction analyses revealed no unique localization neither for speech nor for imitation. To verify the potential of ALE subtraction analysis to detect unique involvement within Broca's area, we contrasted the results of a meta-analysis on motor inhibition and imitation and found separable regions involved for imitation. This is the first meta-analysis to compare the neural correlates of imitation and overt speech. The results are in line with the proposed evolutionary roots of speech in imitation.

  7. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  8. Imitation and speech: commonalities within Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    The so-called embodiment of communication has attracted considerable interest. Recently a growing number of studies have proposed a link between Broca's area's involvement in action processing and its involvement in speech. The present quantitative meta-analysis set out to test whether neuroimaging studies on imitation and overt speech show overlap within inferior frontal gyrus. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we investigated concurrence of brain regions activated by object-free hand imitation studies as well as overt speech studies including simple syllable and more complex word production. We found direct overlap between imitation and speech in bilateral pars opercularis (BA 44) within Broca's area. Subtraction analyses revealed no unique localization neither for speech nor for imitation. To verify the potential of ALE subtraction analysis to detect unique involvement within Broca's area, we contrasted the results of a meta-analysis on motor inhibition and imitation and found separable regions involved for imitation. This is the first meta-analysis to compare the neural correlates of imitation and overt speech. The results are in line with the proposed evolutionary roots of speech in imitation. PMID:23124975

  9. Gesture–speech integration in narrative

    PubMed Central

    Alibali, Martha W.; Evans, Julia L.; Hostetter, Autumn B.; Ryan, Kristin; Mainela-Arnold, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Speakers sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in speech. In this research, we developed a system that could be used to assess the redundancy of gesture and speech in a narrative task. We then applied this system to examine whether children and adults produce non-redundant gesture–speech combinations at similar rates. The coding system was developed based on a sample of 30 children. A crucial feature of the system is that gesture meanings can be assessed based on form alone; thus, the meanings speakers express in gesture and speech can be assessed independently and compared. We then collected narrative data from a new sample of 17 children (ages 5–10), as well as a sample of 20 adults, and we determined the average proportion of non-redundant gesture–speech combinations produced by individuals in each group. Children produced more non-redundant gesture–speech combinations than adults, both at the clause level and at the word level. These findings suggest that gesture–speech integration is not constant over the life span, but instead appears to change with development. PMID:26740817

  10. Emotion recognition from speech: tools and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talabani, Abdulbasit; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion recognition from speech is studied frequently for its importance in many applications, e.g. human-computer interaction. There is a wide diversity and non-agreement about the basic emotion or emotion-related states on one hand and about where the emotion related information lies in the speech signal on the other side. These diversities motivate our investigations into extracting Meta-features using the PCA approach, or using a non-adaptive random projection RP, which significantly reduce the large dimensional speech feature vectors that may contain a wide range of emotion related information. Subsets of Meta-features are fused to increase the performance of the recognition model that adopts the score-based LDC classifier. We shall demonstrate that our scheme outperform the state of the art results when tested on non-prompted databases or acted databases (i.e. when subjects act specific emotions while uttering a sentence). However, the huge gap between accuracy rates achieved on the different types of datasets of speech raises questions about the way emotions modulate the speech. In particular we shall argue that emotion recognition from speech should not be dealt with as a classification problem. We shall demonstrate the presence of a spectrum of different emotions in the same speech portion especially in the non-prompted data sets, which tends to be more "natural" than the acted datasets where the subjects attempt to suppress all but one emotion.

  11. Brain-Computer Interfaces for Speech Communication

    PubMed Central

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kennedy, Philip R.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews current silent speech methodologies for normal and disabled individuals. Current techniques utilizing electromyographic (EMG) recordings of vocal tract movements are useful for physically healthy individuals but fail for tetraplegic individuals who do not have accurate voluntary control over the speech articulators. Alternative methods utilizing EMG from other body parts (e.g., hand, arm, or facial muscles) or electroencephalography (EEG) can provide capable silent communication to severely paralyzed users, though current interfaces are extremely slow relative to normal conversation rates and require constant attention to a computer screen that provides visual feedback and/or cueing. We present a novel approach to the problem of silent speech via an intracortical microelectrode brain computer interface (BCI) to predict intended speech information directly from the activity of neurons involved in speech production. The predicted speech is synthesized and acoustically fed back to the user with a delay under 50 ms. We demonstrate that the Neurotrophic Electrode used in the BCI is capable of providing useful neural recordings for over 4 years, a necessary property for BCIs that need to remain viable over the lifespan of the user. Other design considerations include neural decoding techniques based on previous research involving BCIs for computer cursor or robotic arm control via prediction of intended movement kinematics from motor cortical signals in monkeys and humans. Initial results from a study of continuous speech production with instantaneous acoustic feedback show the BCI user was able to improve his control over an artificial speech synthesizer both within and across recording sessions. The success of this initial trial validates the potential of the intracortical microelectrode-based approach for providing a speech prosthesis that can allow much more rapid communication rates. PMID:20204164

  12. Brain-Computer Interfaces for Speech Communication.

    PubMed

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kennedy, Philip R; Guenther, Frank H

    2010-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews current silent speech methodologies for normal and disabled individuals. Current techniques utilizing electromyographic (EMG) recordings of vocal tract movements are useful for physically healthy individuals but fail for tetraplegic individuals who do not have accurate voluntary control over the speech articulators. Alternative methods utilizing EMG from other body parts (e.g., hand, arm, or facial muscles) or electroencephalography (EEG) can provide capable silent communication to severely paralyzed users, though current interfaces are extremely slow relative to normal conversation rates and require constant attention to a computer screen that provides visual feedback and/or cueing. We present a novel approach to the problem of silent speech via an intracortical microelectrode brain computer interface (BCI) to predict intended speech information directly from the activity of neurons involved in speech production. The predicted speech is synthesized and acoustically fed back to the user with a delay under 50 ms. We demonstrate that the Neurotrophic Electrode used in the BCI is capable of providing useful neural recordings for over 4 years, a necessary property for BCIs that need to remain viable over the lifespan of the user. Other design considerations include neural decoding techniques based on previous research involving BCIs for computer cursor or robotic arm control via prediction of intended movement kinematics from motor cortical signals in monkeys and humans. Initial results from a study of continuous speech production with instantaneous acoustic feedback show the BCI user was able to improve his control over an artificial speech synthesizer both within and across recording sessions. The success of this initial trial validates the potential of the intracortical microelectrode-based approach for providing a speech prosthesis that can allow much more rapid communication rates.

  13. Optimal subband Kalman filter for normal and oesophageal speech enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Rizwan; García Zapirain, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the single channel speech enhancement system using subband Kalman filtering by estimating optimal Autoregressive (AR) coefficients and variance for speech and noise, using Weighted Linear Prediction (WLP) and Noise Weighting Function (NWF). The system is applied for normal and Oesophageal speech signals. The method is evaluated by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement for normal speech and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) for Oesophageal Speech (OES). Compared with previous systems, the normal speech indicates 30% increase in PESQ score, 4 dB SNR improvement and OES shows 3 dB HNR improvement. PMID:25227070

  14. Optimal subband Kalman filter for normal and oesophageal speech enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Rizwan; García Zapirain, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the single channel speech enhancement system using subband Kalman filtering by estimating optimal Autoregressive (AR) coefficients and variance for speech and noise, using Weighted Linear Prediction (WLP) and Noise Weighting Function (NWF). The system is applied for normal and Oesophageal speech signals. The method is evaluated by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement for normal speech and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) for Oesophageal Speech (OES). Compared with previous systems, the normal speech indicates 30% increase in PESQ score, 4 dB SNR improvement and OES shows 3 dB HNR improvement.

  15. Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John; Nix, David

    2004-01-13

    A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.

  16. Signal-driven computations in speech processing.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Bonatti, Luca L; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2002-10-18

    Learning a language requires both statistical computations to identify words in speech and algebraic-like computations to discover higher level (grammatical) structure. Here we show that these computations can be influenced by subtle cues in the speech signal. After a short familiarization to a continuous speech stream, adult listeners are able to segment it using powerful statistics, but they fail to extract the structural regularities included in the stream even when the familiarization is greatly extended. With the introduction of subliminal segmentation cues, however, these regularities can be rapidly captured.

  17. Speech enhancement using a generic noise codebook.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Rao Naidu, D Hanumantha

    2012-08-01

    Although single-microphone noise reduction methods perform well in stationary noise environments, their performance in non-stationary conditions remains unsatisfactory. Use of prior knowledge about speech and noise power spectral densities in the form of trained codebooks has been previously shown to address this limitation. While it is possible to use trained speech codebooks in a practical system, the variety of noise types encountered in practice makes the use of trained noise codebooks less practical. This letter presents a method that uses a generic noise codebook for speech enhancement that can be generated on-the-fly and provides good performance.

  18. Acoustic Speech Analysis Of Wayang Golek Puppeteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Faisal Abdul; Mandasari, Miranti Indar; Sarwono, Joko

    2010-12-01

    Active disguising speech is one problem to be taken into account in forensic speaker verification or identification processes. The verification processes are usually carried out by comparison between unknown samples and known samples. Active disguising can be occurred on both samples. To simulate the condition of speech disguising, voices of Wayang Golek Puppeteer were used. It is assumed that wayang golek puppeteer is a master of disguise. He can manipulate his voice into many different types of character's voices. This paper discusses the speech characteristics of 2 puppeteers. Comparison was made between the voices of puppeteer's habitual voice with his manipulated voice.

  19. A water-resistant speech processor.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter; Capcelea, Edmond; Darley, Ian; Leavens, Jason; Parker, John

    2006-09-01

    Cochlear implant systems are used in diverse environments and should function during work, exercise and play as people go about their daily lives. This is a demanding requirement, with exposure to liquid and other contaminant ingress from many sources. For reliability, it is desirable that the speech processor withstands these exposures. This design challenge has been addressed in the Nucleus(R) Freedom(TM) speech processor. The Nucleus Freedom speech processor complies with International Standard IEC 60529, as independently certified. Tests include spraying the processor with water followed by immediate verification of functionality including microphone response, radio frequency link and processor controls. The processor has met level IP44 of the Standard.

  20. Testing for robust speech recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Moore, C. A.; Ruth, J. C.

    Results are reported from two studies which evaluated speaker-dependent connected-speech template-matching algorithms. One study examined the recognition performance for vocabularies spoken within a spacesuit. Two token vocabularies were used that were recorded in different noise levels. The second study evaluated the rejection accuracy for two commercial speech recognizers. The spoken test tokens were variations on a single word. The tests underscored the inferiority of speech recognizers relative to the human capability for discerning among phonetically different words. However, one commercial recognizer exhibited over 96-percent rejection accuracy in a noisy environment.

  1. Vector Adaptive/Predictive Encoding Of Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juin-Hwey; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Vector adaptive/predictive technique for digital encoding of speech signals yields decoded speech of very good quality after transmission at coding rate of 9.6 kb/s and of reasonably good quality at 4.8 kb/s. Requires 3 to 4 million multiplications and additions per second. Combines advantages of adaptive/predictive coding, and code-excited linear prediction, yielding speech of high quality but requires 600 million multiplications and additions per second at encoding rate of 4.8 kb/s. Vector adaptive/predictive coding technique bridges gaps in performance and complexity between adaptive/predictive coding and code-excited linear prediction.

  2. Temporal attractors for speech onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, Robert; Oglesbee, Eric

    2003-10-01

    When subjects say a single syllable like da in time with a metronome, what is the easiest relationship? Superimposed on the metronome pulse, of course. The second easiest way is probably to locate the syllable halfway between pulses. We tested these hypotheses by having subjects repeat da at both phase angles at a range of metronome rates. The vowel onset (or P-center) was automatically obtained for each token. In-phase targets were produced close to the metronome onset for rates as fast as 3 per second. Antiphase targets were accurate at slow rates (~2/s) but tended to slip to inphase timing with faster metronomes. These results resemble the findings of Haken et al. [Biol. Cybern. 51, 347-356 (1985)] for oscillatory finger motions. Results suggest a strong attractor for speech onsets at zero phase and a weaker attractor at phase 0.5 that may disappear as rate is increased.

  3. Speech information retrieval: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Henry, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Audio is an information-rich component of multimedia. Information can be extracted from audio in a number of different ways, and thus there are several established audio signal analysis research fields. These fields include speech recognition, speaker recognition, audio segmentation and classification, and audio finger-printing. The information that can be extracted from tools and methods developed in these fields can greatly enhance multimedia systems. In this paper, we present the current state of research in each of the major audio analysis fields. The goal is to introduce enough back-ground for someone new in the field to quickly gain high-level understanding and to provide direction for further study.

  4. My Speech Problem, Your Listening Problem, and My Frustration: The Experience of Living with Childhood Speech Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; Harrison, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to understand the experience of speech impairment (speech sound disorders) in everyday life as described by children with speech impairment and their communication partners. Method: Interviews were undertaken with 13 preschool children with speech impairment (mild to severe) and 21 significant others…

  5. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Scope of Free Speech and Hate Speech in the College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Faye

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the Two Sides interviews, which confront the serious and immediate conflict between free speech and hate speech on college campuses. Dr. Robert O' Neil discusses the scope of free speech in the college community, while Dr. Timothy Shiell focuses on hate speech on campuses. Contains 12 references. (VWC)

  6. Empathy, Ways of Knowing, and Interdependence as Mediators of Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Hate Speech and Freedom of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Gloria; Khatchadourian, Desiree

    2003-01-01

    Women are more intolerant of hate speech than men. This study examined relationality measures as mediators of gender differences in the perception of the harm of hate speech and the importance of freedom of speech. Participants were 107 male and 123 female college students. Questionnaires assessed the perceived harm of hate speech, the importance…

  7. Children use visual speech to compensate for non-intact auditory speech.

    PubMed

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether visual speech fills in non-intact auditory speech (excised consonant onsets) in typically developing children from 4 to 14 years of age. Stimuli with the excised auditory onsets were presented in the audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (AO) modes. A visual speech fill-in effect occurs when listeners experience hearing the same non-intact auditory stimulus (e.g., /-b/ag) as different depending on the presence/absence of visual speech such as hearing /bag/ in the AV mode but hearing /ag/ in the AO mode. We quantified the visual speech fill-in effect by the difference in the number of correct consonant onset responses between the modes. We found that easy visual speech cues /b/ provided greater filling in than difficult cues /g/. Only older children benefited from difficult visual speech cues, whereas all children benefited from easy visual speech cues, although 4- and 5-year-olds did not benefit as much as older children. To explore task demands, we compared results on our new task with those on the McGurk task. The influence of visual speech was uniquely associated with age and vocabulary abilities for the visual speech fill--in effect but was uniquely associated with speechreading skills for the McGurk effect. This dissociation implies that visual speech--as processed by children-is a complicated and multifaceted phenomenon underpinned by heterogeneous abilities. These results emphasize that children perceive a speaker's utterance rather than the auditory stimulus per se. In children, as in adults, there is more to speech perception than meets the ear.

  8. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  9. Phrase-level speech simulation with an airway modulation model of speech production.

    PubMed

    Story, Brad H

    2013-06-01

    Artificial talkers and speech synthesis systems have long been used as a means of understanding both speech production and speech perception. The development of an airway modulation model is described that simulates the time-varying changes of the glottis and vocal tract, as well as acoustic wave propagation, during speech production. The result is a type of artificial talker that can be used to study various aspects of how sound is generated by humans and how that sound is perceived by a listener. The primary components of the model are introduced and simulation of words and phrases are demonstrated.

  10. Speech and noise levels for predicting the degree of speech security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, John S.; Gover, Bradford N.

    2005-09-01

    A meeting room is speech secure when it is difficult or impossible for an eavesdropper to overhear speech from within. The degree of security could range from less stringent conditions of being barely able to understand a few words from the meeting room, to higher levels, where transmitted speech would be completely inaudible. This paper reports on measurements to determine the statistical distribution of speech levels in meeting rooms and the distribution of ambient noise levels just outside meeting rooms. To select the required transmission characteristics for a meeting room wall, one would first decide on an acceptable level of risk, in terms of the probability of a speech security lapse occurring. This leads to the selection of a combination of a speech level in the meeting room and a noise level nearby that would occur together with this probability. The combination of appropriate estimates of meeting room speech levels and nearby ambient noise levels, together with the sound transmission characteristics of the intervening partition, makes it possible to calculate signal/noise ratio indices related to speech security [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(6), 3480-3490 (2004)]. The value of these indices indicates if adequate speech security will be achieved.

  11. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  12. Cortical speech and non-speech discrimination in relation to cognitive measures in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Soila; Alku, Paavo; Makkonen, Tommi; Lipsanen, Jari; Kujala, Teija

    2016-03-01

    Effective speech sound discrimination at preschool age is known to be a prerequisite for the development of language skills and later literacy acquisition. However, the speech specificity of cortical discrimination skills in small children is currently not known, as previous research has either studied speech functions without comparison with non-speech sounds, or used much simpler sounds such as harmonic or sinusoidal tones as control stimuli. We investigated the cortical discrimination of five syllable features (consonant, vowel, vowel duration, fundamental frequency, and intensity), covering both segmental and prosodic phonetic changes, and their acoustically matched non-speech counterparts in 63 6-year-old typically developed children, by using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. Each of the five investigated features elicited a unique pattern of differentiating negativities: an early differentiating negativity, MMN, and a late differentiating negativity. All five studied features showed speech-related enhancement of at least one of these responses, suggesting experience-related neural commitment in both phonetic and prosodic speech processing. In addition, the cognitive performance and language skills of the children were tested extensively. The speech-related neural enhancement was positively associated with the level of performance in several neurocognitive tasks, indicating a relationship between successful establishment of cortical memory traces for speech and enhanced cognitive functioning. The results contribute to the understanding of typical developmental trajectories of linguistic vs. non-linguistic auditory skills, and provide a reference for future studies investigating deficits in language-related disorders at preschool age.

  13. Segmental intelligibility and speech interference thresholds of high-quality synthetic speech in presence of noise.

    PubMed

    Koul, R K; Allen, G D

    1993-08-01

    Technological advancement in the area of synthetic speech has made it increasingly difficult to distinguish quality of speech based solely on intelligibility scores obtained in benign laboratory conditions. Intelligibility scores obtained for natural speech and a high-quality text-to-speech system (DECtalk) are not substantially different. This study examined the perceived intelligibility and speech interference thresholds of DECtalk male and female voices and compared them with data obtained for natural speech. Results revealed that decreasing signal-to-noise levels had more deleterious effects on the perception of DECtalk male and female voices than on the perception of natural speech. Analysis of pattern of phoneme errors revealed that similar general patterns of errors tended to occur in DECtalk and in natural speech. The speech interference test did not demonstrate any significant difference between the DECtalk male and female voices. These results were supported by the absence of a significant difference between DECtalk male and female voices during intelligibility testing at different signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:8377491

  14. Reading speech from still and moving faces: the neural substrates of visible speech.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Gemma A; Campbell, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    Speech is perceived both by ear and by eye. Unlike heard speech, some seen speech gestures can be captured in stilled image sequences. Previous studies have shown that in hearing people, natural time-varying silent seen speech can access the auditory cortex (left superior temporal regions). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study explored the extent to which this circuitry was activated when seen speech was deprived of its time-varying characteristics. In the scanner, hearing participants were instructed to look for a prespecified visible speech target sequence ("voo" or "ahv") among other monosyllables. In one condition, the image sequence comprised a series of stilled key frames showing apical gestures (e.g., separate frames for "v" and "oo" [from the target] or "ee" and "m" [i.e., from nontarget syllables]). In the other condition, natural speech movement of the same overall segment duration was seen. In contrast to a baseline condition in which the letter "V" was superimposed on a resting face, stilled speech face images generated activation in posterior cortical regions associated with the perception of biological movement, despite the lack of apparent movement in the speech image sequence. Activation was also detected in traditional speech-processing regions including the left inferior frontal (Broca's) area, left superior temporal sulcus (STS), and left supramarginal gyrus (the dorsal aspect of Wernicke's area). Stilled speech sequences also generated activation in the ventral premotor cortex and anterior inferior parietal sulcus bilaterally. Moving faces generated significantly greater cortical activation than stilled face sequences, and in similar regions. However, a number of differences between stilled and moving speech were also observed. In the visual cortex, stilled faces generated relatively more activation in primary visual regions (V1/V2), while visual movement areas (V5/MT+) were activated to a greater extent by

  15. Cortical speech and non-speech discrimination in relation to cognitive measures in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Soila; Alku, Paavo; Makkonen, Tommi; Lipsanen, Jari; Kujala, Teija

    2016-03-01

    Effective speech sound discrimination at preschool age is known to be a prerequisite for the development of language skills and later literacy acquisition. However, the speech specificity of cortical discrimination skills in small children is currently not known, as previous research has either studied speech functions without comparison with non-speech sounds, or used much simpler sounds such as harmonic or sinusoidal tones as control stimuli. We investigated the cortical discrimination of five syllable features (consonant, vowel, vowel duration, fundamental frequency, and intensity), covering both segmental and prosodic phonetic changes, and their acoustically matched non-speech counterparts in 63 6-year-old typically developed children, by using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. Each of the five investigated features elicited a unique pattern of differentiating negativities: an early differentiating negativity, MMN, and a late differentiating negativity. All five studied features showed speech-related enhancement of at least one of these responses, suggesting experience-related neural commitment in both phonetic and prosodic speech processing. In addition, the cognitive performance and language skills of the children were tested extensively. The speech-related neural enhancement was positively associated with the level of performance in several neurocognitive tasks, indicating a relationship between successful establishment of cortical memory traces for speech and enhanced cognitive functioning. The results contribute to the understanding of typical developmental trajectories of linguistic vs. non-linguistic auditory skills, and provide a reference for future studies investigating deficits in language-related disorders at preschool age. PMID:26647120

  16. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  17. Acoustic differences among casual, conversational, and read speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnow, DeAnna

    Speech is a complex behavior that allows speakers to use many variations to satisfy the demands connected with multiple speaking environments. Speech research typically obtains speech samples in a controlled laboratory setting using read material, yet anecdotal observations of such speech, particularly from talkers with a speech and language impairment, have identified a "performance" effect in the produced speech which masks the characteristics of impaired speech outside of the lab (Goberman, Recker, & Parveen, 2010). The aim of the current study was to investigate acoustic differences among laboratory read, laboratory conversational, and casual speech through well-defined speech tasks in the laboratory and in talkers' natural environments. Eleven healthy research participants performed lab recording tasks (19 read sentences and a dialogue about their life) and collected natural-environment recordings of themselves over 3-day periods using portable recorders. Segments were analyzed for articulatory, voice, and prosodic acoustic characteristics using computer software and hand counting. The current study results indicate that lab-read speech was significantly different from casual speech: greater articulation range, improved voice quality measures, lower speech rate, and lower mean pitch. One implication of the results is that different laboratory techniques may be beneficial in obtaining speech samples that are more like casual speech, thus making it easier to correctly analyze abnormal speech characteristics with fewer errors.

  18. The motor theory of speech perception reviewed

    PubMed Central

    GALANTUCCI, BRUNO; FOWLER, CAROL A.; TURVEY, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the motor theory of speech perception, it is timely to evaluate its three main claims that (1) speech processing is special, (2) perceiving speech is perceiving gestures, and (3) the motor system is recruited for perceiving speech. We argue that to the extent that it can be evaluated, the first claim is likely false. As for the second claim, we review findings that support it and argue that although each of these findings may be explained by alternative accounts, the claim provides a single coherent account. As for the third claim, we review findings in the literature that support it at different levels of generality and argue that the claim anticipated a theme that has become widespread in cognitive science. PMID:17048719

  19. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  20. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human right, accessible and ... for focused information and more. Join a SIG ASHA Corporate Partners Become A Corporate Partner Policies  About ...

  1. Coherence and the speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Kates, James M; Arehart, Kathryn H

    2005-04-01

    The speech intelligibility index (SII) (ANSI S3.5-1997) provides a means for estimating speech intelligibility under conditions of additive stationary noise or bandwidth reduction. The SII concept for estimating intelligibility is extended in this paper to include broadband peak-clipping and center-clipping distortion, with the coherence between the input and output signals used to estimate the noise and distortion effects. The speech intelligibility predictions using the new procedure are compared with intelligibility scores obtained from normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects for conditions of additive noise and peak-clipping and center-clipping distortion. The most effective procedure divides the speech signal into low-, mid-, and high-level regions, computes the coherence SII separately for the signal segments in each region, and then estimates intelligibility from a weighted combination of the three coherence SII values. PMID:15898663

  2. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health care professionals have lists of milestones ... normal. These milestones help figure out whether a child is on track or if he or she ...

  3. The evolution of speech: vision, rhythm, cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2014-01-01

    A full account of human speech evolution must consider its multisensory, rhythmic, and cooperative characteristics. Humans, apes and monkeys recognize the correspondence between vocalizations and the associated facial postures and gain behavioral benefits from them. Some monkey vocalizations even have a speech-like acoustic rhythmicity, yet they lack the concomitant rhythmic facial motion that speech exhibits. We review data showing that facial expressions like lip-smacking may be an ancestral expression that was later linked to vocal output in order to produce rhythmic audiovisual speech. Finally, we argue that human vocal cooperation (turn-taking) may have arisen through a combination of volubility and prosociality, and provide comparative evidence from one species to support this hypothesis. PMID:25048821

  4. Speech for People with Tracheostomies or Ventilators

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventilator users may sound different. Because of the design of the ventilator, speech occurs when air is ... pathologists (SLPs) The SLP will evaluate the person's thinking and language skills, oral-motor and swallowing functioning, ...

  5. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Does Your Child Hear and Talk ? and Literacy and Communication: Expectations From Kindergarten Through Fifth Grade . ... sounds. Some speech sound errors can result from physical problems, such as: developmental disorders (e.g.,autism) ...

  6. Managing to Speak by Managing the Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Lyle

    1988-01-01

    The essence of giving a good speech is to view it as a managerial problem/opportunity and apply the four management functions to resolve it. These four functions are (1) planning; (2) organizing; (3) motivating; and (4) controlling. (JOW)

  7. Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, M G; Marslen-Wilson, W D

    1998-04-01

    Cross-modal priming experiments have shown that surface variations in speech are perceptually tolerated as long as they occur in phonologically viable contexts. For example, [symbol: see text] (frayp) gains access to the mental representation of freight when in the context of [symbol: see text] (frayp bearer) because the change occurs in normal speech as a process of place assimilation. The locus of these effects in the perceptual system was examined. Sentences containing surface changes were created that either agreed with or violated assimilation rules. The lexical status of the assimilated word also was manipulated, contrasting lexical and nonlexical accounts. Two phoneme monitoring experiments showed strong effects of phonological viability for words, with weaker effects for nonwords. It is argued that the listener's percept of the form of speech is a product of a phonological inference process that recovers the underlying form of speech. This process can operate on both words and nonwords, although it interacts with the retrieval of lexical information.

  8. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    PubMed

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong. PMID:23637438

  9. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    PubMed

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  10. Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Baart, Martijn; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were modulated by phonetic audiovisual congruency. In order to disentangle speech-specific (phonetic) integration from non-speech integration, we used Sine-Wave Speech (SWS) that was perceived as speech by half of the participants (they were in speech-mode), while the other half was in non-speech mode. Results showed that the N1 obtained with audiovisual stimuli peaked earlier than the N1 evoked by auditory-only stimuli. This lip-read induced speeding up of the N1 occurred for listeners in speech and non-speech mode. In contrast, if listeners were in speech-mode, lip-read speech also modulated the auditory P2, but not if listeners were in non-speech mode, thus revealing speech-specific audiovisual binding. Comparing ERPs for phonetically congruent audiovisual stimuli with ERPs for incongruent stimuli revealed an effect of phonetic stimulus congruency that started at ~200 ms after (in)congruence became apparent. Critically, akin to the P2 suppression, congruency effects were only observed if listeners were in speech mode, and not if they were in non-speech mode. Using identical stimuli, we thus confirm that audiovisual binding involves (partially) different neural mechanisms for sound processing in speech and non-speech mode.

  11. Development of the Cantonese speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lena L N; Ho, Amy H S; Chua, Elizabeth W W; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2007-04-01

    A Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) for the sentences in the Cantonese version of the Hearing In Noise Test (CHINT) was derived using conventional procedures described previously in studies such as Studebaker and Sherbecoe [J. Speech Hear. Res. 34, 427-438 (1991)]. Two studies were conducted to determine the signal-to-noise ratios and high- and low-pass filtering conditions that should be used and to measure speech intelligibility in these conditions. Normal hearing subjects listened to the sentences presented in speech-spectrum shaped noise. Compared to other English speech assessment materials such as the English Hearing In Noise Test [Nilsson et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1085-1099 (1994)], the frequency importance function of the CHINT suggests that low-frequency information is more important for Cantonese speech understanding. The difference in ,frequency importance weight in Chinese, compared to English, was attributed to the redundancy of test material, tonal nature of the Cantonese language, or a combination of these factors.

  12. Voice modulations in German ironic speech.

    PubMed

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech,and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German 'ironic criticism' that may possibly act as irony cues by comparing acoustic measures of ironic and literal speech. For this purpose, samples of scripted ironic and literal target utterances produced by 14 female speakers were recorded and acoustically analyzed. Results showed that in contrast to literal remarks, ironic criticism was characterized by a decreased mean fundamental frequency (F0), raised energy levels and increased vowel duration, whereas F0-contours differed only marginally between both speech types. Furthermore, we found ironic speech to be characterized by vowel hyperarticulation,an acoustic feature which has so far not been considered as a possible irony cue. Contrary to our expectations, voice modulations in ironic speech were applied independently from the availability of additional, visual irony cues.The results are discussed in light of previous findings on acoustic features of irony yielded for other languages.

  13. Effects of human fatigue on speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamoulis, Catherine

    2001-05-01

    Cognitive performance may be significantly affected by fatigue. In the case of critical personnel, such as pilots, monitoring human fatigue is essential to ensure safety and success of a given operation. One of the modalities that may be used for this purpose is speech, which is sensitive to respiratory changes and increased muscle tension of vocal cords, induced by fatigue. Age, gender, vocal tract length, physical and emotional state may significantly alter speech intensity, duration, rhythm, and spectral characteristics. In addition to changes in speech rhythm, fatigue may also affect the quality of speech, such as articulation. In a noisy environment, detecting fatigue-related changes in speech signals, particularly subtle changes at the onset of fatigue, may be difficult. Therefore, in a performance-monitoring system, speech parameters which are significantly affected by fatigue need to be identified and extracted from input signals. For this purpose, a series of experiments was performed under slowly varying cognitive load conditions and at different times of the day. The results of the data analysis are presented here.

  14. Processing of fast speech by elderly listeners.

    PubMed

    Janse, Esther

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the relative contributions of auditory and cognitive factors to the common finding that an increase in speech rate affects elderly listeners more than young listeners. Since a direct relation between non-auditory factors, such as age-related cognitive slowing, and fast speech performance has been difficult to demonstrate, the present study took an on-line, rather than off-line, approach and focused on processing time. Elderly and young listeners were presented with speech at two rates of time compression and were asked to detect pre-assigned target words as quickly as possible. A number of auditory and cognitive measures were entered in a statistical model as predictors of elderly participants' fast speech performance: hearing acuity, an information processing rate measure, and two measures of reading speed. The results showed that hearing loss played a primary role in explaining elderly listeners' increased difficulty with fast speech. However, non-auditory factors such as reading speed and the extent to which participants were affected by increased rate of presentation in a visual analog of the listening experiment also predicted fast speech performance differences among the elderly participants. These on-line results confirm that slowed information processing is indeed part of elderly listeners' problem keeping up with fast language.

  15. Speech and Speech-Related Quality of Life After Late Palate Repair: A Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schönmeyr, Björn; Wendby, Lisa; Sharma, Mitali; Jacobson, Lia; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with cleft palate deformities worldwide receive treatment at a later age than is recommended for normal speech to develop. The outcomes after late palate repairs in terms of speech and quality of life (QOL) still remain largely unstudied. In the current study, questionnaires were used to assess the patients' perception of speech and QOL before and after primary palate repair. All of the patients were operated at a cleft center in northeast India and had a cleft palate with a normal lip or with a cleft lip that had been previously repaired. A total of 134 patients (7-35 years) were interviewed preoperatively and 46 patients (7-32 years) were assessed in the postoperative survey. The survey showed that scores based on the speech handicap index, concerning speech and speech-related QOL, did not improve postoperatively. In fact, the questionnaires indicated that the speech became more unpredictable (P < 0.01) and that nasal regurgitation became worse (P < 0.01) for some patients after surgery. A total of 78% of the patients were still satisfied with the surgery and all of the patients reported that their self-confidence had improved after the operation. Thus, the majority of interviewed patients who underwent late primary palate repair were satisfied with the surgery. At the same time, speech and speech-related QOL did not improve according to the speech handicap index-based survey. Speech predictability may even become worse and nasal regurgitation may increase after late palate repair, according to these results.

  16. Foundational tuning: how infants' attention to speech predicts language development.

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Curtin, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Orienting biases for speech may provide a foundation for language development. Although human infants show a bias for listening to speech from birth, the relation of a speech bias to later language development has not been established. Here, we examine whether infants' attention to speech directly predicts expressive vocabulary. Infants listened to speech or non-speech in a preferential listening procedure. Results show that infants' attention to speech at 12 months significantly predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months, while indices of general development did not. No predictive relationships were found for infants' attention to non-speech, or overall attention to sounds, suggesting that the relationship between speech and expressive vocabulary was not a function of infants' general attentiveness. Potentially ancient evolutionary perceptual capacities such as biases for conspecific vocalizations may provide a foundation for proficiency in formal systems such language, much like the approximate number sense may provide a foundation for formal mathematics.

  17. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    According to a traditional view, speech perception and production are processed largely separately in sensory and motor brain areas. Recent psycholinguistic and neuroimaging studies provide novel evidence that the sensory and motor systems dynamically interact in speech processing, by demonstrating that speech perception and imitation share regional brain activations. However, the exact nature and mechanisms of these sensorimotor interactions are not completely understood yet. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has often been used in the cognitive neurosciences, including speech research, as a complementary technique to behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Here we provide an up-to-date review focusing on TMS studies that explored speech perception and imitation. Single-pulse TMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) demonstrated a speech specific and somatotopically specific increase of excitability of the M1 lip area during speech perception (listening to speech or lip reading). A paired-coil TMS approach showed increases in effective connectivity from brain regions that are involved in speech processing to the M1 lip area when listening to speech. TMS in virtual lesion mode applied to speech processing areas modulated performance of phonological recognition and imitation of perceived speech. In summary, TMS is an innovative tool to investigate processing of speech perception and imitation. TMS studies have provided strong evidence that the sensory system is critically involved in mapping sensory input onto motor output and that the motor system plays an important role in speech perception.

  18. Motor movement matters: the flexible abstractness of inner speech.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Gary M; Dell, Gary S

    2010-12-01

    Inner speech is typically characterized as either the activation of abstract linguistic representations or a detailed articulatory simulation that lacks only the production of sound. We present a study of the speech errors that occur during the inner recitation of tongue-twister-like phrases. Two forms of inner speech were tested: inner speech without articulatory movements and articulated (mouthed) inner speech. Although mouthing one's inner speech could reasonably be assumed to require more articulatory planning, prominent theories assume that such planning should not affect the experience of inner speech and, consequently, the errors that are "heard" during its production. The errors occurring in articulated inner speech exhibited the phonemic similarity effect and the lexical bias effect--two speech-error phenomena that, in overt speech, have been localized to an articulatory-feature-processing level and a lexical-phonological level, respectively. In contrast, errors in unarticulated inner speech did not exhibit the phonemic similarity effect--just the lexical bias effect. The results are interpreted as support for a flexible abstraction account of inner speech. This conclusion has ramifications for the embodiment of language and speech and for the theories of speech production. PMID:21156877

  19. Robust cortical encoding of slow temporal modulations of speech.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the neural representation of speech in complex listening environments. Subjects listened to a narrated story, masked by either another speech stream or by stationary noise. Neural recordings were made using magnetoencephalography (MEG), which can measure cortical activity synchronized to the temporal envelope of speech. When two speech streams are presented simultaneously, cortical activity is predominantly synchronized to the speech stream the listener attends to, even if the unattended, competing-speech stream is more intense (up to 8 dB). When speech is presented together with spectrally matched stationary noise, cortical activity remains precisely synchronized to the temporal envelope of speech until the noise is 9 dB more intense. Critically, the precision of the neural synchronization to speech predicts subjectively rated speech intelligibility in noise. Further analysis reveals that it is longer-latency (∼100 ms) neural responses, but not shorter-latency (∼50 ms) neural responses, that show selectivity to the attended speech and invariance to background noise. This indicates a processing transition, from encoding the acoustic scene to encoding the behaviorally important auditory object, in auditory cortex. In sum, it is demonstrated that neural synchronization to the speech envelope is robust to acoustic interference, whether speech or noise, and therefore provides a strong candidate for the neural basis of acoustic-background invariant speech recognition. PMID:23716243

  20. Systematic Studies of Modified Vocalization: The Effect of Speech Rate on Speech Production Measures during Metronome-Paced Speech in Persons Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metronome-paced speech results in the elimination, or substantial reduction, of stuttering moments. The cause of fluency during this fluency-inducing condition is unknown. Several investigations have reported changes in speech pattern characteristics from a control condition to a metronome-paced speech condition, but failure to control…

  1. The Role of Supralexical Prosodic Units in Speech Production: Evidence from the Distribution of Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Wook Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The current dissertation represents one of the first systematic studies of the distribution of speech errors within supralexical prosodic units. Four experiments were conducted to gain insight into the specific role of these units in speech planning and production. The first experiment focused on errors in adult English. These were found to be…

  2. The Use of Interpreters by Speech-Language Pathologists Conducting Bilingual Speech-Language Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, Carol Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…

  3. Racist-Sexist-Hate Speech on College Campuses: Free Speech v. Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahn, Karon L.

    On college campuses today, the debate rages over whether self-restraint and tolerance for nonconformity is overriding a need to protect certain individuals and groups from objectionable speech. Some administrators, students, and alumni wish to prevent "bad speech" in the form of expressions of racism, sexism, and the like. Advocates for limiting…

  4. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2009: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a wide, detailed survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech, freedom of…

  5. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  6. Implementing Speech Supplementation Strategies: Effects on Intelligibility and Speech Rate of Individuals with Chronic Severe Dysarthria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Jones, Tabitha; Dailey, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    A study compared intelligibility and speech rate differences following speaker implementation of 3 strategies (topic, alphabet, and combined topic and alphabet supplementation) and a habitual speech control condition for 5 speakers with severe dysarthria. Combined cues and alphabet cues yielded significantly higher intelligibility scores and…

  7. Audiovisual Temporal Recalibration for Speech in Synchrony Perception and Speech Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Imai, Hisato

    We investigated whether audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could change after observation of the audiovisual temporal mismatch. Previous studies have revealed that audiovisual synchrony perception is re-calibrated after exposure to a constant timing difference between auditory and visual signals in non-speech. In the present study, we examined whether this audiovisual temporal recalibration occurs at the perceptual level even for speech (monosyllables). In Experiment 1, participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task (i.e., a direct measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) in terms of the speech signal after observation of the speech stimuli which had a constant audiovisual lag. The results showed that the “simultaneous” responses (i.e., proportion of responses for which participants judged the auditory and visual stimuli to be synchronous) at least partly depended on exposure lag. In Experiment 2, we adopted the McGurk identification task (i.e., an indirect measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) to exclude the possibility that this modulation of synchrony perception was solely attributable to the response strategy using stimuli identical to those of Experiment 1. The characteristics of the McGurk effect reported by participants depended on exposure lag. Thus, it was shown that audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could be modulated following exposure to constant lag both in direct and indirect measurement. Our results suggest that temporal recalibration occurs not only in non-speech signals but also in monosyllabic speech at the perceptual level.

  8. Between-Word Simplification Patterns in the Continuous Speech of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Harriet B.; Liu-Shea, May

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify and describe between-word simplification patterns in the continuous speech of children with speech sound disorders. It was hypothesized that word combinations would reveal phonological changes that were unobserved with single words, possibly accounting for discrepancies between the intelligibility of…

  9. Neural bases of childhood speech disorders: lateralization and plasticity for speech functions during development.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique J; Morgan, Angela T

    2012-01-01

    Current models of speech production in adults emphasize the crucial role played by the left perisylvian cortex, primary and pre-motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum for normal speech production. Whether similar brain-behaviour relationships and leftward cortical dominance are found in childhood remains unclear. Here we reviewed recent evidence linking motor speech disorders (apraxia of speech and dysarthria) and brain abnormalities in children and adolescents with developmental, progressive, or childhood-acquired conditions. We found no evidence that unilateral damage can result in apraxia of speech, or that left hemisphere lesions are more likely to result in dysarthria than lesion to the right. The few studies reporting on childhood apraxia of speech converged towards morphological, structural, metabolic or epileptic anomalies affecting the basal ganglia, perisylvian and rolandic cortices bilaterally. Persistent dysarthria, similarly, was commonly reported in individuals with syndromes and conditions affecting these same structures bilaterally. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence that longterm and severe childhood speech disorders result predominantly from bilateral disruption of the neural networks involved in speech production.

  10. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  11. Speech Intelligibility and Accents in Speech-Mediated Interfaces: Results and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Halcyon M.

    2013-01-01

    There continues to be significant growth in the development and use of speech--mediated devices and technology products; however, there is no evidence that non-native English speech is used in these devices, despite the fact that English is now spoken by more non-native speakers than native speakers, worldwide. This relative absence of nonnative…

  12. Enhancing Speech Intelligibility: Interactions among Context, Modality, Speech Style, and Masker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Phelps, Jasmine E. B.; Smiljanic, Rajka; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to investigate interactions among intelligibility-enhancing speech cues (i.e., semantic context, clearly produced speech, and visual information) across a range of masking conditions. Method: Sentence recognition in noise was assessed for 29 normal-hearing listeners. Testing included semantically normal and anomalous…

  13. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2010: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…

  14. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  15. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  16. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  17. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  18. A Motor Speech Assessment for Children with Severe Speech Disorders: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Edythe A.; McCauley, Rebecca J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Stoeckel, Ruth E.; Baas, Becky S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors report reliability and validity evidence for the Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS), a new test that uses dynamic assessment to aid in the differential diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Participants were 81 children between 36 and 79 months of age who were referred to the…

  19. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2011: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and accompanying report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…

  20. Autonomic and Emotional Responses of Graduate Student Clinicians in Speech-Language Pathology to Stuttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…

  1. Plasticity in the human speech motor system drives changes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M; Ostry, David J

    2014-07-30

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds.

  2. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support.

  3. The logic of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  4. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  5. Speech research: Studies on the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, A. M.

    1982-03-01

    This report is one of a regular series on the status and progress of studies on the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation and practical applications. Manuscripts cover the following topics: Speech perception and memory coding in relation to reading ability; The use of orthographic structure by deaf adults: Recognition of finger-spelled letters; Exploring the information support for speech; The stream of speech; Using the acoustic signal to make inferences about place and duration of tongue-palate contact. Patterns of human interlimb coordination emerge from the the properties of nonlinear limit cycle oscillatory processes: Theory and data; Motor control: Which themes do we orchestrate? Exploring the nature of motor control in Down's syndrome; Periodicity and auditory memory: A pilot study; Reading skill and language skill: On the role of sign order and morphological structure in memory for American Sign Language sentences; Perception of nasal consonants with special reference to Catalan; and Speech production Characteristics of the hearing impaired.

  6. Listen up! Speech is for thinking during infancy.

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-12-01

    Infants' exposure to human speech within the first year promotes more than speech processing and language acquisition: new developmental evidence suggests that listening to speech shapes infants' fundamental cognitive and social capacities. Speech streamlines infants' learning, promotes the formation of object categories, signals communicative partners, highlights information in social interactions, and offers insight into the minds of others. These results, which challenge the claim that for infants, speech offers no special cognitive advantages, suggest a new synthesis. Far earlier than researchers had imagined, an intimate and powerful connection between human speech and cognition guides infant development, advancing infants' acquisition of fundamental psychological processes.

  7. Speech processing based on short-time Fourier analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Portnoff, M.R.

    1981-06-02

    Short-time Fourier analysis (STFA) is a mathematical technique that represents nonstationary signals, such as speech, music, and seismic signals in terms of time-varying spectra. This representation provides a formalism for such intuitive notions as time-varying frequency components and pitch contours. Consequently, STFA is useful for speech analysis and speech processing. This paper shows that STFA provides a convenient technique for estimating and modifying certain perceptual parameters of speech. As an example of an application of STFA of speech, the problem of time-compression or expansion of speech, while preserving pitch and time-varying frequency content is presented.

  8. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input.

  9. Relationship between listeners' nonnative speech recognition and categorization abilities

    PubMed Central

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the perceptual encoding of talker characteristics (indexical information) in speech can facilitate listeners' recognition of linguistic content. The present study explored this indexical-linguistic relationship in nonnative speech processing by examining listeners' performance on two tasks: nonnative accent categorization and nonnative speech-in-noise recognition. Results indicated substantial variability across listeners in their performance on both the accent categorization and nonnative speech recognition tasks. Moreover, listeners' accent categorization performance correlated with their nonnative speech-in-noise recognition performance. These results suggest that having more robust indexical representations for nonnative accents may allow listeners to more accurately recognize the linguistic content of nonnative speech. PMID:25618098

  10. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  11. Speech evaluation in children with temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    PIZOLATO, Raquel Aparecida; FERNANDES, Frederico Silva de Freitas; GAVIÃO, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) on speech in children, and to verify the influence of occlusal characteristics. Material and methods Speech and dental occlusal characteristics were assessed in 152 Brazilian children (78 boys and 74 girls), aged 8 to 12 (mean age 10.05 ± 1.39 years) with or without TMD signs and symptoms. The clinical signs were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) (axis I) and the symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. The following groups were formed: Group TMD (n=40), TMD signs and symptoms (Group S and S, n=68), TMD signs or symptoms (Group S or S, n=33), and without signs and symptoms (Group N, n=11). Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed during spontaneous speech and repetition of the words using the "Phonological Assessment of Child Speech" for the Portuguese language. It was also applied a list of 40 phonological balanced words, read by the speech pathologist and repeated by the children. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact or Chi-square tests (α=0.05). Results A slight prevalence of articulatory disturbances, such as substitutions, omissions and distortions of the sibilants /s/ and /z/, and no deviations in jaw lateral movements were observed. Reduction of vertical amplitude was found in 10 children, the prevalence being greater in TMD signs and symptoms children than in the normal children. The tongue protrusion in phonemes /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/ and frontal lips in phonemes /s/ and /z/ were the most prevalent visual alterations. There was a high percentage of dental occlusal alterations. Conclusions There was no association between TMD and speech disorders. Occlusal alterations may be factors of influence, allowing distortions and frontal lisp in phonemes /s/ and /z/ and inadequate tongue position in phonemes /t/; /d/; /n/; /l/. PMID:21986655

  12. Speech Pathology in Ancient India--A Review of Sanskrit Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savithri, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is a review of ancient Sanskrit literature for information on the origin and development of speech and language, speech production, normality of speech and language, and disorders of speech and language and their treatment. (DB)

  13. Intelligibility for Binaural Speech with Discarded Low-SNR Speech Components.

    PubMed

    Schoenmaker, Esther; van de Par, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Speech intelligibility in multitalker settings improves when the target speaker is spatially separated from the interfering speakers. A factor that may contribute to this improvement is the improved detectability of target-speech components due to binaural interaction in analogy to the Binaural Masking Level Difference (BMLD). This would allow listeners to hear target speech components within specific time-frequency intervals that have a negative SNR, similar to the improvement in the detectability of a tone in noise when these contain disparate interaural difference cues. To investigate whether these negative-SNR target-speech components indeed contribute to speech intelligibility, a stimulus manipulation was performed where all target components were removed when local SNRs were smaller than a certain criterion value. It can be expected that for sufficiently high criterion values target speech components will be removed that do contribute to speech intelligibility. For spatially separated speakers, assuming that a BMLD-like detection advantage contributes to intelligibility, degradation in intelligibility is expected already at criterion values below 0 dB SNR. However, for collocated speakers it is expected that higher criterion values can be applied without impairing speech intelligibility. Results show that degradation of intelligibility for separated speakers is only seen for criterion values of 0 dB and above, indicating a negligible contribution of a BMLD-like detection advantage in multitalker settings. These results show that the spatial benefit is related to a spatial separation of speech components at positive local SNRs rather than to a BMLD-like detection improvement for speech components at negative local SNRs. PMID:27080648

  14. Speech pattern hearing aids for the profoundly hearing impaired: speech perception and auditory abilities.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, A; Ball, V; Rosen, S; Moore, B C; Fourcin, A

    1992-04-01

    A family of prototype speech pattern hearing aids for the profoundly hearing impaired has been compared to amplification. These aids are designed to extract acoustic speech patterns that convey essential phonetic contrasts, and to match this information to residual receptive abilities. In the first study, the presentation of voice fundamental frequency information from a wearable SiVo (sinusoidal voice) aid was compared to amplification in 11 profoundly deafened adults. Intonation reception was often better, and never worse, with fundamental frequency information. Four subjects scored more highly in audio-visual consonant identification with fundamental frequency information, five performed better with amplified speech, and two performed similarly under these two conditions. Five of the 11 subjects continued use of the SiVo aid after the tests were complete. A second study examined a laboratory prototype compound speech pattern aid, which encoded voice fundamental frequency, amplitude envelope, and the presence of voiceless excitation. In five profoundly deafened adults, performance was better in consonant identification when additional speech patterns were present than with fundamental frequency alone; the main advantage was derived from amplitude information. In both consonant identification and connected discourse tracking, performance with appropriately matched compound speech pattern signals was better than with amplified speech in three subjects, and similar to performance with amplified speech in the other two. In nine subjects, frequency discrimination, gap detection, and frequency selectivity were measured, and were compared to speech receptive abilities with both amplification and fundamental frequency presentation. The subjects who showed the greatest advantage from fundamental frequency presentation showed the greatest average hearing losses, and the least degree of frequency selectivity. Compound speech pattern aids appear to be more effective for some

  15. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5–7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children’s ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation. PMID:24842067

  16. Automatic Speech Recognition from Neural Signals: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Herff, Christian; Schultz, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Speech interfaces have become widely accepted and are nowadays integrated in various real-life applications and devices. They have become a part of our daily life. However, speech interfaces presume the ability to produce intelligible speech, which might be impossible due to either loud environments, bothering bystanders or incapabilities to produce speech (i.e., patients suffering from locked-in syndrome). For these reasons it would be highly desirable to not speak but to simply envision oneself to say words or sentences. Interfaces based on imagined speech would enable fast and natural communication without the need for audible speech and would give a voice to otherwise mute people. This focused review analyzes the potential of different brain imaging techniques to recognize speech from neural signals by applying Automatic Speech Recognition technology. We argue that modalities based on metabolic processes, such as functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, are less suited for Automatic Speech Recognition from neural signals due to low temporal resolution but are very useful for the investigation of the underlying neural mechanisms involved in speech processes. In contrast, electrophysiologic activity is fast enough to capture speech processes and is therefor better suited for ASR. Our experimental results indicate the potential of these signals for speech recognition from neural data with a focus on invasively measured brain activity (electrocorticography). As a first example of Automatic Speech Recognition techniques used from neural signals, we discuss the Brain-to-text system. PMID:27729844

  17. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  18. Music and speech prosody: a common rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hausen, Maija; Torppa, Ritva; Salmela, Viljami R; Vainio, Martti; Särkämö, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of music and speech perception, known as amusia and aphasia, have traditionally been regarded as dissociated deficits based on studies of brain damaged patients. This has been taken as evidence that music and speech are perceived by largely separate and independent networks in the brain. However, recent studies of congenital amusia have broadened this view by showing that the deficit is associated with problems in perceiving speech prosody, especially intonation and emotional prosody. In the present study the association between the perception of music and speech prosody was investigated with healthy Finnish adults (n = 61) using an on-line music perception test including the Scale subtest of Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and Off-Beat and Out-of-key tasks as well as a prosodic verbal task that measures the perception of word stress. Regression analyses showed that there was a clear association between prosody perception and music perception, especially in the domain of rhythm perception. This association was evident after controlling for music education, age, pitch perception, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Pitch perception was significantly associated with music perception but not with prosody perception. The association between music perception and visuospatial perception (measured using analogous tasks) was less clear. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that there is a robust link between music and speech perception and that this link can be mediated by rhythmic cues (time and stress).

  19. Speech-induced modulation of interhemispheric inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kano, Tadashige; Kobayashi, Masahito; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of speech and mastication on interhemispheric inhibition between the right and left primary motor areas (M1s) by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interossei (FDIs) of each hand of 10 healthy right-handed subjects under 3 conditions: at rest (control), during mastication (non-verbal oral movement), and during speech (reading aloud). Test TMS was delivered following conditioning TMS of the contralateral M1 at various interstimulus intervals. Under all conditions, the MEPs in the left FDIs were significantly inhibited after conditioning of the left M1 (i.e. inhibition of the right M1 by TMS of the left hemisphere). In contrast, the left M1 was significantly inhibited by the right hemisphere only during the control and mastication tasks, but not speech task. These results suggest that speech may facilitate the activity of the dominant M1 via functional connectivity between the speech area and the left M1, or may modify the balance of interhemispheric interactions, by suppressing inhibition of the dominant hemisphere by the non-dominant hemisphere. Our findings show a novel aspect of interhemispheric dominance and may improve therapeutic strategies for recovery from stroke. PMID:23123786

  20. Speech reception thresholds in various interference conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Suzanne P.; Colburn, H. Steven

    2001-05-01

    Speech intelligibility is integral to human verbal communication; however, our understanding of the effects of competing noise, room reverberation, and frequency range restriction is incomplete. Using virtual stimuli, the dependence of intelligibility threshold levels on the extent of room reverberation, the relative locations of speech target and masking noise, and the available frequency content of the speech and the masking noise is explored. Speech-shaped masking noise and target sentences have three spectral conditions: wideband, high pass above 2-kHz, and low pass below 2-kHz. The 2-kHz cutoff was chosen to approximately bisect the range of frequencies most important in speech, and the high pass noise condition simulates high-frequency hearing loss. Reverberation conditions include a pseudo-anechoic case, a moderately reverberant ``classroom'' case, and a very reverberant ``bathroom'' case. Both binaural and monaural intelligibility are measured. Preliminary results show that source separation decreases thresholds, reverberation increases thresholds, and low frequency noise reverberates more in the rooms, contributing to increasing thresholds along with the effects of the upward spread of masking. The energetic effects of reverberation are explored. [Work supported by NIH DC00100.

  1. Auditory perception bias in speech imitation

    PubMed Central

    Postma-Nilsenová, Marie; Postma, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental study, we explored the role of auditory perception bias in vocal pitch imitation. Psychoacoustic tasks involving a missing fundamental indicate that some listeners are attuned to the relationship between all the higher harmonics present in the signal, which supports their perception of the fundamental frequency (the primary acoustic correlate of pitch). Other listeners focus on the lowest harmonic constituents of the complex sound signal which may hamper the perception of the fundamental. These two listener types are referred to as fundamental and spectral listeners, respectively. We hypothesized that the individual differences in speakers' capacity to imitate F0 found in earlier studies, may at least partly be due to the capacity to extract information about F0 from the speech signal. Participants' auditory perception bias was determined with a standard missing fundamental perceptual test. Subsequently, speech data were collected in a shadowing task with two conditions, one with a full speech signal and one with high-pass filtered speech above 300 Hz. The results showed that perception bias toward fundamental frequency was related to the degree of F0 imitation. The effect was stronger in the condition with high-pass filtered speech. The experimental outcomes suggest advantages for fundamental listeners in communicative situations where F0 imitation is used as a behavioral cue. Future research needs to determine to what extent auditory perception bias may be related to other individual properties known to improve imitation, such as phonetic talent. PMID:24204361

  2. Speech Production as State Feedback Control

    PubMed Central

    Houde, John F.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker's brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience has been the use of state feedback control (SFC) theory to explain the role of the CNS in motor control. SFC postulates that the CNS controls motor output by (1) estimating the current dynamic state of the thing (e.g., arm) being controlled, and (2) generating controls based on this estimated state. SFC has successfully predicted a great range of non-speech motor phenomena, but as yet has not received attention in the speech motor control community. Here, we review some of the key characteristics of speech motor control and what they say about the role of the CNS in the process. We then discuss prior efforts to model the role of CNS in speech motor control, and argue that these models have inherent limitations – limitations that are overcome by an SFC model of speech motor control which we describe. We conclude by discussing a plausible neural substrate of our model. PMID:22046152

  3. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  4. Music and speech prosody: a common rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Hausen, Maija; Torppa, Ritva; Salmela, Viljami R.; Vainio, Martti; Särkämö, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of music and speech perception, known as amusia and aphasia, have traditionally been regarded as dissociated deficits based on studies of brain damaged patients. This has been taken as evidence that music and speech are perceived by largely separate and independent networks in the brain. However, recent studies of congenital amusia have broadened this view by showing that the deficit is associated with problems in perceiving speech prosody, especially intonation and emotional prosody. In the present study the association between the perception of music and speech prosody was investigated with healthy Finnish adults (n = 61) using an on-line music perception test including the Scale subtest of Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and Off-Beat and Out-of-key tasks as well as a prosodic verbal task that measures the perception of word stress. Regression analyses showed that there was a clear association between prosody perception and music perception, especially in the domain of rhythm perception. This association was evident after controlling for music education, age, pitch perception, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Pitch perception was significantly associated with music perception but not with prosody perception. The association between music perception and visuospatial perception (measured using analogous tasks) was less clear. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that there is a robust link between music and speech perception and that this link can be mediated by rhythmic cues (time and stress). PMID:24032022

  5. Music and speech prosody: a common rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hausen, Maija; Torppa, Ritva; Salmela, Viljami R; Vainio, Martti; Särkämö, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of music and speech perception, known as amusia and aphasia, have traditionally been regarded as dissociated deficits based on studies of brain damaged patients. This has been taken as evidence that music and speech are perceived by largely separate and independent networks in the brain. However, recent studies of congenital amusia have broadened this view by showing that the deficit is associated with problems in perceiving speech prosody, especially intonation and emotional prosody. In the present study the association between the perception of music and speech prosody was investigated with healthy Finnish adults (n = 61) using an on-line music perception test including the Scale subtest of Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and Off-Beat and Out-of-key tasks as well as a prosodic verbal task that measures the perception of word stress. Regression analyses showed that there was a clear association between prosody perception and music perception, especially in the domain of rhythm perception. This association was evident after controlling for music education, age, pitch perception, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Pitch perception was significantly associated with music perception but not with prosody perception. The association between music perception and visuospatial perception (measured using analogous tasks) was less clear. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that there is a robust link between music and speech perception and that this link can be mediated by rhythmic cues (time and stress). PMID:24032022

  6. Perceptual characteristics of Parkinsonian speech: a comparison of the pharmacological effects of levodopa across speech and non-speech motor systems.

    PubMed

    Plowman-Prine, E K; Okun, M S; Sapienza, C M; Shrivastav, R; Fernandez, H H; Foote, K D; Ellis, C; Rodriguez, A D; Burkhead, L M; Rosenbek, J C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) define perceptual speech characteristics of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) across 35 speech dimensions adapted from Darley et al. [19] and grouped under six speech-sign clusters (respiration, phonation, resonance, articulation, prosody and rate); (2) examine the effects of levodopa on the 35 perceptual speech dimensions and speech-sign clusters; and (3) to compare the relative effectiveness of levodopa on global motor functioning vs. speech production. Sixteen patients with IPD read the 'Grandfather Passage' both 'on' and 'off' levodopa. Three blinded speech-language pathologists performed perceptual speech analyses using a seven-point scale. The diagnosis of IPD was made by a movement disorders fellowship trained neurologist who applied UK Brain bank criteria and administered the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Concordant with previous studies, the results of this experiment indicated that IPD disrupted multiple speech production subsystems, with prosody being the most severely affected domain. The perceptual dimensions that were most severely affected included: (1) sound imprecision; (2) mono-loudness; (3) mono-pitch; (4) reduced stress and (5) harsh voice. No significant differences were obtained between medicated states ('on'/'off') for any of the 35 individual speech dimensions and speech-sign clusters. Global motor function significantly improved following dopaminergic medications.

  7. When speech sounds like music.

    PubMed

    Falk, Simone; Rathcke, Tamara; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Repetition can boost memory and perception. However, repeating the same stimulus several times in immediate succession also induces intriguing perceptual transformations and illusions. Here, we investigate the Speech to Song Transformation (S2ST), a massed repetition effect in the auditory modality, which crosses the boundaries between language and music. In the S2ST, a phrase repeated several times shifts to being heard as sung. To better understand this unique cross-domain transformation, we examined the perceptual determinants of the S2ST, in particular the role of acoustics. In 2 Experiments, the effects of 2 pitch properties and 3 rhythmic properties on the probability and speed of occurrence of the transformation were examined. Results showed that both pitch and rhythmic properties are key features fostering the transformation. However, some properties proved to be more conducive to the S2ST than others. Stable tonal targets that allowed for the perception of a musical melody led more often and quickly to the S2ST than scalar intervals. Recurring durational contrasts arising from segmental grouping favoring a metrical interpretation of the stimulus also facilitated the S2ST. This was, however, not the case for a regular beat structure within and across repetitions. In addition, individual perceptual abilities allowed to predict the likelihood of the S2ST. Overall, the study demonstrated that repetition enables listeners to reinterpret specific prosodic features of spoken utterances in terms of musical structures. The findings underline a tight link between language and music, but they also reveal important differences in communicative functions of prosodic structure in the 2 domains. PMID:24911013

  8. When speech sounds like music.

    PubMed

    Falk, Simone; Rathcke, Tamara; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Repetition can boost memory and perception. However, repeating the same stimulus several times in immediate succession also induces intriguing perceptual transformations and illusions. Here, we investigate the Speech to Song Transformation (S2ST), a massed repetition effect in the auditory modality, which crosses the boundaries between language and music. In the S2ST, a phrase repeated several times shifts to being heard as sung. To better understand this unique cross-domain transformation, we examined the perceptual determinants of the S2ST, in particular the role of acoustics. In 2 Experiments, the effects of 2 pitch properties and 3 rhythmic properties on the probability and speed of occurrence of the transformation were examined. Results showed that both pitch and rhythmic properties are key features fostering the transformation. However, some properties proved to be more conducive to the S2ST than others. Stable tonal targets that allowed for the perception of a musical melody led more often and quickly to the S2ST than scalar intervals. Recurring durational contrasts arising from segmental grouping favoring a metrical interpretation of the stimulus also facilitated the S2ST. This was, however, not the case for a regular beat structure within and across repetitions. In addition, individual perceptual abilities allowed to predict the likelihood of the S2ST. Overall, the study demonstrated that repetition enables listeners to reinterpret specific prosodic features of spoken utterances in terms of musical structures. The findings underline a tight link between language and music, but they also reveal important differences in communicative functions of prosodic structure in the 2 domains.

  9. Tuned to the Signal: The Privileged Status of Speech for Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Werker, Janet F.

    2004-01-01

    Do young infants treat speech as a special signal, compared with structurally similar non-speech sounds? We presented 2- to 7-month-old infants with nonsense speech sounds and complex non-speech analogues. The non-speech analogues retain many of the spectral and temporal properties of the speech signal, including the pitch contour information…

  10. Electrophysiological Evidence for a Multisensory Speech-Specific Mode of Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; Vroomen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the interpretation of auditory stimuli as speech or non-speech affects audiovisual (AV) speech integration at the neural level. Perceptually ambiguous sine-wave replicas (SWS) of natural speech were presented to listeners who were either in "speech mode" or "non-speech mode". At the behavioral level, incongruent lipread…

  11. Review of Visual Speech Perception by Hearing and Hearing-Impaired People: Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Lynn; Hickson, Louise; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech perception is often considered specific to the auditory modality, despite convincing evidence that speech processing is bimodal. The theoretical and clinical roles of speech-reading for speech perception, however, have received little attention in speech-language therapy. Aims: The role of speech-read information for speech…

  12. Speaking to Read and Write: A Report on the Status of Speech Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of speech processing computers that are capable of speech-to-text translation (speech recognition) and text-to-speech production (speech translation) highlights five products currently available: Voice EM, Voice Report, MedTrans 200, Development System, and DragonDictate. Criteria the speech recognition systems must meet for use in the…

  13. Can you hear my age? Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age

    PubMed Central

    Skoog Waller, Sara; Eriksson, Mårten; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed. PMID:26236259

  14. Speech & Language Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Better Speech for Children with Down Syndrome Blueberry Shoes Productions. (2005) Try Reading Again: How to ... Did You Say? A Guide to Speech Intelligibility. Blueberry Shoes Productions. (2006) Resources New & Expectant Parents Where ...

  15. The role of the insula in speech and language processing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Anna; Duerden, Emma G; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-08-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies indicate that the insula mediates motor aspects of speech production, specifically, articulatory control. Although it has direct connections to Broca's area, the canonical speech production region, the insula is also broadly connected with other speech and language centres, and may play a role in coordinating higher-order cognitive aspects of speech and language production. The extent of the insula's involvement in speech and language processing was assessed using the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) method. Meta-analyses of 42 fMRI studies with healthy adults were performed, comparing insula activation during performance of language (expressive and receptive) and speech (production and perception) tasks. Both tasks activated bilateral anterior insulae. However, speech perception tasks preferentially activated the left dorsal mid-insula, whereas expressive language tasks activated left ventral mid-insula. Results suggest distinct regions of the mid-insula play different roles in speech and language processing.

  16. "Thoughts Concerning Education": John Locke On Teaching Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John E.

    1971-01-01

    Locke's suggestions for more effective speech instruction have gone largely unnoticed. Consequently, it is the purpose of this article to consider John Locke's criticisms, theory and specific methods of speech education. (Author)

  17. The role of the insula in speech and language processing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Anna; Duerden, Emma G.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies indicate that the insula mediates motor aspects of speech production, specifically, articulatory control. Although it has direct connections to Broca’s area, the canonical speech production region, the insula is also broadly connected with other speech and language centres, and may play a role in coordinating higher-order cognitive aspects of speech and language production. The extent of the insula’s involvement in speech and language processing was assessed using the Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) method. Meta-analyses of 42 fMRI studies with healthy adults were performed, comparing insula activation during performance of language (expressive and receptive) and speech (production and perception) tasks. Both tasks activated bilateral anterior insulae. However, speech perception tasks preferentially activated the left dorsal mid-insula, whereas expressive language tasks activated left ventral mid-insula. Results suggest distinct regions of the mid-insula play different roles in speech and language processing. PMID:25016092

  18. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  19. The Rate of Expanded Inner Speech During Spontaneous Sentence Productions.

    PubMed

    Netsell, Ronald; Kleinsasser, Steven; Daniel, Todd

    2016-10-01

    The rate of expanded inner speech and speech aloud was compared in 20 typical adults (3 males, 17 females; M age = 24 years, SD = 4). Participants generated and timed spontaneous sentences with both expanded inner speech and speech aloud following the instruction to say "the first thing that comes to mind." The rate of expanded inner speech was slightly, but significantly, faster than the rate of speech aloud. The findings supported the hypothesis that expanded inner speech was faster than speech aloud because of the time required to move the articulators in the latter. Physical measures of speaking rate are needed to validate self-timed measures. Limitations of the study and directions for research are discussed. PMID:27562695

  20. Overview of speech technology of the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the technology innovations necessary to accommodate the market need which is the driving force toward greater perceived computer intelligence. The author discusses aspects of both speech synthesis and speech recognition.

  1. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes.

  2. An integrated approach to improving noisy speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Serguei; Stolbov, Mikhail; Smirnova, Natalia; Khitrov, Mikhail

    2002-05-01

    For a number of practical purposes and tasks, experts have to decode speech recordings of very poor quality. A combination of techniques is proposed to improve intelligibility and quality of distorted speech messages and thus facilitate their comprehension. Along with the application of noise cancellation and speech signal enhancement techniques removing and/or reducing various kinds of distortions and interference (primarily unmasking and normalization in time and frequency fields), the approach incorporates optimal listener expert tactics based on selective listening, nonstandard binaural listening, accounting for short-term and long-term human ear adaptation to noisy speech, as well as some methods of speech signal enhancement to support speech decoding during listening. The approach integrating the suggested techniques ensures high-quality ultimate results and has successfully been applied by Speech Technology Center experts and by numerous other users, mainly forensic institutions, to perform noisy speech records decoding for courts, law enforcement and emergency services, accident investigation bodies, etc.

  3. The Role of Phonological Rules in Speech Understanding Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshika, Beatrice T.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents phonological rules describing systematic pronunciation variation in natural continuous speech. It is argued that a speech unders tanding system must explain such variation by incorporating phonological rules. Spectrographic findings are included. (C K)

  4. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  5. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  6. Parsing the phonological loop: activation timing in the dorsal speech stream determines accuracy in speech reproduction.

    PubMed

    Herman, Alexander B; Houde, John F; Vinogradov, Sophia; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2013-03-27

    Despite significant research and important clinical correlates, direct neural evidence for a phonological loop linking speech perception, short-term memory and production remains elusive. To investigate these processes, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from human subjects performing a variable-length syllable sequence reproduction task. The MEG sensor data were source localized using a time-frequency optimized spatially adaptive filter, and we examined the time courses of cortical oscillatory power and the correlations of oscillatory power with behavior between onset of the audio stimulus and the overt speech response. We found dissociations between time courses of behaviorally relevant activations in a network of regions falling primarily within the dorsal speech stream. In particular, verbal working memory load modulated high gamma power in both Sylvian-parietal-temporal and Broca's areas. The time courses of the correlations between high gamma power and subject performance clearly alternated between these two regions throughout the task. Our results provide the first evidence of a reverberating input-output buffer system in the dorsal stream underlying speech sensorimotor integration, consistent with recent phonological loop, competitive queuing, and speech-motor control models. These findings also shed new light on potential sources of speech dysfunction in aphasia and neuropsychiatric disorders, identifying anatomically and behaviorally dissociable activation time windows critical for successful speech reproduction. PMID:23536060

  7. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  8. Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness. PMID:27462497

  9. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  10. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. PMID:25646513

  11. Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Andrew J; Hickok, Gregory S; Holt, Lori L

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons, a class of neurons that respond when a monkey performs an action and also when the monkey observes others producing the same action, has promoted a renaissance for the Motor Theory (MT) of speech perception. This is because mirror neurons seem to accomplish the same kind of one to one mapping between perception and action that MT theorizes to be the basis of human speech communication. However, this seeming correspondence is superficial, and there are theoretical and empirical reasons to temper enthusiasm about the explanatory role mirror neurons might have for speech perception. In fact, rather than providing support for MT, mirror neurons are actually inconsistent with the central tenets of MT.

  12. An audiovisual database of English speech sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.; Nikjeh, Dee Adams

    2003-10-01

    A preliminary audiovisual database of English speech sounds has been developed for teaching purposes. This database contains all Standard English speech sounds produced in isolated words in word initial, word medial, and word final position, unless not allowed by English phonotactics. There is one example of each word spoken by a male and a female talker. The database consists of an audio recording, video of the face from a 45 deg angle off of center, and ultrasound video of the tongue in the mid-saggital plane. The files contained in the database are suitable for examination by the Wavesurfer freeware program in audio or video modes [Sjolander and Beskow, KTH Stockholm]. This database is intended as a multimedia reference for students in phonetics or speech science. A demonstration and plans for further development will be presented.

  13. Aeroacoustics production of fricative speech sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael; Gary, Settles

    2001-05-01

    The aeroacoustic production of fricative speech sounds is studied using schlieren imaging and acoustic measurements. The focus is the structure of the turbulent jets formed during fricative speech sound production, and how interaction of the jet with articulators affects the acoustic nature of the speech sound. Patterns of the jets formed during the articulation of both voiced and unvoiced fricatives (s and z) are shown using schlieren images. In particular, the interaction of the jet with articulators such as teeth and lips are clearly seen, and demonstrated by varying articulator positions. Pressure measurements were made in conjunction with the images using a microphone placed near the teeth and one in the farfield. The pressure measurements show the acoustic consequences of the various jet/articulator interactions, further clarifying which articulators are most important in determining the aeroacoustic source characteristics.

  14. Computer speech synthesis: its status and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M

    1995-01-01

    Computer speech synthesis has reached a high level of performance, with increasingly sophisticated models of linguistic structure, low error rates in text analysis, and high intelligibility in synthesis from phonemic input. Mass market applications are beginning to appear. However, the results are still not good enough for the ubiquitous application that such technology will eventually have. A number of alternative directions of current research aim at the ultimate goal of fully natural synthetic speech. One especially promising trend is the systematic optimization of large synthesis systems with respect to formal criteria of evaluation. Speech recognition has progressed rapidly in the past decade through such approaches, and it seems likely that their application in synthesis will produce similar improvements. PMID:7479804

  15. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing.

  16. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  17. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344

  18. The Natural Statistics of Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Trubanova, Andrea; Stillittano, Sébastien; Caplier, Alice; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, are exposed to a continuous stream of signals, which are dynamic, multimodal, extended, and time varying in nature. This complex input space must be transduced and sampled by our sensory systems and transmitted to the brain where it can guide the selection of appropriate actions. To simplify this process, it's been suggested that the brain exploits statistical regularities in the stimulus space. Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech. We do not understand what signals our brain has to actively piece together from an audiovisual speech stream to arrive at a percept versus what is already embedded in the signal structure of the stream itself. In essence, we do not have a clear understanding of the natural statistics of audiovisual speech. In the present study, we identified the following major statistical features of audiovisual speech. First, we observed robust correlations and close temporal correspondence between the area of the mouth opening and the acoustic envelope. Second, we found the strongest correlation between the area of the mouth opening and vocal tract resonances. Third, we observed that both area of the mouth opening and the voice envelope are temporally modulated in the 2–7 Hz frequency range. Finally, we show that the timing of mouth movements relative to the onset of the voice is consistently between 100 and 300 ms. We interpret these data in the context of recent neural theories of speech which suggest that speech communication is a reciprocally coupled, multisensory event, whereby the outputs of the signaler are matched to the neural processes of the receiver. PMID:19609344

  19. Speech recognition in advanced rotorcraft - Using speech controls to reduce manual control overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Bortolussi, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to ascertain the usefulness of helicopter pilot speech controls and their effect on time-sharing performance, under the impetus of multiple-resource theories of attention which predict that time-sharing should be more efficient with mixed manual and speech controls than with all-manual ones. The test simulation involved an advanced, single-pilot scout/attack helicopter. Performance and subjective workload levels obtained supported the claimed utility of speech recognition-based controls; specifically, time-sharing performance was improved while preparing a data-burst transmission of information during helicopter hover.

  20. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine. PMID:23461000