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Sample records for sperm fertilizing ability

  1. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  2. Are sperm DNA fragmentation, hyperactivation, and hyaluronan-binding ability predictive for fertilization and embryo development in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed

    Pregl Breznik, Barbara; Kovačič, Borut; Vlaisavljević, Veljko

    2013-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of the following sperm function tests in predicting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): hyaluronan-binding assay (HBA), DNA fragmentation (Halosperm), and hyperactivity. Prospective study. University medical center. 133 couples undergoing infertility treatment with IVF/ICSI. Analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation, hyaluronan-binding ability, and hyperactivation on washed semen samples used for the insemination of oocytes. Correlation between the results of sperm function tests and the fertilization rate (FR) or embryo quality (EQ) after IVF and ICSI. Comparison of the sperm DNA fragmentation, hyperactivation, and hyaluronan binding ability between cycles with less than 50% (group 1) and more than 50% (group 2) of oocytes fertilized after IVF. Both FR and EQ in IVF cycles negatively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between FR and hyaluronan-binding ability or induced hyperactivity. The semen samples from the IVF cycles with low FR (group 1) were characterized by statistically significantly higher sperm DNA fragmentation and lower hyaluronan-binding ability in comparison with semen samples from the group with high levels of fertilization (group 2). In ICSI cycles, no relationship was found between sperm function tests and FR or EQ. The Halosperm test, the HBA test, and induced hyperactivity are useful in predicting the ability of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes in IVF and are helpful in distinguishing semen samples suitable for IVF or ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto

    2012-10-15

    Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p < 0.05) than without egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p < 0.05). Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days.

  4. Motility and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm: Effect of post-thaw storage time and different sperm-to-egg ratios.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Karim; Shabani, Nariman; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Noori, Elnaz

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to test the effect of post-thaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of Caspian brown trout (n=7). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 100,000:1, 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of cryopreserved Caspian brown semen. Quality was assessed by measuring sperm motility parameters and fertilization rates at the eyed and hatching stages. The percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were not affected by 60 min of storage, whereas a decrease in straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) and linearity (LIN) were found in cryopreserved semen. Thus, the cryopreserved sperm of Caspian brown trout could be stored up to 60 min without loss of the percentage of sperm motility. The fertilization rate was not affected by 60 min of post-thaw storage and was over 70% for sperm-to-egg ratios of both 300,000 and 600,000:1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the high post-thaw fertilization ability of Caspian brown trout semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1. This procedure after scaling up can be recommended for routine Caspian brown trout sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cauda Epididymis-Specific Beta-Defensin 126 Promotes Sperm Motility but Not Fertilizing Ability in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fuertes, Beatriz; Narciandi, Fernando; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Kelly, Alan K; Fair, Sean; Meade, Kieran G; Lonergan, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and postacrosomal region of the sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm. This finding suggests that the protein behaves in a different manner in the bovine. The lack of success in removing BBD126 led us to use corpus epididymis sperm, a model in which the protein is not present, to study its functional role. Corpus sperm were incubated with cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) in the absence or presence of BBD126 antibody or with recombinant BBD126 (rBBD126). Confocal microscopy revealed that rBBD126 binds to corpus sperm with the same pattern observed for BBD126 in cauda sperm, whereas an aberrant binding pattern is observed when sperm are subject to CEF incubation. Addition of CEF increased motility as well as the number of corpus sperm migrating through cervical mucus from estrus cows. However, it decreased the ability of sperm to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The presence of the antibody failed to abrogate these effects. Furthermore, when rBBD126 was added in the absence of other factors and proteins from the CEF, an increase in motility was also observed and no negative effects in fertility were seen. These results suggest that BBD126 plays a key role in the acquisition of sperm motility in the epididymis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on cryopreserved epididymal cat sperm intracellular ATP concentration, sperm quality, and in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, Paweena; Arya, Nlin; Comizzoli, Pierre; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2015-09-15

    Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is essential for supporting sperm function in the fertilization process. During cryopreservation, damage of sperm mitochondrial membrane usually leads to compromised production of intracellular ATP. Recently, extracellular ATP (ATPe) was introduced as a potent activator of sperm motility and fertilizing ability. This study aimed to evaluate (1) levels of intracellular ATP in frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm after incubation with ATPe and (2) effects of ATPe on epididymal cat sperm parameters after freezing and thawing. Eighteen male cats were included. For each replicate, epididymal sperm from two cats were pooled to one sample (N = 9). Each pooled sample was cryopreserved with the Tris-egg yolk extender into three straws. After thawing, the first and second straws were incubated with 0-, 1.0-, or 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes and evaluated for sperm quality at 10 minutes, 1, 3, and 6 hours after thawing and fertilizing ability. The third straw was evaluated for intracellular ATP concentration in control and with 2.5-mM ATPe treatment. Higher concentration of intracellular sperm ATP was observed in the samples treated with 2.5-mM ATPe compared to the controls (0.339 ± 0.06 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm vs. 0.002 ± 0.003 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm, P ≤ 0.05). In addition, incubation with 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes promoted sperm motility (56.7 ± 5.0 vs. 53.3 ± 4.4%, P ≤ 0.05) and progressive motility (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P ≤ 0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (36.4 ± 5.5 vs. 28.7 ± 4.8%, P ≤ 0.05), and blastocyst rate (36.1 ± 7.0 and 28.8 ± 7.4%, P ≤ 0.05) compared with the controls. In contrast, ATPe remarkably interfered acrosome integrity after 6 hours of postthawed incubation. In sum, the present finding that optimal incubation time of postthaw epididymal cat sperm under proper ATPe condition might constitute a rationale for the studies on other endangered wild felids regarding sperm quality and embryo

  7. The addition of calcium ion chelator, EGTA to thawing solution improves fertilizing ability in frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Shuji; Teshima, Hisanori; Shimada, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    In our previous study, seminal plasma effectively suppressed the induction of sperm to capacitation-like status and acrosome loss during the thawing process. However, because boar seminal plasma is contaminated with various kinds of bacteria and/or viruses, it is necessary to develop a thawing solution without animal-derived materials. In this study, we focused on the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in sperm after thawing and the negative effects of sperm qualities. After thawing, the fluorescent intensity of [Ca(2+)](i) indicator, Fluo-3/AM, and the level of phosphorylated tyrosine residue of protein were increased in the sperm. Next, we investigated whether the addition of Ca(2+) chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA)) improved post-thawed sperm motility. When the frozen-thawed sperm were treated with 6 mmol/L EDTA + 6 mmol/L EGTA, sperm motility was significantly increased as compared with control (6 mmol/L EDTA alone) at all incubation periods (P < 0.05). The combinational treatment significantly suppressed the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) and the tyrosine phosphorylation, which improved the acrosomal status and fertilizing ability in vitro. Furthermore, when the thawing method was applied for artificial insemination, the fertilization rate was significantly higher than control (P < 0.05, 33% vs. 82%). Thus, we conclude that the addition of EDTA + EGTA to thawing solution is a beneficial tool for artificial insemination using frozen-thawed boar sperm. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Centrifugation on Percoll density gradient enhances motility, membrane integrity and in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Hikono, Hirokazu; Iwagami, Gentaro; Suzuki, Chie; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-01

    The effects of Percoll density gradient centrifugation on sperm quality, in vitro fertilizability and developmental capacity of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. Two-step density gradient centrifugation by Percoll enhanced significantly the motility parameters of sperm compared with a simple centrifugation procedure. Percentages of motile sperm and sperm with intact plasma and acrosome membranes after Percoll separation were significantly greater than those after simple centrifugation. The rates of penetration, cleavage and blastocyst formation after in vitro fertilization were significantly improved by Percoll separation compared with simple centrifugation and were influenced positively by the intactness of sperm head membranes, but not any sperm motility parameters. However, insemination with increased concentrations of sperm prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation did not improve the success of fertilization and embryo development in vitro. Our results indicate that the integrity of sperm head membranes after Percoll separation is important for successful embryo development in vitro, more so than sperm motility.

  9. Accessing the fertilizing potential of cryopreserved sperm by its ability to maintain quality in a glycerol-free medium.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B A; Acosta, V C; Jeyendran, R S

    1999-01-01

    Cryopreserved sperm is less fertile than fresh sperm; probably due to dependence of sperm to glycerol, a common cryoprotective agent. Few data suggest any correlations between standard semen analysis and fertility. To develop a reliable assay, the authors hypothesized that sperm that withstand the physiochemical stress induced by glycerol during cryopreservation may have higher fertility potential. They analyzed 55 cryopreserved semen samples for sperm concentration, percent motility and progressive motility after allowing thawed sperm to migrate into medium containing either 0 or 12% glycerol for 3 h. The smaller the difference in sperm quality between the two media, the higher the fertility potential of the spermatozoa. There was significant negative correlation between the difference in both percent sperm motility and percent progressive sperm motility in the two media and in vitro fertilization outcome. There was a significantly higher number of ejaculates fertilized oocytes at a rate of > or = 80% when the difference was 20% or less. This easy to use, inexpensive test may be an effective means to evaluate the potential performance of cryopreserved sperm to be utilized in assisted reproductive technologies.

  10. Prophase I Mouse Oocytes Are Deficient in the Ability to Respond to Fertilization by Decreasing Membrane Receptivity to Sperm and Establishing a Membrane Block to Polyspermy1

    PubMed Central

    Kryzak, Cassie A.; Moraine, Maia M.; Kyle, Diane D.; Lee, Hyo J.; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Robinson, Douglas N.; Evans, Janice P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Changes occurring as the prophase I oocyte matures to metaphase II are critical for the acquisition of competence for normal egg activation and early embryogenesis. A prophase I oocyte cannot respond to a fertilizing sperm as a metaphase II egg does, including the ability to prevent polyspermic fertilization. Studies here demonstrate that the competence for the membrane block to polyspermy is deficient in prophase I mouse oocytes. In vitro fertilization experiments using identical insemination conditions result in monospermy in 87% of zona pellucida (ZP)-free metaphase II eggs, while 92% of ZP-free prophase I oocytes have four or more fused sperm. The membrane block is associated with a postfertilization reduction in the capacity to support sperm binding, but this reduction in sperm-binding capacity is both less robust and slower to develop in fertilized prophase I oocytes. Fertilization of oocytes is dependent on the tetraspanin CD9, but little to no release of CD9 from the oocyte membrane is detected, suggesting that release of CD9-containing vesicles is not essential for fertilization. The deficiency in membrane block establishment in prophase I oocytes correlates with abnormalities in two postfertilization cytoskeletal changes: sperm-induced cortical remodeling that results in fertilization cone formation and a postfertilization increase in effective cortical tension. These data indicate that cortical maturation is a component of cytoplasmic maturation during the oocyte-to-egg transition and that the egg cortex has to be appropriately primed and tuned to be responsive to a fertilizing sperm. PMID:23863404

  11. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  12. Decoding mechanisms of loss of fertilization ability of cryopreserved mouse sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeffrey Earl

    Cryopreservation of mouse sperm is an important technology for management of biomedical research resources. Dramatic progress has been made recently in the development of protocols that combat mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF after cryopreservation. Equal emphasis, however, has not been placed on investigating the biological mechanisms underlying these improvements to IVF. This dissertation broadly investigates the basic question of how mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF occurs after cryopreservation, and how recently developed protocols prevent this process. My research investigated the effects of antioxidants, the cholesterol-acceptor CD, reduced calcium media, and TYH capacitation media on sperm function and oxidative stress after cryopreservation in a variety of mouse strains. I found that reduced IVF was associated with loss of capacitation-dependent sperm function in three strains, B6/J, B6/N, and 129X1, and CD improved sperm function and IVF in all three strains. These findings suggest that cryopreservation inhibits cholesterol efflux resulting in reduced IVF of many mouse strains. I also found that cryopreservation induces uniquely high production of mitochondrial H2O2 by B6/J sperm. H2O2 present in other cellular compartments of B6/J sperm was not elevated compared to other strains. High levels of mitochondrial H2O2 were associated with lipid peroxidation of the sperm head and inability to acrosome react. Antioxidants reduced mitochondrial H2O2 production, decreased sperm head lipid peroxidation, and improved acrosome reaction. The cryopreservation-induced increase in mitochondrial H2O2 production of B6/J and B6129XF1 sperm was associated with elevation of intracellular calcium after cryopreservation and dependent on mitochondrial metabolic substrates. Reducing intracellular calcium levels or removing mitochondrial metabolic substrates decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production and increased IVF rates of cryopreserved B6/J sperm. Many of the strains

  13. Kinetic analysis of decreased sperm fertilizing ability by fluorides and fluoroaluminates: a tool for analyzing the effect of environmental substances on biological events.

    PubMed

    Bosakova, Zuzana; Tockstein, Antonin; Adamusova, Hana; Coufal, Pavel; Sebkova, Natasa; Dvorakova-Hortova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Fluorides and fluoroaluminates decrease mouse sperm fertilizing potential by modifying the process of sperm preparation for fertilization, so-called capacitation, followed by acrosome reaction (AR). Capacitation was monitored by protein tyrosine phosphorylation (pTyr), and AR was induced consequently. The aim of this study was to apply kinetic analysis to the previously obtained dependences of pTyr and AR at capacitation times, and propose a mathematical theory for a mechanism when sperm maturation ability is amended by external stimuli. The experimental input data, previously obtained, are consistent with the proposed theory and the results of kinetic analysis show that sperm capacitation runs as two subsequent first-order steps. Firstly, an unstable intermediate is formed and then gradually decomposes. The time corresponding to the maximal production of the unstable intermediate is probably most suitable for sperm obtaining the ability to fertilize the egg. The presented calculations indicate that the application of kinetic analysis can serve as a tool to predict or confirm a course of biological events that are modified by external factors, and therefore the proposed theory shall be of interest to a broad scientific audience.

  14. Sperm-mediated gene transfer-treated spermatozoa maintain good quality parameters and in vitro fertilization ability in swine.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M L; Zannoni, A; De Cecco, M; Fantinati, P; Bernardini, C; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Giovannoni, R; Lavitrano, M; Seren, E; Forni, M

    2009-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for producing multitransgenic animals is required for medical and veterinary applications. Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is an effective method for introducing multiple genes into pigs (Sus, Sus scrofa). The major benefits of this technique are the high efficiency, low cost, and ease of use compared with that of other methods: Sperm-mediated gene transfer does not require embryo handling or expensive equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SMGT treatment and exogenous DNA uptake on sperm quality. Even after a coincubation with a 20-fold larger amount (100 microg/mL) of DNA than usual (5 microg/mL), sperm quality parameters were not significantly affected, confirming the hypothesis that the SMGT protocol itself or the amount of bound DNA do not compromise the possibility of an extended employment of SMGT. More importantly, we found that semen used for in vitro fertilization 24h after DNA uptake gave good cleavage (60% vs. 58%, treated vs. control) and developmental rates definitely positive (41% vs. 48%, treated vs. control). These good results are connected to a competitive efficiency of transformation (62%) due to the numerous improvements in SMGT technique. We demonstrate that SMGT-treated spermatozoa retain good quality and fertilization potential for at least 24h, expanding the possibility to apply transgenesis in field conditions in swine, where the greatest hurdles are fertilization timing and plain procedure.

  15. Sperm wars and the evolution of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2012-11-01

    Females frequently mate with several males, whose sperm then compete to fertilize available ova. Sperm competition represents a potent selective force that is expected to shape male expenditure on the ejaculate. Here, we review empirical data that illustrate the evolutionary consequences of sperm competition. Sperm competition favors the evolution of increased testes size and sperm production. In some species, males appear capable of adjusting the number of sperm ejaculated, depending on the perceived levels of sperm competition. Selection is also expected to act on sperm form and function, although the evidence for this remains equivocal. Comparative studies suggest that sperm length and swimming speed may increase in response to selection from sperm competition. However, the mechanisms driving this pattern remain unclear. Evidence that sperm length influences sperm swimming speed is mixed and fertilization trials performed across a broad range of species demonstrate inconsistent relationships between sperm form and function. This ambiguity may in part reflect the important role that seminal fluid proteins (sfps) play in affecting sperm function. There is good evidence that sfps are subject to selection from sperm competition, and recent work is pointing to an ability of males to adjust their seminal fluid chemistry in response to sperm competition from rival males. We argue that future research must consider sperm and seminal fluid components of the ejaculate as a functional unity. Research at the genomic level will identify the genes that ultimately control male fertility.

  16. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  17. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Neri, Queenie V; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

  18. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: sperm characteristics that limit success of fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flowers, W L

    2013-07-01

    Current industry estimates of reproductive performance for cattle, sheep, and swine operations indicate that males contribute significantly to fertility failures. This appears to be due to the use of subfertile individuals and emphasizes the need for additional research in identifying characteristics of sperm that compromise fertilization. In theory, sperm characteristics, such as motility or the percentage of normal sperm, form a positive relationship with fertility that reaches a certain maximal fertility (i.e., an asymptotic relationship). It is clear that variation exists among males in terms of how fertility responds to increasing sperm dosage or numbers of normal sperm, both in the slope of the curve and the point at which the fertility reaches a maximum. Variations along the linear portion of fertility curves are due to compensable traits that are involved with the ability of sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida. It appears that most fertility curves reach their plateau when 70% of sperm possess a given compensable trait. The level of fertility at which the plateau occurs is determined by noncompensable traits that are associated with binding of sperm to the oolemma, syngamy, and subsequent development of the zygote. Several studies have shown differences in fertility among males that have similar levels of compensable traits but differed in their noncompensable characteristics. Compensable and noncompensable traits can estimate either individual or functional characteristics of sperm. Intuitively, functional traits such as in vitro penetration should provide a better indication of fertilization than individual ones such as motility. However, correlations of both types with fertility are very similar. Reasons for this may be related to how characteristics of sperm cells are influenced by the female reproductive tract after insemination. Sperm capacitation is a functional trait in boars that is quite different in vitro versus in vivo. If this relationship

  19. Importance of sperm morphology during sperm transport and fertilization in mammals

    PubMed Central

    García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Gadea, Joaquín; Matás, Carmen; Holt, William V

    2016-01-01

    After natural or artificial insemination, the spermatozoon starts a journey from the site of deposition to the place of fertilization. However, only a small subset of the spermatozoa deposited achieves their goal: to reach and fertilize the egg. Factors involved in controlling sperm transport and fertilization include the female reproductive tract environment, cell-cell interactions, gene expression, and phenotypic sperm traits. Some of the significant determinants of fertilization are known (i.e., motility or DNA status), but many sperm traits are still indecipherable. One example is the influence of sperm dimensions and shape upon transport within the female genital tract towards the oocyte. Biophysical associations between sperm size and motility may influence the progression of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract, but uncertainties remain concerning how sperm morphology influences the fertilization process, and whether only the sperm dimensions per se are involved. Moreover, such explanations do not allow the possibility that the female tract is capable of distinguishing fertile spermatozoa on the basis of their morphology, as seems to be the case with biochemical, molecular, and genetic properties. This review focuses on the influence of sperm size and shape in evolution and their putative role in sperm transport and selection within the uterus and the ability to fertilize the oocyte. PMID:27624988

  20. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  1. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups of dimethyl sulfoxide (46.3 ± 3.3%) and 1,2 propanediol (44.3 ± 2.9%) when compared with control. Conventional freezing combined with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol best preserved sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing

  2. Sperm chemotaxis promotes individual fertilization success in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Yasmeen H; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive success fundamentally shapes an organism's ecology and evolution, and gamete traits mediate fertilization, which is a critical juncture in reproduction. Individual male fertilization success is dependent on the ability of sperm from one male to outcompete the sperm of other males when searching for a conspecific egg. Sperm chemotaxis, the ability of sperm to navigate towards eggs using chemical signals, has been studied for over a century, but such studies have long assumed that this phenomenon improves individual male fitness without explicit evidence to support this claim. Here, we assessed fertilization changes in the presence of a chemoattractant-digesting peptidase and used a microfluidic device coupled with a fertilization assay to determine the effect of sperm chemotaxis on individual male fertilization success in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus We show that removing chemoattractant from the gametic environment decreases fertilization success. We further found that individual male differences in chemotaxis to a well-defined gradient of attractant correlate with individual male differences in fertilization success. These results demonstrate that sperm chemotaxis is an important contributor to individual reproductive success. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants — and might help improve sperm health. Prevent sexually ... Moderate physical activity can increase levels of powerful antioxidant enzymes, which can help protect sperm. Sperm can ...

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertilizing ability of sperm and subsequent embryonic development in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fertilization and development of the preimplantation embryo is under genetic control. The goal of the current study was to test 434 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with genetic variation in fertilization and early embryonic development. The approach was to produce embryos from...

  5. Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, Fatih; İnanan, Burak Evren; Kutluyer, Filiz; Kayim, Murathan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cysteine on postthaw sperm motility, duration of sperm motility, DNA damage, and fertility in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm collected from 10 individuals was cryopreserved in extenders containing different cysteine concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mM). Semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the semen was aspirated into 0.25-mL straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay after cryopreservation. Our results indicated that an increase in the concentration of cysteine caused a significant increase in the motility rate and duration of sperm in the common carp (C carpio; P < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of cysteine, the best concentration of cysteine was 20 mM. Higher postthaw motility (76.00 ± 1.00%) and fertilization (97.00 ± 1.73%) rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 20 mM. Supplementation of the extender with cysteine was increased the fertilization and hatching rate and decreased DNA damage. Consequently, cysteine affected the motility, fertilization, and DNA damage positively, and extenders could be supplemented with cysteine.

  6. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  7. Sperm Proteomics: Road to Male Fertility and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub

    2013-01-01

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that can be easily obtained and purified. Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally and translationally inactive and incapable of protein synthesis. In addition, spermatozoa contain relatively higher amounts of membrane proteins compared to other cells; therefore, they are very suitable for proteomic studies. Recently, the application of proteomic approaches such as the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential in-gel electrophoresis has identified several sperm-specific proteins. These findings have provided a further understanding of protein functions involved in different sperm processes as well as of the differentiation of normal state from an abnormal one. In addition, studies on the sperm proteome have demonstrated the importance of spermatozoal posttranslational modifications and their ability to induce physiological changes responsible for fertilization. Large-scale proteomic studies to identify hundreds to thousands of sperm proteins will ultimately result in the development of novel biomarkers that may help to detect fertility, the state of complete contraception, and beyond. Eventually, these protein biomarkers will allow for a better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions and aid in drug development. This paper reviews the recent scientific publications available from the PubMed database to address sperm proteomics and its potential application to characterize male fertility and contraception. PMID:24363670

  8. Effects of mechanical stresses on sperm function and fertilization rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Qiu, Zhuo Lin; Li, Ke; Li, Liu; Chan, Carol Pui Shan; Chan, Si Mei; Li, Tian-Chiu; Quan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether any of the observed changes in mouse sperm function tests secondary to mechanical stresses (centrifugation and pipetting) correlate with sperm fertilization ability. Chinese Kunming mice were used as sperm and oocyte donors. Sperm samples were allocated evenly into centrifugation, pipette, and control groups. Sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), baseline and stimulated intracellular ROS, and sperm fertilization ability were measured by hypo-osmotic swelling, flow cytometry, and fertilization tests. Parallel studies were conducted and all tests were repeated six times. Our results showed that after centrifugation, the progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility and PMI decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the MMP level decreased significantly in viable sperm when the centrifugation condition reached 1,400 g × 15 minutes (p < 0.05). When pipetting was performed two or more times, progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05); when it was performed four or more times, sperm membrane integrity and intracellular basal ROS level of viable sperm was also significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, various mechanical stresses seem to affect sperm function, however this does not appear to alter fertilization rate. Laboratory handling steps should be minimized to avoid unnecessary mechanical stresses being applied to sperm samples.

  9. Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determine the effect of sperm total length on fertilization success. Sperm competition experiments, in which pairs of males whose sperm differed only in length and swimming speed, revealed that males producing long sperm were more successful in terms of (i) the number of sperm reaching the ova and (ii) fertilizing those ova. Our results reveal that although sperm length is the main factor determining the outcome of sperm competition, complex interactions between male and female reproductive traits may also be important. The mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood, but we suggest that differences in sperm storage and utilization by females may contribute to the outcome of sperm competition. PMID:25621327

  10. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of freshwater fish sperm (~150 seconds), with the longevities of both marine and freshwater fish being significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of anuran sperm (~4100 seconds). The average velocity of anuran sperm (25 μm/s) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of marine fish (140 μm/s) or freshwater fish (135 μm/s) sperm. The longevity of the sperm of giant salamanders (Cryptobranchoidea) of approximately 600 seconds was greater than that of freshwater fish sperm but much lower than anuran sperm. Our research and information from the literature showed that higher osmolarities promote greater longevity in anuran sperm, and some freshwater fish sperm, and that anuran and cryptobranchid sperm maintained membrane integrity long after the cessation of motility, demonstrating a preferential sharing of energy reserves toward the maintenance of membrane integrity. The maintenance of the membrane integrity of anuran sperm in fresh water for up to 6 hours showed an extremely high osmotic tolerance relative to fish sperm. The very high longevity and osmotic tolerance of anuran sperm and high longevity of cryptobranchid sperm, relative to those of freshwater fish, may reflect the complex fertilization history of amphibian sperm in

  11. Sperm and Oocyte Communication Mechanisms Controlling C. elegans Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Min; Cottee, Pauline A.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During sexual reproduction in many species, sperm and oocyte secrete diffusible signaling molecules to help orchestrate the biological symphony of fertilization. In the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, bidirectional signaling between sperm and oocyte is important for guiding sperm to the fertilization site and inducing oocyte maturation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate sperm guidance and oocyte maturation are being delineated. Unexpectedly, these mechanisms are providing insight into human diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and cancer. Here we review sperm and oocyte communication in C. elegans and discuss relationships to human disorders. PMID:20034089

  12. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level.

  13. The relationship of bull fertility to sperm nuclear shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostermeier, G.C.; Sargeant, G.A.; Yandell, B.S.; Parrish, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    group had a linear relationship (r .89, P .05) with fertility. To construct a plot of mean sperm shapes, a novel technique to automatically orient and identify the anterior tip of the sperm head was developed. The mean nuclear shape of high-fertility sperm was more elongated and tapered than those of lower fertility. A discriminant function (P .05) was also constructed that separated the 6 bulls into 2 groups based only on the harmonic amplitudes or sperm nuclear shape. The bulls were correctly classified into the 2 fertility groups. A comparison of sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA) and harmonic amplitudes found that overall size variance, anterior roundness, and posterior taperedness of sperm nuclei were related to chromatin stability (P .05). Some of the differences observed in sperm nuclear shape between the high- and lower-fertility bulls may be explained by varying levels of chromatin stability. However, sperm nuclear shape appears to contain additional information from chromatin stability alone. In this particular study, with 6 bulls, all with good chromatin quality, sperm nuclear shape was a better predictor of bull fertility.

  14. Male fertility in natural populations of red deer is determined by sperm velocity and the proportion of normal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Malo, Aurelio F; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana J; García, Andrés J; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2005-04-01

    Male reproductive success is determined by the ability of males to gain sexual access to females and by their ability to fertilize ova. Among polygynous mammals, males differ markedly in their reproductive success, and a great deal of effort has been made to understand how selective forces have shaped traits that enhance male competitiveness both before and after copulation (i.e., sperm competition). However, the possibility that males also may differ in their fertility has been ignored under the assumption that male infertility is rare in natural populations because selection against it is likely to be strong. In the present study, we examined which semen traits correlate with male fertility in natural populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). We found no trade-offs between semen traits. Our analyses revealed strong associations between sperm production and sperm swimming velocity, sperm motility and proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, and sperm viability and acrosome integrity. These last two variables had the lowest coefficients of variation, suggesting that these traits have stabilized at high values and are unlikely to be related to fitness. In a fertility trial, our results show a large degree of variation in male fertility, and differences in fertility were determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and by the proportion of morphologically normal sperm. We conclude that male fertility varies substantially in natural populations of Iberian red deer and that, when sperm numbers are equal, it is determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and sperm morphology.

  15. Fertilization success and the estimation of genetic variance in sperm competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Evans, Jonathan P

    2011-03-01

    A key question in sexual selection is whether the ability of males to fertilize eggs under sperm competition exhibits heritable genetic variation. Addressing this question poses a significant problem, however, because a male's ability to win fertilizations ultimately depends on the competitive ability of rival males. Attempts to partition genetic variance in sperm competitiveness, as estimated from measures of fertilization success, must therefore account for stochastic effects due to the random sampling of rival sperm competitors. In this contribution, we suggest a practical solution to this problem. We advocate the use of simple cross-classified breeding designs for partitioning sources of genetic variance in sperm competitiveness and fertilization success and show how these designs can be used to avoid stochastic effects due to the random sampling of rival sperm competitors. We illustrate the utility of these approaches by simulating various scenarios for estimating genetic parameters in sperm competitiveness, and show that the probability of detecting additive genetic variance in this trait is restored when stochastic effects due to the random sampling of rival sperm competitors are controlled. Our findings have important implications for the study of the evolutionary maintenance of polyandry. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  17. Sperm midpiece apoptotic markers: impact on fertilizing potential in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Kotwicka, Małgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Murawski, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoptotic markers present in human spermatozoa, namely phosphatidylserine translocation (PST) from the inner to the outer layer of the cytomembrane and the active form of caspase-3 (c3) versus the fertilizing potential of male gametes in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) models. A total of 116 male patients treated with their partners for infertility underwent basic semen analysis and an assessment of the presence of PST and the active c3 in sperm using flow cytometry. Forty patients underwent IVF, group A, while 76 patients underwent ICSI, group B. The fertilizing potential of the gametes was measured as the percentage of oocytes with pronuclei present after either procedure. PST and active c3 were identified in vital gametes, mainly in the midpiece area. Concentration, motility, morphology, and viability of spermatozoa strongly negatively correlated with both markers. In group A, a negative correlation between both markers and the success rate of conventional IVF was observed (r = -0.4, p = 0.04 for PST; r = -0.4, p = 0.02 for active c3, respectively). In group B, the success rate of ICSI did not correlate with either marker (r = -0.2, p = 0.85 for PST and r = 0.1, p = 0.51 for active c3). The two apoptotic markers localized in the sperm midpiece area may affect their function not only by decreasing basic andrologic parameters but also by reducing the probability of conception. Therefore, analysis of PST and active c3 in the sperm of patients undergoing infertility treatment should be recommended.

  18. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  19. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-07

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Do candidate genes mediating conspecific sperm precedence affect sperm competitive ability within species? A test case in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Civetta, Alberto; Finn, Scott

    2014-07-16

    When females mate to multiple males, the last male to mate fathers the majority of progeny. When males of different species inseminate a female, the sperm of the male conspecific to the female is favored in fertilization in a process known as conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). A large number of studies in Drosophila have assayed the genetic basis of sperm competition, with a main focus on D. melanogaster and accessory gland protein genes. Only a few studies have attempted to disentangle the genetic basis of CSP between related species of Drosophila. Although there is no a priori reason to believe that genes influencing intraspecific sperm competitive ability might also mediate conspecific sperm precedence, no study has addressed the question. Here, we test a group of candidate CSP genes between D. simulans and D. mauritiana for their effect on sperm competition in D. melanogaster. The use of P-element insertion lines identified CG14891 gene disruption as the only one causing a significant decrease in second male paternity success relative to wild-type and ebony tester males. The gene disruption affected both sperm displacement and the sperm fertilizing ability. Out of five genes tested using RNA interference, only gene knockdown of CG6864(Mst89B) [corrected] significantly reduced the male's ability to father progeny when second to mate. Our results suggest that CG14891 and CG6468 might have been co-opted from an intraspecies gene function (i.e., sperm competition) into an interspecies avoidance phenotype (i.e., CSP). Alternatively, the dual role of these genes could be a consequence of their pleiotropic roles. Copyright © 2014 Civetta and Finn.

  1. Do Candidate Genes Mediating Conspecific Sperm Precedence Affect Sperm Competitive Ability Within Species? A Test Case in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, Alberto; Finn, Scott

    2014-01-01

    When females mate to multiple males, the last male to mate fathers the majority of progeny. When males of different species inseminate a female, the sperm of the male conspecific to the female is favored in fertilization in a process known as conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). A large number of studies in Drosophila have assayed the genetic basis of sperm competition, with a main focus on D. melanogaster and accessory gland protein genes. Only a few studies have attempted to disentangle the genetic basis of CSP between related species of Drosophila. Although there is no a priori reason to believe that genes influencing intraspecific sperm competitive ability might also mediate conspecific sperm precedence, no study has addressed the question. Here, we test a group of candidate CSP genes between D. simulans and D. mauritiana for their effect on sperm competition in D. melanogaster. The use of P-element insertion lines identified CG14891 gene disruption as the only one causing a significant decrease in second male paternity success relative to wild-type and ebony tester males. The gene disruption affected both sperm displacement and the sperm fertilizing ability. Out of five genes tested using RNA interference, only gene knockdown of CG6864 (Mst89B) significantly reduced the male’s ability to father progeny when second to mate. Our results suggest that CG14891 and CG6864 might have been co-opted from an intraspecies gene function (i.e., sperm competition) into an interspecies avoidance phenotype (i.e., CSP). Alternatively, the dual role of these genes could be a consequence of their pleiotropic roles. PMID:25031180

  2. Modulation of mammalian sperm function by fertilization promoting peptide (FPP).

    PubMed

    Fraser, L R

    1998-01-01

    Fertilization promoting peptide (FPP; pGlu-Glu-ProNH2) is produced by the prostate gland and secreted into seminal plasma. When added to uncapacitated mouse and human sperm suspensions, it stimulates capacitation as demonstrated by both cytological changes and increased fertilizing ability in vitro. When added to capacitated suspensions, FPP inhibits spontaneous acrosome loss but cells retain high fertility in vitro. Adenosine elicits similar responses to FPP in both uncapacitated and capacitated cells and FPP + adenosine has a greater effect on uncapacitated cells than either used individually. We have proposed that these two molecules modulate the same pathway (adenylate cyclase/cAMP) but act via different receptors. The structure of FPP is crucial for bioactivity: loss of the terminal amide group abolishes activity and substitution of the central glutamic acid can markedly alter activity. Most recently we have found that stimulation of TCP-11, the product of the mouse t-complex gene Tcp-11, elicits responses indistinguishable from those obtained with FPP and we have hypothesized that the protein TCP-11 is the receptor for FPP. The existence of a human homologue for Tcp-11 suggests that the gene product, in conjunction with FPP, could play an important role in human fertility.

  3. Effect of trehalose on DNA integrity of freeze-dried boar sperm, fertilization, and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Men, Nguyen Thi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakai, Michiko; Fukuda, Atsunori; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Linh, Nguyen Viet; Nguyen, Bui Xuan; Nagai, Takashi; Tajima, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying (FD) medium containing ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) is reported to be beneficial for maintenance of sperm DNA integrity after FD. Recently, trehalose has also been reported to have notable ability to stabilize the protein structure and biomembranes of sperm in a dry state. In this study, we examined the effect of a combination of EGTA and different concentrations of trehalose in FD medium on sperm DNA integrity and the in vitro development of IVM porcine oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using freeze-dried boar sperm. Ejaculated sperm from a boar were suspended in basic FD medium supplemented with 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 90 mM trehalose and freeze-dried. After rehydration, the sperm in all groups were subjected to DNA damage detection using a Halomax kit. It was found that the level of DNA damage in 15-mM group was significantly lower than that in 0-mM group, and no difference was observed between the 15-, 7.5-, and 3.75-mM groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the DNA damage level among 0, 3.75 mM, and other groups treated with trehalose. When freeze-dried sperm were used for ICSI, the fertilization rates and blastocyst formation rates (observed at 10 hours and 6 days of IVC after ICSI, respectively) in the 7.5- and 15-mM groups were not different from those in 0-mM group. These results suggest that FD medium supplemented with trehalose at appropriate concentrations improves sperm DNA integrity, but does not improve fertilization and preimplantation embryo development of IVM oocytes following ICSI.

  4. Egg Activation at Fertilization by a Soluble Sperm Protein.

    PubMed

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most fundamental unresolved issue of fertilization is to define how the sperm activates the egg to begin embryo development. Egg activation at fertilization in all species thus far examined is caused by some form of transient increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. What has not been clear, however, is precisely how the sperm triggers the large changes in Ca(2+) observed within the egg cytoplasm. Here, we review the studies indicating that the fertilizing sperm stimulates a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase in the egg specifically by delivering a soluble factor that diffuses into the cytosolic space of the egg upon gamete membrane fusion. Evidence is primarily considered in species of eggs where the sperm has been shown to elicit a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase by initiating Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We suggest that our best understanding of these signaling events is in mammals, where the sperm triggers a prolonged series of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The strongest empirical studies to date suggest that mammalian sperm-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations are caused by the introduction of a sperm-specific protein, called phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that generates inositol trisphosphate within the egg. We will discuss the role and mechanism of action of PLCζ in detail at a molecular and cellular level. We will also consider some of the evidence that a soluble sperm protein might be involved in egg activation in nonmammalian species.

  5. Artificial oocyte activation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using testicular sperm in human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Seog; Lim, Chun Kyu; Ko, Duck Sung; Yang, Kwang Moon; Park, Dong-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is an effective method to avoid total fertilization failure in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. AOA performed using a calcium ionophore can induce calcium oscillation in oocytes and initiate the fertilization process. We evaluated the usefulness of AOA with a calcium ionophore in cases of total fertilization failure in previous cycles and in cases of severe male factor infertility patients with non-motile spermatozoa after pentoxifylline (PF) treatment. The present study describes 29 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-AOA cycles involving male factor infertility at Cheil General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Patients were divided into two groups (control, n=480; AOA, n=29) depending on whether or not AOA using a calcium ionophore (A23187) was performed after testicular sperm extraction-ICSI (TESE-ICSI). The AOA group was further split into subgroups according to sperm motility after PF treatment: i.e., motile sperm-injected (n=12) and non-motile sperm-injected (n=17) groups (total n=29 cycles). The good embryo rate (52.3% vs. 66.9%), pregnancy rate (20.7% vs. 52.1%), and delivery rate (10.3% vs. 40.8%) were lower in the PF/AOA group than in the control group. When evaluating the effects of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment on clinical outcomes there was no difference in fertilization rate (66.6% vs. 64.7% in non-motile and motile sperm, respectively), pregnancy rate (17.6% vs. 33.3%), or delivery rate (5.9% vs. 16.7%) between the two groups. We suggest that oocyte activation is a useful method to ensure fertilization in TESE-ICSI cycles regardless of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment. AOA may be useful in selected patients who have a low fertilization rate or total fertilization failure.

  6. Artificial oocyte activation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using testicular sperm in human in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Seog; Lim, Chun Kyu; Ko, Duck Sung; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is an effective method to avoid total fertilization failure in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. AOA performed using a calcium ionophore can induce calcium oscillation in oocytes and initiate the fertilization process. We evaluated the usefulness of AOA with a calcium ionophore in cases of total fertilization failure in previous cycles and in cases of severe male factor infertility patients with non-motile spermatozoa after pentoxifylline (PF) treatment. Methods The present study describes 29 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-AOA cycles involving male factor infertility at Cheil General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Patients were divided into two groups (control, n=480; AOA, n=29) depending on whether or not AOA using a calcium ionophore (A23187) was performed after testicular sperm extraction-ICSI (TESE-ICSI). The AOA group was further split into subgroups according to sperm motility after PF treatment: i.e., motile sperm-injected (n=12) and non-motile sperm-injected (n=17) groups (total n=29 cycles). Results The good embryo rate (52.3% vs. 66.9%), pregnancy rate (20.7% vs. 52.1%), and delivery rate (10.3% vs. 40.8%) were lower in the PF/AOA group than in the control group. When evaluating the effects of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment on clinical outcomes there was no difference in fertilization rate (66.6% vs. 64.7% in non-motile and motile sperm, respectively), pregnancy rate (17.6% vs. 33.3%), or delivery rate (5.9% vs. 16.7%) between the two groups. Conclusion We suggest that oocyte activation is a useful method to ensure fertilization in TESE-ICSI cycles regardless of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment. AOA may be useful in selected patients who have a low fertilization rate or total fertilization failure. PMID:26161332

  7. Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Guasti, P N; Monteiro, G A; Maziero, R R D; Carmo, M T; Dell'Aqua, J A; Crespilho, A M; Rifai, E A; Papa, F O

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the PTX-treatment of stallion epididymal sperm prior to freezing improves the fertility response of mares to a reduced number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Fifty epididymis were flushed with a skim milk based extender with or without PTX. The pre-treatment with PTX enhanced the sperm motility after being harvested (P<0.05); however the freeze-thaw process did not alter the sperm kinematics between control and treated samples (P>0.05). Plasma membrane integrity did not differ between control and PTX group after recovery and after thawing (P>0.05), as observed in tyrosine phosphorylation, which the PTX treatment did not alter the percentage of tail-associated immunofluorescence of cryopreserved epididymal sperm (P>0.05). For the fertility trial, different insemination groups were tested: 800×10(6) epididymal sperm (C800); 100×10(6) epididymal sperm (C100); 100×10(6) epididymal sperm recovered in an extender containing PTX (PTX100). The conception rates for C800; C100 and PTX100 were 68.7% (11/16); 31.5% (5/16) and 50% (8/16), respectively. The conception rate did not differ among groups (P>0.05), however, a low number of animals was used in this study. A trend toward significance (P=0.07) was observed between C800 and C100 groups. In conclusion, PTX has no deleterious effect on sperm motility, viability and capacitation of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. The conventional artificial insemination with 100×10(6) sperm recovered with PTX ensures acceptable conception rates and maximize the limited number of doses of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm.

  8. Quantification of bovine sperm separation by a swim-up method. Relationship to sperm motility, integrity of acrosomes, sperm migration in polyacrylamide gel and fertility.

    PubMed

    Parrish, J J; Foote, R H

    1987-01-01

    The number of bovine spermatozoa separated in a swim-up procedure was quantified using an electronic cell counter. In an initial test of the swim-up procedure, non-frozen sperm samples with different ratios of live to dead cells were prepared and tested for the number of spermatozoa counted by the swim-up procedure. In ejaculates from six bulls, the number of spermatozoa swimming up was related to the number of live cells present (R2 = 0.97). Next, sperm quality of frozen-thawed semen immediately after thawing was measured at 37 C by swim-up sperm count, sperm motility, spermatozoa with an intact acrosome and migration in polyacrylamide gel and then compared with the fertility of the semen used for artificial insemination. Twenty-nine ejaculates of frozen-thawed semen from 11 bulls were evaluated. Correlations with fertility were highest on an ejaculate basis for motility (r = 0.41, P = 0.05) and for swim-up sperm count (r = 0.35, P = 0.06). On a bull basis, swim-up sperm count had the highest correlation with fertility (r = 0.59, P = 0.06). In a multiple regression model to predict male fertility that included all described measures of semen quality, a R2 value of 0.69 was obtained. This is the first report showing that the ability of spermatozoa to swim out of a more dense medium (whole milk-glycerol extender) into culture media is quantitatively related to in vivo fertility.

  9. Roscovitine treatment caused impairment of fertilizing ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang; Qi, Yan; Ren, Ming; Wang, Shuyu; Jiang, Hongquan; Feng, Honglin; Cui, Shangjin

    2015-09-17

    To explore the adverse effect of roscovitine on reproductive system of male mice. Male hSOD1(G93A) transgenetic mice received roscovitine 72 nmol/day (d) for 4 weeks (w), with normal control and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated animals served as controls (n=4). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with roscovitine at either 72 nmol/d or 144 nmol/d for 4 w or 8 w, and normal control and DMSO treated mice served as controls. Fertility of male mice, sperm quality parameters, histological and related pathological changes of seminiferous tubules associated with roscovitine treatment were evaluated. In male hSOD1(G93A) transgenetic mice treated with 72 nmol/d roscovitine for 4 w and C57BL/6 male mice treated with 72 nmol/d roscovitine for 8w and 144 nmol/d roscovitine for 4 w and 8 w, sperm counts and sperm motility rates decreased and sperm abnormality rates increased, and damage of seminiferous tubules were detected. Roscovitine treatment induced inhibition of CDK5 activities and decrease of BrdU-positive tubuler cells. These results demonstrated that roscovitine treatment induced interference of male reproductive system and caused impairment of fertilizing ability. Reproductive system of ALS male mice was more susceptible to roscovitine induced impaired fertilizing ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alpha6beta1 integrin expressed by sperm is determinant in mouse fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Barraud-Lange, Virginie; Naud-Barriant, Nathalie; Saffar, Line; Gattegno, Liliane; Ducot, Beatrice; Drillet, Anne-Sophie; Bomsel, Morgane; Wolf, Jean-Philippe; Ziyyat, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Background Based on inhibition tests, the alpha6beta1 integrin was suggested to be a sperm receptor, but further experiments using gene deletion techniques have shown that neither oocyte alpha6, nor beta1 integrin subunits were essential for mouse fertilization. Results Using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, we showed that the mouse sperm expresses the alpha6beta1 integrin. As for oocyte, binding of GoH3 anti-alpha6 antibody to sperm induces a specific inhibition of sperm fertilizing ability. Comparing zona-intact and zona-free eggs in fusion tests, we showed that the removal of the zona pellucida by acid treatment bypasses fertilizing oocyte alpha6beta1 integrin's function in the adhesion/fusion process. Conclusion These findings show that alpha6beta1 integrin is expressed by both gametes and is functional in their membranes interaction. These results and previous reports, about fertilization of alpha6 or beta1 integrin subunits deleted oocytes by wild type sperm, suggest that the presence of alpha6beta1 integrin on one of the two gamete membranes can rescue the fertilization process. This hypothesis is further supported by the exchange of membrane fragments occurring between gametes prior to fusion that we recently reported. PMID:17850654

  11. Fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A; Gil-Salom, M

    1996-04-01

    To assess the possibility of cryopreserving testicular tissue extracted sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A report of two cases. Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Two azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure but with focal spermatogenesis on testicular biopsies. In both cases, a first ICSI attempt with fresh testicular biopsy extracted sperm was unsuccessful. Cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa in 100-micro L "pills." Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with thawed testicular spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy. Fertilization rates were 36 percent and 100 percent after ICSI with fresh testicular spermatozoa, and 63 percent and 57 percent after ICSI with cryopreserved testicular sperm. In both cases, cleavage rates and embryo quality were similar when using fresh and cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. No clinical pregnancies were achieved. High fertilization rates can be obtained after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular tissue extracted spermatozoa. Cryopreservation of testicular sperm may avoid repetition of testicular biopsies in azoospermic patients in whom the only source of spermatozoa is the testicle.

  12. Stability, delivery and functions of human sperm RNAs at fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Edward; Johnson, Graham D; Mao, Shihong; Goodrich, Robert J; Diamond, Michael P; Hauser, Russ; Krawetz, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Increasing attention has focused on the significance of RNA in sperm, in light of its contribution to the birth and long-term health of a child, role in sperm function and diagnostic potential. As the composition of sperm RNA is in flux, assigning specific roles to individual RNAs presents a significant challenge. For the first time RNA-seq was used to characterize the population of coding and non-coding transcripts in human sperm. Examining RNA representation as a function of multiple methods of library preparation revealed unique features indicative of very specific and stage-dependent maturation and regulation of sperm RNA, illuminating their various transitional roles. Correlation of sperm transcript abundance with epigenetic marks suggested roles for these elements in the pre- and post-fertilization genome. Several classes of non-coding RNAs including lncRNAs, CARs, pri-miRNAs, novel elements and mRNAs have been identified which, based on factors including relative abundance, integrity in sperm, available knockout data of embryonic effect and presence or absence in the unfertilized human oocyte, are likely to be essential male factors critical to early post-fertilization development. The diverse and unique attributes of sperm transcripts that were revealed provides the first detailed analysis of the biology and anticipated clinical significance of spermatozoal RNAs.

  13. CRISP1 as a novel CatSper regulator that modulates sperm motility and orientation during fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Ernesto, Juan I.; Weigel Muñoz, Mariana; Battistone, María A.; Vasen, Gustavo; Martínez-López, Pablo; Orta, Gerardo; Figueiras-Fierro, Dulce; De la Vega-Beltran, José L.; Moreno, Ignacio A.; Guidobaldi, Héctor A.; Giojalas, Laura; Darszon, Alberto; Cohen, Débora J.

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent mechanisms are critical for successful completion of fertilization. Here, we demonstrate that CRISP1, a sperm protein involved in mammalian fertilization, is also present in the female gamete and capable of modulating key sperm Ca2+ channels. Specifically, we show that CRISP1 is expressed by the cumulus cells that surround the egg and that fertilization of cumulus–oocyte complexes from CRISP1 knockout females is impaired because of a failure of sperm to penetrate the cumulus. We provide evidence that CRISP1 stimulates sperm orientation by modulating sperm hyperactivation, a vigorous motility required for penetration of the egg vestments. Moreover, patch clamping of sperm revealed that CRISP1 has the ability to regulate CatSper, the principal sperm Ca2+ channel involved in hyperactivation and essential for fertility. Given the critical role of Ca2+ for sperm motility, we propose a novel CRISP1-mediated fine-tuning mechanism to regulate sperm hyperactivation and orientation for successful penetration of the cumulus during fertilization. PMID:26416967

  14. Cofilin is correlated with sperm quality and influences sperm fertilizing capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, S M; Chen, X M; Lu, Y L; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-11-01

    Spermatozoa should undergo a series of biochemical modifications in female reproduction tract, which is collectively called sperm capacitation. The capacitated spermatozoa can bind to the egg zona pellucida, resulting in the occurrence of acrosome reaction which enabled spermatozoa penetrate into the egg. The formation of actin plays an important role in these processes. Actin polymerized during sperm capacitation, but the polymers dispersed before acrosome reaction. In this study, we take our focus on actin-binding protein, cofilin. Our results showed that the % and intensity of sperm expressing cofilin in normal sperm were significantly higher than in abnormal sperm, and the sperm expressing cofilin was correlated with sperm quality. Furthermore, treatment with anti-cofilin antibody increased the percentage of sperm capacitation and inhibited progesterone- or A23187- induced acrosome reaction in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of 100 ng/mL anti-cofilin antibodies markedly blocked the sperm penetration of zona-free hamster eggs. Besides, immunofluorescence results revealed that cofilin was colocalized with F-actin in the midpiece of spermatozoa; however, phospho-cofilin was expressed in the tail rather than in the midpiece of spermatozoa, which was not colocalized with F-actin in spermatozoa. Moreover, western blot revealed that phospho-cofilin increased in sperm capacitation, and the total cofilin and cofilin in insoluble fraction increased in acrosome reaction; immunofluorescence results showed that the amount of cofilin in acrosome increased in sperm capacitation. In conclusion, our study revealed that cofilin expression in human sperm is correlated with sperm quality and the alterations of cofilin and phospho-cofilin in fertilization affects sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and spermatozoa-oocyte fusion.

  15. Spermatozoal traits and sperm competition in Atlantic salmon: relative sperm velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Gage, Matthew J G; Macfarlane, Christopher P; Yeates, Sarah; Ward, Richard G; Searle, Jeremy B; Parker, Geoffrey A

    2004-01-06

    Sperm competition occurs when sperm from more than one male compete for fertilizations. This form of post-copulatory sexual selection is recognized as a significant and widespread force in the evolution of male reproductive biology and as a key determinant of differential male reproductive success. Despite its importance, however, detailed mechanisms of sperm competition at the gamete level remain poorly understood. Here, we use natural variation in spermatozoal traits among wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species naturally adapted to sperm competition, to examine how the relative influences of sperm (i) number, (ii) velocity, (iii) longevity, and (iv) total length determine sperm competition success. Atlantic salmon fertilize externally, and we were therefore able to conduct controlled in vitro fertilization competitions while concurrently measuring spermatozoal traits within the aqueous micro-environment to which salmon gametes are naturally adapted. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting revealed that a male's relative sperm velocity was the primary determinant of sperm competition success. There was no significant relationship between fertilization success and either relative sperm number or total length; sperm longevity showed an inverse relationship with competition success. These relationships were consistent for two experimental repeats of the in vitro fertilization competitions. Our results therefore show, under the natural microenvironment for salmon gametes, that relative sperm velocity is a key spermatozoal component for sperm competition success. Atlantic salmon sperm can be considered to enter a competition analogous to a race in which the fastest sperm have the highest probability of success.

  16. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity.

  17. Sperm proteasomes degrade sperm receptor on the egg zona pellucida during mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Shawn W; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Yi, Young-Joo; Gupta, Satish K; Sutovsky, Miriam; Odhiambo, John F; Powell, Michael D; Miller, David J; Sutovsky, Peter

    2011-02-23

    Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced

  18. Female sperm use and storage between fertilization events drive sperm competition and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2014-12-01

    Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affect male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and paternity. In our model, sperm use (a single parameter under female control) is the main determinant of sperm competition, which alters the effect of female promiscuity on male success and, ultimately, male reproductive allocation. Our theory reproduces the general pattern predicted by existing theory that increased sperm competition favors increased allocation to ejaculates. However, our model predicts a negative correlation between male ejaculate allocation and female promiscuity, challenging the generality of a prevailing expectation of sperm competition theory. Early models assumed that the energetic costs of precopulatory competition and the level of sperm competition are both determined by female promiscuity, which leads to an assumed covariation between these two processes. By modeling precopulatory costs and sperm competition independently, our theoretical framework allows us to examine how male allocation should respond independently to variation in sperm competition and energetic trade-offs in mating systems that have been overlooked in the past.

  19. Sperm competition in a fish with external fertilization: the contribution of sperm number, speed and length.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, J A; Neff, B D

    2006-11-01

    The role of sperm number and quality in male competitiveness was investigated using in vitro fertilization experiments with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males use one of three mating tactics: 'sneakers', which streak spawn; 'satellites', which mimic females; and 'parentals', which are territorial. The in vitro experiments mimicked natural spawning by incorporating these males' mean proximity to eggs and timing of sperm release. Using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, raffle equations were fit to paternity data, which revealed a strong effect of sperm number on male competitiveness. There was no difference in sperm flagellum length, curvilinear swim speed or path linearity among the three male mating types, and these traits did not explain any additional variation in male competitiveness. It was estimated that, given closer proximity to eggs, satellites need release only 0.34 times as many sperm as parentals to obtain equal paternity. Despite being farther from the eggs and releasing sperm about half a second after parentals, sneakers need only release 0.58 times as many sperm as parentals to obtain equal paternity. Thus, the increased competitiveness of sneakers' sperm must come from a component of sperm quality other than speed or length.

  20. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight.

    PubMed

    Tash, J S; Kim, S; Schuber, M; Seibt, D; Kinsey, W H

    2001-10-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  1. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  2. Genomewide analysis of bull sperm quality and fertility traits.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, R; Gaspa, G; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Vanni, R; Macciotta, Npp; Galli, A

    2016-10-01

    Because the priority of AI industry is to identify subfertile bulls, a predictive model that allowed for the prediction of 91% bulls of low fertility was implemented based on seminological (motility) parameters and DNA status assessed both as DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and by TUNEL assay using sperm of 105 Holstein-Friesian bulls (four batches per bull) selected based on in vivo estimated relative conception rates (ERCR). Thereafter, sperm quality and male fertility traits of bulls were explored by GWAS using a high-density (777K) Illumina chip. After data editing, 85 bulls and 591,988 SNPs were retained for GWAS. Of 12 SNPs with false discovery rate <0.2, four SNPs located on BTA28 and BTA18 were significantly associated (LD-adjusted Bonferroni <0.05) with the non-compensatory sperm parameters DFI and TUNEL. Other SNPs of interest for potential association with TUNEL were found on BTA3, in the same chromosome where associations with non-compensatory in vivo bull fertility were already reported. Further suggestive SNPs for sperm membrane integrity were located on BTA28, the chromosome where QTL studies previously reported associations with sperm quality traits. Suggestive SNPs for ERCR were found on BTA18 in the vicinity of a site already associated with in vivo bull fertility. Additional SNPs associated with ERCR and sperm kinetic parameters were also identified. In contrast to other, but very few GWAS on fertility traits in bovine spermatozoa, which reported significant SNPs located on BTX, we have not identified SNPs of interest in this sexual chromosome. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  4. Discriminant analysis indicates a single sperm protein (SP22) is predictive of fertility following exposure to epididymal toxicants.

    PubMed

    Klinefelter, G R; Laskey, J W; Ferrell, J; Suarez, J D; Roberts, N L

    1997-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) compromised the fertilizing ability of proximal cauda epididymal sperm from the rat within 4 days of exposure, an effect that persisted in castrated, testosterone (T)-implanted animals, establishing direct action on the epididymis. This EDS-induced reduction in fertilizing ability was highly correlated with a quantitative decrease in specific sperm protein. Here we sought to determine whether the fertility of proximal cauda epididymal sperm recovered from animals exposed to a variety of male reproductive toxicants could be predicted by assessing quantitative changes in specific sperm protein(s), or whether more common endpoints (e.g., sperm motility, sperm morphology, serum and epididymal tissue T, cauda epididymal sperm reserves) also are required to predict fertility. Intact adult male rats were dosed with EDS (25 or 50 mg/kg), chloroethylmethanesulphonate (CEMS; 12.5 or 18.75 mg/kg), or epichlorohydrin (EPI; 3 or 6 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. Castrated, T-implanted rats were dosed with hydroxyflutamide (HFLUT; 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. On day 5, proximal cauda epididymal sperm were inseminated in utero into receptive, cervically stimulated adult females, and on day 9, fertility (implants/corpora lutea) was assessed. Fertility-was decreased by the higher dose of each toxicant (P < 0.05) and also by the lower dose of EPI and HFLUT. Likewise, an acidic 22 kDa sperm protein (SP22) was decreased quantitatively (P < 0.05) in silver-stained two-dimensional gels by the higher dose of each toxicant as well as by the lower dose of EPI and HFLUT. Although sperm motility and serum T were altered by specific exposures, these endpoints were not useful in predicting fertility. In contrast, SP22 was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; r2 = 0.83) with fertility. Indeed, the amount of SP22 correctly predicted 90% and 94% of the fertile (> 50% fertility) and subfertile (< 50 fertility) animals, respectively

  5. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  6. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Piña-Guzmán, B; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; Marchetti, F; Hernández-Ochoa, I; Solís-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2009-07-15

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  7. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  8. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2010-11-22

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated.

  9. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  10. Maturational changes in the survivability and fertility of fowl sperm during their passage through the male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Muslah U; Nishino, C; Tatemoto, H; Okura, N; Kawamoto, Y; Okamoto, S; Nakada, T

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) sperm undergo maturation in their capacity for survival and fertilization in the male reproductive tract. Sperm collected from the testis, epididymis and the proximal, middle and distal vas deferens were simultaneously stored in vitro in minimum essential medium (MEM) at 39°C for 0, 3 and 6h, and at 4°C for 24 and 48h. Sperm membrane integrity was measured using the dual fluorescent stain SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI). Aliquots of sperm from the various sites were subjected to artificial insemination (AI) into the uteri of hens to assess the duration of sperm survival in the oviduct and to determine the fertility status of the sperm. Testicular sperm exhibited a very low capacity to survive under in vitro liquid storage conditions, irrespective of the storage temperature used, and in the oviduct, and they had a low ability to fertilize the ovum. On the contrary, sperm from the distal vas deferens had a higher survival rate during in vitro storage periods, a longer life span in the oviduct, and high fertility. Survival and fertilizing capacity of the sperm recovered from the testes increased gradually (P<0.05) from the testes to the distal vas deferens. In conclusion, we suggest that fowl sperm may undergo functional maturation through a process of gradual changes in their survival and fertilization capacities during their passage through the successive parts of the male reproductive tract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. First Production of Larvae Using Cryopreserved Sperm: Effects of Preservation Temperature and Cryopreservation on European Eel Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

    PubMed

    Asturiano, J F; Sørensen, S R; Pérez, L; Lauesen, P; Tomkiewicz, J

    2016-08-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization trials to produce viable offspring. In our experiment, the sperm motility was evaluated after the extraction and the best samples were selected and pooled. Until stripping of eggs and fertilization, diluted sperm samples were maintained at either 4 or 20°C, or cryopreserved, following existing protocols. Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Handling of boar spermatozoa during and after flow cytometric sex-sorting process to improve their in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, D; Parrilla, I; Gil, M A; Maside, C; Tarantini, T; Angel, M A; Roca, J; Martinez, E A; Vazquez, J M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an adequate sperm handling protocol in order to obtain a sex-sorted sperm population with an optimal fertilizing ability. For this purpose, different aspects of the sorting procedure were examined. The effects of the high dilution rates (experiment 1), type of collection medium used (experiment 2), and sheath fluid composition (experiment 3) on sorted boar sperm quality and function were evaluated. Sperm quality was assessed by motility and viability tests, whereas sperm function was evaluated by an in vitro fertilization assay which determined the penetration and polyspermy rates as well as the mean number of sperm penetrating each oocyte. In experiment 1, the results obtained indicated that the high dilution rates did not cause a decrease either in the sperm quality parameters evaluated or the in vitro fertilization ability of spermatozoa. In experiment 2, although sperm quality was not affected, fertilizing ability was compromised after sorting, regardless of the collection medium that was used. In the experiment 3, all groups displayed adequate sperm quality values, but higher in vitro fertility parameters were obtained for spermatozoa sorted in presence of EDTA in the sheath fluid and egg yolk (EY) in the collection media when compared with those sorted in absence of these protective agents. No differences in penetration rates between unsorted highly diluted (control) and sorted sperm in the presence of EDTA and EY were observed. In conclusion, fertilizing ability was compromised in sex-sorted sperm. The addition of EDTA to sheath fluid and EY to collection medium improved boar sperm fertilizing ability, and both agents should be included as essential media components in future studies.

  13. Bull Fertility and Its Relation with Density Gradient Selected Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Allouche, Lynda; Madani, Toufik; Mechmeche, Mohamed; Clement, Laetitia; Bouchemal, Allaoua

    2017-01-01

    Background Sperm selection method is usually used to collect these cells for in vitro-assisted reproduction. Few studies reported the relationship of in vivo fertility and semen parameters after sperm selection; hence, the present study attempted to assess different semen parameters after post-thaw or sperm selection, using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict in vivo fertility. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, frozen semen quality of four Montbeliarde bulls were assessed after post-thaw (PT) or after sperm selection (SSp), using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict the fertility rate in vivo. In addition to PT or SSp, semen was examined for concentration, motility, morphology abnormalities, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrities. Fertility was measured as non-return rates within 56 days after the first insemination (NRR) or as corrected NRR, expressed as CNRR, to the factors influencing fertility using linear mixed model. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare semen parameter variables. Fertility rates were compared using Chi-square test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between CNRR and semen parameters. Data was analysed using SPSS package program, version 21.0. Results Most of the examined bulls exhibited a high fertility rate (3/4 bulls, 62.1- 81.8% for NRR or 67.2-98.5% for CNRR). Fertility rate, expressed as CNRR, was significantly related to semen parameters after SSp, but not after PT. Thus, CNRR was increased with decrease of total motility, progressive spermatozoa and abaxial implantation frequencies after SSp (r=-0.999, P=0.001; r=-0.990, P=0.010; r=-0.988, P= 0.012, respectively); while, CNRR was decreased with decrease of SSp immotile spermatozoa (r=+0.995, P=0.005), underlying that maximal limit of determined immotile spermatozoa is 47%. Conclusion High frequencies of total and progressive motility spermatozoa, and abaxial implantation in

  14. Fertility clinic, egg donation agency, and sperm bank policies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine M

    2011-10-01

    To assess the level of openness in U.S. gamete donation policies across fertility clinics, egg donation agencies, and sperm banks. Primarily a content analysis of organizational materials (e.g., websites, brochures). Not applicable. A total of 219 fertility clinics, 100 egg donation agencies, and 30 sperm banks. Not applicable. Use of donor photographs, anonymity between parties, cycle outcome disclosure, and postcycle contact. Agencies were more likely to provide donor photographs, have proactive policies to inform donors of the cycle outcome, and have nonanonymous options compared with sperm banks and clinics. Sperm banks were more likely to offer institutionalized donor identity-release programs. Clinics, agencies, and sperm banks have different policies to address the level of openness between donors, recipients, and donor-conceived children. Although agencies generally offer more open arrangements, only a minority of organizations restricted all types of contact and communication between parties. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sperm-antibodies - practical importance in the male fertility disorder].

    PubMed

    Meili, H U; Bandhauer, K

    1976-07-01

    On the basis of abundant statistics it is known that in about 5% of infertile males fertility-inhibiting antibodies are present, which can lead to immobilization or agglutination of the sperm; they can block acrosome activity or become cytotoxically active. The motility of spermatozoon charged with antibodies and partially immobilized or agglutinized is probably not sufficient to penetrate the cervical mucus to reach the egg. Immunological sterility can be suspected in certain situations: infertility in a couple where there is no apparent cause of female infertility; anamnestic or clinical indication of chronic prostatitis, vesiculitis, or epididymitis; spontaneous agglutination or motility reduction in the spermiogram (not demonstrable in all cases); pathological postcoital test by the Sims-Huhner method. Since the last is only 50% reliable, diagnosis of antibodies is dependent on laboratory tests such as: micro-sperm-agglutination test, macro-sperm-agglutination test, sperm immobilization test, hema-agglutination test, and capillary X-ray. As yet there is no satisfactory treatment for this type of male fertility disorder. The only promising results in this area are achieved when the inflamed source for the antigen-antibody reaction is found and removed. Diagnosis of sperm antibodies in male infertility, however, can be the clear indication for heterologic insemination.

  16. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  17. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  18. Rescue in vitro fertilization method for legacy stock of frozen mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Nakagata, Naomi; Takeo, Toru; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Kondo, Tomoko; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Umeno, Tomoko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji

    2014-04-24

    Sperm cryopreservation has been widely adopted for maintenance of the genetically engineered mouse (GEM). The cryopreserved sperm are being exchanged among many institutes worldwide. However, the recipients are not always able to obtain high fertilization rates with the frozen sperm shipped from senders. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse sperm via various methods and performed in vitro fertilization (IVF) in which the combination of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin for sperm preincubation and reduced glutathione for insemination was used (the MBCD-GSH IVF). In addition, frozen sperm sent from the Jackson Laboratory (USA) were thawed and used for IVF in the same manner. The fertilization rates of both the sperm cryopreserved via the methods applied in some countries and the cryopreserved GEM sperm improved when used with the MBCD-GSH IVF method. Therefore, we strongly believe that the MBCD-GSH IVF method brings about relatively high fertilization rates with any strain of frozen mouse sperm.

  19. Sperm-surface ATP in boar spermatozoa is required for fertilization: relevance to sperm proteasomal function.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Eui-Sook; Song, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon; Sutovsky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular ATP has been implicated in a number of cellular events, including mammalian sperm function. The complement of ATP-dependent sperm proteins includes six subunits of the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate-proteins. Proteolysis of ubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis (AE) and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The 26S proteasome is uniquely present on the sperm acrosomal surface during mammalian, ascidian, and invertebrate fertilization. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protease complex of approximately 2 MDa composed of the 19S regulatory complex and a 20S proteolytic core. Integrity of the 19S complex is maintained by six 19S ATPase subunits (PSMC1 through PSMC6). Consequently, we hypothesized that fertilization will be blocked by the depletion of sperm-surface associated ATP (ssATP). Depletion of ssATP by the Solanum tuberosum apyrase, a 49 kDa, non-cell permeant enzyme, significantly reduced the ATP content measured by an adapted luminescence-ATP assay from which all permeabilizing agents were excluded. Addition of active apyrase to porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium caused a concentration dependent reduction in the overall fertilization rate. No such outcomes were observed in control groups using heat-inactivated apyrase. Apyrase treatment altered the band pattern of 19S ATPase subunits PSMC1 (Rpt2) and PSMC4 (Rpt3) in Western blotting, suggesting that it had an effect on the integrity of the sperm proteasomal 19S complex. Apyrase only altered the proteasomal core activities slightly, since these activities are not directly dependent on external ATP. In contrast, sperm treatment with MG132, a specific inhibitor of the proteasomal core chymotrypsin-like activity, inhibited the target proteolytic activity, but also induced a compensatory elevation in proteasomal peptidyl

  20. Inhibition of In Vitro Fertilizing Capacity of Cryopreserved Mouse Sperm by Factors Released by Damaged Sperm, and Stimulation by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro fertilization (IVF) of eggs by frozen and thawed C57BL/6J mouse sperm is inhibited by dead sperm and enhanced by preincubation of the sperm in calcium-free medium. In other species, the presence of sperm killed by freezing and thawing has been associated with the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportion of eggs fertilized by cryopreserved C57BL/6J mouse sperm was increased significantly by increasing the volume of fertilization medium in which sperm and eggs were coincubated. Enhanced fertilization occurred even though the concentration of potentially fertile sperm was decreased fivefold. This suggested that if a putative soluble factor was inhibiting fertilization, dilution of that factor, but not the sperm, should increase the fertilization rate. This was achieved by coincubation of the gametes in cell culture inserts (Transwells®) that during incubation were transferred progressively to wells containing fresh fertilization medium. Fertilization rates using inserts were high (66.6±2.4% versus 27.3%±2.8% in wells alone). On the assumption that the soluble factor could be H2O2, reduced glutathione was added to the fertilization medium. This enhanced fertilization rate significantly (76.6%±2.0% versus 21.2%±1.9%), while addition of oxidized glutathione did not (82.7%±6.5% with reduced glutathione; 44.5±8.8% with oxidized glutathione; 47.8%±12.1% with no glutathione). Positive effects of reduced glutathione on IVF were also seen with frozen 129S1, FVB, and C3H sperm, and sperm from two lines of genetically modified C57BL/6J mice. Conclusions/Significance IVF in cell culture inserts and addition of glutathione to fertilization medium significantly increased the proportion of eggs fertilized by cryopreserved mouse sperm from four inbred strains, suggesting that reactive oxygen species generated during fertilization inhibit fertilization. The modified IVF techniques developed here enhance the feasibility

  1. Effect of age on sperm fertility potential: oocyte donation as a model.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, E; Simón, C; Levy, M; Guanes, P P; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A

    1996-08-01

    To determine the effect of age on sperm fecundability using oocyte donation as an in vivo model. Oocyte donation and IVF programs at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Retrospective study in which four groups of oocyte donation cycles were established according to age of the male providing the semen sample: group 1 (n = 31) < 30 years; group 2 (n = 195) 31 to 40 years; group 3 (n = 98) 41 to 50 years; group 4 (n = 21) > 51 years, the oldest being 64 years. All donated oocytes were obtained from patients < 35 years old. Male age, sperm characteristics (volume, concentration, motility, morphology), fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and abortion rates among recipients. Similar sperm characteristics in fresh as well as after preparation for IVF were observed among males of different ages. Fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy, and implantation were similar among the established groups. The mean age of the females included in each group significantly increased from group 1 to group 4. Age (up to 64 years) does not affect sperm characteristics or its ability to fertilize human eggs. Similarly, embryo development in vitro as well as implantation in recipient uteri are not affected by age of the male providing the semen sample.

  2. [Application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shu-Min; You, Fan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the low effectiveness of traditional assisted reproductive technology (ART), new technological possibilities are constantly explored. Lots of studies have demonstrated the potential of microfluidics to revolutionize the fundamental processes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). With the advantages of high efficiency, short time, harmless collection, real-time observation of separation, similar microenvironment, and automation, the application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and IVF has shown an evident superiority over the conventional approaches and provided a new platform for ART. This review highlights the application of various microfluidic techniques in sperm motility assessment and isolation, sperm chemotaxis assay, IVF, sperm concentration, and sperm separation and enrichment in recent years. It also briefly introduces the basic principles, structural design, and operation processes of the microfluidic platform, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the potential of their clinical application. Obviously, there are still some challenges to the application of microfluidics in ART. However, it is believed that the development of this new technology would be toward a highly integrated application of several steps in one single device, known as IVF-lab-on-a-chip.

  3. Modification of trout sperm membranes associated with activation and cryopreservation. Implications for fertilizing potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract We investigated the effects of two trout sperm activation solutions on sperm physiology and membrane organization prior to and following cryopreservation using flow cytometry and investigated their impact on in vitro fertility. Cryopreservation caused greater phospholipid disorder (high pl...

  4. Ultrastructure of sperm, spermiogenesis, and sperm-egg interactions in selected invertebrates and lower vertebrates which use external fertilization.

    PubMed

    Koch, R A; Lambert, C C

    1990-10-01

    This review discusses the ultrastructure of sperm with reference to their development, the surface morphology of the egg, and the processes of sperm binding and penetration during fertilization. These topics are treated for selected invertebrates and lower vertebrates which live in aquatic environments and fertilize their eggs externally. Specifically, sperm eggs from cnidarians, echinoderms, decapod crustaceans, ascidians, lampreys, bony fishes, and amphibians are discussed. Sperm from the majority of these groups exhibit the classical head-midregion-tail configuration characteristic of primitive sperm. Specific variations within this general morphology have been described. The notable exceptions to the primitive-sperm paradigm are the sperm of decapod crustaceans and amphibians. Eggs from all of the animals considered are covered by complex vitelline envelopes except those of cnidarians. In general, the ultrastructural analysis of these egg envelopes shows that they are composed of fibrous subunits. Sperm bind to the vitelline envelope and then penetrate through it to fertilize the egg in all groups reviewed except fishes. In sperm ultrastructure which occur during penetration of the egg envelopes in both flagellated and non-flagellated sperm. These changes, which involve membrane fusion and reorganization as well as movement of membranous organelles, aid the sperm in reaching the actual site of gamete fusion.

  5. Effect of postthaw storage time and sperm-to-egg ratio on fertility of cryopreserved brook trout sperm.

    PubMed

    Nynca, J; Dietrich, G J; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Ciereszko, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of postthaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of brook trout (n = 9). Furthermore, we examined the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of postthaw, cryopreserved, brook trout sperm. The application of a cryopreservation procedure produced very high postthaw sperm motility (56.8 ± 4.0%). The cryopreserved sperm of brook trout could be stored up to 60 minutes without loss of the percentage of sperm motility (52.0 ± 9.0%). The fertilization capacity of brook trout postthaw sperm was comparable with the fertilization rate of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1 (42.4 ± 14.0% and 36.5 ± 11.0% for eyed and hatched stages, respectively). The possibility of postthaw semen storage for the prolonged time and the obtainment of high fertilization rate at low sperm-to-egg ratio can lead to the significant improvement of brook trout semen cryopreservation procedure.

  6. Sperm DNA damage or progressive motility: which one is the better predictor of fertilization in vitro?

    PubMed

    Simon, Luke; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm progressive motility has been reported to be one of the key factors influencing in vitro fertilization rates. However, recent studies have shown that sperm DNA fragmentation is a more robust predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes including reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. This study aimed to compare the usefulness of sperm progressive motility and DNA damage as predictive tools of in vitro fertilization rates. Here, 136 couples provided 1,767 eggs with an overall fertilization rate of 64.2%. The fertilization rate in vitro correlated with both sperm progressive motility (r² = 0.236; P = 0.002) and DNA fragmentation (r² = -0.318; P < 0.001). The relative risk of a poor fertilization rate was 9.5 times higher in sperm of men with high DNA fragmentation (>40%) compared with 2.6 times in sperm with poor motility (<40%). Further, sperm DNA fragmentation gave a higher specificity (93.3%) in predicting the fertilization rate than progressive motility (77.8%). Finally, the odds ratio to determine fertilization rate (>70%) was 4.81 (1.89-12.65) using progressive motility compared with 24.18 (5.21-154.51) using DNA fragmentation. This study shows that fertilization rates are directly dependent upon both sperm progressive motility and DNA fragmentation, but sperm DNA fragmentation is a much stronger test.

  7. Heterologous in vitro fertilization and sperm capacitation in an endangered African antelope, the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Weiss, R B; Buff, J L; Bush, L M; Wildt, D E; Bush, M

    1998-02-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx sperm function was studied using protocols developed for domestic cattle. Objectives were to assess sperm 1) viability and motility in vitro over time, 2) capacitation in heparin- or calcium-supplemented medium, and 3) function in an in vitro fertilization system using heterologous (domestic cow) oocytes. Seminal aliquots were washed, and sperm were resuspended in 1) Talp with 5% fetal calf serum (TALP), 2) TALP + 10 microM heparin, 3) TALP + 20 microM heparin, and 4) TALP + 10 mM CaCl. At 0, 3, and 6 h, aliquots were evaluated for sperm motility, viability (using Hoechst 33258), and ability to acrosome-react when exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine (LC). Sperm function was assessed by evaluating fertilization and embryo development after coculture of in vitro-matured domestic cow oocytes with oryx sperm. Overall mean percentages of motile and viable sperm remained high at 6 h (> 60% and > 70%, respectively). Fewer (p < 0.05) sperm incubated in TALP + 10 microM heparin for 6 h contained intact acrosomes after exposure to LC, but there were no differences between LC and control samples after incubation in TALP without heparin. LC-treated sperm in TALP + 10 mM CaCl contained fewer (p < 0.05) intact acrosomes at 3 and 6 h (52.6% and 31.2%, respectively) than paired controls (83.6% and 70.0%, respectively). Oryx sperm from all males were capable of fertilizing cow oocytes (range 17 of 26 [65.4%] to 25 of 26 [96.2%]). Of the 55 2-cell embryos produced, 34 (61.8%) developed to > or = 8 cells. Of the 24 uncleaved oocytes, 7 (29.2%) were polyspermic. These data demonstrate that processed sperm from the endangered scimitar-horned oryx remain vigorous in vitro for at least 6 h. Capacitation can be induced using cattle sperm-processing techniques, with sperm appearing most responsive to elevated CaCl concentrations. Most interesting was the successful production and development of hybrid embryos after coincubation of oryx sperm with cow oocytes, suggesting

  8. Evaluation of sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona pellucida binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate.

  9. Sperm population structure and male fertility: an intraspecific study of sperm design and velocity in red deer.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Manuel; Soler, Ana Josefa; Ortiz, José Antonio; García-Alvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Garde, José Julián

    2013-11-01

    Sperm design and velocity play key roles in influencing sperm performance and, therefore, can determine fertilization success. Several interspecific studies have demonstrated how these features correlate, and it has been hypothesized that selection may drive changes in these sperm traits. Here, we examine the association between sperm design and swimming velocity in a study conducted at an intraspecific level in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). We addressed how the structure of different sperm subpopulations, based on sperm morphometry and velocity, are interrelated and, in turn, how they associate with fertility. Our results show that males with high fertility rates have ejaculates with high percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting fast and linear movements and that these are highly correlated with a large proportion of spermatozoa having small and elongated heads. On the other hand, males with low fertility are characterized by a subpopulation structure in which slow and nonlinear as well as small and wide spermatozoa are predominant. These findings provide insight regarding how sperm size and velocity are interrelated and how they both are associated with fertility.

  10. Oocyte activation ability correlates with head flatness and presence of perinuclear theca substance in human and mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chizuru; Akutsu, Hidenori; Yao, Ryoji; Kyono, Koichi; Suzuki-Toyota, Fumie; Toyama, Yoshiro; Maekawa, Mamiko; Noda, Tetsuo; Toshimori, Kiyotaka

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that round-headed sperm cannot activate oocytes and lack the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) or perinuclear theca (PT), although normal flat-headed sperm can activate oocytes and do have PAS (PT). In this study, we investigated how oocyte activation ability correlates with sperm head morphology (round and flat) and the presence of PT, by studying MN13, a representative molecule of the PT. We analyzed sperm with flat and round heads from infertile patients with globozoospermia (n = 1) and teratozoospermia (n = 1), and also from GOPC(-/-) mice, an animal model of human globozoospermia. Differential interference contrast image analysis, immunocytochemistry with MN13 antibody, transmission electron microscopy and an oocyte activation assay (assessing pronucleus formation) with ICSI were used. Flat-headed (control) sperm from both a healthy fertile volunteer man and wild-type mice had MN13 and PAS (PT). Flat-headed sperm (<5% of the population) from GOPC(-/-) mice also had both MN13 and PAS (PT), and they showed high oocyte activation ability. In contrast, round-headed sperm from a globozoospermia patient (100%) and GOPC(-/-) mice (>95% of the population) had neither MN13, nor PAS (PT), nor oocyte activation ability. Oocyte activation was higher in flat- versus round-headed sperm from GOPC(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). Oocyte activation ability may be related to sperm head flatness and presence of MN13 and PAS (PT) in human and mouse sperm. This information is a first step towards the possibility of selecting good-quality sperm with high oocyte activation ability for ICSI.

  11. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  12. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  13. Mice expressing aberrant sperm-specific protein PMIS2 produce normal-looking but fertilization-incompetent spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryo; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru

    2012-07-01

    Eight kinds of gene-disrupted mice (Clgn, Calr3, Pdilt, Tpst2, Ace, Adam1a, Adam2, and Adam3) show impaired sperm transition into the oviducts and defective sperm binding to the zona pellucida. All of these knockout strains are reported to lack or show aberrant expression of a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 3 (ADAM3) on the sperm membrane. We performed proteomic analyses of the proteins of these infertile spermatozoa to clarify whether the abnormal function is caused exclusively by a deficiency in ADAM3 expression. Two proteins, named PMIS1 and PMIS2, were missing in spermatozoa from Clgn-disrupted mice. To study their roles, we generated two gene-disrupted mouse lines. Pmis1-knockout mice were fertile, but Pmis2-knockout males were sterile because of a failure of sperm transport into the oviducts. Pmis2-deficient spermatozoa also failed to bind to the zona pellucida. However, they showed normal fertilizing ability when eggs surrounded with cumulus cells were used for in vitro fertilization. Further analysis revealed that these spermatozoa lacked the ADAM3 protein, but the amount of PMIS2 was also severely reduced in Adam3-deficient spermatozoa. These results suggest that PMIS2 might function both as the ultimate factor regulating sperm transport into the oviducts and in modulating sperm-zona binding.

  14. Unlocking sperm chromatin at fertilization requires a dedicated egg thioredoxin in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tirmarche, Samantha; Kimura, Shuhei; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice; Loppin, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In most animals, the extreme compaction of sperm DNA is achieved after the massive replacement of histones with sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), such as protamines. In some species, the ultracompact sperm chromatin is stabilized by a network of disulfide bonds connecting cysteine residues present in SNBPs. Studies in mammals have established that the reduction of these disulfide crosslinks at fertilization is required for sperm nuclear decondensation and the formation of the male pronucleus. Here, we show that the Drosophila maternal thioredoxin Deadhead (DHD) is specifically required to unlock sperm chromatin at fertilization. In dhd mutant eggs, the sperm nucleus fails to decondense and the replacement of SNBPs with maternally-provided histones is severely delayed, thus preventing the participation of paternal chromosomes in embryo development. We demonstrate that DHD localizes to the sperm nucleus to reduce its disulfide targets and is then rapidly degraded after fertilization. PMID:27876811

  15. Influence of sperm dilution and gamete contact time on the fertilization rate of scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Yoko; Isomura, Naoko; Fukami, Hironobu

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new information on the influence of sperm dilution on the fertilization rates of eight broadcast-spawning scleractinian coral species [three Acropora species and five merulinid species (three genera)]. The presented information nearly doubled the existing information, now totaling 17 species comprising eight acroporid species and nine merulinid species. No obvious differences in the fertilization rates were observed at the family and genus levels; furthermore, the fertilization curve estimated uniquely for Favites pentagona exhibited a strong sigmoid shape, indicating the existence of species-specific variation. In addition, a general fertilization response against sperm dilution was observed for the first time in broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals. The fertilization rate peaked (>75 %) at a sperm concentration of approximately 106 sperm mL-1 (optimal concentration) and rapidly declined to <50 % at a concentration of 104 sperm mL-1. The influence of gamete contact time (10, 30, and 60 min) on fertilization rates was also examined in two Acropora and four merulinid species, at the optimal sperm concentration. No influence of gamete contact time on fertilization rates was observed in two of the examined species ( Acropora papillare and Platygyra ryukyuensis), whereas reduced fertilization rates occurred mostly in the 10-min treatment for the other species. These results suggested that broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals can rapidly fertilize, indicating that these corals have a fair chance of achieving high fertilization success in the field under optimal conditions. The sperm concentration values (e.g., 104 sperm mL-1, indicating <50 % fertilization rates) may be useful in estimating the success of in situ fertilization of broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals, particularly in degraded, low-density populations where the degree of fertilization success is of management concern. Information on the fertilization ecology of scleractinian

  16. Fertilization in the sea: are the hazards of broadcast spawning avoided when free-spawned sperm fertilize retained eggs?

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, J. D. D.

    1998-01-01

    In broadcast-spawning marine animals, rapid dilution and short lifespan of sperm following release may impose severely localized patterns of mating. Partial or total failure of external fertilization due to sperm limitation appears commonplace. However, it is not clear to what extent the restrictive kinetics of fertilization in water also constrain mating in animals that release sperm but retain their eggs for fertilization.
    The compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum liberates sperm that are dispersed to other colonies and taken in prior to internal cross-fertilization. The fertile lifespan of sperm was found to be long (half-life ca. 8 hours), and a substantial number of fertilizations occurred with 24-hour-old sperm. Fertilizations were obtained from sperm concentrations that would typically produce little or no external fertilization. In a separate experiment, a very small piece of D. listerianum (dry weight less than 2 mg) sired abundant progeny throughout a 3840 l tank. Paternity of progeny in these experiments was confirmed by molecular markers. The same markers were used to extend, to over seven weeks, the known maximum period of storage of exogenous sperm prior to fertilization in this species.
    The production of only a few thousand sperm at a time by each zooid, poor synchronization of release between zooids, and the existence of many well-spaced exhalant openings in large colonies suggest that D. listerianum is incapable of generating a dense plume of sperm, even close to the source. It is suggested that, unlike external fertilization, successful internal cross-fertilization in D. listerianum is not dependent upon the interception of a dense cloud of gametes just released by a near neighbour. It seems instead that dilute, long-lived sperm can be extracted efficiently from seawater by this suspension feeder, potentially over a period of time. This capability, and other features of the life history, make it unlikely that sperm limitation is an acute

  17. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  18. An update on post-ejaculatory remodeling of the sperm surface before mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M; Boerke, A

    2016-01-01

    The fusion of a sperm with an oocyte to form new life is a highly regulated event. The activation-also termed capacitation-of the sperm cell is one of the key preparative steps required for this process. Ejaculated sperm has to make a journey through the female uterus and oviduct before it can approach the oocyte. The oocyte at that moment also has become prepared to facilitate monospermic fertilization and block immediately thereafter the chance for polyspermic fertilization. Interestingly, ejaculated sperm is not properly capacitated and consequently is not yet able to fertilize the oocyte. During the capacitation process, the formation of competent lipid-protein domains on the sperm head enables sperm-cumulus and zona pellucida interactions. This sperm binding allows the onset for a cascade reaction ultimately resulting in oocyte-sperm fusion. Many different lipids and proteins from the sperm surface are involved in this process. Sperm surface processing already starts when sperm are liberated from the seminiferous tubules and is followed by epididymal maturation where the sperm cell surface is modified and loaded with proteins to ensure it is prepared for its fertilization task. Although cauda epididymal sperm can fertilize the oocyte IVF, they are coated with so-called decapacitation factors during ejaculation. The seminal plasma-induced stabilization of the sperm surface permits the sperm transit through the cervix and uterus but prevents sperm capacitation and thus inhibits fertilization. For IVF purposes, sperm are washed out of seminal plasma and activated to get rid of decapacitation factors. Only after capacitation, the sperm can fertilize the oocyte. In recent years, IVF has become a widely used tool to achieve successful fertilization in both the veterinary field and human medicine. Although IVF procedures are very successful, scientific knowledge is still far from complete when identifying all the molecular players and processes during the first

  19. Deficiency in Sperm-Egg Protein Interaction as a Major Cause of Fertilization Failure.

    PubMed

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2017-04-01

    Complete elucidation of fertilization process at molecular level is one of the unresolved challenges in sexual reproduction studies, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in overcoming difficulties in infertility and unsuccessful in vitro fertilization. Sperm-oocyte interaction is one of the most remarkable events in fertilization process, and deficiency in protein-protein interactions which mediate this interaction is a major cause of unexplained infertility. Due to detection of how the various defects of sperm-oocyte interaction can affect fertilization failure, different experimental methods have been applied. This review summarizes the current understanding of sperm-egg interaction mechanism during fertilization and also accumulates the different types of sperm-egg interaction abnormalities and their association with infertility. Several detection approaches regarding sperm-egg protein interactions and the associated defects are reviewed in this paper.

  20. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  1. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  2. Sperm acrosin is responsible for the sperm binding to the egg envelope during fertilization in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Yoshizaki, Norio; Dohra, Hideo; Kubo, Hideo

    2011-08-01

    An antibody library against quail sperm plasma membrane components was established and a mAb, which strongly inhibits sperm perforations of the perivitelline membrane (PVM) was obtained from the library. The antigen molecule of the mAb showed an apparent molecular weight of 45  kDa, and was distributed both on the surface and in the acrosomal matrix of the sperm head. Periodate oxidation revealed that the epitope of the antigen includes a sugar moiety. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the antigen revealed that the mAb recognizes sperm acrosin. When sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized PVM immobilized on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane was incubated with sperm plasma membrane lysates, the sperm acrosin was detected on the PVM immobilized on the membrane, indicating that the sperm acrosin interacts with the components of PVM. Indeed, the mAb effectively inhibited the binding of acrosome-intact sperm to the PVM. These results indicate that the 45  kDa sperm acrosin is involved in the binding of sperm to the PVM in fertilization of Japanese quail.

  3. Not All Sperm Are Equal: Functional Mitochondria Characterize a Subpopulation of Human Sperm with Better Fertilization Potential

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Amaral, Alexandra; Baptista, Marta; Tavares, Renata; Caballero Campo, Pedro; Caballero Peregrín, Pedro; Freitas, Albertina; Paiva, Artur; Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2011-01-01

    Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality. PMID:21448461

  4. Effects of liquid preservation of sperm on their ability to activate oocytes and initiate preimplantational development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the pig.

    PubMed

    Binh, N T; Van Thuan, N; Miyake, M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of liquid preservation conditions on the ability of pig sperm to activate oocytes, form a male pronucleus, and initiate preimplantational development of embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Porcine ejaculates were preserved at 4, 14, and 24 degrees C for up to 48h, and then damage to the plasma membrane, morphologic changes of the acrosome, and the amount of phospholipase Czeta (PLCzeta) in the sperm were assessed by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blots, respectively. The proportion of sperm with a disintegrated plasma membrane or damaged acrosome increased in all samples as the duration of preservation increased, although the time courses of the increases varied among preservation temperatures. The immunolocalization and immunoreactivity of PLCzeta in the sperm showed its reduction concurrent with disintegration of the plasma membrane and acrosome. Rates of oocyte activation, male-pronuclear formation, and blastocyst formation after ICSI using sperm preserved for 18h at 24 degrees C (78%, 62%, and 35%, respectively) and for 48h at 14 degrees C (63%, 53%, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of any other sperm sample. We concluded that the damage to the plasma membrane and acrosome, and a sufficient amount of PLCzeta in the sperm head, enhanced successful oocyte activation, fertilization, and early development of the oocytes after ICSI. Moreover, we inferred that appropriate liquid preservation of sperm improved the efficiency of blastocyst production in vitro after ICSI in pigs.

  5. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen.

  6. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Identification of Bovine Sperm Surface Proteins Involved in Carbohydrate-mediated Fertilization Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glycan-protein interactions play a key role in mammalian fertilization, but data on the composition and identities of protein complexes involved in fertilization events are scarce, with the added complication that the glycans in such interactions tend to differ among species. In this study we have used a bovine model to detect, characterize and identify sperm lectins relevant in fertilization. Given the complexity of the sperm-toward-egg journey, two important aspects of the process, both primarily mediated by protein-sugar interactions, have been addressed: (1) formation of the sperm reservoir in the oviductal epithelium, and (2) gamete recognition (oocyte-sperm interaction). Using whole sperm cells and a novel affinity capture method, several groups of proteins with different glycan specificities, including 58 hitherto unreported as lectins, have been identified in sperm surface, underscoring both the efficacy of our selective approach and the complex composition and function of sperm. Based on these results and previous data, we suggest that sperm surface proteins play significant roles in fertilization events such as membrane remodeling, transport, protection and function, thus supporting the hypothesis that rather than a simple lock-and-key model, mammalian fertilization relies on a complex interactome involving multiple ligands/receptors and recognition/binding events. PMID:27094474

  8. Poor prediction value of sperm head morphometry for fertility and litter size in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J-S; Lavara, R; Balasch, S; Viudes-de-Castro, M-P

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictive capacity of fertility and litter size of sperm head morphometric measurements when the ejaculates fulfilled the minimum requirements commonly used in artificial insemination (AI). Semen samples from 11 rabbits (77 ejaculates) were evaluated for sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa and sperm head morphometry using computer automated sperm analysis system. Morphometric dimensions for length, width, area and perimeter were analysed. Only ejaculates with more than 70% of motility rate and <15% of abnormal sperm were used for AI. A total of 1031 individual AI were performed in commercial rabbitries. Our results showed significant differences among animals for all sperm head measurements. The mean values for fertility and litter size obtained were 68.4 ± 0.01% and 9.3 ± 0.1% respectively. To assess the predictive value of morphometric dimensions in fertility, a logistic regression analysis was applied. Moreover, multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between litter size and sperm head morphometric parameters. Logistic regression analysis rendered a significant model between fertility and area and perimeter, explaining the 0.65% variation. Multiple linear regression analysis rendered a significant model between litter size and width, area and perimeter that explained the 1.3% variation. By conclusion, the sperm head morphometric parameters assay showed low potential to predict fertility and litter size when the ejaculates fulfilled the minimum requirements commonly used in AI (motility and abnormal spermatozoa) in rabbit. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  10. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands’ sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P < 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P < 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P < 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P < 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes. PMID:25652630

  11. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  12. The role of sperm proteasomes during sperm aster formation and early zygote development: implications for fertilization failure in humans.

    PubMed

    Rawe, Vanesa Y; Díaz, Emilce S; Abdelmassih, Roger; Wójcik, Cezary; Morales, Patricio; Sutovsky, Peter; Chemes, Héctor E

    2008-03-01

    BACKGROUND Sperm aster organization during bovine and human fertilization requires a paternally-derived centriole that must first disengage from the sperm tail connecting-piece. We investigated the participation of the 26S proteasome in this process. METHODS Proteasome localization and enzymatic activity were studied in normal and pathological human spermatozoa by immunocytochemistry and enzyme-substrate assays. The role of proteasomes during bovine zygote development was investigated using a pharmacological proteasome-inhibitor, MG132, and with anti-proteasome antibodies delivered by Streptolysin O-permeabilization or with the Chariot reagent. Human zygotes discarded after ICSI failures (n = 28) were also examined. RESULTS Proteasomes were localized in the sperm acrosome and connecting-piece, as well as in the pronuclei of bovine and human zygotes. Proteasomal enzymatic activities were decreased in defective human spermatozoa. Disrupted sperm aster formation and pronuclear development were found after pharmacological and immunological block of proteasomes in human/bovine spermatozoa and oocytes, as well as in 28 discarded human post-ICSI fertilization failures. CONCLUSIONS Specific proteasome inhibition disrupts sperm aster formation and pronuclear development/apposition in bovine and human zygotes. Human spermatozoa with defective centriolar/pericentriolar structures have decreased proteasomal enzymatic activity. Release of a functional sperm centriole that acts as a zygote microtubule-organizing center probably relies on selective proteasomal proteolysis. These findings suggest an important role of sperm proteasomes in zygotic development.

  13. Mouse SLLP1, a sperm lysozyme-like protein involved in sperm-egg binding and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Mandal, Arabinda; Digilio, Laura C; Coonrod, Scott A; Maier, Bernhard; Herr, John C

    2005-08-01

    This study demonstrates the retention of mouse sperm lysozyme-like protein (mSLLP1) in the equatorial segment of spermatozoa following the acrosome reaction and a role for mSLLP1 in sperm-egg binding and fertilization. Treatment of cumulus intact oocytes with either recmSLLP1 or its antiserum resulted in a significant (P < or = 0.05) inhibition of fertilization. Co-incubation of zona-free mouse oocytes with capacitated mouse spermatozoa in the presence of varying concentrations of anti-recmSLLP1 serum or recmSLLP1 also inhibited sperm-oolemma binding. A complete inhibition of binding and fusion of spermatozoa to the oocyte occurred at 12.5 muM concentration of recmSLLP1, while conventional chicken and human lysozymes did not block sperm-egg binding. mSLLP1 showed receptor sites in the perivitelline space as well as on the microvillar region of the egg plasma membrane. The retention of mSLLP1 in the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted sperm, the inhibitory effects of both recmSLLP1 and antibodies to SLLP1 on in vitro fertilization with both cumulus intact and zona-free eggs, and the definition of complementary SLLP1-binding sites on the egg plasma membrane together support the hypothesis that a c lysozyme-like protein is involved in the binding of spermatozoa to the egg plasma membrane during fertilization.

  14. Effect of sperm entry on blastocyst development after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection - mouse model.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Nitsche, Karolina; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), influence the embryo's development and its quality using the mouse as a model. Assisted fertilization was performed using ICSI and IVF. Fluorescent beads were adhered to the fertilization cone or place of previous sperm injection in the natural mated (NM), IVF and ICSI embryos, respectively. Embryo examination was carried out at the two-cell and blastocyst stage to determine the position of fluorescent bead. Protein expression was detected by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopic imaging of blastocysts. IVF and ICSI embryos developed at rates comparable to NM group. Embryos show similar expression patterns of two transcription factors, Oct4 and Cdx2. The most preferred place for spermatozoa attachment was the equatorial site of the egg, whether fertilization occurred in vitro or under natural conditions. We also link the sperm entry position (SEP) to embryo morphology and the number of cells at the blastocyst stage, with no influence of the method of fertilization. IVF and ICSI, do not compromise in vitro pre-implantation development. Additional data, related to sperm entry, could offer further criteria to predict embryos that will implant successfully. Based on embryo morphology, developmental rate and protein expression level of key transcription factors, our results support the view that ART techniques, such as IVF and ICSI, do not perturb embryonic development or quality.

  15. Laminin-111 Inhibits Bovine Fertilization but Improves Embryonic Development in vitro, and Receptor Integrin-β1 is Involved in Sperm-Oocyte Binding.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Huang, C-J; Liu, C-S; Guo, L-L; Liu, G; Liu, H-J

    2016-10-01

    This study detected the distribution of laminin during embryonic formation by immunofluorescence. To determine the possible function of laminin on developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos, the presumptive zygotes were divided and transferred to CR1aa medium supplemented with different concentrations (0 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml) of laminin. To explore the association with sperm-oocyte fusion, oocytes and/or sperm were pre-incubated with laminin or anti-β1 antibody before insemination. Laminin was absent in mature oocytes and could be detected first at the 8-cell stage and then displayed an increasing tendency. Adding 10 μg/ml laminin to the culture medium improved embryonic development including cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, total cell numbers in the blastocyst and cell numbers in the inner cell mass. Laminin inhibited sperm-oocyte fusion when incubated with oocytes and/or sperm before in vitro fertilization, and only integrin-β1 of sperm was involved in sperm-oocyte binding. Inhibition may be caused by blocking β1, but why laminin inhibits fertilization is still unknown. The results suggest that laminin plays an important role during embryonic formation and has a negative function in sperm-oocyte fusion, but improves embryonic development. However, only integrin-β1 is involved in sperm-oocyte binding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Fertility prediction of frozen boar sperm using novel and conventional analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frozen-thawed boar sperm is seldom used for artificial insemination (AI) because fertility is lower than fresh or cooled semen. Despite the many advantages of AI including reduced pathogen exposure and ease of semen transport, cryo-induced damage to sperm usually results in decreased litter sizes a...

  17. Broiler Breeder Sperm Mobility Phenotype and its Effects on Female Fertility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Semen quality in poultry can be characterized by different phenotypic traits including volume, concentration, mobility, viability, and sperm morphology. To date, sperm mobility phenotype has been shown to be the most reliable indicator of male fertilizing potential under artificial insemination (AI...

  18. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  19. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  20. Young Men With Cancer Experience Low Referral Rates for Fertility Counseling and Sperm Banking.

    PubMed

    Grover, Natalie S; Deal, Allison M; Wood, William A; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    With improved cancer survival rates and the current trend of delaying parenthood, fertility is a growing issue among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fertility counseling and sperm banking in reproductive-age male cancer patients and to assess factors that influence counseling and banking. Male patients ages 13 to 50 years who received a new cancer diagnosis from January 1, 2013, to May 1, 2015, and planned to initiate curative chemotherapy at our center were identified. Documentation of fertility counseling and sperm cryopreservation was abstracted from the medical record. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine variables associated with fertility counseling and sperm banking. Of 201 patients who fit the study criteria, 59 (29%) received fertility counseling and 23 (11%) attempted sperm banking. All patients who banked sperm had documentation of fertility counseling. Younger patients were significantly more likely to be counseled, with mean ages of 27.4 and 40.4 years for counseled and noncounseled patients, respectively (P < .001). Among counseled patients, those with a lower median income (P = .038) or who had Medicaid or no insurance (P = .042) were less likely to bank sperm. In a multivariable logistic regression model, older age (5-year odds ratio, 0.61; P < .001) and presence of comorbidities (odds ratio, 0.15; P = .03) remained significantly associated with a lower counseling rate. There is a low rate of fertility counseling and referral for sperm banking in young men with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Further work is needed to develop interventions to improve fertility counseling rates and opportunities for sperm banking. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Intact Cell MALDI-TOF MS on Sperm: A Molecular Test For Male Fertility Diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Laura; Grasseau, Isabelle; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Currently, evaluation of sperm quality is primarily based on in vitro measures of sperm function such as motility, viability and/or acrosome reaction. However, results are often poorly correlated with fertility, and alternative diagnostic tools are therefore needed both in veterinary and human medicine. In a recent pilot study, we demonstrated that MS profiles from intact chicken sperm using MALDI-TOF profiles could detect significant differences between fertile/subfertile spermatozoa showing that such profiles could be useful for in vitro male fertility testing. In the present study, we performed larger standardized experimental procedures designed for the development of fertility- predictive mathematical models based on sperm cell MALDI-TOF MS profiles acquired through a fast, automated method. This intact cell MALDI-TOF MS-based method showed high diagnostic accuracy in identifying fertile/subfertile males in a large male population of known fertility from two distinct genetic lineages (meat and egg laying lines). We additionally identified 40% of the m/z peaks observed in sperm MS profiles through a top-down high-resolution protein identification analysis. This revealed that the MALDI-TOF MS spectra obtained from intact sperm cells contained a large proportion of protein degradation products, many implicated in important functional pathways in sperm such as energy metabolism, structure and movement. Proteins identified by our predictive model included diverse and important functional classes providing new insights into sperm function as it relates to fertility differences in this experimental system. Thus, in addition to the chicken model system developed here, with the use of appropriate models these methods should effectively translate to other animal taxa where similar tests for fertility are warranted. PMID:27044871

  2. Intact Cell MALDI-TOF MS on Sperm: A Molecular Test For Male Fertility Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laura; Labas, Valérie; Thélie, Aurore; Grasseau, Isabelle; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Currently, evaluation of sperm quality is primarily based on in vitro measures of sperm function such as motility, viability and/or acrosome reaction. However, results are often poorly correlated with fertility, and alternative diagnostic tools are therefore needed both in veterinary and human medicine. In a recent pilot study, we demonstrated that MS profiles from intact chicken sperm using MALDI-TOF profiles could detect significant differences between fertile/subfertile spermatozoa showing that such profiles could be useful for in vitro male fertility testing. In the present study, we performed larger standardized experimental procedures designed for the development of fertility- predictive mathematical models based on sperm cell MALDI-TOF MS profiles acquired through a fast, automated method. This intact cell MALDI-TOF MS-based method showed high diagnostic accuracy in identifying fertile/subfertile males in a large male population of known fertility from two distinct genetic lineages (meat and egg laying lines). We additionally identified 40% of the m/z peaks observed in sperm MS profiles through a top-down high-resolution protein identification analysis. This revealed that the MALDI-TOF MS spectra obtained from intact sperm cells contained a large proportion of protein degradation products, many implicated in important functional pathways in sperm such as energy metabolism, structure and movement. Proteins identified by our predictive model included diverse and important functional classes providing new insights into sperm function as it relates to fertility differences in this experimental system. Thus, in addition to the chicken model system developed here, with the use of appropriate models these methods should effectively translate to other animal taxa where similar tests for fertility are warranted.

  3. Slimmer or Fertile? Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in Reduced Sperm Quality and Fertility in Rats Exposed to the Anorexigen Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Cibele S.; Missassi, Gabriela; Pacini, Enio S. A.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A.; Sanabria, Marciana; Silva, Raquel F.; Banzato, Thais P.; Perobelli, Juliana E.; Pupo, André S.; Kempinas, Wilma G.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

  4. Characterization of fertilization-blocking monoclonal antibody 1G12 with human sperm-immobilizing activity

    PubMed Central

    KOMORI, S; KAMEDA, K; SAKATA, K; HASEGAWA, A; TOJI, H; TSUJI, Y; SHIBAHARA, H; KOYAMA, K; ISOJIMA, S

    1997-01-01

    A mouse hybridoma (1G12) producing sperm-immobilizing MoAb to human sperm was established and characterized in order to study the antigens relevant to sperm immobilization by antibodies. MoAb 1G12 had strong sperm-immobilizing and agglutinating activities and also showed a fertilization-blocking activity on in vitro fertilization tests. The antibody absorption experiments showed that MoAb 1G12 reacted not only to ejaculated sperm but also human seminal plasma, suggesting that the corresponding antigen might be a sperm coating antigen. The MoAb also reacted with peripheral blood lymphocytes. In histochemical studies, the epithelia of corpus epididymis were most strongly stained. Ejaculated sperm were stained with a granular pattern for their entire surface by immunofluorescence. MoAb 1G12 recognized polymorphic glycoproteins of 15–25 kD in the ejaculated sperm extract in Western blot analysis. After deglycosilation of the sperm extract, only a single staining band of under 15 kD was detected by MoAb 1G12. This suggests that the antigen epitope recognized by MoAb 1G12 might be a peptide of the core portion of the glycoprotein. MoAb 1G12 might be a useful tool for studying the mechanism of egg–sperm interaction, and also be applied to identifying the corresponding antigen by using gene technology. PMID:9328135

  5. Role and Regulation of Sperm Gelsolin Prior to Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Maya; Etkovitz, Nir; Breitbart, Haim

    2010-01-01

    To acquire fertilization competence, spermatozoa should undergo several biochemical changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. The capacitated spermatozoon can interact with the egg zona pellucida resulting in the occurrence of the acrosome reaction, a process that allowed its penetration into the egg and fertilization. Sperm capacitation requires actin polymerization, whereas F-actin must disperse prior to the acrosome reaction. Here, we suggest that the actin-severing protein, gelsolin, is inactive during capacitation and is activated prior to the acrosome reaction. The release of bound gelsolin from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by PBP10, a peptide containing the PIP2-binding domain of gelsolin, or by activation of phospholipase C, which hydrolyzes PIP2, caused rapid Ca2+-dependent F-actin depolymerization as well as enhanced acrosome reaction. Using immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the tyrosine kinase SRC and gelsolin coimmunoprecipitate, and activating SRC by adding 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) enhanced the amount of gelsolin in this precipitate. Moreover, 8-Br-cAMP enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of gelsolin and its binding to PIP2(4,5), both of which inactivated gelsolin, allowing actin polymerization during capacitation. This actin polymerization was blocked by inhibiting the Src family kinases, suggesting that gelsolin is activated under these conditions. These results are further supported by our finding that PBP10 was unable to cause complete F-actin breakdown in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP or vanadate. In conclusion, inactivation of gelsolin during capacitation occurs by its binding to PIP2 and tyrosine phosphorylation by SRC. The release of gelsolin from PIP2 together with its dephosphorylation enables gelsolin activation, resulting in the acrosome reaction. PMID:20937821

  6. Inhibition of sperm capacitation and fertilizing capacity by adjudin is mediated by chloride and its channels in humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Ni, Ya; He, Yi; Chen, Wen-Ying; Lu, Jian-Xin; Cheng, C. Yan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Shi, Qi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does adjudin disrupt chloride ion (Cl−) ion transport function in human sperm and impede sperm capacitation and fertilizing ability in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER In this study the results indicate that adjudin is a potent blocker of Cl− channels: disrupting Cl− ion transport function results in a decline in sperm capacitation and fertilizing ability in humans in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although our previous studies have demonstrated that adjudin exerts its effect by disrupting sertoli-germ cell adhesion junctions, most notably apical ectoplasmic specialization by targeting testin and actin filament bundles that disrupts the actin-based cytoskeleton in sertoli cells, it remains unclear whether adjudin impedes Cl− ion transport function in the human sperm. STUDY DESIGIN, SIZE AND DURATION Semen samples were obtained from 45 fertile men (aged 25–32). Spermatozoa were isolated from the semen in the human tube fluid (HTF) medium by centrifugation through a discontinuous Percoll gradient, and incubated with adjudin at 10 nM–10 µM and/or other reagents under capacitating conditions for 0–5 h. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We evaluated the effect of adjudin and different reagents on sperm functions with which they were incubated at 37°C. Sperm motility and hyperactivation were analyzed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction were assessed by chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Sperm fertilizing ability was evaluated by sperm penetration of zona-free hamster egg assay, and cellular cAMP levels in spermatozoa were quantified by the EIA kit. The proteins tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation in the presence or absence of adjudin were analyzed by means of a immunodetection of spermatozoa, especially, compared the effect of adjudin on sperm hyperactivation and capacitation in the complete HTF medium with the Cl−-deficient HTF medium as well as the various Cl

  7. Fertilization capacity of cryopreserved Iberian ibex epididymal sperm in a heterologous in vitro fertilization assay.

    PubMed

    López-Saucedo, J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fierro, R; Izquierdo, D; Coloma, M A; Catalá, M G; Jiménez, I; Paramio, M T

    2015-02-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) can be used to assess the fertilization capacity of sperm. Heterologous IVF may be useful when assessing that of wild animals as it is often difficult to obtain adequate numbers of naturally corresponding oocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the fertilization capacity of frozen-thawed ibex epididymal spermatozoa via heterologous IVF involving the oocytes of prepubertal domestic goats. The effect on fertilization and embryo development of adding oestrous sheep serum (ESS) to the fertilization medium was also examined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in TCM-199 for 24-27 h at 38.5°C in a 5% CO2 in air atmosphere. Frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa were selected by density gradient centrifugation. After maturation, the oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with different concentrations of ESS: SOF-C (0%), SOF-2 (2%) and SOF-20 (20%). At 17 h post-insemination (hpi), zygotes with one female and one male pronucleus (2PN) were categorised as normal; zygotes with 3PN were recorded as polyspermic, and oocytes with 1PN as asynchronous. Cleavage and blastocyst development were assessed at 48 and 168 hpi respectively. The percentage of zygotes with 2PN was higher in the SOF-2 than in the SOF-20 treatment group (27.7% versus 2.9% P < 0.05). The percentage of blastocysts formed with the SOF-C, SOF-2 and SOF-20 treatments were 1.1%, 7.5% and 0% respectively. These results show that the presence of 2% ESS achieves better results than the use of no serum or the standard 20% concentration. Heterologous IVF may be an effective method for predicting the fertilization capacity of ibex spermatozoa, and therefore perhaps that of other wild mountain ungulates.

  8. [Effects of fertilization methods and sperm sources on the developmental capacity of surplus embryos].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-peng; Sun, Hai-xiang; Hu, Ya-li; Zhang, Ning-yuan; Wang, Bin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the effects of fertilization methods and sperm sources in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on the developmental capacity of surplus embryos. We analyzed the blastocyst formation of the surplus embryos from 2 135 patients, who were divided according to fertilization methods into an IVF (n=1803) and an ICSI group (n=332), the former again allocated to a normal fertilization (n=1642) and a rescue fertilization group (n=161), and the latter, according to sperm sources, to an ejaculated (n=248), an epididymal (n=70) and a testicular sperm group (n=14). The rates of blastocyst formation and good-quality blastocysts were compared between different fertilization methods and sperm sources. A total of 1884 blastocysts (28.87%) formed from 6525 surplus embryos of the patients after sequential culture, of which 974 (51.70%) were good-quality ones. The blastocyst formation rate of surplus embryos was significantly higher in the IVF (30.14%) than in the ICSI group (21.40%, P < 0.05), the rate of good-quality blastocysts was also higher in the former (52.44%) than in the latter (45.54%), but with no significant difference (P > 0.05). The rates of blastocyst formation and good-quality blastocysts were significantly higher in the normal (31.04% and 53.28%) than in the rescue fertilization IVF group (20.38% and 38.54%, P < 0.05), and in the testicular sperm ICSI group (30.23% and 53.85%) than in either the epididymal (18.36% and 42.11%) or the ejaculated sperm ICSI group (21.76% and 45.70%) (P < 0.05). The development potential of surplus embryos was higher in IVF than in ICSI, in the normal than in the rescue fertilization IVF group, and in the testicular than in the epididymal and ejaculated sperm ICSI groups.

  9. Mouse sperm basic nuclear protein. Electrophoretic characterization and fate after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Mouse sperm were labeled in vivo with [3H]arginine. The sperm were then followed autoradiographically from the time of label incorporation until after fertilization. The label was completely lost from the sperm head after fertilization, during the oocyte's second meiotic division. That the [3H]arginine was incorporated into a sperm-specific basic protein was demonstrated by fractionating acid extracts of epididymal and ejaculated sperm with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All the histone fractions were resolved in the epididymal extracts, but in addition a band was present that migrated faster than histone F2al and slower than the salmon protamine used as a marker. This new fraction (proposed name: musculine) was also present in ejaculated sperm; it was shown to be the only fraction that was labeled. Musculine therefore represents the end product of a histone transition in mice. It is, however, according to our electrophoretic characterization, not identical to the classical fish protamines. Rather, musculine resembles bovine sperm nuclear protein. Since the loss of this fraction from the sperm head was coincident with the rearrangement of the male genome, before its resumption of transcription, it is suggested that musculine is involved in the control of chromatin that accompanies spermiogenesis and fertilization. PMID:1141382

  10. Cellular Cargo Delivery: Toward Assisted Fertilization by Sperm-Carrying Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schwarz, Lukas; Meyer, Anne K; Hebenstreit, Franziska; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-13

    We present artificially motorized sperm cells-a novel type of hybrid micromotor, where customized microhelices serve as motors for transporting sperm cells with motion deficiencies to help them carry out their natural function. Our results indicate that metal-coated polymer microhelices are suitable for this task due to potent, controllable, and nonharmful 3D motion behavior. We manage to capture, transport, and release single immotile live sperm cells in fluidic channels that allow mimicking physiological conditions. Important steps toward fertilization are addressed by employing proper means of sperm selection and oocyte culturing. Despite the fact that there still remain some challenges on the way to achieve successful fertilization with artificially motorized sperms, we believe that the potential of this novel approach toward assisted reproduction can be already put into perspective with the present work.

  11. The application of in vitro sperm competition test to evaluate the impact of ZP-derived peptides on fertilization capacity of cat sperm.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuyu; Greube, Alexa; Ji, Weizhi; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to establish a sensitive in vitro assay to assess the binding capacity of cat spermatozoa. Cat oocytes and epididymal sperm cells were isolated from gonads and cultured for in vitro fertilization. Before fertilization, the sperm cells were incubated either in 10 microM green dye Fluo-3-AM or 10 microM orange dye CellTracker Orange CMTMR (Molecular Probes), respectively. After removing the dyes by washing, sperm cells stained with each dye were added to medium drops containing oocytes in various proportions and cultured for 16 h at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The oocytes were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm bound to oocytes, and stained with different colors, were counted. When fresh epididymal sperm were mixed in at a specific proportion, the number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes reflected the proportion of differently colored sperm in the medium. This indicated that neither dye influenced the binding capacity of cat sperm. Mixing fresh and cryopreserved sperm, however, resulted in a higher number of fresh sperm bound to the oocyte surface in comparison to frozen-thawed sperm. Also, the pre-incubation of cat sperm cells with ZP derived peptide reduced the sperm binding capacity by 40%. In conclusion, the presented sperm competition assay allows assessment of fertilizing capacity of cat spermatozoa in vitro when a mixture of two different populations is used. The applied supravital fluorescence dyes do not affect motility and binding capacity of sperm cells and were clearly distinguishable under fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the assay can be used to study the impact of sperm treatment, such as cryopreservation or pre-incubation in bioactive peptides, on fertilizing capacity.

  12. Reactive oxygen species mediate pollen tube rupture to release sperm for fertilization in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Johnson, Eric A.; Aggarwal, Mini; Gates, Laura; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2014-01-01

    In flowering plants, sperm are transported inside pollen tubes to the female gametophyte for fertilization. The female gametophyte induces rupture of the penetrating pollen tube, resulting in sperm release and rendering them available for fertilization. Here we utilize the Arabidopsis FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase mutants, whose female gametophytes fail to induce pollen tube rupture, to decipher the molecular mechanism of this critical male-female interactive step. We show that FER controls the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species at the entrance to the female gametophyte to induce pollen tube rupture and sperm release. Pollen tube growth assays in vitro and in the pistil demonstrate that hydroxyl free radicals are likely the most reactive oxygen molecules, and they induce pollen tube rupture in a Ca2+-dependent process involving Ca2+ channel activation. Our results provide evidence for a RHO GTPase-based signalling mechanism to mediate sperm release for fertilization in plants.

  13. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice. PMID:25796034

  14. Relationship between conventional semen characteristics, sperm motility patterns and fertility of Andalusian donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-12-01

    Sperm quality has an important role in determining fertility. The aims of this study were to compare the conventional sperm parameters, plus the characteristics of the motility patterns of the different sperm subpopulations, of donkey donors with different fertility level, and to determine their relationships to fertility. Thirty ejaculates from 6 Andalusian donkeys were assessed for gel-free volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. The fertility of donkeys was classified on the basis of pregnancy rates per cycle, where donkeys with a per cycle pregnancy rate ≥60% were considered to be "fertile" (n=3) and those with a per cycle pregnancy rate <40% were categorized to be "sub-fertile" (n=3). Significant differences (P<0.001) between the "fertile" and the "sub-fertile" group were found for total and progressive motility, and for straight line velocity. Sperm variables associated (P<0.05) with an increase in percent pregnant per cycle included total motility (r=0.37), progressive motility (r=0.53), curvilinear velocity (r=0.44), straightness (r=0.39), beat cross frequency (r=0.44), and gel-free volume (r=0.53). Four sperm subpopulations (sP) were identified in fresh semen: sP1 (slow and non-progressive spermatozoa, 20%), sP2 (moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa, 71.2%), sP3 (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa, 2.9%), and sP4 (highly active and progressive spermatozoa, 5.9%). The lowest percentage (3.1%; P<0.001) of sP4 spermatozoa was observed in the "sub-fertile" group. Three of the sperm subpopulations were related (P<0.05) to fertility (sP2, r=0.54; sP3, r=0.45; sP4, r=0.56). In conclusion, we were able to relate the fertility of donkeys with in vitro measures of sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis techniques.

  15. Autophagy and ubiquitin–proteasome system contribute to sperm mitophagy after mammalian fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Hee; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Meyers, Stuart; Sutovsky, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is a universal principle in human and animal development, guided by selective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the sperm-borne mitochondria after fertilization. However, it is not clear how the 26S proteasome, the ubiquitin-dependent protease that is only capable of degrading one protein molecule at a time, can dispose of a whole sperm mitochondrial sheath. We hypothesized that the canonical ubiquitin-like autophagy receptors [sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP)] and the nontraditional mitophagy pathways involving ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ubiquitin-binding protein dislocase, valosin-containing protein (VCP), may act in concert during mammalian sperm mitophagy. We found that the SQSTM1, but not GABARAP or LC3, associated with sperm mitochondria after fertilization in pig and rhesus monkey zygotes. Three sperm mitochondrial proteins copurified with the recombinant, ubiquitin-associated domain of SQSTM1. The accumulation of GABARAP-containing protein aggregates was observed in the vicinity of sperm mitochondrial sheaths in the zygotes and increased in the embryos treated with proteasomal inhibitor MG132, in which intact sperm mitochondrial sheaths were observed. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP significantly delayed the process of sperm mitophagy and completely prevented it when combined with microinjection of autophagy-targeting antibodies specific to SQSTM1 and/or GABARAP. Sperm mitophagy in higher mammals thus relies on a combined action of SQSTM1-dependent autophagy and VCP-mediated dislocation and presentation of ubiquitinated sperm mitochondrial proteins to the 26S proteasome, explaining how the whole sperm mitochondria are degraded inside the fertilized mammalian oocytes by a protein recycling system involved in degradation of single protein molecules. PMID:27551072

  16. Sperm protamine-status correlates to the fertility of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sule; Vargovic, Peter; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Belser, Lauren E; Kaya, Abdullah; Moura, Arlindo; Sutovsky, Peter; Parrish, John; Topper, Einko; Memili, Erdoğan

    2015-04-01

    During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin

  17. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI) despite many advantages that cryopreservation provides. Compared to fresh semen, the fertility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is more variable but usually less. Predicting the fertility of individual ejaculates for s...

  18. Antiidiotypic antibodies to sperm in sera of fertile women that neutralize antisperm antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Naz, R K; Ahmad, K; Menge, A C

    1993-01-01

    The presence of antiidiotypic antibodies (ab-2) to sperm was investigated in the sera of fertile, infertile, and virgin women using sperm-specific anti-FA-1 monoclonal antibody Fab'.ab-2 were detected in 71% (17/24) of sera from fertile women and in none (0/12) of the sera from virgin females by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot procedure, and immunoprecipitation procedure. Sera from infertile women that had antisperm antibodies showed a minimal presence of ab-2, with only three sera (13%, 3/23) demonstrating the presence of low levels of ab-2. The ab-2 present in fertile women were capable of neutralizing the fertilization-inhibitory activity of anti-FA-1 antibody in a concentration-dependent manner in a human sperm penetration assay (SPA) of zona-free hamster oocytes. ab-2 were also capable of inhibiting the binding of antisperm antibodies to the sperm surface as determined by the immunobead binding technique. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of ab-2 in the sera of fertile women that are capable of neutralizing antisperm antibodies present in sera of infertile women. These findings suggest that the inability to detect antisperm antibody activity in the sera of fertile women may be due to higher levels of ab-2 present in these sera than levels found in sera of infertile women, although both groups may be producing antisperm antibody response after sexual exposure to sperm. Images PMID:8227348

  19. Seminal plasma proteins modify the distribution of sperm subpopulations in cryopreserved semen of rams with lesser fertility.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Alba; Zalazar, Lucía; Fernández-Alegre, Estela; Hozbor, Federico; Cesari, Andreina; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Any physiological mechanism involved in sperm selection and semen improvement has effects on heterogeneous sperm populations. This is mainly due to the fact that sperm populations within a single ejaculate have considerable heterogeneity for many variables, such as motility which is meaningful in terms of understanding how some sperm cells possess fertility advantages as compared with other cells. In the present research, initially there was a multivariate and clustering analysis used to assess sperm motility data from cryopreserved ram semen to identify subpopulations and compare the distribution of these clusters between rams with lesser and greater fertility. There were four classifications made of sperm subpopulations (clusters): CL1 fast/linear/progressive sperm; CL2 fast/non-linear sperm; CL3 very fast/linear sperm with vigorous beating and CL4 slow/non-linear sperm. Rams with greater fertility had a lesser proportion of sperm considered as "hyperactivated" (CL2) and a greater proportion of slow and non-linear sperm (CL4) than sperm of rams with lesser fertility. In addition, the effects were assessed for the capacity of seminal plasma (SP) and interacting SP proteins (iSPP) that were present during different seasons of the year to improve the distribution of sperm within subpopulations of semen from rams with lesser fertility. The iSPP and SP were obtained by artificial vagina (AV) and electroejaculation (EE) during breeding and non-breeding seasons and added to thawed semen. All the aggregates had a significant effect on the distribution of sperm subpopulations and effects differed among seasons of the year and depending on collection method used. Even though, future studies are needed to assess the contribution of each subpopulation on ram sperm fertility, it is important that a multivariate analysis be used to evaluate the effect of a treatment on sperm quality variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Values of the sperm deformity index, acrosome abnormity rate, and sperm DNA fragmentation index of optimized sperm in predicting IVF fertilization failure].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-jie; Jin, Fan; Zhou, Li-ming

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the values of the sperm deformity index (SDI), acrosome abnormity rate (AAR), and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) of optimized sperm in the prediction of fertilization failure (fertilization rate < 25%) in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). We selected 695 cycles of conventional IVF for pure oviductal infertility in this study, including 603 cycles of normal fertilization and 92 cycles of fertilization failure. On the day of oocyte retrieval, we examined sperm morphology, acrosome morphology, and DNA fragmentation using the Diff-Quik, PSA-FITC and SCD methods. We established the joint predictor (JP) by logistic equation and analyzed the values of different parameters in predicting fertilization failure with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The fertilization rate was negatively correlated with SDI (r = - 0.07; P = 0.03), AAR (r = -0.49; P < 0.01), and DFI (r = -0. 21; P < 0.01). The SDI, AAR, and DFI in the normal fertilization group were 1.24 ± 0.20, (7.75 ± 2.28)%, and (7.87 ± 3.15)%, and those in the fertilization failure group were 1.42 ± 0.15, (12.02 ± 3.06)%, and (13.32 ± 4.13)%, respectively, all with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). SDI, AAR, and DFI were all risk factors of fertilization failure ( OR = 2.68, 14.11, and 3.85; P = 0.01, < 0.01, and < 0.01). The areas under the ROC curves for SDI, AAR, DFI, and JP were 0.651 ± 0.033, 0.895 ± 0.019, 0.789 ± 0.022, and 0.915 ± 0.017, respectively. According to the Youden index, the optimal cut-off values of SDI, AAR, and DFI obtained for the prediction of fertilization failure were approximately 1.45, 10%, and 12%. The SDI, AAR and DFI of optimized sperm are closely associated with the fertilization rate, and all have the value for predicting fertilization failure in IVF. The AAR is more valuable than the other single predictors, but JP is more effective than the AAR.

  1. [In vitro inhibition of celastrol on spermatozoa fertilization ability of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y Y; Gu, Z P; Shi, Q X; Qin, G W; Xu, R S; Cao, L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of celastrol (Cel), isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, on guinea pig sperm forward motility (FM), capacitation (Cap), the acrosome reaction (AR) and sperm penetration assay (SPA) were assessed in vitro. Cel (5 micrograms.ml-1) was found to inhibit these spermatozoal functions, and the inhibitions were proportional to the concentrations of Cel used. The potency of inhibition of Cel on the fertilizing ability in guinea pig spermatozoa in vitro seems to follow the order: Cap > FM > SPA > AR. The inhibitory effect appeared to be reversible after washing away Cel if the duration of exposure of spermatozoa to Cel was shorter than 3 h. In a comparative study, the inhibitory effects of Cel on guinea pig sperm FM and AR were significantly stronger than those of gossypol acetic acid.

  2. Dual roles for ubiquitination in the processing of sperm organelles after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Connie; Sampuda, Katherine M; Boyd, Lynn

    2014-02-15

    The process of fertilization involves a cell fusion event between the sperm and oocyte. Although sperm contain mitochondria when they fuse with the oocyte, paternal mitochondrial genomes do not persist in offspring and, thus, mitochondrial inheritance is maternal in most animals. Recent evidence suggests that paternal mitochondria may be eliminated via autophagy after fertilization. In C. elegans, sperm-specific organelles called membraneous organelles (MO) cluster together with paternal mitochondria immediately after fertilization. These MOs but not the mitochondria become polyubiquitinated and associated with proteasomes. The current model for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans is that ubiquitination of the MOs induces the formation of autophagosomes which also capture the mitochondria and cause their degradation. Sperm-derived mitochondria and MOs show a sharp decrease in number during the time between sperm-oocyte fusion and the onset of mitosis. During this time, paternal mitochondria remain closely clustered with the MOs. Two types of polyubiquitin chains are observed on the MOs: K48-linked ubiquitin chains which are known to lead to proteasomal degradation and K63-linked ubiquitin chains which have been linked to autophagy. K48-linked ubiquitin chains and proteasomes show up on MOs very soon after sperm-oocyte fusion. These are present on MOs for only a short period of time. Maternal proteasomes localize to MOs and sperm proteasomes localize to structures that are at the periphery of the MO cluster suggesting that these two proteasome populations may have different roles in degrading paternal material. K63-linked ubiquitin chains appear on MOs early and remain throughout the first several cell divisions. Since there are two different types of polyubiquitin chains associated with sperm organelles and their timing differs, it suggests that ubiquitin has two or more roles in the processing of sperm components after fertilization. The K63

  3. In vitro effect of produced water on cod, Gadus morhua, sperm cells and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hamoutene, Dounia; Samuelson, S; Lush, L; Burt, K; Drover, D; King, T; Lee, K

    2010-05-01

    The in vitro effect of produced water released by oil and gas platforms was assessed by exposing cod sperm cells to realistic concentrations of this mixture (100, 200, 500 ppm). We investigated produced water impact on enzymes of the aerobic (citrate synthase) and glycolytic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase), lipid catabolism (lipase), as well as an anti-oxidant enzyme (catalase). Fertilization rates, viability, respiration, ATP, and total motility duration were also evaluated. To explore correlations between these parameters, we have also tested the effect of conserving sperm for 24 h at 4 degrees C. After conservation, fertilization success was decreased but other parameters were not affected. Produced water did not result in a significant change in fertilization; a significant increase in sperm protein amounts and citrate synthase activity can be observed. No correlations are found between parameters showing that sperm viability and unchanged energy levels do not translate into equivalent fertilization capacity. To conclude, exposure of sperm to produced water resulted only in subtle effects on cells. These findings bring information on the effect of produced water on sperm itself rather than on spermatogenesis or testis development of an exposed fish.

  4. Effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus biotypes on adherence of sperm to oocytes during in-vitro fertilization in cattle.

    PubMed

    Garoussi, M Talebkhan; Mehrzad, J

    2011-04-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus, is one of the most important pathogens of dairy cattle; it can cause several clinical syndromes, ranging from subclinical to severe disease. The objectives of the current studies were to assess the effects of two biotypes of BVDV on sperm attachment to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes and on fertilization rate in bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF). In two experiments, sperm at two concentrations (10⁵ and 10⁶/mL) and oocytes were incubated with 10⁶ TCID₅₀/mL cythopatic (CP) or noncythopatic (NCP) BVDV. In the first experiment, with the lower sperm concentration (10⁵/mL), male and female gametes were infected with CP or NCP BVDV, whereas in the second experiment, the sperm concentration was 10⁶/mL, and sperm and oocytes were also infected with CP or NCP BVDV. The number of sperm attached to the ZP and the fertilization rate were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy on the ZP of fertile and infertile oocytes. In the first experiment, compared to the control group (n = 97), oocytes infected with CP BVDV and incubated at the lower (10⁵/mL) sperm concentration positively affected sperm attachment (n = 123) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In comparison with the control group (n = 115), sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding (n = 93) to the ZP of infertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In the second experiment (10⁶ sperm/mL), for both fertile and infertile oocyte groups, sperm attachment in the control group was very high and deemed uncountable. However, in treated groups, the number of sperm attached to the ZP was countable. Only sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding capacity (n = 81) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). Although CP and NCP BVDV significantly reduced the fertilization rate of oocytes incubated with a higher sperm concentration, with the lower sperm concentration, only NCP BVDV significantly diminished

  5. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcomes for Chinese couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lin-Tao; Wang, Rui-Xue; He, Bing; Mo, Wei-Ying; Huang, Li; Wang, Shi-Kai; Mao, Xian-Bao; Cheng, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yue-Yue; Liu, RuiZhi

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the fertilization rate, embryo development and pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a cohort of Chinese couples. Methods Infertile couples that had undergone assisted reproductive technology at our centre between January 2011 and December 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Fractions of prepared sperm samples were evaluated for sperm DNA fragmentation on the day of oocyte recovery. Results Of the 550 couples selected, 415 had undergone IVF and 135 ICSI. Sperm DNA fragmentation rate was significantly negatively correlated with the fertilization rate in the ICSI cycles but not the IVF cycles. No association was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and cleavage rate or good quality embryo formation rates in IVF or ICSI cycles. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was a statistically significant prognostic indicator of the clinical fertilization rate in ICSI cycles; a rate > 22.3% was associated with a lower fertilization rate following ICSI compared with a rate ≤ 22.3%. Conclusions High values of sperm DNA fragmentation were associated with a low fertilization rate following ICSI but were not associated with alterations in pregnancy or live birth rates in either ICSI or IVF in this cohort of Chinese couples.

  6. Albumin Is Synthesized in Epididymis and Aggregates in a High Molecular Mass Glycoprotein Complex Involved in Sperm-Egg Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Hyslop, Stephen; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira; Pereira, Luís Antonio Violin Dias

    2014-01-01

    The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa) that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization. PMID:25084016

  7. Albumin is synthesized in epididymis and aggregates in a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex involved in sperm-egg fertilization.

    PubMed

    Arroteia, Kélen Fabíola; Barbieri, Mainara Ferreira; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Hyslop, Stephen; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira; Pereira, Luís Antonio Violin Dias

    2014-01-01

    The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa) that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization.

  8. Sperm Centrosomes: Kiss Your Asterless Goodbye, for Fertility's Sake.

    PubMed

    Schatten, Gerald; Stearns, Tim

    2015-12-21

    Centrosomes are reduced to their cores in sperm. Emerging molecular explanations for centrosome construction have now helped to elucidate the mechanism of their destruction in sperm. Since centrosome inaccuracies cause aneuploidies responsible for cancers, birth defects and infertility, this new insight into centrosome behavior has broad implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Bradford W; McNamara, Kelli A; Purdy, Phillip H; Krisher, Rebecca L; Knox, Robert V; Miller, David J

    2014-07-15

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving IVF consistency by eliminating interejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF success. Semen samples are often screened for motility before use for IVF. Samples that are below a designated motility threshold may be discarded. Our objectives were to determine if post-thaw sperm motility, other traits that may be indicative of sperm function, or a novel assay of oviduct binding were related to IVF success. Semen from 16 boars was cooled to 15 °C for overnight shipment before cryopreservation. Semen was thawed and motility was recorded microscopically and confirmed using computer-automated sperm assessment. Each sample was tested by IVF in two to three independent replicates. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to determine the interrelationships between sperm traits and the relationships between post-thaw motility, sperm-oviduct binding and IVF outcomes. Among the sperm traits examined, sperm acrosome integrity was negatively correlated with post-thaw motility (r(2) = 0.64) but not with IVF results. The number of sperm bound to oviduct aggregates was correlated with IVF polyspermy rates (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.05) but less with overall IVF rates (r(2) = 0.31, P > 0.10). There was some relationship of post-thaw motility with IVF monospermic fertilization (P = 0.06, r(2) = 0.08) but not to other IVF outcomes. Our results indicate that post-thaw motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is strongly related to acrosome integrity but has limited use for predicting IVF success. The number of sperm bound to oviduct cells was related to IVF polyspermy rates and may be more indicative of in vitro sperm function than traditional sperm motility and acrosome status evaluation.

  10. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  11. Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An “overall sperm quality” parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and

  12. HALOACID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN FERTILITY AND THE SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN THE RAT ARE ADDITIVE: VALIDATION OF AN ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and bromochloroacetic acid (BCA) are prevalent disinfection by-products of drinking water that produce defects in spermatogenesis and fertility in adult rats. Previously we demonstrated that BCA compromises the fertility of cauda epididymal rat sperm an...

  13. HALOACID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN FERTILITY AND THE SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN THE RAT ARE ADDITIVE: VALIDATION OF AN ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and bromochloroacetic acid (BCA) are prevalent disinfection by-products of drinking water that produce defects in spermatogenesis and fertility in adult rats. Previously we demonstrated that BCA compromises the fertility of cauda epididymal rat sperm an...

  14. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  15. ZP3-dependent activation of sperm cation channels regulates acrosomal secretion during mammalian fertilization

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The sperm acrosome reaction is a Ca(2+)-dependent secretory event required for fertilization. Adhesion to the egg's zona pellucida promotes Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive channels, thereby initiating secretion. We used potentiometric fluorescent probes to determine the role of sperm membrane potential in regulating Ca2+ entry. ZP3, the glycoprotein agonist of the zona pellucida, depolarizes sperm membranes by activating a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism with the characteristics of a poorly selective cation channel. ZP3 also activates a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway that produces a transient rise in internal pH. The concerted effects of depolarization and alkalinization open voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. These observations suggest that mammalian sperm utilize membrane potential-dependent signal transduction mechanisms and that a depolarization pathway is an upstream transducing element coupling adhesion to secretion during fertilization. PMID:8707844

  16. Influence of sperm impact angle on successful fertilization through mZP oscillatory spherical net model.

    PubMed

    Hedrih, Andjelka; Lazarevic, Mihailo; Mitrovic-Jovanovic, Ana

    2015-04-01

    According to the available literature, penetrating sperm creates an oblique path trough Zona pellucida (ZP)--the most outer surface of oocytes. Considering fertilization process as an oscillatory phenomenon, the influence of sperm impact angle relative to the oscillatory behavior of mouse ZP is described by using the discrete continuum mechanical model in the form of a spherical net model. A parametric frequency analysis of oscillatory behavior of knot material particles in the mouse ZP (mZP) spherical net model is conducted by using generalized Lussajous curves. The influence of impact angles of sperm cells on the corresponding knot mass particles' resultant trajectory is discussed. Favorable sperm impact angles for successful fertilization are identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human sperm devoid of germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme is responsible for total fertilization failure and lower fertilization rates by conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Bin; Liu, Shu-Yuan; Tian, Yong-Hong; Le, Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Lou, Hang-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2014-06-01

    In conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF), complete failure of fertilization occurs in 5% to 15% of treatments. Although the causes may be unclear, sperm defects appear to be the major contributor. However, a convincing test is not yet available that can predict the risk of fertilization failure. In this study, we found that germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme (gACE) (also called testicular ACE) was undetectable in sperm from patients who had total fertilization failure (TFF) and lower fertilization rates (LFRs) by IVF based on Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Additionally, almost all of the patients without gACE on sperm (23 of 25) manifested a TT genotype of the rs4316 single-nucleotide polymorphism of ACE. Overall, our results indicate that the absence of gACE expression is responsible for TFF and LFRs by IVF. The rs4316 polymorphism of ACE might be associated with infertility in those patients. We conclude that sperm lacking gACE may be recognized before commencing IVF and that the patients may be directed instead to consider intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  18. Molecular architecture of the human sperm IZUMO1 and egg JUNO fertilization complex.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Halil; Sultana, Azmiri; Li, Sheng; Thavalingam, Annoj; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2016-06-23

    Fertilization is an essential biological process in sexual reproduction and comprises a series of molecular interactions between the sperm and egg. The fusion of the haploid spermatozoon and oocyte is the culminating event in mammalian fertilization, enabling the creation of a new, genetically distinct diploid organism. The merger of two gametes is achieved through a two-step mechanism in which the sperm protein IZUMO1 on the equatorial segment of the acrosome-reacted sperm recognizes its receptor, JUNO, on the egg surface. This recognition is followed by the fusion of the two plasma membranes. IZUMO1 and JUNO proteins are indispensable for fertilization, as constitutive knockdown of either protein results in mice that are healthy but infertile. Despite their central importance in reproductive medicine, the molecular architectures of these proteins and the details of their functional roles in fertilization are not known. Here we present the crystal structures of human IZUMO1 and JUNO in unbound and bound conformations. The human IZUMO1 structure exhibits a distinct boomerang shape and provides structural insights into the IZUMO family of proteins. Human IZUMO1 forms a high-affinity complex with JUNO and undergoes a major conformational change within its N-terminal domain upon binding to the egg-surface receptor. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition, cross-species fertilization, and the barrier to polyspermy, thereby promising benefits for the rational development of non-hormonal contraceptives and fertility treatments for humans and other mammals.

  19. Varicocele management in the era of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Piyush; Chandrashekar, Aravind; Hakky, Tariq S; Pastuszak, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is the most common surgically treatable cause of male infertility, and often results in alterations in semen parameters, sperm DNA damage, and changes to the seminal milieu. Varicocele repair can result in improvement in these parameters in the majority of men with clinical varicocele; data supporting repair in men with subclinical varicocele are less definitive. In couples seeking fertility using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), varicocele repair may offer improvement in semen parameters and sperm health that can increase the likelihood of successful fertilization using techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or may decrease the level of ART needed to achieve successful pregnancy. Male infertility is an indicator of general male health, and evaluation of the infertile male with an eye toward future health can facilitate optimal screening and treatment of these men. Furthermore, varicocele may represent a progressive lesion, offering an argument for its repair, although this is currently unclear. PMID:27030086

  20. Atropine-induced inhibition of sperm and semen transport impairs fertility in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Ban, Yoshiki; Uchida, Miki; Gondo, Eri; Yamamoto, Masakatsu; Sekiguchi, Yoshiko; Sakaue, Akiko; Kemi, Masayuki; Nakatsuka, Toshio

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies revealed that atropine reduced male fertility in rats without any effects on mating performance, sperm production and motility, and testicular morphology. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the impairment of male fertility induced by atropine was related to the inhibition of sperm and semen transports from the vas deferens and seminal vesicle to the urethra during the process of emission. Male rats were treated with atropine at 125 mg/kg/day for 10-17 days prior to mating with untreated females. After confirmation of mating, male rats were euthanized and sperm number in the vas deferens and weights of the seminal vesicle and copulatory plug were determined as indicators of inhibition of sperm and semen transports, respectively. Reproductive status of mated females was determined on gestation days 15-17. A low pregnancy rate associated with a decreased number of implants was observed in females that mated with the atropine-treated males. The average number of sperm in the vas deferens was increased in the atropine-treated males. The average seminal vesicle weight in the atropine-treated males was greater than that of controls. The copulatory plug weights were decreased in the atropine-treated males. These results suggest that inhibitions of sperm and semen transports from the vas deferens and seminal vesicle to the urethra during the process of emission result in reduced male fertility in rats.

  1. A national study of the provision of oncology sperm banking services among Canadian fertility clinics.

    PubMed

    Yee, S; Buckett, W; Campbell, S; Yanofsky, R A; Barr, R D

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the current state of oncology sperm banking services provided by fertility clinics across Canada. A total of 78 Canadian fertility facilities were invited to complete a questionnaire related to the availability, accessibility, affordability and utilisation of sperm banking services for cancer patients. The total response rate was 59%, with 20 (69%) in vitro fertilisation clinics and 26 (53%) other fertility centres returning the survey. A total of 24 responding facilities accepted oncology sperm banking referrals. The time frame to book the first banking appointment for 19 (79%) facilities was within 2 days. Inconsistent practice was found regarding the consent process for cancer patients who are of minority age. Eight (33%) facilities did not provide any subsidy and charged a standard banking fee regardless of patients' financial situations. Overall, the utilisation of oncology sperm banking services was low despite its availability and established efficacy, suggesting that Canadian cancer patients are notably underserved. The study has highlighted some important issues for further consideration in improving access to sperm banking services for cancer patients, especially for adolescents. Better collaboration between oncology and reproductive medicine to target healthcare providers would help to improve sperm banking rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2) is essential for sperm function and male fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Danshina, Polina V; Geyer, Christopher B; Dai, Qunsheng; Goulding, Eugenia H; Willis, William D; Kitto, G Barrie; McCarrey, John R; Eddy, E M; O'Brien, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), an isozyme that catalyzes the first ATP-generating step in the glycolytic pathway, is encoded by an autosomal retrogene that is expressed only during spermatogenesis. It replaces the ubiquitously expressed phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) isozyme following repression of Pgk1 transcription by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and by postmeiotic sex chromatin during spermiogenesis. The targeted disruption of Pgk2 by homologous recombination eliminates PGK activity in sperm and severely impairs male fertility, but does not block spermatogenesis. Mating behavior, reproductive organ weights (testis, excurrent ducts, and seminal vesicles), testis histology, sperm counts, and sperm ultrastructure were indistinguishable between Pgk2(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, sperm motility and ATP levels were markedly reduced in males lacking PGK2. These defects in sperm function were slightly less severe than observed in males lacking glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS), the isozyme that catalyzes the step preceding PGK2 in the sperm glycolytic pathway. Unlike Gapdhs(-/-) males, the Pgk2(-/-) males also sired occasional pups. Alternative pathways that bypass the PGK step of glycolysis exist. We determined that one of these bypass enzymes, acylphosphatase, is active in mouse sperm, perhaps contributing to phenotypic differences between mice lacking GAPDHS or PGK2. This study determined that PGK2 is not required for the completion of spermatogenesis, but is essential for sperm motility and male fertility. In addition to confirming the importance of the glycolytic pathway for sperm function, distinctive phenotypic characteristics of Pgk2(-/-) mice may provide further insights into the regulation of sperm metabolism.

  3. Phosphoglycerate Kinase 2 (PGK2) Is Essential for Sperm Function and Male Fertility in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Danshina, Polina V.; Geyer, Christopher B.; Dai, Qunsheng; Goulding, Eugenia H.; Willis, William D.; Kitto, G. Barrie; McCarrey, John R.; Eddy, E.M.; O'Brien, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), an isozyme that catalyzes the first ATP-generating step in the glycolytic pathway, is encoded by an autosomal retrogene that is expressed only during spermatogenesis. It replaces the ubiquitously expressed phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) isozyme following repression of Pgk1 transcription by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and by postmeiotic sex chromatin during spermiogenesis. The targeted disruption of Pgk2 by homologous recombination eliminates PGK activity in sperm and severely impairs male fertility, but does not block spermatogenesis. Mating behavior, reproductive organ weights (testis, excurrent ducts, and seminal vesicles), testis histology, sperm counts, and sperm ultrastructure were indistinguishable between Pgk2−/− and wild-type mice. However, sperm motility and ATP levels were markedly reduced in males lacking PGK2. These defects in sperm function were slightly less severe than observed in males lacking glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS), the isozyme that catalyzes the step preceding PGK2 in the sperm glycolytic pathway. Unlike Gapdhs−/− males, the Pgk2−/− males also sired occasional pups. Alternative pathways that bypass the PGK step of glycolysis exist. We determined that one of these bypass enzymes, acylphosphatase, is active in mouse sperm, perhaps contributing to phenotypic differences between mice lacking GAPDHS or PGK2. This study determined that PGK2 is not required for the completion of spermatogenesis, but is essential for sperm motility and male fertility. In addition to confirming the importance of the glycolytic pathway for sperm function, distinctive phenotypic characteristics of Pgk2−/− mice may provide further insights into the regulation of sperm metabolism. PMID:19759366

  4. Sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Insights into the evolution of fertilization proteins in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Mu, Huawei; Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Cataloging the sperm proteome of an animal can improve our understanding of its sperm-egg interaction and speciation, but such data are available for only a few free-spawning invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis, a free-spawning marine mussel. We integrated public transcriptome datasets by de novo assembly, and applied SDS-PAGE coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to profile the sperm proteome, resulting in the identification of 550 proteins. Comparing the homologous sperm protein coding genes between M. galloprovincialis and its closely related species M. edulis revealed that fertilization proteins have the highest mean nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks = 0.62) among 11 functional groups, consistent with previous reports of positive selection of several fertilization proteins in Mytilus. Moreover, 78 sperm proteins in different functional groups have Ka/Ks values > 0.5, indicating the presence of many candidate sperm proteins for further analysis of rapid interspecific divergence. The MS data are available in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001665.

  5. Sperm competition and the evolution of gametic compatibility in externally fertilizing taxa.

    PubMed

    Kosman, E T; Levitan, D R

    2014-12-01

    Proteins expressed on the surface of sperm and egg mediate gametic compatibility and these proteins can be subject to intense positive selection. In this review, we discuss what is known about the patterns of adaptive evolution of gamete recognition proteins (GRPs). We focus on species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization, as the ease of observing and manipulating gamete interactions has allowed for greater advances in the understanding of GRP evolution, uncomplicated by confounding behavioral and physiological components that offer alternative evolutionary targets in internal fertilizers. We discuss whether interspecific mechanisms, such as selection to avoid fertilization between species (reinforcement selection), or intraspecific mechanisms, such as selection to increase (or decrease) the affinity between eggs and sperm based on the intensity of sperm competition, may be responsible for the pattern of GRP evolution observed. Variation in these proteins appears to influence gametic compatibility; GRP divergence among species is a better predictor of hybrid fertilization than neutral genetic markers and GRP variation within species predicts reproductive success among individuals within a population. Evidence suggests that sperm competition may play a large role in the evolution of gametic compatibility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Methods for Improving In Vitro and In Vivo Boar Sperm Fertility.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, H

    2015-07-01

    Fertility of boar spermatozoa is changed after ejaculation in vivo and in vitro. During processing for in vitro fertilization (IVF), although spermatozoa are induced capacitation, resulting in a high penetration rate, persistent obstacle of polyspermic penetration is still observed with a high incidence. For artificial insemination (AI), we still need a large number of spermatozoa and lose a majority of those in the female reproductive tract. Fertility of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa is still injured through freezing and thawing process. In the present brief review, factors affecting fertility of boar sperm during IVF, AI and cryopreservation are discussed in the context of discovering methodologies to improve it.

  7. The relationship of increased susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and fertility in the stallion.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Kenney, R M

    1998-10-15

    The relationship between fertility and susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation was determined in a group of 84 actively breeding, clinically fertile stallions. Susceptibility of DNA to denaturation was determined using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The SCSA measures, mean of alpha-t (mean alpha t), standard deviation of alpha-t (SD alpha t), and the COMP of alpha-t (cells outside the main population)] were significantly correlated with the percentage seasonal pregnancy rate (SPR; mean alpha t, r = -0.24, P < or = 0.05; % COMP alpha t, r = -0.27, P < or = 0.05); percentage pregnant per first cycle (FCP; SD alpha t, r = -0.30, P < or = 0.01; % COMP alpha t, r = -0.42, P < or = 0.0001); and the percentage pregnant per cycle (PC; mean alpha t, r = -0.31, P < or = 0.01; SD alpha t, r = -0.32, P < or = 0.01; % COMP alpha t, r = -0.41, P < or = 0.0001). This study describes detectable intrinsic variation in sperm chromatin structure among fertile stallions (SPR, mean = 83%; FCP, mean = 58%; PC, mean = 57%) in an active breeding population (number of mares bred/stallion/year, mean = 37), in the absence of overt reproductive abnormalities and apparent diseases such that an increase in the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation is associated with reduced fertility, both in terms of efficiency of reproduction (FCP and PC) and seasonal pregnancy rate (SPR). Both COMP alpha t and mean alpha t were useful indicators of fertility, with COMP alpha t being the only SCSA value able to identify mean differences between fertility groupings for SPR and FCP, and overall it was the most reliable indicator of fertility in this group of stallions. The SCSA is able to evaluate a compartment of the spermatozoa which is different from that of traditional tests for sperm quality such as motility and morphology.

  8. An Antioxidant Davallialactone from Phellinus baumii Enhances Sperm Penetration on In Vitro Fertilization of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA. The rate of normal fertilization was higher in the presence of 1 µM DAVA (65.1%) than were those of other concentrations or controls (45.4~59.4%), and the highest total fertilization rate (mono- and polyspermic oocytes) was observed at 1 µM DAVA (83%). In conclusion, addition of DAVA to fertilization medium improved sperm motility, and reduced ROS level so as to potentially improve sperm-oocyte binding in IVF, suggesting the potential of a compound isolated from mushrooms in assisted reproductive technology for humans and animals. PMID:27103855

  9. Fish sperm subpopulations: Changes after cryopreservation process and relationship with fertilization success in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Gallego, V; Cavalcante, S S; Fujimoto, R Y; Carneiro, P C F; Azevedo, H C; Maria, A N

    2017-01-01

    Fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the native Brazilian fish with the highest agricultural production under intensive aquaculture in South America. However, the decrease in the genetic variability in fish farms has become necessary the improvement of cryopreservation process through new statistical studies of spermatozoa (like subpopulation studies). The evaluation of the kinetic data obtained with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system, applying a two-step cluster analysis, yielded in tambaqui three different subpopulations in fresh sperm: SP1, considered as a slow nonlinear subpopulation; SP2, considered as a fast nonlinear subpopulation, and finally; SP3, considered as a fast linear subpopulation. For cryopreserved sperm, the cluster analysis yielded only two sperm subpopulations: SP1', considered as a slow nonlinear subpopulation and SP2', which seemed to be an intermediate subpopulation (showing medium motility and velocity values) merged from SP2 and SP3 obtained from fresh sperm. Coefficients of correlation (r) and determination (r(2)) between the sperm subpopulations from fresh sperm and the fertilization rates were calculated, and SP2 and SP3 (the fast-spermatozoa subpopulations) showed a high-positive correlation with the fertilization rates (r = 0.93 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, the positive significant correlations found in curvilinear velocity (r = 0.78), straight line velocity (r = 0.57), and average velocity (r = 0.75) indicate that sperm kinetic features seem to be a key factor in the fertilization process in tambaqui, as occur in other fish species.

  10. Normal Fertility Requires the Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II and IV in Sperm*

    PubMed Central

    Wandernoth, Petra M; Mannowetz, Nadja; Szczyrba, Jaroslaw; Grannemann, Laura; Wolf, Anne; Becker, Holger M.; Sly, William S.; Wennemuth, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    HCO3− is a key factor in the regulation of sperm motility. High concentrations of HCO3− in the female genital tract induce an increase in sperm beat frequency, which speeds progress of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. Carbonic anhydrases (CA), which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3−, represent potential candidates in the regulation of the HCO3− homeostasis in sperm and the composition of the male and female genital tract fluids. We show that two CA isoforms, CAII and CAIV, are distributed along the epididymal epithelium and appear with the onset of puberty. Expression analyses reveal an up-regulation of CAII and CAIV in the different epididymal sections of the knockout lines. In sperm, we find that CAII is located in the principal piece, whereas CAIV is present in the plasma membrane of the entire sperm tail. CAII and CAIV single knockout animals display an imbalanced HCO3− homeostasis, resulting in substantially reduced sperm motility, swimming speed, and HCO3−-enhanced beat frequency. The CA activity remaining in the sperm of CAII- and CAIV-null mutants is 35% and 68% of that found in WT mice. Sperm of the double knockout mutant mice show responses to stimulus by HCO3− or CO2 that were delayed in onset and reduced in magnitude. In comparison with sperm from CAII and CAIV double knockout animals, pharmacological loss of CAIV in sperm from CAII knockout animals, show an even lower response to HCO3−. These results suggest that CAII and CAIV are required for optimal fertilization. PMID:26487715

  11. Evaluation of Zona Pellucida Function for Sperm Penetration During In Vitro Fertilization in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    TANIHARA, Fuminori; NAKAI, Michiko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; NOGUCHI, Junko; OTOI, Takeshige; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In porcine oocytes, the function of the zona pellucida (ZP) with regard to sperm penetration or prevention of polyspermy is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm penetration during in vitro fertilization (IVF). We collected in vitro-matured oocytes with a first polar body (ZP+ oocytes). Some of them were freed from the ZP (ZP− oocytes) by two treatments (pronase and mechanical pipetting), and the effects of these treatments on sperm penetration parameters (sperm penetration rate and numbers of penetrated sperm per oocyte) were evaluated. There was no evident difference in the parameters between the two groups. Secondly, we compared the sperm penetration parameters of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from four boars. Sperm penetration into ZP+ oocytes was found to be accelerated relative to ZP− oocytes. Thirdly, we evaluated the sperm penetration of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes at 1−10 h after IVF (3 h gamete co-incubation). The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP− oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP− oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs. PMID:23666494

  12. Differences in the Endocannabinoid System of Sperm from Fertile and Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Di Tommaso, Monia; Pucci, Mariangela; Battista, Natalia; Paro, Rita; Simon, Luke; Lutton, Deborah; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Male infertility is a major cause of problems for many couples in conceiving a child. Recently, lifestyle pastimes such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana have been shown to have further negative effects on male reproduction. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), mainly through the action of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) at cannabinoid (CB1, CB2) and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptors, plays a crucial role in controlling functionality of sperm, with a clear impact on male reproductive potential. Here, sperm from fertile and infertile men were used to investigate content (through LC-ESI-MS), mRNA (through quantitative RT-PCR), protein (through Western Blotting and ELISA) expression, and functionality (through activity and binding assays) of the main metabolic enzymes of AEA and 2-AG (NAPE-PLD and FAAH, for AEA; DAGL and MAGL for 2-AG), as well as of their binding receptors CB1, CB2 and TRPV1. Our findings show a marked reduction of AEA and 2-AG content in infertile seminal plasma, paralleled by increased degradation: biosynthesis ratios of both substances in sperm from infertile versus fertile men. In addition, TRPV1 binding was detected in fertile sperm but was undetectable in infertile sperm, whereas that of CB1 and CB2 receptors was not statistically different in the two groups. In conclusion, this study identified unprecedented alterations of the ECS in infertile sperm, that might impact on capacitation and acrosome reaction, and hence fertilization outcomes. These alterations might also point to new biomarkers to determine male reproductive defects, and identify distinct ECS elements as novel targets for therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs to treat male fertility problems. PMID:23082196

  13. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  14. Two egg-derived molecules in sperm motility initiation and fertilization in the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi).

    PubMed

    Cherr, Gary N; Morisawa, Masaaki; Vines, Carol A; Yoshida, Kaoru; Smith, Edmund H; Matsubara, Takahiro; Pillai, Murali C; Griffin, Frederick J; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2008-01-01

    Sperm of the Pacific herring are immotile at spawning. Two egg-derived molecules are capable of initiating sperm motility. One is herring sperm activating protein(s) (HSAPs) and the other is sperm motility initiation factor (SMIF). These two motility initiators differ in their location and association with the chorion, and in their isoelectric points and molecular weights. In this study we have investigated the roles of these two inducers with respect to motility and fertilization. Using computer analysis of sperm motility, we found that HSAPs, as well as the C-terminal HSAPs peptide, elicit a linear motility pattern, while SMIF induced a highly circular and asymmetric pattern. HSAPs induced a two-fold increase in intracellular calcium, whereas SMIF induced a four-fold increase of motility initiation. SMIF-exposed sperm, preloaded with BAPTA-AM, showed a more linear motility and this motility trajectory decreased with their fertilizing capability. The difference in intracellular calcium levels between HSAPs and SMIF is consistent with the observed linear and circular motility. In the absence of SMIF, HSAPs do not support fertilization. Fertilization is rescued in these experiments if SMIF is reintroduced. We propose that diffusible HSAPs are not essential for fertilization, but enhance sperm-egg collisions via linear motility. SMIF, which is bound to the micropylar region of the chorion, is required for fertilization and induces circular motility that is a prerequisite for sperm to enter the micropylar canal and fertilize the egg.

  15. Kinematic Analysis of Rabbit Sperm Motion in the Toxicological Assessment of Fertility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    derives from ideas initially proposed by C. van Duijn for predicting the fertility of cattle and sheep after artificial insemination (van Duijn, 1965...van Duijn developed a simple model relating insemination dose to the probability of fertility. We have extended his ideas in two basic ways, and then...our " insemination dose" is the number of sperm that have a velocity > 100 pm/sec and a linearity of motion > 0.e (see below). We have also utilized

  16. Controlling fertilization and cAMP signaling in sperm by optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Vera; Alvarez, Luis; Balbach, Melanie; Strünker, Timo; Hegemann, Peter; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Wachten, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is a powerful technique to control cellular activity by light. The light-gated Channelrhodopsin has been widely used to study and manipulate neuronal activity in vivo, whereas optogenetic control of second messengers in vivo has not been examined in depth. In this study, we present a transgenic mouse model expressing a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) in sperm. In transgenic sperm, bPAC mimics the action of the endogenous soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) that is required for motility and fertilization: light-stimulation rapidly elevates cAMP, accelerates the flagellar beat, and, thereby, changes swimming behavior of sperm. Furthermore, bPAC replaces endogenous adenylyl cyclase activity. In mutant sperm lacking the bicarbonate-stimulated SACY activity, bPAC restored motility after light-stimulation and, thereby, enabled sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro. We show that optogenetic control of cAMP in vivo allows to non-invasively study cAMP signaling, to control behaviors of single cells, and to restore a fundamental biological process such as fertilization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05161.001 PMID:25601414

  17. Controlling fertilization and cAMP signaling in sperm by optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Vera; Alvarez, Luis; Balbach, Melanie; Strünker, Timo; Hegemann, Peter; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Wachten, Dagmar

    2015-01-20

    Optogenetics is a powerful technique to control cellular activity by light. The light-gated Channelrhodopsin has been widely used to study and manipulate neuronal activity in vivo, whereas optogenetic control of second messengers in vivo has not been examined in depth. In this study, we present a transgenic mouse model expressing a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) in sperm. In transgenic sperm, bPAC mimics the action of the endogenous soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) that is required for motility and fertilization: light-stimulation rapidly elevates cAMP, accelerates the flagellar beat, and, thereby, changes swimming behavior of sperm. Furthermore, bPAC replaces endogenous adenylyl cyclase activity. In mutant sperm lacking the bicarbonate-stimulated SACY activity, bPAC restored motility after light-stimulation and, thereby, enabled sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro. We show that optogenetic control of cAMP in vivo allows to non-invasively study cAMP signaling, to control behaviors of single cells, and to restore a fundamental biological process such as fertilization.

  18. Cross species fertilization and development investigated by cat sperm injection into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Nan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Sun, Shao-Chen; Jin, Yong-Xun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2011-07-01

    The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in model animals is a powerful approach for the study of species-specific fertilization processes and multiploidy embryogenesis. In this study, we examined the fertilization process in mouse oocytes following injection of a single mouse or cat sperm, two mouse spermatozoa or mouse and cat spermatozoa. These treatments did not affect histone H3K9 acetylation or methylation, although the pattern of DNA methylation differed following the injection of cat sperm. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that sperm chromatin was normally incorporated with female mouse chromatin following any of the four injection scenarios. Furthermore, metaphase was successfully entered to reach a normal two-cell stage, and cell division could even persist to produce blastocyst stage embryos. In addition, both mouse and cat Pou5l and Nanog mRNA were expressed in the hybrid embryos. These results suggest that, although epigenetic modification of DNA is affected by the sperm injection treatment, fertilization and cleavage occur in a non-species-specific manner. In addition, despite abnormal division of the chromosomes, intra- and inter-species ICSI produced embryos that could develop into blastocysts.

  19. Sperm proteasome degrades egg envelope glycoprotein ZP1 during fertilization of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Yoshizaki, Norio; Dohra, Hideo; Nishio, Shunsuke; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2012-10-01

    At the time of fertilization, the extracellular matrix surrounding avian oocytes, termed the perivitelline membrane (pvm), is hydrolyzed by a sperm-borne protease, although the actual protease that is responsible for the digestion of the pvm remains to be identified. Here, we show evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is functional in the fertilization of Japanese quail. The activities for the induction of the acrosome reaction and binding to ZP3 as revealed by ligand blotting of purified serum ZP1 are similar to those of pvm ZP1. Western blot analysis of purified ZP1 and ZP3 by the use of the anti-ubiquitin antibody showed that only pvm ZP1 was reactive to the antibody. In vitro penetration assay of the sperm on the pvm indicated that fragments of ZP1 and intact ZP3 were released from the pvm. Western blot analysis using the anti-20S proteasome antibody and ultrastructural analysis showed that immunoreactive proteasome was localized in the acrosomal region of the sperm. Inclusion of specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 in the incubation mixture, or depletion of extracellular ATP by the addition of apyrase, efficiently suppressed the sperm perforation of the pvm. These results demonstrate for the first time that the sperm proteasome is important for fertilization in birds and that the extracellular ubiquitination of ZP1 might occur during its transport via blood circulation.

  20. The Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA(®)) and other sperm DNA fragmentation tests for evaluation of sperm nuclear DNA integrity as related to fertility.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five years ago the pioneering paper in Science (240:1131) on the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and pregnancy outcome was featured as the cover issue showing a fluorescence photomicrograph of red and green stained sperm. The flow cytometry data showed a very significant difference in sperm DNA integrity between fertile and subfertile bulls and men. This study utilized heat (100°C, 5min) to denature DNA at sites of DNA strand breaks followed by staining with acridine orange (AO) and measurements of 5000 individual sperm of green double strand (ds) DNA and red single strand (ss) DNA fluorescence. Later, the heat protocol was changed to a low pH protocol to denature the DNA at sites of strand breaks; the heat and acid procedures produced the same results. SCSA data are very advantageously dual parameter with 1024 channels (degrees) of both red and green fluorescence. Hundreds of publications on the use of the SCSA test in animals and humans have validated the SCSA as a highly useful test for determining male breeding soundness. The SCSA test is a rapid, non-biased flow cytometer machine measurement providing robust statistical data with exceptional precision and repeatability. Many genotoxic experiments showed excellent dose response data with very low coefficient of variation that further validated the SCSA as being a highly powerful assay for sperm DNA integrity. Twelve years following the introduction of the SCSA test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) test (1993) for sperm was introduced as the only other flow cytometric assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. However, the TUNEL test can also be done by light microscopy with much less statistical robustness. The COMET (1998) and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD; HALO) (2003) tests were introduced as light microscope tests that don't require a flow cytometer. Since these tests measure only 50-200 sperm per sample, they suffer from the lack of

  1. In vitro fertilization experiments using sockeye salmon reveal that bigger eggs are more fertilizable under sperm limitation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Christopher P; Hoysak, Drew J; Liley, N Robin; Gage, Matthew J G

    2009-07-07

    Although theory and widespread evidence show that the evolution of egg size is driven primarily by offspring and maternal fitness demands, an additional explanation invokes sperm limitation as a selective force that could also influence egg size optima. Levitan proposed that constraints from gamete encounter in external fertilization environments could select for enlargement of ova to increase the physical size of the fertilization target. We test this theory using in vitro fertilization experiments in an externally fertilizing fish. Sockeye salmon (Onchorhyncus nerka) females show considerable between-individual variation in ovum size, and we explored the consequences of this natural variation for the fertilization success of individual eggs under conditions of sperm limitation. By engineering consistent conditions where in vitro fertilization rate was always intermediate, we were able to compare the sizes of fertilized and unfertilized eggs across 20 fertilization replicates. After controlling for any changes in volume through incubation, results showed that successfully fertilized eggs were significantly larger than the eggs that failed to achieve fertilization. Under conditions without sperm limitation, fertility was unaffected by egg size. Our findings therefore support Levitan's theory, demonstrating empirically that some element of egg size variation could be selected by fertilization demands under sperm limitation. However, further research on sperm limitation in natural spawnings is required to assess the selective importance of these results.

  2. In vitro fertilization experiments using sockeye salmon reveal that bigger eggs are more fertilizable under sperm limitation

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Christopher P.; Hoysak, Drew J.; Liley, N. Robin; Gage, Matthew J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Although theory and widespread evidence show that the evolution of egg size is driven primarily by offspring and maternal fitness demands, an additional explanation invokes sperm limitation as a selective force that could also influence egg size optima. Levitan proposed that constraints from gamete encounter in external fertilization environments could select for enlargement of ova to increase the physical size of the fertilization target. We test this theory using in vitro fertilization experiments in an externally fertilizing fish. Sockeye salmon (Onchorhyncus nerka) females show considerable between-individual variation in ovum size, and we explored the consequences of this natural variation for the fertilization success of individual eggs under conditions of sperm limitation. By engineering consistent conditions where in vitro fertilization rate was always intermediate, we were able to compare the sizes of fertilized and unfertilized eggs across 20 fertilization replicates. After controlling for any changes in volume through incubation, results showed that successfully fertilized eggs were significantly larger than the eggs that failed to achieve fertilization. Under conditions without sperm limitation, fertility was unaffected by egg size. Our findings therefore support Levitan's theory, demonstrating empirically that some element of egg size variation could be selected by fertilization demands under sperm limitation. However, further research on sperm limitation in natural spawnings is required to assess the selective importance of these results. PMID:19364734

  3. A critical role of solute carrier 22a14 in sperm motility and male fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Shin-ya; Ito, Momoe; Ikami, Yuusuke; Okitsu, Yu; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Fujii, Wataru; Yogo, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified solute carrier 22a14 (Slc22a14) as a spermatogenesis-associated transmembrane protein in mice. Although Slc22a14 is a member of the organic anion/cation transporter family, its expression profile and physiological role have not been elucidated. Here, we show that Slc22a14 is crucial for sperm motility and male fertility in mice. Slc22a14 is expressed specifically in male germ cells, and mice lacking the Slc22a14 gene show severe male infertility. Although the overall differentiation of sperm was normal, Slc22a14−/− cauda epididymal spermatozoa showed reduced motility with abnormal flagellar bending. Further, the ability to migrate into the female reproductive tract and fertilise the oocyte were also impaired in Slc22a14−/− spermatozoa. The abnormal flagellar bending was thought to be partly caused by osmotic cell swelling since osmotic challenge or membrane permeabilisation treatment alleviated the tail abnormality. In addition, we found structural abnormalities in Slc22a14−/− sperm cells: the annulus, a ring-like structure at the mid-piece–principal piece junction, was disorganised, and expression and localisation of septin 4, an annulus component protein that is essential for the annulus formation, was also impaired. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Slc22a14 plays a pivotal role in normal flagellar structure, motility and fertility in mouse spermatozoa. PMID:27811987

  4. The spe-42 gene is required for sperm-egg interactions during C. elegans fertilization and encodes a sperm-specific transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Kroft, Tim L; Gleason, Elizabeth J; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2005-10-01

    Fertilization, the union of sperm and egg to form a new organism, is a critical process that bridges generations. Although the cytological and physiological aspects of fertilization are relatively well understood, little is known about the molecular interactions that occur between gametes. C. elegans has emerged as a powerful system for the identification of genes that are necessary for fertilization. C. elegans spe-42 mutants are sterile, producing cytologically normal spermatozoa that fail to fertilize oocytes. Indeed, male mating behavior, sperm transfer to hermaphrodites, sperm migration to the spermatheca, which is the site of fertilization and sperm competition are normal in spe-42 mutants. spe-42 mutant sperm make direct contact with oocytes in the spermatheca, suggesting that SPE-42 plays a role during sperm-egg interactions just prior to fertilization. No other obvious defects were observed in spe-42 mutant worms. Cloning and sequence analysis revealed that SPE-42 is a novel predicted 7-pass integral membrane protein with homologs in many metazoan species, suggesting that its mechanism of action could be conserved.

  5. Fertility disturbances of dimethylacetamide and glycerol in rooster sperm diluents: Discrimination among effects produced pre and post freezing-thawing process.

    PubMed

    Abouelezz, F M K; Sayed, M A M; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2017-09-01

    With avian sperm cryopreservation protocols, the most widely used cryoprotectants (CPAs) are the glycerol (GLY; in gradual freezing: in-straw freezing method), and the dimethylacetamide (DMA; in pellets by plunging into liquid nitrogen: in-pellet rapid freezing method). Use of both methods results in a small portion of thawed live sperm with lesser fertilizing ability compared with the semen samples immediately after collection. This study was conducted to assess the pre-freezing damage occurring to the sperm due to the interaction with the cryoprotectants (CPAs) GLY (8%) and DMA (5%), as well as the post-freezing damage resulting from both freezing methods Data for each treatment, in fresh and frozen-thawed samples, were compared for sperm motility, fertilizing capacity and sperm-egg penetration holes/germinal disc (SP holes/GD). Hens (n=50) were artificially inseminated (10 hens/treatment) six times with 3day intervals between inseminations. The treatment of fresh sperm with DMA led to a reduction (P<0.05) in the count of SP holes/GD (21.4) and the fertility rate (66.7%). The addition and elimination of GLY in fresh samples resulted in a lesser (P<0.05) number of SP holes/GD (11.8) and the fertility rate (i.e., 50.0%). The number of SP-holes/GD was least in frozen-thawed samples using both DMA and GLY (14.2 and 9.2, respectively). The fertility rate when using semen frozen with DMA in- pellets was greater (P<0.05) than with use of semen that had been frozen using GLY in straws (46.4% compared with 31.3%). The reduction in fertility compared with the control when semen was cryopreserved using GLY was 64.1%; the GLY addition and elimination was responsible for two thirds of this reduction. The reduction in fertility when using semen cryopreserved with DMA was 46.7%; half of the reduction was attributed to the treatment with DMA. In conclusion, the mechanical damage attributed to the process for reducing GLY concentrations was more harmful to sperm fertilizing

  6. LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22. GR Klinefelter1, JE Welch*1, HDM Moore*2, K Bobseine*1, J Suarez*1 ,N Roberts*1 ,R Zucker *1 1U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC and 2University of Sheffield...

  7. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) consistency by eliminating inter-ejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF...

  8. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  9. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  10. LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22. GR Klinefelter1, JE Welch*1, HDM Moore*2, K Bobseine*1, J Suarez*1 ,N Roberts*1 ,R Zucker *1 1U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC and 2University of Sheffield...

  11. Structural Basis of Egg Coat-Sperm Recognition at Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Raj, Isha; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Dioguardi, Elisa; Nishimura, Kaoru; Han, Ling; Villa, Alessandra; de Sanctis, Daniele; Jovine, Luca

    2017-06-15

    Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here. Whereas sequence-divergent repeat 1 does not bind lysin, repeat 3 binds it non-species specifically via a high-affinity, largely hydrophobic interface. Due to its intermediate binding affinity, repeat 2 selectively interacts with lysin from the same species. Exposure of a highly positively charged surface of VERL-bound lysin suggests that complex formation both disrupts the organization of egg coat filaments and triggers their electrostatic repulsion, thereby opening a hole for sperm penetration and fusion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The reproductive system of Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae): ovary structure, sperm ultrastructure, and fertilization mode

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sigrid; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-01-01

    Osedax is a genus of siboglinid annelids in which the females live on dead vertebrate bones on the seafloor. These females have a posterior end that lies within the bone and contains the ovarian tissue, as well as the “roots” involved with bone degradation and nutrition. The males are microscopic and live as “harems” in the lumen of the gelatinous tube that surrounds the female trunk, well away from the ovary. Females are known to spawn fertilized primary oocytes, suggesting internal fertilization. However, little is known about sperm transfer, sperm storage, or the location of fertilization, and the morphology of the female reproductive system has not been described and compared with the reproductive systems of other siboglinids. A 3D-reconstruction of the ovisac of Osedax showed ovarian tissue with multiple lobes and mature oocytes stored in a “uterus” before being released through the single oviduct. The oviduct emerges as a gonopore on the trunk and travels along the trunk to finally open to the seawater as a thin cylindrical tube among the crown of palps. Light and transmission electron microscopy of mature Osedax sperm revealed elongate heads consisting of a nucleus with helical grooves occupied by mitochondria. In contrast to other Siboglinidae, Osedax sperm are not packaged into spermatophores or spermatozeugmata, and Osedax females lack a discrete region for sperm storage. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy allowed detection of sperm associated with ovarian tissue of the female ovisac of four different Osedax species. This provides the first evidence for the site of internal fertilization in Osedax. A heart body was found in the circulatory system, as seen in other siboglinids and some other annelids. The possible presence of nephridia in the anterior ovisac region was also documented. These morphological features provide new insights for comparing the regionalization of Osedax females in relation to other siboglinids

  13. Comparative biology of sperm factors and fertilization-induced calcium signals across the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kashir, Junaid; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin; Stricker, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    Fertilization causes mature oocytes or eggs to increase their concentrations of intracellular calcium ions (Ca²⁺) in all animals that have been examined, and such Ca²⁺ elevations, in turn, provide key activating signals that are required for non-parthenogenetic development. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Ca²⁺ transients produced during fertilization in mammals and other taxa are triggered by soluble factors that sperm deliver into oocytes after gamete fusion. Thus, for a broad-based analysis of Ca²⁺ dynamics during fertilization in animals, this article begins by summarizing data on soluble sperm factors in non-mammalian species, and subsequently reviews various topics related to a sperm-specific phospholipase C, called PLCζ, which is believed to be the predominant activator of mammalian oocytes. After characterizing initiation processes that involve sperm factors or alternative triggering mechanisms, the spatiotemporal patterns of Ca²⁺ signals in fertilized oocytes or eggs are compared in a taxon-by-taxon manner, and broadly classified as either a single major transient or a series of repetitive oscillations. Both solitary and oscillatory types of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals are typically propagated as global waves that depend on Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in response to increased concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP₃). Thus, for taxa where relevant data are available, upstream pathways that elevate intraoocytic IP3 levels during fertilization are described, while other less-common modes of producing Ca²⁺ transients are also examined. In addition, the importance of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals for activating development is underscored by noting some major downstream effects of these signals in various animals.

  14. Motility and fertility of the subtropical freshwater fish streaked prochilod (Prochilodus lineatus) sperm cryopreserved in powdered coconut water.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, A T M; Nascimento, A F; Orfão, L H; Isaú, Z A

    2010-09-01

    Streaked prochilod (Prochilodus lineatus) is a freshwater fish inhabiting many South American rivers. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of coconut water (ACP), combined with methylglycol, as a freezing medium for streaked prochilod sperm. A secondary objective was to compare a computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system versus subjective microscropic examination as a means of assessing sperm motility. As a control, glucose and methylglycol was used, according to our previous study. Sperm diluted in each medium was loaded into 0.5 mL straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor (in a dry shipper), and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Half of the samples were evaluated for sperm motility, both subjectively and with CASA; the remainder were evaluated for fertility. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between subjective or CASA assessment of post-thaw sperm motility. Although sperm motility was higher in sperm cryopreserved in ACP (85%) than in glucose (75%), cryopreservation in either extender yielded similar fertilization rates (46-48%) and sperm velocities. There were positive correlations (r = 0.56-0.8) between all sperm velocities and fertilization rate. In conclusion, streaked prochilod sperm cryopreserved in glucose or ACP and methylglycol was fertile, and thus could be used for research or commercial settings. Furthermore, although the CASA system provided objective data regarding sperm motility, in the present study, subjective evaluation of sperm motility was practical and a good indication of sperm quality; it could readily be done by well-trained personnel under field or laboratory conditions.

  15. Application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for fertilization and development in birds.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao; Mizushima, Shusei

    2014-01-15

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology in birds has been hampered due to opacity of oocyte. We developed ICSI-assisted fertilization and gene transfer in quail. This paper reviews recent advances of our ICSI experiments. The oocyte retrieved from the oviduct and a quail sperm was injected into the oocyte under a stereomicroscope. The oocyte was cultured for 24h at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. The fertilization and development was assessed by microscopic observation. The fertility rate ranged 12-18% and development varied from stage II to V in trials. To improve the fertility rate, phospholipase C (PLC) zeta was injected with a sperm. It was increased to 37-50%. Furthermore, injection of inositol trisphosphate increased to over 85%. Quail oocyte can be fertilized with chicken sperm and so can testicular elongated spermatid. To extend embryonic development, chicken eggshell was used as a surrogate culture at 37°C after the 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. It survived up to 2days thereafter. Finally, gene transfer was attempted in quail egg. The sperm membrane was disrupted with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and was injected with PLCzeta cRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in oocyte. The GFP expression was evaluated at 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air in the embryos. While the expression was not detected in the control oocytes, the experimental treatment induced blastoderm development (44%) of the oocytes and 86% of blastoderm showed fluorescent emission. In addition, PCR analysis detected EGFP fragments in 50% of GFP-expressing blastoderm. Our ICSI method may be the first step toward the production of transgenic birds.

  16. Dual roles for ubiquitination in the processing of sperm organelles after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The process of fertilization involves a cell fusion event between the sperm and oocyte. Although sperm contain mitochondria when they fuse with the oocyte, paternal mitochondrial genomes do not persist in offspring and, thus, mitochondrial inheritance is maternal in most animals. Recent evidence suggests that paternal mitochondria may be eliminated via autophagy after fertilization. In C. elegans, sperm-specific organelles called membraneous organelles (MO) cluster together with paternal mitochondria immediately after fertilization. These MOs but not the mitochondria become polyubiquitinated and associated with proteasomes. The current model for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans is that ubiquitination of the MOs induces the formation of autophagosomes which also capture the mitochondria and cause their degradation. Results Sperm-derived mitochondria and MOs show a sharp decrease in number during the time between sperm-oocyte fusion and the onset of mitosis. During this time, paternal mitochondria remain closely clustered with the MOs. Two types of polyubiquitin chains are observed on the MOs: K48-linked ubiquitin chains which are known to lead to proteasomal degradation and K63-linked ubiquitin chains which have been linked to autophagy. K48-linked ubiquitin chains and proteasomes show up on MOs very soon after sperm-oocyte fusion. These are present on MOs for only a short period of time. Maternal proteasomes localize to MOs and sperm proteasomes localize to structures that are at the periphery of the MO cluster suggesting that these two proteasome populations may have different roles in degrading paternal material. K63-linked ubiquitin chains appear on MOs early and remain throughout the first several cell divisions. Conclusions Since there are two different types of polyubiquitin chains associated with sperm organelles and their timing differs, it suggests that ubiquitin has two or more roles in the processing of sperm components

  17. Recovery of motile sperm using the migration-sedimentation technique in an in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer programme.

    PubMed

    Lucena, E; Lucena, C; Gómez, M; Ortiz, J A; Ruiz, J; Arango, A; Diaz, C; Beuerman, C

    1989-02-01

    Sperm washing techniques, based on the swim-up principle used before inseminating the human oocyte in in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer programmes (IVF-ET), usually require prior centrifugation which causes damage to the sperm cell. A technique is described for separating sperm at laboratory temperature based on sperm migration--sedimentation principles, using two concentric tubes and recovering 70-90% forward-moving cells. A group of 17 patients is presented who were managed with this method. The results were 85% fertilization rate, 4% polyspermia and six clinical pregnancies.

  18. Generation of rats from vitrified oocytes with surrounding cumulus cells via in vitro fertilization with cryopreserved sperm.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Katsuyoshi; Kamoshita, Maki; Kato, Tsubasa; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fertility and full-term development of rat vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with cryopreserved sperm. Oocytes with or without surrounding cumulus cells were vitrified with 30% ethylene glycol + 0.5 mol/L sucrose + 20% fetal calf serum by using the Cryotop method. The warmed oocytes were co-cultured with sperm. Although the denuded/vitrified oocytes were not fertilized, some of the oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells were fertilized (32.7%) after IVF with fresh sperm. When IVF was performed with cryopreserved sperm, vitrified or fresh oocytes with cumulus cells were fertilized (62.9% or 41.1%, respectively). In addition, to confirm the full-term development of the vitrified oocytes with surrounding cumulus cells after IVF with cryopreserved sperm, 108 vitrified oocytes with two pronuclei (2PN) were transferred into eight pseudopregnant females, and eight pups were obtained from three recipients. The present work demonstrates that vitrified rat oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells can be fertilized in vitro with cryopreserved sperm, and that 2PN embryos derived from cryopreserved gametes can develop to term. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful generation of rat offspring derived from vitrified oocytes that were fertilized in vitro with cryopreserved sperm.

  19. No inbreeding depression in sperm storage ability or offspring viability in Drosophila melanogaster females.

    PubMed

    Ala-Honkola, Outi; Manier, Mollie K; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M; Collins, William F; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Mating between relatives usually decreases genetic quality of progeny as deleterious recessive alleles are expressed in inbred individuals. Inbreeding degrades sperm traits but its effects on sperm storage and fate within females are currently unknown. We quantified the relationship between the degrees of inbreeding relevant to natural populations (f=0, 0.25 and 0.50) and the number of sperm inseminated and stored, sperm swimming speed, long-term sperm viability while in storage, pattern of sperm precedence, mating latency, and offspring viability of female Drosophila melanogaster. The use of transgenic flies that have either red or green fluorescent sperm heads allowed us to distinguish two ejaculates in the female reproductive tract and facilitated quantification of sperm storage and use traits. We found no inbreeding depression in either long- or short-term sperm storage ability. The most inbred females exhibited significantly longer mating latency, which could be explained by males preferring to mate with outbred females. On the other hand, as no evidence for cryptic male choice in the form of ejaculate tailoring of sperm number was found, the most inbred females might just be less eager to mate. We also found no evidence that the degree of maternal inbreeding influenced offspring viability. Comparison with a contemporaneous study of male inbreeding consequences for ejaculate quality suggests that inbreeding depression is more severe in males than in females in our study population.

  20. Genome-wide profiling of sperm DNA methylation in relation to buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arpana; Rajput, Sandeep; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2014-09-15

    The DNA methylation pattern in spermatozoa of buffalo bulls of different fertility status was investigated. Spermatozoa isolated DNA from two groups of buffalo bulls (n = 5), selected based on their artificial insemination-generated conception rate data followed by IVF efficiency, were studied for global methylation changes using a custom-designed 180 K buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) CpG island/promoter microarray. A total of 96 individual genes with another 55 genes covered under CpG islands were found differentially methylated in sperm of high-fertile and subfertile buffalo bulls. Important genes associated with biological processes, cellular components, and functions were identified to be differentially methylated in buffalo bulls with differential fertility status. The identified differentially methylated genes were found to be involved in germ cell development, spermatogenesis, capacitation, and embryonic development. The observations hint that methylation defects of sperm DNA may play a crucial role in determining the fertility of breeding bulls. This growing field of sperm epigenetics will be of great benefit in understanding the graded fertility conditions of breeding bulls in commercial livestock production system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium Influx and Male Fertility in the Context of the Sperm Proteome: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2014-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa are incapable or poorly capable of fertilizing an oocyte. The fertilization aptness of spermatozoa depends on the appropriate and time-dependent acquisition of hyperactivation, chemotaxis, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction, where calcium (Ca2+) is extensively involved in almost every step. A literature review showed that several ion channel proteins are likely responsible for regulation of the Ca2+ uptake in spermatozoa. Therefore, manipulation of the functions of channel proteins is closely related to Ca2+ influx, ultimately affecting male fertility. Recently, it has been shown that, together with different physiological stimuli, protein-protein interaction also modifies the Ca2+ influx mechanism in spermatozoa. Modern proteomic analyses have identified several sperm proteins, and, therefore, these findings might provide further insight into understanding the Ca2+ influx, protein functions, and regulation of fertility. The objective of this review was to synthesize the published findings on the Ca2+ influx mechanism in mammalian spermatozoa and its implications for the regulation of male fertility in the context of sperm proteins. Finally, Pathway Studio (9.0) was used to catalog the sperm proteins that regulate the Ca2+ influx signaling by using the information available from the PubMed database following a MedScan Reader (5.0) search. PMID:24877140

  2. Sperm competitive ability evolves in response to experimental alteration of operational sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Bodhisatta; Chakraborty, Pratip; Gupta, Vanika; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2013-07-01

    In naturally polygamous organisms such as Drosophila, sperm competitive ability is one of the most important components of male fitness and is expected to evolve in response to varying degrees of male-male competition. Several studies have documented the existence of ample genetic variation in sperm competitive ability of males. However, many experimental evolution studies have found sperm competitive ability to be unresponsive to selection. Even direct selection for increased sperm competitive ability has failed to yield any measurable changes. Here we report the evolution of sperm competitive ability (sperm defense-P1, offense-P2) in a set of replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster subjected to altered levels of male-male competition (generated by varying the operational sex ratio) for 55-60 generations. Males from populations with female-biased operational sex ratio evolved reduced P1 and P2, without any measurable change in the male reproductive behavior. Males in the male-biased regime evolved increased P1, but there was no significant change in P2. Increase in P1 was associated with an increase in copulation duration, possibly indicating greater ejaculate investment by these males. This study is one of the few to provide empirical evidence for the evolution of sperm competitive ability of males under different levels of male-male competition. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Ability of sulfated glycoconjugates and disulfide-reductants to release bovine epididymal sperm bound to the oviductal epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, R; Mollo, V; Barbato, V; Talevi, R

    2010-05-01

    In Bos taurus, at ejaculation, epididymal sperm acquire a number of proteins secreted in the seminal plasma that increase their ability to interact with the female reproductive tract. Sperm-oviduct interaction comprises a transient sperm adhesion to the isthmus, the lower portion of the oviduct, followed by sperm release around ovulation. Oviductal fluid molecules, such as sulfated glycoconjugates and disulfide-reductants, are able to release bovine ejaculated sperm bound to the oviductal epithelium in vitro through the reduction of sperm surface protein disulfides to sulfhydryls. To understand whether the sperm molecules sensitive to releasing signals are already exposed on the surface of epididymal sperm, we studied the ability of cauda epididymal sperm to adhere to the oviductal epithelium and to be released by sulfated glycoconjugates and the disulfide-reductant penicillamine. Surface protein sulfhydryls in cauda epididymal sperm were analyzed in the initial suspension, in sperm bound to the in vitro-cultured oviductal epithelium, and in released sperm. Results showed that epididymal sperm are able to bind the oviductal epithelium in vitro, although at a lower extent than frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm; the interaction is mediated by oviductal cell microvilli that closely bind to the plasma membrane of the sperm head rostral region, as previously shown for ejaculated sperm. The sulfated glycoconjugates heparin, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate, as well as the disulfide-reductant penicillamine, are all powerful inducers of sperm release. The level of sulfhydryls in sperm surface proteins was (1) high in the initial sperm suspension; (2) low in bound sperm; (3) markedly increased in sperm released by heparin or by penicillamine. In conclusion, epididymal sperm are already able to bind the oviductal epithelium and to respond to the inducers of release through the reduction of sperm surface protein disulfides to sulfhydryls. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dilution in sperm maturation media and time of storage on sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Judycka, Sylwia; Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dobosz, Stefan; Zalewski, Tomasz; Dietrich, Grzegorz J

    2017-05-01

    Masculinized females, also called neomales or sex-reversed females have a male phenotype but retain the female genotype (XX). Therefore, all spermatozoa produced in their functional testes carry an X chromosome, which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. Semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout is of low quality and in vitro maturation is required, which includes dilution of sperm suspensions with specially formulated maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dilution in different maturation media on sperm quality (sperm motility characteristics and fertilizing capacity) of frozen/thawed sperm of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. The effect of time of post-thaw storage (0, 15, 60 and 120min) on semen quality was also tested. Sperm motility parameters and fertilization rate at the eyed and hatching stages were assessed for post-thaw semen diluted in different media. The cryopreservation procedure resulted in high post-thaw sperm motility of about 57% and did not differ from fresh semen. Unexpectedly, maturation media decreased sperm activation capacity immediately after dilution; however, sperm motility increased over time. Fertilization rates of frozen/thawed semen were high (71-87%) and did not differ significantly between experimental variants at any of tested periods of storage. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the maturation media on frozen/thawed sperm is different from that of fresh sperm. The progressive increase in post-thaw sperm motility in maturation media can potentially be applied to routine hatchery practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of sperm concentration on characteristics and fertilization capacity of rooster sperm frozen in the presence of the antioxidants catalase and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Moghbeli, Morteza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study conducted was to determine the influence of different levels of sperm concentration, including catalase (CAT) and vitamin E (VitE) in rooster semen extender on postthawed quality and fertility of rooster semen. Semen was collected twice a week from six roosters (Arian) and diluted according to experimental treatments consisting of sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) without antioxidant supplementation as control (Con) groups (Con200, Con400, and Con600, respectively), sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplemented with 5-μg/mL VitE (VitE200, VitE400, and VitE600, respectively) and different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplementation with 100 IU/mL CAT (CAT200, CAT400, and CAT600, respectively). After thawing; sperm motility, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial function were assessed. Fertility and hatchability rates were determined by using 100 artificially inseminated hens. The percentage of total motility (TM) and activity of mitochondria decreased (P < 0.05) as the sperm concentration increased in control groups. So, the lowest percentage of the TM and activity of mitochondria were observed in the Con600 as compared with other treatment groups. Extenders containing 100 IU/mL CAT and 5-μg/mL VitE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) TM, progressive motility, membrane integrity, and activity of mitochondria compared with control groups. Adding VitE and CAT in different sperm concentrations, the percentage of TM, membrane integrity, and activity of mitochondria decreased (P < 0.05) as the sperm concentration decreased. The highest (P < 0.05) membrane integrity, TM, and progressive motility were recorded at VitE400 and CAT400. Including VitE and CAT in rooster extender with different level sperm concentrations had no effect (P > 0.05) on fertility and hatchability rates. In

  6. MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURE OF THE HUMAN SPERM IZUMO1 AND EGG JUNO FERTILIZATION COMPLEX

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Halil; Sultana, Azmiri; Li, Sheng; Thavalingam, Annoj; Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Fertilization is an essential biological process in sexual reproduction and comprises a series of molecular interactions between the sperm and egg1,2. The fusion of haploid spermatozoon and oocyte is the culminating event in mammalian fertilization, enabling the creation of a new genetically distinct diploid organism3,4. The merger of two gametes is achieved through a two-step mechanism where the sperm Izumo1 on the equatorial segment of the acrosome-reacted sperm recognizes its receptor Juno, on the egg surface4–6. This is followed by the fusion of two plasma membranes. Izumo1 and Juno proteins are indispensable for fertilization as constitutive knockout of either Izumo1 or Juno result in mice that are healthy but infertile5,6. Despite their central importance in reproductive medicine, the molecular architectures and the details of their functional roles in fertilization are not known. Here, we present the crystal structures of the human Izumo1 and Juno in unbound and bound conformations. The human Izumo1 structure exhibits a distinct boomerang shape and provides the first structural insights into the Izumo family of proteins7. Human Izumo1 forms a high-affinity complex with Juno and undergoes a major conformational change within its N-terminal domain upon binding to the egg-surface receptor. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition, cross-species fertilization, and barrier to polyspermy, thus promising benefits for the rational development of novel non-hormonal contraceptives and fertility treatments for humans and other species of mammals. PMID:27309818

  7. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40 60 and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  8. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan

    2017-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40, 60, and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  9. A specific flagellum beating mode for inducing fusion in mammalian fertilization and kinetics of sperm internalization.

    PubMed

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Garroum, Nabil; Perez, Eric; Willaime, Hervé; Gourier, Christine

    2016-08-19

    The salient phases of fertilization are gamete adhesion, membrane fusion, and internalization of the spermatozoon into the oocyte but the precise timeline and the molecular, membrane and cell mechanisms underlying these highly dynamical events are far from being established. The high motility of the spermatozoa and the unpredictable location of sperm/egg fusion dramatically hinder the use of real time imaging optical techniques that should directly provide the dynamics of cell events. Using an approach based on microfluidics technology, the sperm/egg interaction zone was imaged with the best front view, and the timeline of the fertilization events was established with an unparalleled temporal accuracy from the onset of gamete contact to full sperm DNA decondensation. It reveals that a key element of the adhesion phase to initiate fusion is the oscillatory motion of the sperm head on the oocyte plasma membrane generated by a specific flagellum-beating mode. It also shows that the incorporation of the spermatozoon head is a two steps process that includes simultaneous diving, tilt, and plasma membrane degradation of the sperm head into the oocyte and subsequent DNA decondensation.

  10. A specific flagellum beating mode for inducing fusion in mammalian fertilization and kinetics of sperm internalization

    PubMed Central

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Garroum, Nabil; Perez, Eric; Willaime, Hervé; Gourier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The salient phases of fertilization are gamete adhesion, membrane fusion, and internalization of the spermatozoon into the oocyte but the precise timeline and the molecular, membrane and cell mechanisms underlying these highly dynamical events are far from being established. The high motility of the spermatozoa and the unpredictable location of sperm/egg fusion dramatically hinder the use of real time imaging optical techniques that should directly provide the dynamics of cell events. Using an approach based on microfluidics technology, the sperm/egg interaction zone was imaged with the best front view, and the timeline of the fertilization events was established with an unparalleled temporal accuracy from the onset of gamete contact to full sperm DNA decondensation. It reveals that a key element of the adhesion phase to initiate fusion is the oscillatory motion of the sperm head on the oocyte plasma membrane generated by a specific flagellum-beating mode. It also shows that the incorporation of the spermatozoon head is a two steps process that includes simultaneous diving, tilt, and plasma membrane degradation of the sperm head into the oocyte and subsequent DNA decondensation. PMID:27539564

  11. Resveratrol prevents capacitation-like changes and improves in vitro fertilizing capability of buffalo frozen-thawed sperm.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Valentina; Zullo, Gianluigi; Salzano, Angela; De Canditiis, Carolina; Cammarano, Andrea; De Luise, Luca; Puzio, Maria Valeria; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol supplementation of semen extender on fertility parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. After the initial semen assessment, buffalo semen was cryopreserved in BioXcell containing 0 (control group), 0.5, 1, 10, and 50-μM resveratrol. After thawing, viability, motility, and capacitation status (assessed by localization of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins) were evaluated. Based on the results of the dose-response trial, the concentration of 50 μM was selected for further assessments, such as membrane integrity, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Moreover, in vitro fertilizing ability by heterologous IVF and in vivo fertility were assessed. No differences among groups were recorded in sperm motility and viability (on average 52.3 ± 2.1% and 76.6 ± 1.3%, respectively). However, data showed a resveratrol dose-dependent effect on sperm capacitation status, with a significant reduction of the cryopreservation-induced capacitation with the higher concentrations tested. In particular, both 10- and 50-μM resveratrol increased (P < 0.01) the percentage of sperm displaying pattern A (low capacitation level), but treatment with 50-μM resveratrol also decreased (P < 0.01) the proportion of sperm exhibiting pattern EA (high-capacitation level) compared with the control. Interestingly, supplementation of semen extender with resveratrol increased membrane integrity, indicated by the higher percentage of hypo-osmotic swelling positive sperm (55.6 ± 0.6 vs. 48.4 ± 0.7; P < 0.01), and total antioxidant capacity (1.36 ± 0.01 vs. 1.32 ± 0.02 mM/L; P < 0.05) compared with the control. Intracellular reactive oxygen species decreased in resveratrol-treated sperm compared with the control, as indicated by dihydroethidium values (0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.01 μM/μL dihydroethidium, respectively; P < 0.01). Moreover, when IVF was

  12. Effects of genetic captive-breeding protocols on sperm quality and fertility in the white-footed mouse.

    PubMed

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Alaks, Glen; Dubach, Jean; Lacy, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis) from a captive-breeding program were used to test the effects of three genetic breeding protocols (minimizing mean kinship [MK], random breeding, and selection for docility [DOC]) and inbreeding levels on sperm traits and fertility. Earlier, in generation 8, one DOC replicate went extinct because of poor reproductive success. By generation 10, spermatozoa from DOC mice had more acrosome and midpiece abnormalities, which were shown to be strong determinants of fertility, as well as lower sperm production and resistance to osmotic stress. In addition, determinants of fertility, including male and female components, were assessed in a comprehensive manner. Results showed that the probability (P) of siring litters is determined by sperm number, sperm viability, and midpiece and acrosome abnormalities; that the P of siring one versus two litters is determined by tail abnormalities; and that the total number of offspring is influenced by female size and proportion of normal sperm, showing the relative importance of different sperm traits on fertility. On average, males with 20% normal sperm sired one pup per litter, and males with 70% normal sperm sired eight pups per litter. Interestingly, the proportion of normal sperm was affected by docility but not by relatively low inbreeding. However, inbreeding depression in sperm motility was detected. In the MK group, inbreeding depression not only affected sperm motility but also fertility: An increase in the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of 0.03 reduced sperm motility by 30% and translated into an offspring reduction of three pups in second litters. A genetic load of 48 fecundity equivalents was calculated.

  13. Comparative analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) sperm proteome identifies sperm proteins potentially responsible for higher fertility in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-07-30

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) Sperm Proteome Identifies Sperm Proteins Potentially Responsible for Higher Fertility in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-01-01

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. PMID:23903046

  15. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages.

  16. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  17. Effect of You Gui Wan on mouse sperm fertilising ability in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X-H; Yie, S-M; Zhen, X; Den, Y-L; Liang, X; Hu, X; Li, L-M; Li, Q-J; Cao, S; Lu, H

    2014-04-01

    This study is to explore whether YGW has an impact on sperm fertilising ability in mice. Twenty male mice were randomly divided into two groups. In vivo experiments, one group of animals were orally administrated with YGW decoction and another group administered with saline for 14 days. Afterwards, the animals were mated with their female partners. Percentages of retrieved zygotes were then compared. In vitro experiments, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) assay, sperm acrosome reaction and acrosin activity were used to compare sperm fertilising ability between the two groups. The YGW-treated group had a significantly higher percentage of zygotes than the saline controls (P = 0.005). The IVF rates induced by spermatozoa from the herb-treated mice were also significantly higher than those from the control animals (P = 0.015). The sperm acrosin activity of the herb-treated group was significantly higher than that of the saline-treated group (P = 0.048), although there was no significant difference in testicular weight, sperm count and sperm motility. These data suggest that YGW decoction has a significant effect on normal sperm fertilising ability both in vivo and in vitro, which may be due to, at least in part, increments in the sperm acrosin activity.

  18. Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), a brain cannabinoid receptor agonist, reduces sperm fertilizing capacity in sea urchins by inhibiting the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Schuel, H; Goldstein, E; Mechoulam, R; Zimmerman, A M; Zimmerman, S

    1994-01-01

    Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide) is an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist in mammalian brain. Sea urchin sperm contain a high-affinity cannabinoid receptor similar to the cannabinoid receptor in mammalian brain. (-)-delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marihuana, reduces the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by blocking the acrosome reaction that normally is stimulated by a specific ligand in the egg's jelly coat. We now report that anandamide produces effects similar to those previously obtained with THC in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in reducing sperm fertilizing capacity and inhibiting the egg jelly-stimulated acrosome reaction. Arachidonic acid does not inhibit the acrosome reaction under similar conditions. The adverse effects of anandamide on sperm fertilizing capacity and the acrosome reaction are reversible. The receptivity of unfertilized eggs to sperm and sperm motility are not impaired by anandamide. Under conditions where anandamide completely blocks the egg jelly-stimulated acrosome reaction, it does not inhibit the acrosome reaction artificially initiated by ionomycin, which promotes Ca2+ influx, and nigericin, which activates K+ channels in sperm. These findings provide additional evidence that the cannabinoid receptor in sperm plays a role in blocking the acrosome reaction, indicate that anandamide or a related molecule may be the natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor in sea urchin sperm, and suggest that binding of anandamide to the cannabinoid receptor modulates stimulus-secretion-coupling in sperm by affecting an event prior to ion channel opening. PMID:8052642

  19. Method of euthanasia influences the oocyte fertilization rate with fresh mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-11-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required.

  20. Method of Euthanasia Influences the Oocyte Fertilization Rate with Fresh Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required. PMID:25650969

  1. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  2. What affects fertility of sexed bull semen more, low sperm dosage or the sorting process?

    PubMed

    Frijters, A C J; Mullaart, E; Roelofs, R M G; van Hoorne, R P; Moreno, J F; Moreno, O; Merton, J S

    2009-01-01

    Until now it has been unclear to what extent the reduced fertility with sexed semen in the dairy industry is caused by too few sperm per AI dose, or by the effect of flow cytometric sorting, which is the established procedure for sexing semen. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of low sperm numbers per dose with and without sorting on non-return rates after 56 days (NRR 56); in addition, we evaluated the effects of bulls, in order to further optimize use of sexed semen. Based on results of using sexed semen from seven Holstein bulls, an overall numerical decline of 13.6% in NRR 56 was observed (P<0.05). About two-thirds of this decline (8.6%) was due to the low dose (P<0.05), and a third (5.0%) due to the process of sorting (P<0.05). The effect of low dosage and sorting differed among bulls. We observed a sex ratio of 91.6% females for sexed semen from the first 131 calves born. Currently the best way to increase fertility of sexed semen is by closely monitoring fertility so that the highest fertility bulls are used, and by improving farm animal management. However, to make substantial progress, more in depth studies are needed on the sexing technology, especially on aspects such as sorting procedures and sperm dosage.

  3. Fertilization in Discoglossus pictus (Anura). I. Sperm-egg interactions in distinct regions of the dimple and occurrence of a late stage of sperm penetration.

    PubMed

    Talevi, R; Campanella, C

    1988-12-01

    The heterogeneity of the egg surface with respect to receptivity to sperm was investigated in Discoglossus pictus; in this species fertilization occurs only in an indentation called the dimple, at the center of the animal hemisphere. Following insemination sperm are seen in the outermost jelly layers and in the lens-shaped jelly plug, converging to the dimple center, D1. A fertilization potential (FP) is recorded 30 sec following insemination. About 30 min after fertilization, when fertilization cones can be detected easily, immotile sperm are found at the center of the cone, where 10 min later they accomplish penetration. After 15 min the cone regresses and the second polar body is extruded. In eggs where the plug was experimentally displaced with respect to the dimple, spermatozoa contacted the sides of the dimple and simple protrusions formed but not cones. Spermatozoa do not elicit a normal FP in these regions but small step depolarizations which may be followed by a gradual rise to a positive plateau potential. Such eggs do not develop. In the protrusions, sperm may be only partially incorporated and the unpenetrated portion appears to degenerate. We conclude that at least two regions exist in the dimple: D1, where the FP is triggered, cones are formed, sperm penetration is fully accomplished and development is initiated; and D2 + D3 where the electrical response is not a normal FP, cones do not form, total sperm penetration does not occur, and development is not initiated.

  4. Functional deficit of sperm and fertility impairment in men with antisperm antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bozhedomov, V A; Nikolaeva, M A; Ushakova, I V; Lipatova, N A; Bozhedomova, G E; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune reactions against the sperm cells play an ambiguous role in fertility impairment. The objective of this study was to characterize functional deficit of sperm conditioned by antisperm immune response in normozoospermic men. This was a multi-centric, cross-sectional, сase-control study. The study subjects were 1060 infertile normozoospermic men and 107 fertile men. The main outcome measures were clinical examination, semen analysis including MAR test for antisperm antibodies (ASA), computer-aided sperm analysis, acrosome reaction (AR) detected with flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation measured with sperm chromatin dispersion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assessed using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. 2% of the fertile men had MAR-IgG ≥ 50%, but all subjects with MAR-IgG>12% were outliers; 16% infertile men had MAR-IgG ≥ 50% (p<0.0001). There was a direct correlation between the infertility duration and MAR-IgG (R=0.3; р<0.0001). The ASA-positive infertile men had AR disorders 2.1 times more frequently (р<0.02), predominantly inductivity disorders. We found signs of hyperactivation proportionate to the ASA level (p<0.001). DNA fragmentation was more highly expressed and was 1.6 and 1.3 times more frequent compared with the fertile and the ASA-negative patients, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.05). We found signs of oxidative stress (OS): ROS generation by washed ASA-positive spermatozoa was 3.7 times higher than in the fertile men (p<0.00001) and depended on the ASA levels (R=0.5; p<0.0001). The ASA correlation with ROS generation in native sperm was weak (R=0.2; р<0.001). We concluded that autoimmune reactions against spermatozoa are accompanied by a fertility decrease in normozoospermia. This results from AR and capacitation disorders and DNA fragmentation. The pathogenesis of sperm abnormalities in immune infertility is associated with the OS of spermatozoa.

  5. Ability of Catalonian donkey sperm to penetrate zona pellucida-free bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taberner, E; Morató, R; Mogas, T; Miró, J

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was designed to study the interaction between fresh/frozen-thawed donkey spermatozoa and zona pellucida (ZP)-free bovine oocytes in an attempt to develop a model for assessing cryopreserved Catalonian donkey sperm function. Semen from five donkeys was collected using an artificial vagina. Sperm motility and viability were immediately assessed and the semen sample cryopreserved. Sperm viability and motility were then reassessed immediately after thawing. The motion characteristics of the fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa were determined using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. In vitro-matured cow oocytes were inseminated with different percent live donkey sperm (high (>60%) or low (<40%) viability donkey sperm). After 18h of co-incubation, the oocytes were fixed, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and examined for sperm penetration, the number of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte, and male pronucleus formation. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from high viability semen showed significantly lower VCL, VAP and mean ALH values than did high viability fresh spermatozoa. In contrast, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of low viability had significantly higher velocity values than fresh spermatozoa of low viability. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was detected between percentage fertilization and viability (r=0.84), and between percentage fertilization and certain CASA parameters (VAP, r=0.56; VCL, r=0.61 and mean ALH, r=0.68). Fresh or frozen-thawed high viability spermatozoa penetrated 90.1% and 85.4% of bovine oocytes respectively. Lower rates of penetration were observed for fresh and frozen-thawed low viability spermatozoa (34% and 22.5% respectively). The donkey spermatozoa were able to fuse with the oolema and even to decondense and form the male pronucleus (85-94%). Larger numbers of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte were recorded when high viability sperm samples were used, whether fresh (3.02 vs. 1.12 for low viability sperm

  6. Lignosulfonic acid blocks in vitro fertilization of macaque oocytes when sperm are treated either before or after capacitation.

    PubMed

    Tollner, Theodore L; Overstreet, James W; Li, Ming W; Meyers, Stuart A; Yudin, Ashley I; Salinas, Edward R; Cherr, Gary N

    2002-01-01

    Lignin-derived macromolecules (LDMs) are biologically active compounds that affect a variety of cell-to-cell interactions including the inhibition of fertilization and embryo development in a number of nonmammalian species. The effect of ligno-sulfonic acid (LSA), a highly sulfonated LDM, on cynomolgus macaque sperm-oocyte interaction was evaluated with a zona pellucida binding assay and by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm were treated with LSA (1.5 mg/mL) either before washing or after capacitation. Capacitation included centrifugation through 80% Percoll followed by 2 consecutive washes with medium, overnight incubation, and activation with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and caffeine. The zona binding assay was performed using immature oocytes that had adhered to the center of glass "binding chambers." The number of capacitated sperm that attached to the zona over a 3-minute period was recorded. Sperm attachment was significantly inhibited by LSA as compared to controls whether treatment occurred after capacitation (92.5%; P <.001) or before washing (82.5%; P <.001). When sperm were treated similarly with fucoidin, a sulfated polysaccharide known to inhibit sperm-oocyte interaction, sperm-zona binding was significantly inhibited by postcapacitation treatment but not by prewash treatment. Treatment of sperm with LSA consistently blocked fertilization over 4 IVF cycles both before washing and after capacitation. Fertilization rate for controls was 65% +/- 17%. No LSA-treated sperm were observed on the surface of lightly rinsed oocytes after 4 hours of coincubation. Localization of biotinylated LSA showed labeling over the entire sperm surface with the greatest intensity observed over the head and midpiece. LSA treatment had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm or quality of sperm motility. Due to the antifertility properties of this nontoxic molecule, LSA appears to have potential as a vaginal contraceptive.

  7. Vitamin D status and fertility outcomes during winter among couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Neville, Grace; Martyn, Fiona; Kilbane, Mark; O'Riordan, Mairead; Wingfield, Mary; McKenna, Malachi; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-11-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of men and women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and to investigate associations between vitamin D status and fertility variables. A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken of men and women attending a fertility clinic in Ireland for IVF/ICSI between January and March 2014. Vitamin D status was determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Questionnaires examined knowledge and practices concerning vitamin D. Fertility variables and pregnancy outcomes were assessed in relation to vitamin D status. Overall, 73 men and 64 women provided blood samples. Among men, no correlation was found between 25(OH)D and total motility (ρ=0.069, P=0.562), progressive motility (ρ=0.066, P=0.576), count (ρ=0.001, P=0.996), or morphology (ρ=-0.034, P=0.774) of sperm. Additionally, there was no association between 25(OH)D and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.158). There was no difference in 25(OH)D between men with and without male factor subfertility issues (P=0.856). Among women, there was no significant correlation between 25(OH)D and anti-Müllerian hormone (P=0.629) or number of collected (P=0.198) and fertilized oocytes (P=0.136). There was no difference in 25(OH)D between women with and without ongoing pregnancy (P=0.222). No correlation was found between fertility variables or pregnancy outcomes and male or female vitamin D status. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ho, M A; Price, C; King, C K; Virtue, P; Byrne, M

    2013-09-01

    The gametes of marine invertebrates are being spawned into an ocean that is simultaneously warming and decreasing in pH. Predicting the potential for interactive effects of these stressors on fertilization is difficult, especially for stenothermal polar invertebrates adapted to fertilization in cold, viscous water and, when decreased sperm availability may be an additional stressor. The impact of increased temperature (2-4 °C above ambient) and decreased pH (0.2-0.4 pH units below ambient) on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations was investigated in cross-factorial experiments in context with near future ocean change projections. The high temperature treatment (+4 °C) was also used to assess thermal tolerance. Gametes from multiple males and females in replicate experiments were used to reflect the multiple spawner scenario in nature. For fertilization at low sperm density we tested three hypotheses, 1) increased temperature enhances fertilization success, 2) low pH reduces fertilization and, 3) due to the cold stenothermal physiology of S. neumayeri, temperature would be the more significant stressor. Temperature and sperm levels had a significant effect on fertilization, but decreased pH did not affect fertilization. Warming enhanced fertilization at the lowest sperm concentration tested likely through stimulation of sperm motility and reduced water viscosity. Our results indicate that fertilization in S. neumayeri, even at low sperm levels potentially found in nature, is resilient to near-future ocean warming and acidification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurosensory Perception of Environmental Cues Modulates Sperm Motility Critical for Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Katherine; Hoang, Hieu D.; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Brown, Naoko; Vibbert, Jack; Hollister, Kyle A.; Moore, Ray; Ragains, Justin R.; Reese, Jeff; Miller, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposures impact gamete function and fertility, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that pheromones sensed by ciliated neurons in the C. elegans nose alter the lipid microenvironment within the oviduct, thereby affecting sperm motility. In favorable environments, pheromone-responsive sensory neurons secrete a TGF-β ligand called DAF-7, which acts as a neuroendocrine factor that stimulates prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (Cox)-independent prostaglandin synthesis in the ovary. Oocytes secrete F class prostaglandins that guide sperm toward them. These prostaglandins are also synthesized in Cox knockout mice, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms exist in other animals. Our data indicate environmental cues perceived by the female nervous system affect sperm function. PMID:24833393

  10. Neurosensory perception of environmental cues modulates sperm motility critical for fertilization.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Katherine; Hoang, Hieu D; Prasain, Jeevan K; Brown, Naoko; Vibbert, Jack; Hollister, Kyle A; Moore, Ray; Ragains, Justin R; Reese, Jeff; Miller, Michael A

    2014-05-16

    Environmental exposures affect gamete function and fertility, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromones sensed by ciliated neurons in the Caenorhabditis elegans nose alter the lipid microenvironment within the oviduct, thereby affecting sperm motility. In favorable environments, pheromone-responsive sensory neurons secrete a transforming growth factor-β ligand called DAF-7, which acts as a neuroendocrine factor that stimulates prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase [cyclooxygenase (Cox)]-independent prostaglandin synthesis in the ovary. Oocytes secrete F-class prostaglandins that guide sperm toward them. These prostaglandins are also synthesized in Cox knockout mice, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms exist in other animals. Our data indicate that environmental cues perceived by the female nervous system affect sperm function.

  11. Effects of mercury on fertilization success of sperm and eggs of two populations of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos from Piles Creek (PC), a polluted tidal creek near heavily industrialized Linden, New Jersey, are more tolerant to methylmercury (meHg) than embryos from a non-polluted area in Southampton, Long Island (LI), New York. This study was designed to determine whether tolerance existed in gametes and juvenile fish of these two populations. Exposure (2 min) of PC sperm to either 0.01 or 0.05 ppm meHg had no effect on fertilization and sperm motility, but exposure to Hg caused a significant reduction in fertilization and sperm motility, indicating that Hg was more toxic to PC sperm than meHg. However, exposure of LI sperm to 0.01 ppm meHg caused a significant reduction in fertilization and sperm motility. Exposure of LI sperm to 0.01 ppm Hg did not have any effect on fertilization success, indicating that Hg was less toxic than meHg for Li sperm. Exposure (20 min) of PC and LI eggs to higher concentrations of these toxicants showed similar results.

  12. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  13. Sperm cryopreservation of the Indian major carp, Labeo calbasu: effects of cryoprotectants, cooling rates and thawing rates on egg fertilization.

    PubMed

    Nahiduzzaman, Md; Hassan, Md Mahbubul; Roy, Pankoz Kumar; Hossain, Md Akhtar; Hossain, Mostafa Ali Reza; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-12-01

    A sperm cryopreservation protocol for the Indian major carp, Labeo calbasu, was developed for long-term preservation and artificial fertilization. Milt collected from mature male fish were placed in Alsever's solution (296mOsmolkg(-1)) to immobilize the sperm. Cryoprotectant toxicity was evaluated by motility assessment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol at 5, 10 and 15% concentrations. DMSO was more toxic at higher concentrations than methanol, and consequently 15% DMSO was excluded from further study. A one-step cooling protocol (from 5 to 80°C) with two cooling rates (5 and 10°C/min) was carried out in a computer-controlled freezer (FREEZE CONTROL(®) CL-3300; Australia). Based on post-thaw motility, the 10°C/min cooling rate with either 10% DMSO or 10% methanol yielded significantly higher (P=0.011) post-thaw motility than the other rate and cryoprotectant concentrations. Sperm thawed at 40°C for 15s and fresh sperm were used to fertilize freshly collected L. calbasu eggs and significant differences were observed (P=0.001) in percent fertilization between cryopreserved and fresh sperm as well as among different sperm-to-egg ratios (P=0.001). The highest fertilization and hatching rates were observed for thawed sperm at a sperm-to-egg ratio of 4.1×10(5):1. The cryopreservation protocol developed can facilitate hatchery operations and long-term conservation of genetic resources of L. calbasu.

  14. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  15. Moribund sperm in frozen-thawed semen, and sperm motion end points post-thaw and post-swim-up, are related to fertility in Holstein AI bulls.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, H; Kroetsch, T; Wilde, R; Blondin, P; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2012-03-15

    The objectives were to compare testicular physical characteristics and post-thaw sperm characteristics and their associations with fertility in Holstein bulls used for AI. Ten Holstein bulls (4-5 y old) were classified as either high-fertility (HF) or low-fertility (LF; n = 5 each), based on adjusted 56-d non-return rates [non-return rate (NRR); range (mean ± SD): 55.6 ± 4.6 to 71.8 ± 1.3%). Testicular physical characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Four ejaculates were collected from each bull and cryopreserved. Several indexes of sperm motion (based on computer-assisted sperm analysis) at post-thaw and post-swim-up were correlated with NRR. Sperm from HF bulls were in transition to a hyperactivated motility pattern, whereas those from LF bulls had only a forward progressive motility pattern. In HF vs LF bulls, there was a greater percentage of viable sperm after thawing (60.6 ± 9.7 vs 49.5 ± 8.0%, P < 0.05) and after swim-up (70.9 ± 11.0 vs 63.0 ± 8.8%, P < 0.01); these two end points were positively correlated with fertility (r = 0.45, P < 0.01 and r = 0.78; P < 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, in HF vs LF bulls, the ratio of sperm recovered after swim-up to viable sperm in post-thaw semen was higher (P < 0.001), and the proportion of moribund sperm expressed as a percentage of live sperm differed (12.6 ± 3.4 vs. 16.4 ± 3.1%, P < 0.001) and was negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) with fertility. In conclusion, fertility of Holstein bulls maintained in a commercial AI center was not predicted by testicular physical characteristics, but it was associated with differences in moribund sperm in the inseminate, as well as characteristics of sperm post-thaw and after swim-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sperm cryopreservation of green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, a fish with internal fertilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2004-06-01

    Sperm cryopreservation for fishes with internal fertilization is essentially unexplored although many species of these fishes are valuable biomedical research models. To explore methods for sperm cryopreservation within the live-bearing genus Xiphophorus, this study used X. helleri to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant, osmotic pressure, cooling rate, equilibration time, and sperm-to-extender ratio. Sperm motility and survival duration after thawing showed significant differences among different cryoprotectants with the highest motility at 10 min after thawing obtained with 14% glycerol. With subsequent use of 14% glycerol as the cryoprotectant, the highest motility after thawing was observed with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 300 mOsmol/kg. Samples cooled from 5 to -80 degrees C at 20 degrees C/min yielded the highest post-thaw motility although no significant difference was found in the first 4h after thawing for cooling rates across the range of 20-35 degrees C/min. Evaluation of equilibration time revealed no significant difference between 20 min and 2h, but the highest motility at 10 min after thawing was found with a 20-min equilibration. Dilution ratios of sperm-to-extender at 1:20, 1:60, and 1:120 showed no significant differences in motility and survival duration after thawing, but the dilution of sperm solutions with HBSS (320 mOsmol/kg) immediately after thawing reduced the decline of sperm motility, and significantly prolonged the survival duration. Based on these findings, the highest average sperm motility (77%) at 10 min after thawing was obtained when sperm were suspended in HBSS at 300 mOsmol/kg with 14% glycerol as cryoprotectant, diluted at a ratio of sperm to HBSS-glycerol of 1:20, equilibrated for 10 min, cooled at 20 degrees C/min from 5 to -80 degrees C before being plunged in liquid nitrogen, and thawed in a 40 degrees C water bath for 7s. If diluted immediately after thawing, sperm frozen by the protocol above retained

  17. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF.

  18. Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (UBA1) is required for sperm capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis and sperm-egg coat penetration during porcine fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y-J; Zimmerman, S W; Manandhar, G; Odhiambo, J F; Kennedy, C; Jonáková, V; Maňásková-Postlerová, P; Sutovsky, M; Park, C-S; Sutovsky, P

    2012-04-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a stable, covalent post-translational modification that alters protein activity and/or targets proteins for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The E1-type ubiquitin-activating enzyme (UBA1) is responsible for ubiquitin activation, the initial step of ubiquitin-protein ligation. Proteasomal proteolysis of ubiquitinated spermatozoa and oocyte proteins occurs during mammalian fertilization, particularly at the site of sperm acrosome contact with oocyte zona pellucida. However, it is not clear whether the substrates are solely proteins ubiquitinated during gametogenesis or if de novo ubiquitination also occurs during fertilization supported by ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes present in the sperm acrosome. Along this line of inquiry, UBA1 was detected in boar sperm-acrosomal extracts by Western blotting (WB). Immunofluorescence revealed accumulation of UBA1 in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and in the acrosomal caps of round and elongating spermatids. Thiol ester assays utilizing biotinylated ubiquitin and isolated sperm acrosomes confirmed the enzymatic activity of the resident UBA1. A specific UBA1 inhibitor, PYR-41, altered the remodelling of the outer acrosomal membrane (OAM) during sperm capacitation, monitored using flow cytometry of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Although viable and motile, the spermatozoa capacitated in the presence of PYR-41, showed significantly reduced fertilization rates during in vitro fertilization (IVF; p < 0.05). Similarly, the fertilization rate was lowered by the addition of PYR-41 directly into fertilization medium during IVF. In WB, high Mr bands, suggestive of protein ubiquitination, were detected in non-capacitated spermatozoa by antibodies against ubiquitin; WB with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies and antibodies against acrosomal proteins SPINK2 (acrosin inhibitor) and AQN1 (spermadhesin) revealed that the capacitation

  19. The sperm phospholipase C-ζ and Ca2+ signalling at fertilization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A series of intracellular oscillations in the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is responsible for activating mammalian eggs at fertilization, thus initiating embryo development. It has been proposed that the sperm causes these Ca(2+) oscillations after membrane fusion by delivering a soluble protein into the egg cytoplasm. We previously identified sperm-specific phospholipase C (PLC)-ζ as a protein that can trigger the same pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs seen at fertilization. PLCζ appears to be the elusive sperm factor mediating egg activation in mammals. It has potential therapeutic use in infertility treatments to improve the rate of egg activation and early embryo development after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. A stable form of recombinant human PLCζ could be a prototype for use in such in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. We do not yet understand exactly how PLCζ causes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) production in eggs. Sperm PLCζ is distinct among mammalian PI-specific PLCs in that it is far more potent in triggering Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs than other PLCs, but it lacks a PH domain that would otherwise be considered essential for binding to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) substrate. PLCζ is also unusual in that it does not appear to interact with or hydrolyse plasma membrane PIP2. We consider how other regions of PLCζ may mediate its binding to PIP2 in eggs and how interaction of PLCζ with egg-specific factors could enable the hydrolysis of internal sources of PIP2. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Efficacy of Standardized Nursing Fertility Counseling on Sperm Banking Rates in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Rotker, Katherine; Vigneswaran, Hari; Omil-Lima, Danly; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen

    2017-06-01

    To examine the effect of brief nurse counseling on sperm banking rates among patients prior to initiating chemotherapy. A retrospective chart review was performed for men aged 18-50 with newly diagnosed cancer, from 1998 to 2003, prior to initiation of chemotherapy. A standardized nursing education session including brief fertility counseling was implemented at one institution in 2008 (Institution A). Rates of sperm banking among patients who received counseling were compared to those without counseling at institution A and to those at institution B where a counseling program was never initiated. A total of 766 male patients, 402 treated at institution A and 364 at institution B, were included. At institution A, sperm banking rates prior to 2008 were 6.4% and 8.3% after 2008 for those who did not receive counseling. The rate of sperm banking for those patients who did receive counseling was significantly higher at 17.6% (P = .002). The odds of banking increased 2.9 times for those who received counseling compared to those who did not (P = .003). At institution B, where counseling was never initiated, rates of banking remained low before and after 2008. Additional analysis revealed that younger patients and those patients who did not have children were more likely to perform sperm banking. The rates of sperm banking among cancer patients increased with the receipt of a brief, formalized nurse counseling session prior to initiation of chemotherapy. These findings may validate the use of a formalized fertility counseling prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (P<0.05). Sperm motility parameters, morphologically normal sperm, and acrosome integrity in T2 boars were greater than those in T1 boars (P<0.05) during the experiment. Free amino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (P<0.05). Furthermore, sows inseminated with semen collected from T2 boars gave birth to more live piglets than those inseminated with semen collected from T1 boars (P=0.04). In conclusion, supplementation of boar diet with amino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  2. Should we be offering fertility preservation by surgical sperm retrieval to men with Klinefelter syndrome?

    PubMed

    McEleny, Kevin; Cheetham, Tim; Quinton, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Advances in surgical sperm retrieval have greatly increased the chances of men with Klinefelter syndrome achieving biological paternity. Despite this, the vast majority of attempts to achieve fertility by using extracted gametes to fertilize eggs in vitro do not result in viable pregnancies. A powerful obstacle to success lies with the natural history of seminiferous tubule and germ cell function in Klinefelter syndrome, which typically peak (and thereafter steeply decline) up to a decade before most individuals would be contemplating paternity. Herein we discuss, in relation to a real clinical case, both the exciting technical advances surgical sperm retrieval and the logistic and ethical factors that, in practice, may act to limit their successful application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Relationship between the nuclear morphology of the sperm of 10 bulls and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Vieytes, A L; Cisale, H O; Ferrari, M R

    2008-11-22

    The relationships between the fertility and nuclear morphology, chromatin maturity and chromatin condensation of the sperm of three bulls with a calving rate over a year of more than 65 per cent, four bulls with a calving rate between 65 per cent and 35 per cent, and three bulls with a calving rate of less than 35 per cent were studied. The sperm nuclei were stained with the Feulgen reaction, and chromatin condensation and maturation were evaluated in situ by staining with toluidine blue and acid aniline blue. Nuclear chromatin decondensation was induced with dithiothreitol; this showed that in the bulls with low fertility, more than 35 per cent of nuclei were decondensed, and that one of them had the lowest percentage of normal nuclei (64.9 per cent) and stronger positive reactions to the acid aniline blue and toluidine blue stains than the other bulls.

  4. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  5. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MAKITA, Miho; UEDA, Mayuko; MIYANO, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4−0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts. PMID:27151093

  6. Fertilization Ability of Porcine Oocytes Reconstructed from Ooplasmic Fragments Produced and Characterized after Serial Centrifugations

    PubMed Central

    Viet LINH, Nguyen; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; DANG-NGUYEN, Thanh Quang; MEN, Nguyen Thi; VAN HANH, Nguyen; SOMFAI, Tamas; NGUYEN, Bui Xuan; NAGAI, Takashi; MANABE, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria are reported to be critical in in vitro maturation of oocytes and subsequent embryo development after fertilization, but their contribution for fertilization has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we investigate the contribution of mitochondria to fertilization using reconstructed porcine oocytes by fusion of ooplasmic fragments produced by serial centrifugations (centri-fusion). Firstly, we evaluated the characteristics of ooplasmic fragments. Three types of fragments were obtained by centrifugation of porcine oocytes matured in vitro for 46 h: brownish (B), transparent (T) and large (L) fragments containing both B and T parts in a fragment. The production efficiencies of these types of fragments were 71.7, 91.0 and 17.8 fragments/100 oocytes, respectively. In experiments, L fragments were excluded because they contained both brownish and transparent components that were apparently intermediate between B and T fragments. Observations by confocal microscopy after staining with MitoTracker Red CMXRos® and transmission electron microscopy revealed highly condensed active mitochondria in B fragments in contrast to T fragments that contained only sparse organelles. We reconstructed oocytes by fusion of a karyoplast and two cytoplasts from B and T fragments (B and T oocytes, respectively). The B oocytes showed higher sperm penetration (95.8%) and male pronuclear formation rates (94.2%) by in vitro fertilization than T oocytes (66.7% and 50.0%, respectively). These results suggest that the active mitochondria in oocytes may be related to their ability for fertilization. PMID:23965685

  7. Motility and fertility of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using soybean lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate whether soy lecithin can be used as an alternative cryoprotectant to establish a procedure that does not require the use of egg yolk to cryopreserve rabbit strains. Semen from Japanese White rabbits was frozen with HEPES extender containing 20% egg yolk (EYH), 0.5% (Lec-0.5), 1.5% (Lec-1.5), 2.5% (Lec-2.5), or 3.5% (Lec-3.5; wt/vol) lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%), and the motility of thawed sperm was analyzed. The sperm motility in the Lec-1.5 group was significantly higher than that in the Lec-2.5 and 3.5 groups and equivalent to the EYH group. From 17 rounds of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in the EYH and Lec-1.5 groups, 12 rabbits in both groups were pregnant (70.6%) and delivered offspring. The litter size was 3.3 in the EYH group and 5.1 in the Lec-1.5 group. These results indicate that soy lecithin can be used as a substitute for egg yolk as a cryoprotectant on the basis of motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed rabbit sperm and that 1.5% lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%) in the semen extender was the optimum concentration for rabbit sperm cryopreservation.

  8. LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic, human sperm-related protein, plays a role in fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Li, Wenshu; Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Yixin; Bao, Jianying; Jiang, Deke; Dong, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the c-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family and are selectively expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. Two members, human sperm lysozyme-like protein (SLLP) -1 and mouse LYZL4, have been reported to contribute to fertilization but show no bacteriolytic activity. Here, we focused on the possible contribution of LYZL6 to immunity and fertilization. In humans, LYZL6 was selectively expressed by the testis and epididymis and became concentrated on spermatozoa. Native LYZL6 isolated from sperm extracts exhibited bacteriolytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Recombinant LYZL6 (rLYZL6) reached its peak activity at pH 5.6 and 15 mM of Na+, and could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, the bacteriolytic activity of rLYZL6 proved to be much lower than that of human lysozyme under physiological conditions. Immunodetection with a specific antiserum localized the LYZL6 protein on the postacrosomal membrane of mature spermatozoa. Immunoneutralization of LYZL6 significantly decreased the numbers of human spermatozoa fused with zona-free hamster eggs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus, we report here for the first time that LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic and human sperm-related protein, is likely important for fertilization but not for the innate immunity of the male reproductive tract. PMID:28182716

  9. Sperm-borne miRNAs and endo-siRNAs are important for fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuiqiao; Schuster, Andrew; Tang, Chong; Yu, Tian; Ortogero, Nicole; Bao, Jianqiang; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although it is believed that mammalian sperm carry small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) into oocytes during fertilization, it remains unknown whether these sperm-borne sncRNAs truly have any function during fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development. Germline-specific Dicer and Drosha conditional knockout (cKO) mice produce gametes (i.e. sperm and oocytes) partially deficient in miRNAs and/or endo-siRNAs, thus providing a unique opportunity for testing whether normal sperm (paternal) or oocyte (maternal) miRNA and endo-siRNA contents are required for fertilization and preimplantation development. Using the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a readout, we found that sperm with altered miRNA and endo-siRNA profiles could fertilize wild-type (WT) eggs, but embryos derived from these partially sncRNA-deficient sperm displayed a significant reduction in developmental potential, which could be rescued by injecting WT sperm-derived total or small RNAs into ICSI embryos. Disrupted maternal transcript turnover and failure in early zygotic gene activation appeared to associate with the aberrant miRNA profiles in Dicer and Drosha cKO spermatozoa. Overall, our data support a crucial function of paternal miRNAs and/or endo-siRNAs in the control of the transcriptomic homeostasis in fertilized eggs, zygotes and two-cell embryos. Given that supplementation of sperm RNAs enhances both the developmental potential of preimplantation embryos and the live birth rate, it might represent a novel means to improve the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies in fertility clinics. PMID:26718009

  10. Slow oocyte freezing and thawing in couples with no sperm or an insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical results of in vitro fertilization of slowly frozen-thawed oocytes are known to be significantly worse than those obtained by fresh oocytes. Little is known about the factors affecting the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the role of oocyte cryopreservation in the group of patients with no available sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization. Additionally, the effects of the female serum FSH level and sperm quality on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes were evaluated. Methods Oocytes were slowly frozen and thawed in 22 infertile couples with no sperm or insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In 9 couples with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous sperm of bad quality when available (Group 1). In 13 couples with non-ejaculation due to psychological stress on the day of classical IVF or severe azoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous or donated sperm of normal quality (Group 2). Oocytes were thawed in 23 cycles and microinjected by the autologous or donated sperm, when available. The clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection - ICSI (fertilization, blastocyst, and pregnancy rates) was compared to the outcome of fresh oocytes of the same group of patients; additionally, the female serum FSH level and the sperm quality were compared. Results In all couples, 70.5% of oocytes survived the freeze-thaw procedure. After ICSI, 61.5% of thawed oocytes were fertilized. Twenty one% of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The pregnancy rates per embryo transfer and freeze-thaw cycle were 33.3% and 17.4%, respectively. All pregnancies ended in the birth of a baby without congenital anomalies. In patients with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia there was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy rates per cycle obtained by

  11. Exposure of thawed frozen bull sperm to a synthetic peptide before artificial insemination increases fertility.

    PubMed

    Amann, R P; Seidel, G E; Brink, Z A

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect on fertility of in vitro exposure of thawed frozen bull sperm to synthetic FertPlus peptide prior to artificial insemination (AI). The peptide represented a 60-amino acid sequence within rat prosaposin. Commercial cryopreserved semen was from three Holstein bulls. Onset of estrus in groups of Holstein nulliparous heifers was synchronized via injection of prostaglandin F2-alpha, and heifers were scheduled for AI 8-24 hours after estrus was detected. Semen was thawed, diluted to 2.4 x 10(6) sperm/ml with buffer, and split to provide control and exposed aliquots (0 or 30 microM peptide) that were incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 minutes and then were held at 32 degrees C. The two aliquots of semen then were used on an alternate basis 2-65 minutes later to inseminate females. Each AI (one per female) involved the deposit of approximately 250,000 sperm into each uterine horn. This procedure for AI was used to reduce the pregnancy rate with control semen to below the maximum value for a given bull and to facilitate detection of any beneficial effect of the peptide. For each bull, approximately 32 heifers were inseminated with control semen, and approximately 32 heifers were inseminated with peptide-exposed semen. Pregnancy was evaluated ultrasonically approximately 60 days after AI. After excluding one group of heifers with unusually low fertility, averaged across all animals, a 29% increase in pregnancy rate resulted from exposure of sperm to peptide (P < 0.04; one-tailed chi-square test; means were 48 vs. 62%). Pregnancy rates for the three bulls for control and peptide-exposed semen, respectively, were 42 and 62%, 44 and 64%, and 56 and 61%; means in the first two pairs of values tended to differ (P approximately equal to 0.10). These observations should be confirmed with sperm from other bulls used in a more conventional manner. However, with insemination of a limiting number of cryopreserved sperm, brief exposure of the thawed bull sperm to

  12. Assessment of spermatozoa in fertile alpaca (Vicugna pacos) males: Study of sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and sperm morphology based on strict criteria.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Vargas, D; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Valdivia, M; Santiani, A

    2017-04-01

    Although computer-assisted systems for sperm morphometry and morphological analysis are important tools in the study of male fertility, their use in extensive systems in alpacas is limited by factors such as the expense of equipment and the high altitudes of the Andean region. The objectives of this study were to evaluate alpaca sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and determine the frequency of sperm abnormalities based on strict criteria for sperm morphology in fertile male alpacas. Ejaculates (n = 15) from seven alpacas were collected, and sperm smears stained with modified Papanicolaou were processed. For morphometric analysis, 3,000 sperm (200 cells/sample) images were captured at 400× magnification and Quick Photo MICRO 3.0 software was used for manual measurement of basic (sperm head length, width, perimeter and area) and derived variables (ellipticity, shape factor, elongation and regularity). For morphology assessment, smears were observed at 1000× magnification according to WHO and strict criteria. Average morphometric parameters were length 5.48 μm, width 2.99 μm, perimeter 13.62 μm, area 12.43 μm(2) , ellipticity 1.86, shape factor 1.20, elongation 0.29 and regularity 1.05. Significant between-individual and within-individual differences were found in morphometric parameters. Based on morphometric study, sperm heads were classified as elliptical or normal (49%), long (18%), short (2%), pyriform (12%), round (9%), large (6%) and small (4%). Morphological analysis found no additional sperm head defects in 49% of normal sperm obtained by morphometry, although a 4% incidence of neck/mid-piece defects and a 16% incidence of principal-piece defects were found. We conclude that sperm head morphometry assessment in fertile alpacas using a nonautomated digital method is feasible, and that defects in sperm heads constitute the main morphological alteration (>50% of the sperm population), based on WHO and strict criteria. © 2016

  13. Lipid Rafts: Keys to Sperm Maturation, Fertilization, and Early Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Natsuko; Yoshida, Kaoru; Miyado, Kenji; Yoshida, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    Cell membranes are composed of many different lipids and protein receptors, which are important for regulating intracellular functions and cell signaling. To orchestrate these activities, the cell membrane is compartmentalized into microdomains that are stably or transiently formed. These compartments are called “lipid rafts”. In gamete cells that lack gene transcription, distribution of lipids and proteins on these lipid rafts is focused during changes in their structure and functions such as starting flagella movement and membrane fusion. In this paper, we describe the role of lipid rafts in gamete maturation, fertilization, and early embryogenesis. PMID:21490798

  14. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.87) and included five traits; acrosome-compromised spermatozoa, percent live spermatozoa (0 and 60 min post-thaw), percent total motility, and the number of zona-bound spermatozoa. A second model to predict the number of piglets sired by boar was also effective (p < 0.05, r(2) = 0.57). These models indicate that the fertility of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa can be predicted effectively by including traditional and novel laboratory assays that consider functions of spermatozoa.

  15. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm's chromatins.

  16. Role of fertilization promoting peptide (FPP) in modulating mammalian sperm function.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L R

    1998-12-01

    Fertilization promoting peptide (FPP), structurally similar to thyrotrophin releasing hormone, is produced by the prostate gland and secreted into seminal plasma. Recent in vitro studies have provided evidence that FPP elicits biologically relevant responses in mouse, human and boar spermatozoa. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of FPP, spermatozoa become fertilizing more quickly and then are inhibited from undergoing spontaneous acrosome loss, an event that would make them non-fertilizing. In vivo, these responses would be very important in maximizing the availability of potentially fertilizing spermatozoa. Adenosine, which can elicit the same responses as FPP, is known to modulate the adenylyl cyclase(AC)/cAMP signal transduction pathway; current evidence indicates that FPP and adenosine act via separate receptors on the same signal transduction pathway. Mouse spermatozoa are known to have adenosine receptors and a putative receptor for FPP (TCP-11) has been identified. Unlike many surface receptors, TCP-11 has no obvious transmembrane regions whereby modulation of AC could occur. Recent evidence suggests that FPP receptors may dimerize with adenosine receptors to activate the signaling pathway, with stimulatory adenosine receptors involved in the stimulation of capacitation, but inhibitory receptors involved in inhibition of spontaneous acrosome loss. These results indicate that FPP plays an important role in normal sperm function and that it might be used in new therapeutic strategies designed to alleviate some causes of sperm dysfunction.

  17. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    PubMed

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were detected between stations or birth years. We also compared the CR of 695 AI bulls with the CR of their 27 sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of a fertilization-promoting peptide on the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity in vitro of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the pig.

    PubMed

    Park, C K; Hwang, I S; Cheong, H T; Yang, B K; Kim, C I

    2002-07-15

    This study has evaluated the effect of fertilization-promoting peptide (FPP) on the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity in vitro of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Use of chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence analysis, as well as various glycosidase analyses and the oocyte penetration test showed that FPP can promote the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in vitro. There were significantly (P < 0.05) more acrosome-reacted and penetrated in medium with 100 nM FPP than with 0, 50, 200 or 400 nM. The beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (beta-GlcNAcase) activity was at least two-fold higher than other glycosidase regardless of FPP concentrations. In the same glycosidase, there were no differences in medium with different concentrations of FPP. The percentages of spermatozoa that reached acrosome reaction were affected by different periods (0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 h) of spermatozoa preincubation and were higher in medium with than without FPP. Penetration rates were decreased with preincubation periods of spermatozoa when oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa preincubated in medium with and without FPP for the different periods. These rates were higher in spermatozoa preincubated with that than without FPP and had a tendency to increase as time of culture periods when the sperm-oocyte were cultured for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 24 h. The activities of alpha-fucosidase, alpha-mannosidase, beta-galactosidase and beta-GlcNAcase were higher in medium with that than without FPP regardless of periods of sperm preincubation and sperm-oocyte culture. These results suggest that FPP may have a positive role in promoting sperm function and glycosidase activity in the pig.

  19. Mitotic chromosome condensation in the sperm nucleus during post fertilization maturation division in urechis eggs

    PubMed Central

    Das, NK; Barker, C

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the morphology of the sperm nucleus in the egg cytoplasm are mong the immediate events in nucleocytoplasmic interactions during early embryogenesis. Soon after its entrance into the egg cytoplasm, the sperm nucleus of various organisms increases in size with the transformation of condensed chromatin to a diffuse state, resembling the chromatin of an interphase nucleus (2, 13, 15, 16). This is followed by a close association or fusion of male and female pronuclei (2, 13, 15, 16). Cytoplasmic influences on nuclear morphology have also been demonstrated clearly in nuclear transplantation and cell fusion studies (10, 11). Reactivation of the nucleus, such as the transplanted brain nucleus in Xenopus egg cytoplasm or the hen erythrocyte nucleus in interphase cytoplasm of HeLa cells, is accompanied by nuclear enlargement and chromatin dispersion (10, 11). However, premature mitotic-like chromosome condensation takes place in the nuclei of sperm or interphase cells fused with mitotic cells (9, 12). Thus, chromosome dispersion and condensation seem to depend on the state of the cytoplasm in which the nucleus is present. These observations imply that the initial morphological changes in the sperm nucleus after fertilization may very well be dependent on the state of maturation of eggs at the time of sperm entry. Unfertilized eggs of Urechis caupo, a marine echiuroid worm, are stored at the diakinesis stage. These eggs complete maturation division after insemination and this is followed by fusion of male and female pronuclei (5, 8). Therefore, Urechis caupo is a suitable organism in which to study the response of the sperm nucleus to the changing state of the egg cytoplasm during and after postfertilization maturation division. PMID:54357

  20. Effect of inbreeding depression on bull sperm quality and field fertility.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Jesús; Cid, Rosa Morales; Molina, Antonio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ariza, Julia; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián

    2015-12-18

    The present study investigated the effect of inbreeding depression on sperm quality using automated and objective methods and subsequent effects on beef bull field fertility. Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) values and field fertility data were determined using a dataset of AI bulls belonging to the Spanish Retinta Breeders Association (Asociación Nacional de Criadores de Ganado Vacuno Selecto de Raza Retinta (ANCRE)). Animals were clustered in two groups according to the F values as follows: (1) a high inbreeding group (HI; F ≥ 13.5%, mean 16.3); and (2) a non-inbreeding group (NI; F = 0%). In total, 17 different assessments were performed in both experimental groups, including evaluation of sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status, sperm plasma membrane integrity and function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), 10 kinetic parameters and the structure of sperm subpopulations. Sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status and osmotic tolerance were similar in both groups. Three velocity parameters (curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity and average path velocity) and the amplitude of lateral head displacement were higher in HI (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis of kinematic parameters revealed three different sperm subpopulations (sP1, sP2 and sP3), with the proportion of the sP1 population (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa) being significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HI group. Field fertility was assessed using two calving record datasets. In a smaller database including only bulls evaluated in the present study, there was a significant increase in the calving interval of cows sired with HI bulls. Conversely, in an extended genetic analysis of the ANCRE database, inbreeding only explained a small part of the variation in calving interval, and the results of regression analysis were not significant among bulls. The findings of the present study suggest that high inbreeding levels have a moderate effect on bull semen quality, with an increased

  1. Natriuretic peptide type C induces sperm attraction for fertilization in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Nana; Xu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yakun; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Zhao, Yu; Qiao, Jie; Xia, Guoliang; Zhang, Meijia

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa undergo selective movement along the isthmus of the oviduct to the ampulla during ovulation, which is a prerequisite for fertilization. The factor(s) that involves in selective spermatozoa movement is still unknown. In this study, we found that the oviductal epithelium in mouse ampulla expressed high levels of natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) in the presence of ovulated oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). Spermatozoa expressed NPPC receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase) on the midpiece of flagellum. NPPC increased intracellular levels of cGMP and Ca2+ of spermatozoa, and induced sperm accumulation in the capillary by attraction. Importantly, spermatozoa from Npr2 mutant mice were not attracted by NPPC, preventing fertilization in vivo. Oocyte-derived paracrine factors promoted the expression of Nppc mRNA in the ampulla. Therefore, NPPC secreted by oviductal ampulla attracts spermatozoa towards oocytes, which is essential for fertilization. PMID:28054671

  2. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Consales, C; Leter, G; Bonde, J P E; Toft, G; Eleuteri, P; Moccia, T; Budillon, A; Jönsson, B A G; Giwercman, A; Pedersen, H S; Ludwicki, J K; Zviezdai, V; Heederik, D; Spanò, M

    2014-09-01

    Which are the main determinants, if any, of sperm DNA methylation levels? Geographical region resulted associated with the sperm methylation status assessed on genome-wide repetitive sequences. DNA methylation level, assessed on repetitive sequences from peripheral blood lymphocyte, can vary with age, gender, alcohol consumption and white blood cell counts. A cross-sectional study. Individual data were collected from 269 young healthy men of proven fertility living in three geographical regions: Inuits from Greenland, Caucasians from Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Semen samples were collected between May 2002 and February 2004 and aliquots were immediately frozen. We estimated sperm DNA global methylation level (DGML) in two ways. First DNA methylation in repetitive DNA sequences (LINE-1, Satα and Alu) was quantified by PCR pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion and second by flow cytometry (FCM) using fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies anti-5-methylcytosine. We analyzed whether personal characteristics and habits, body mass index, semen quality parameters, sperm chromatin integrity, biomarkers of accessory gland function and the plasma concentration of reproductive hormones were associated with sperm DNA methylation levels in men. Associations were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression analyses. The geographical location emerged as the main determinant when using the methylation level in repetitive sequences. FCM DGML results were not associated with those from repetitive sequence analysis. No other consistent associations between methylation markers and the assessed variables were identified across countries. The methods used are only surrogates of the actual sperm methylome and the methylation levels at individual specific loci were not explored. Sperm DGML is relatively independent from semen quality parameters and is a new candidate biomarker for epidemiological studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on male

  3. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal HydrolaseL3 Correlates with Human Sperm Count, Motility and Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijiao; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina; Cheng, Zhi; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) belongs to the group of deubiquitinating enzymes and plays a part in apoptosis of germ cells and the differentiation of spermatocytes into spermatids. However, the exact role of UCHL3 in human spermatogenesis and sperm function remains unknown. Here we examined the level and activity of UCHL3 in spermatozoa from men with asthenozoospermia (A), oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or normozoospermia (N). Immunofluorescence indicated that UCHL3 was mainly localized in the acrosome and throughout the flagella, and western blotting revealed a lower level in A or OA compared with N (p < 0.05). The catalytic activity of UCHL3 was decreased in spermatozoa from A or OA (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). The level and activity of UCHL3 were positively correlated with sperm count, concentration and motility. The UCHL3 level was positively correlated with the normal fertilization rate (FR) and percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The UCHL3 activity was also positively correlated with FR, the percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation and high-quality embryos rate of IVF. Aforementioned correlations were not manifested in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These findings suggest that UCHL3 may play a role in male infertility. PMID:27780264

  4. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  5. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects.

  6. Sperm motility initiation by egg jelly of the anuran, Discoglossus pictus may be mediated by sperm motility-initiating substance of the internally-fertilizing newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Campanella, Chiara; Kubo, Hideo; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2012-11-01

    The egg jelly of Discoglossus pictus contains sperm motility-activating activity, the molecular basis of which has not been studied. Discoglossus pictus sperm initiated motility immediately after immersion in egg-jelly extract, as well as after immersion in hyposmotic solution, which initiates sperm motility in the external fertilization of anuran amphibians. Sequential treatment of the D. pictus sperm with these two solutions revealed the predominant effect of hyposmolality in initiation of motility. The motility initiation induced by jelly extract was suppressed by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is specific for the 34 kDa sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS) in the egg jelly of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Immunoblotting using the anti-SMIS mAb revealed several antigenic proteins that included major ones with sizes of 18- and 34-kDa in D. pictus jelly extract. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that granules of jelly matrix, in which SMIS localizes and which have a critical role in the internal fertilization of C. pyrrhogaster, were not observed near the surface of the D. pictus egg jelly. These results suggest that sperm motility-activating activity in egg jelly of D. pictus may be mediated by SMIS homologous proteins that act through a mechanism that is partially different from that of C. pyrrhogaster.

  7. Freeze-dried sperm fertilization leads to full-term development in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Kusakabe, Hirokazu; Chang, Ching-Chien; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Schmidt, David W; Julian, Marina; Pfeffer, Robert; Bormann, Charles L; Tian, X Cindy; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2004-06-01

    To date, the laboratory mouse is the only mammal in which freeze-dried spermatozoa have been shown to support full-term development after microinjection into oocytes. Because spermatozoa in mice, unlike in most other mammals, do not contribute centrosomes to zygotes, it is still unknown whether freeze-dried spermatozoa in other mammals are fertile. Rabbit sperm was selected as a model because of its similarity to human sperm (considering the centrosome inheritance pattern). Freeze- drying induces rabbit spermatozoa to undergo dramatic changes, such as immobilization, membrane breaking, and tail fragmentation. Even when considered to be "dead" in the conventional sense, rabbit spermatozoa freeze-dried and stored at ambient temperature for more than 2 yr still have capability comparable to that of fresh spermatozoa to support preimplantation development after injection into oocytes followed by activation. A rabbit kit derived from a freeze-dried spermatozoon was born after transferring 230 sperm-injected oocytes into eight recipients. The results suggest that freeze-drying could be applied to preserve the spermatozoa from most other species, including human. The present study also raises the question of whether rabbit sperm centrosomes survive freeze-drying or are not essential for embryonic development.

  8. The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single- or double-strand DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, María; Iglesias, Miriam; Galán, Isabel; Sarasa, Jonás; Gosálvez, Antonio; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available, of which the most commonly employed are density–gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP). To date, these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART), but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA. In this study, the ability of these semen processing techniques to eliminate spermatozoa containing single- and double-strand DNA damage was assessed by the two-tailed comet assay and the sperm chromatin dispersion test in 157 semen samples from patients seeking assisted reproduction treatment. Our results indicated that SUP and DGC are equally efficient in eliminating spermatozoa containing double-strand DNA damage and sperm with highly damaged (degraded) DNA, as characterized by the presence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. However, DGC is more efficient than SUP in selecting spermatozoa that are free from single-strand DNA damage. Future studies should characterise the importance of the various types of DNA damage and examine the sperm processing protocols used in each laboratory to determine their ability to eliminate DNA damage and hence, prevent the potential transmission of genetic mutations via ART. PMID:21725332

  9. Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Improves Sperm Capacitation Status Assessed by Flow Cytometry Analysis and Zona Pellucida-Binding Ability of Frozen/Thawed Bovine Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Águila, L; Arias, M E; Vargas, T; Zambrano, F; Felmer, R

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian sperm undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract that are collectively known as capacitation. Cyclodextrins added to the sperm culture medium have been described to induce in vitro sperm capacitation, enabling its use in protein-free media. However, the additive capacitating effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) in the medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) is unknown in the bovine species. In this study, we evaluated the effects of incubating frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa in a BSA-containing medium supplemented with MβCD on different sperm quality and functional parameters. Sperm viability decreased with the addition of MβCD in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and DNA damage could be observed but only with the highest concentration of MβCD. However, pre-incubation of spermatozoa in MβCD-supplemented medium improved the capacitation status as assessed by the increase in plasma membrane fluidity, intracellular calcium concentration, induced acrosome reactivity and zona pellucida (ZP)-binding ability (p < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that MβCD supplementation is able to enhance the capacitation status of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa cultured in capacitation medium containing BSA and could result in a valid strategy for its application on artificial reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  10. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins. PMID:25568681

  11. A Novel Cysteine Knot Protein for Enhancing Sperm Motility That Might Facilitate the Evolution of Internal Fertilization in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Misato; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Saito, Yoko; Kutsuzawa, Megumi; Fujita, Kosuke; Ochi, Haruki; Nakauchi, Yuni; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Internal fertilization ensures successful reproduction of tetrapod vertebrates on land, although how this mode of reproduction evolved is unknown. Here, we identified a novel gene encoding sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a key protein for the internal fertilization of the urodele Cynops pyrrhogaster by Edman degradation of an isolated protein and subsequent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The SMIS gene encoded a 150 amino-acid sequence including the cysteine knot (CK) motif. No gene with substantial similarity to the SMIS was in the data bank of any model organisms. An active site of the SMIS was in the C-terminal region of the 2nd loop of CK motif. A synthetic peptide including the active site sequence bound to the midpiece and initiated/enhanced the circular motion of C. pyrrhogaster sperm, which allows penetration of the egg jelly specialized for the internal fertilization of this species. The synthetic peptide bound to whole sperm of Rhacophorus arboreus and enhanced the rotary motion, which is adapted to propel the sperm through egg coat matrix specialized for arboreal reproduction, while it bound to the tip of head and tail of Bufo japonicus sperm, and enhanced the vibratory motion, which is suited to sperm penetration through the egg jelly specialized for the reproduction of that species in freshwater. The polyclonal antibody against the active site of the SMIS specifically bound to egg coat matrix of R. arboreus. These findings suggest that diversification of amphibian reproductive modes accompanies the specialization of egg coat and the adaptation of sperm motility to penetrate the specialized egg coat, and SMIS acts as the sperm motility enhancer of anurans and urodeles that might facilitate to adaptively optimize sperm motility for allowing the establishment of internal fertilization.

  12. A Novel Cysteine Knot Protein for Enhancing Sperm Motility That Might Facilitate the Evolution of Internal Fertilization in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Yokoe, Misato; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Saito, Yoko; Kutsuzawa, Megumi; Fujita, Kosuke; Ochi, Haruki; Nakauchi, Yuni; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Internal fertilization ensures successful reproduction of tetrapod vertebrates on land, although how this mode of reproduction evolved is unknown. Here, we identified a novel gene encoding sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a key protein for the internal fertilization of the urodele Cynops pyrrhogaster by Edman degradation of an isolated protein and subsequent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The SMIS gene encoded a 150 amino-acid sequence including the cysteine knot (CK) motif. No gene with substantial similarity to the SMIS was in the data bank of any model organisms. An active site of the SMIS was in the C-terminal region of the 2nd loop of CK motif. A synthetic peptide including the active site sequence bound to the midpiece and initiated/enhanced the circular motion of C. pyrrhogaster sperm, which allows penetration of the egg jelly specialized for the internal fertilization of this species. The synthetic peptide bound to whole sperm of Rhacophorus arboreus and enhanced the rotary motion, which is adapted to propel the sperm through egg coat matrix specialized for arboreal reproduction, while it bound to the tip of head and tail of Bufo japonicus sperm, and enhanced the vibratory motion, which is suited to sperm penetration through the egg jelly specialized for the reproduction of that species in freshwater. The polyclonal antibody against the active site of the SMIS specifically bound to egg coat matrix of R. arboreus. These findings suggest that diversification of amphibian reproductive modes accompanies the specialization of egg coat and the adaptation of sperm motility to penetrate the specialized egg coat, and SMIS acts as the sperm motility enhancer of anurans and urodeles that might facilitate to adaptively optimize sperm motility for allowing the establishment of internal fertilization. PMID:27579691

  13. Seminal cell-free DNA levels measured by PicoGreen fluorochrome are associated with sperm fertility criteria.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Barbisan, F; Assmann, C E; Araújo, N K F; de Oliveira, A R; Signori, J P; Rogalski, F; Bonadiman, B; Fernandes, M S; da Cruz, I B M

    2017-03-07

    Previous investigations suggested that elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can indicate non-healthy states. However, the potential association between cfDNA seminal plasma levels and fertility sperm parameters has not yet been determined. Therefore, the present study evaluated the association between seminal cfDNA levels and sperm fertility criteria to determine the use of seminal cfDNA quantification. An in vivo protocol quantified cfDNA levels of semen samples obtained from 163 male patients using fluorescent PicoGreen dye staining. To confirm if semen cfDNA quantification is realistic, an in vitro complementary test was performed using three or four semen samples. The fresh sperm samples were exposed to paraquat that generates high levels of superoxide anion causing oxidative stress and cell mortality. The results showed significant association between dsDNA levels and several sperm fertility parameters, such as low viability and alterations of motility and morphology. The in vitro analysis confirmed the association between dsDNA levels and sperm viability. Together, these results suggest that dsDNA levels could be an important biomarker to test sperm fertility.

  14. In silico identification of the genes for sperm-egg interaction in the internal fertilization of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko

    2014-01-01

    A specific sperm-egg interaction in the oviductal matrix is crucial for internal fertilization of the red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. An understanding of the molecular basis of this interaction is expected to elucidate the evolutionary history of internal fertilization in amphibians. Recently, deep sequencing technology has provided global gene information even in nonmodel animals, allowing us to understand specific features of the molecular mechanisms underlying fertilization in C. pyrrhogaster. In the present study, we screened de novo assembled RNAseq from ovary, testis, and oviduct samples in C. pyrrhogaster and identified the base sequences encoding zona pellucida (ZP) proteins, voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), which respectively are sperm receptors for egg envelopes, major mediators of sperm intracellular signaling, and expected extracellular modulators for sperm function in the female reproductive tract. In the ovary, ZP homologues of all six subgroups were found, including a ZP1 homologue that was newly found in amphibians, a ZP4 homologue, and six ZPC homologues. The unique combination of ZP proteins suggests a new mechanism for sperm binding to egg envelopes in the internal fertilization of C. pyrrhogaster. In the testis, CaV1.1, 1.2, and 3.2, which are L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, were found as potential mediators for the internal fertilization-specific sperm-egg interaction. We also found CRISP 2 in the oviduct, which is speculated to participate in the sperm-egg interaction. These results indicate that the de novo assembled RNAseq is a powerful tool allowing analysis of the specific sperm-egg interactions in C. pyrrhogaster.

  15. The effect of sperm preparation and co-incubation time on in vitro fertilization of Bos indicus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dode, M A N; Rodovalho, N C; Ueno, V G; Fernandes, C E

    2002-01-23

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various methods of sperm selection and various sperm-oocyte co-incubation times on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of zebu (Bos indicus) oocytes. Frozen semen from one ejaculate of a single bull was used for all treatments and replicates. After thawed, sperm was subjected to one of the three treatments: 45 and 90% discontinuous Percoll gradient, swim-up and washing by centrifugation. In all treatments, the spermatozoa were incubated with in vitro matured oocytes for 3, 6, 12 and 18h. After co-incubation oocytes were transferred to the culture medium and culture for 44h, when the cleavage was evaluated. The uncleavaged oocytes were fixed and stained to determine penetration, pronucleus formation and polyspermy. The sperm selection method did not influence (P<0.05) polyspermy, pronucleus formation, penetration and cleavage rates. No interaction between method of selection and sperm-oocyte co-incubation time was observed (P>0.05). However, sperm-oocyte co-incubation time affected fertilization. The lower penetration (26.5%) and cleavage rates (13.1%) were obtained at 3-h period. The penetration and cleavage percentages increased (P<0.05) progressively at 6h (63.3 and 54.4%) and 12h (77.6 and 67.6%). No differences (P>0.05) were observed between 12 and 18h of incubation for penetration and cleavage rates. The incidence of polyspermy and pronucleus formation was similar (P>0.05) for all time points. It is concluded that the methods used in this study for sperm selection do not affect fertilization; therefore, they all can be used for bovine IVF. In addition, regardless the method used better fertilization results were obtained when sperm and oocytes were co-incubated for 12h, and the prolongation of that time for up to 18h had no detrimental effect on fertilization.

  16. Sperm-attractant peptide influences the spermatozoa swimming behavior in internal fertilization in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Lisa, Emilia; Salzano, Anna Maria; Moccia, Francesco; Scaloni, Andrea; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    Marine invertebrates exhibit both chemokinesis and chemotaxis phenomena, induced in most cases by the release of water-borne peptides or pheromones. In mollusks, several peptides released during egg-laying improve both male attraction and mating. Unlike other cephalopods, Octopus vulgaris adopts an indirect internal fertilization strategy. We here report on the identification and characterization of a chemoattractant peptide isolated from mature eggs of octopus females. Using two-chamber and time-lapse microscopy assays, we demonstrate that this bioactive peptide is able to increase sperm motility and induce chemotaxis by changing the octopus spermatozoa swimming behavior in a dose-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that chemotaxis in the octopus requires the presence of extracellular calcium and membrane protein phophorylation at tyrosine. This study is the first report on a sperm-activating factor in a non-free-spawning marine animal.

  17. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; ul Husna, Asma; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5 mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm.

  18. Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Jemel, Ikram; Tanemoto, Akemi; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Payre, Christine; Coatrieux, Christelle; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Pierre, Virginie; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Ejaculated mammalian sperm must undergo a maturation process called capacitation before they are able to fertilize an egg. Several studies have suggested a role for members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family in capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and fertilization, but the molecular nature of these enzymes and their specific roles have remained elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is the major enzyme present in the acrosome of spermatozoa and that it is released in an active form during capacitation through spontaneous AR. mGX-deficient male mice produced smaller litters than wild-type male siblings when crossed with mGX-deficient females. Further analysis revealed that spermatozoa from mGX-deficient mice exhibited lower rates of spontaneous AR and that this was associated with decreased in vitro fertilization (IVF) efficiency due to a drop in the fertilization potential of the sperm and an increased rate of aborted embryos. Treatment of sperm with sPLA2 inhibitors and antibodies specific for mGX blocked spontaneous AR of wild-type sperm and reduced IVF success. Addition of lysophosphatidylcholine, a catalytic product of mGX, overcame these deficiencies. Finally, recombinant mGX triggered AR and improved IVF outcome. Taken together, our results highlight a paracrine role for mGX during capacitation in which the enzyme primes sperm for efficient fertilization and boosts premature AR of a likely phospholipid-damaged sperm subpopulation to eliminate suboptimal sperm from the pool available for fertilization. PMID:20424324

  19. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner's Sperm Motility and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Poverini, Roberta; Lisi, Rosella; Carra, Maria Cristina; Lisi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI) vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners' sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners. PMID:27403162

  20. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner's Sperm Motility and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Montanino Oliva, Mario; Poverini, Roberta; Lisi, Rosella; Carra, Maria Cristina; Lisi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI) vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners' sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners.

  1. Gamete Therapeutics: Recombinant Protein Adsorption by Sperm for Increasing Fertility via Artificial Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V.; Esperón-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system’s response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

  2. Localized surface antigens of guinea pig sperm migrate to new regions prior to fertilization

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have previously defined distinct localizations of antigens on the surface of the guinea pig sperm using monoclonal antibodies. In the present study we have demonstrated that these antigen localizations are dynamic and can be altered during changes in the functional state of the sperm. Before the sperm is capable of fertilizing the egg, it must undergo capacitation and an exocytic event, the acrosome reaction. Prior to capacitation, the antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody, PT-1, was restricted to the posterior tail region (principle piece and end piece). After incubation in capacitating media at 37 degrees C for 1 h, 100% of the sperm population showed migration of the PT-1 antigen onto the anterior tail. This redistribution of surface antigen resulted from a migration of the surface molecules originally present on the posterior tail. It did not occur in the presence of metabolic poisons or when tail-beating was prevented. It was temperature-dependent, and did not require exogenous Ca2+. Since the PT- 1 antigen is freely diffusing on the posterior tail before migration, the mechanism of redistribution could involve the alteration of a presumptive membrane barrier. In addition, we observed the redistribution of a second surface antigen after the acrosome reaction. The antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody, PH-20, was localized exclusively in the posterior head region of acrosome-intact sperm. Within 7-10 min of induction of the acrosome reaction with Ca2+ and A23187, 90-100% of the acrosome-reacted sperm population no longer demonstrated binding of the PH-20 antibody on the posterior head, but showed binding instead on the inner acrosomal membrane. This redistribution of the PH-20 antigen also resulted from the migration of pre-existing surface molecules, but did not appear to require energy. The migration of PH-20 antigen was a selective process; other antigens localized to the posterior head region did not leave the posterior head after the

  3. An epididymis-specific carboxyl esterase CES5A is required for sperm capacitation and male fertility in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Yan-Fei; Xue, Hai-Min; Ni, Zi-Mei; Xia, Dong; Zhou, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the phenomenon of capacitation was discovered over half century ago and much progress has been made in identifying sperm events involved in capacitation, few specific molecules of epididymal origin have been identified as being directly involved in this process in vivo. Previously, our group cloned and characterized a carboxyl esterase gene Ces5a in the rat epididymis. The CES5A protein is mainly expressed in the corpus and cauda epididymidis and secreted into the corresponding lumens. Here, we report the function of CES5A in sperm maturation. By local injection of Lentivirus-mediated siRNA in the CES5A-expressing region of the rat epididymis, Ces5a-knockdown animal models were created. These animals exhibited an inhibited sperm capacitation and a reduction in male fertility. These results suggest that CES5A plays an important role in sperm maturation and male fertility. PMID:25475668

  4. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Alyson J.; Diamond, Sian E.; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E.; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. PMID:27069665

  5. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Alyson J; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice.

  6. Is sperm banking of interest to patients with nongerm cell urological cancer before potentially fertility damaging treatments?

    PubMed

    Salonia, Andrea; Gallina, Andrea; Matloob, Rayan; Rocchini, Lorenzo; Saccà, Antonino; Abdollah, Firas; Colombo, Renzo; Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    We assessed the opinions of patients with nongerm cell urological cancer on sperm banking before undergoing surgical or nonsurgical therapy that could potentially endanger subsequent fertility. Between April 2007 and July 2008, 753 patients visited a urological office and were invited to complete a brief self-administered questionnaire to assess opinions on sperm banking before undergoing any eventual therapy potentially dangerous for male fertility. Logistic regression models tested the association between predictors (age, educational level, relationship status, previous fatherhood and benign disorder vs nongerm cell urological cancer) and patient wishes for sperm banking. Median patient age was 65 years (mean 61.6, range 18 to 76). Overall 522 patients (69.3%) had nongerm cell urological cancer and only 242 (32.1%) were in favor of pretreatment sperm banking. On univariate analysis age (OR 0.961, p <0.001), a stable relationship (OR 0.486, p <0.001) and previous fatherhood (OR 0.390, p <0.001) were inversely associated with the wish for sperm banking, whereas having cancer and educational status were not significantly correlated. Multivariate analysis indicated that aging (OR 0.966, p = 0.001) and previous fatherhood (OR 0.587, p = 0.029) maintained inverse associations. Having urological cancer was positively (OR 1.494, p = 0.045) associated with the wish for sperm banking. In urological patients there is a low rate of willingness to bank sperm before any potential fertility damaging therapeutic approach. Having nongerm cell urological cancer is an independent predictor that is positively associated with the wish to bank sperm. It is vitally important to provide comprehensive information about pretreatment sperm banking to young adults with nongerm cell urological cancer.

  7. PRESENTED AT TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING IN CHAPEL HILL, NC ON 2/11/2006: SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards sub-fertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of ferti...

  8. PRESENTED AT TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING IN CHAPEL HILL, NC ON 2/11/2006: SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards sub-fertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of ferti...

  9. Associations of hypoosmotic swelling test, relative sperm volume shift, aquaporin7 mRNA abundance and bull fertility estimates.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R K; Kasimanickam, V R; Arangasamy, A; Kastelic, J P

    2017-02-01

    Mammalian sperm are exposed to a natural hypoosmotic environment during male-to-female reproductive tract transition; although this activates sperm motility in vivo, excessive swelling can harm sperm structure and function. Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane-channel proteins implicated in sperm osmoregulation. The objective was to determine associations among relative sperm volume shift, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm aquaporin (AQP) 7 mRNA abundances, and sire conception rate (SCR; fertility estimate) in Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination center. Three or four sires for each full point SCR score from -4 to +4 were included. Each SCR estimate for study bulls (N = 30) was based on > 500 services (mean ± SEM) of 725 ± 13 services/sire). Sperm from a single collection day (two ejaculates) from these commercial Holstein bulls were used. Relative mRNA expression of AQP7 in sperm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Mean relative sperm volume shift and percentage of sperm reacted in a HOST (% HOST) were determined (400 sperm per bull) after incubating in isoosmotic (300 mOsm/kg) and hypoosmotic (100 mOsm/kg) solutions for 30 min. There was no correlation between %HOST and SCR (r = 0.28 P > 0.1). However, there was a positive correlation between relative sperm volume shift and SCR (r = 0.65, P < 0.05). Furthermore, AQP7 mRNA abundance was positively correlated to both relative volume shift (r = 0.73; P < 0.05) and to SCR (r = 0.67; P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of AQP7 and relative sperm volume shift differed (P < 0.05) among low- (<2 SCR), average- (-2 to +2) and high- (>2) fertility sire groups. In conclusion, bulls with higher SCR had significantly greater AQP7 mRNA abundance in frozen-thawed sperm. This plausibly contributed to greater regulation of sperm volume shift, which apparently conferred protection from detrimental swelling and impaired functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Con A-binding protein Zn-α2-glycoprotein on human sperm membrane is related to acrosome reaction and sperm fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qu, F; Cao, X; Chen, G; Guo, Q; Ying, X; Guo, W; Lu, L; Ding, Z

    2012-04-01

    Fertilization, the recognition and fusion between spermatozoa and oocyte, involves various molecules on the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes. Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding proteins may be one of the molecules involved in mammal spermatozoa fertilization; however, their structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, we initially identified a ConA-binding protein, Zn-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), involved in regulating the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa. ZAG is localized on the pre-equatorial region covering the acrosome, neck and tail (some parts of middle piece and principal piece respectively) regions of the acrosome intact human spermatozoa, and disappears in the acrosomal region of the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Polyclonal antibodies against human recombinant ZAG significantly reduced the AR and sperm capability binding to human zona pellucida or penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes. Furthermore, assessment of the signaling pathways regulated by ZAG revealed that ZAG affects sperm AR through both the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. These results indicate that ZAG, which is present on the human sperm membrane, plays a critical role in the AR and subsequently, may be involved in sperm fertility.

  11. Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C G; Leivas, F G; Santos, F W; Schwengber, E B; Giotto, A B; Machado, C I U; Gonçalves, C G M; Folchini, N P; Brum, D S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplementing rooster sperm with Cholesterol-Loaded-Cyclodextrin improves fertility after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chuaychu-Noo, Napapach; Thananurak, Pachara; Chankitisakul, Vibantita; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin (CLC) on post-thaw semen quality in chicken. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of CLC levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/mL Schramm diluent) on post-thawed semen quality and fertility in two breeds of chicken Pradu Hang Dum (native chicken) and Rhode Island Red. Semen samples of each breed were pooled, divided into 4 aliquots and diluted with Schramm diluents, cooled to 5 °C when DMF was added (6% of final volume). Semen straws were subjected to cryopreservation using the liquid nitrogen vapor method. Post-thawed sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial function, and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined. The fertility of frozen semen was tested by inseminating laying hens. Post-thaw motility between Pradu Hang Dum and Rhode Island Red was no different; but Rhode Island Red had a higher semen viability and live cell intact acrosomes than Pradu Hang Dum (P < 0.05). The percentage of high functioning mitochondria in the Pradu Hang Dum was higher than the Rhode Island Red. CLC at 2 and 3 mg/mL supplementation was associated with improved viability of frozen semen; that is, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial function (P < 0.01), albeit having no effect on MDA levels. The sperm with 1 mg/mL CLC yielded a significantly better fertility (P < 0.01). CLC (1 mg/mL) improved the quality of frozen rooster semen. There was no interaction among breeds and CLC on post-thaw semen quality and fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat’s Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat’s sperm. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Results Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26816914

  14. The LINC complex component Sun4 plays a crucial role in sperm head formation and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Pasch, Elisabeth; Link, Jana; Beck, Carolin; Scheuerle, Stefanie; Alsheimer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, physically connecting the nucleus to the peripheral cytoskeleton. They are pivotal for dynamic cellular and developmental processes, like nuclear migration, anchoring and positioning, meiotic chromosome movements and maintenance of cell polarity and nuclear shape. Active nuclear reshaping is a hallmark of mammalian sperm development and, by transducing cytoskeletal forces to the nuclear envelope, LINC complexes could be vital for sperm head formation as well. We here analyzed in detail the behavior and function of Sun4, a bona fide testis-specific LINC component. We demonstrate that Sun4 is solely expressed in spermatids and there localizes to the posterior nuclear envelope, likely interacting with Sun3/Nesprin1 LINC components. Our study revealed that Sun4 deficiency severely impacts the nucleocytoplasmic junction, leads to mislocalization of other LINC components and interferes with the formation of the microtubule manchette, which finally culminates in a globozoospermia-like phenotype. Together, our study provides direct evidence for a critical role of LINC complexes in mammalian sperm head formation and male fertility. PMID:26621829

  15. Male sperm storage compromises sperm motility in guppies.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-11-01

    Sperm senescence can have important evolutionary implications due to its deleterious effects on sperm quality and offspring performance. Consequently, it has been argued that polyandry (female multiple mating) may facilitate the selection of younger, and therefore competitively superior, sperm when ejaculates from multiple males compete for fertilization. Surprisingly, however, unequivocal evidence that sperm ageing influences traits that underlie sperm competitiveness is lacking. Here, we used a paired experimental design that compares sperm quality between 'old' and 'young' ejaculates from individual male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that older sperm exhibit significant reductions in sperm velocity compared with younger sperm from the same males. We found no evidence that the brightness of the male's orange (carotenoid) spots, which are thought to signal resistance to oxidative stress (and thus age-related declines in sperm fitness), signals a male's ability to withstand the deleterious effects of sperm ageing. Instead, polyandry may be a more effective strategy for females to minimize the likelihood of being fertilized by aged sperm.

  16. Direct visualization of sperm competition and sperm storage in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Civetta, A

    Drosophila females engage in multiple matings [1] [2] [3] [4] even though they can store sperm in specialized organs for most of their life [5]. The existence of sperm competition in Drosophila has been inferred from the proportion of progeny sired by the second male in double-mating experiments [6] [7] [8]. Investigators have used this approach to quantify genetic variation underlying sperm competition [8] [9] [10], to elucidate its genetic basis [11], to identify the dependence of different male competitive ability on the genotype of the females with which they mate [12] and to discern the potential role of sperm competition in species isolation [13] [14]. This approach assumes that the sperm from two males stored in a female compete to fertilize the eggs. The mechanism by which sperm competition is accomplished is still unknown, however. Here, fluorescence microscopy, cytometry, and differently labeled sperm were used to analyze the fate of sperm inside the female's sperm storage organs, to quantify sperm competition, and to assess how closely paternity success corresponds to the appearance and location of the sperm. The results show that the first male's sperm is retained for a shortened period if the female remates, and that the second males that sire more progeny either induce females to store and use more of their sperm or strongly displace resident sperm.

  17. Osteopontin improves sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization efficiency in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Boccia, Lucia; Di Francesco, Serena; Neglia, Gianluca; De Blasi, Marina; Longobardi, Valentina; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteopontin (OPN), an ubiquitous acid glycoprotein, on in vitro sperm capacitation and on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) efficiency in buffalo. In experiment 1, after swim-up separation the sperm were incubated in Tyrode albumin lactate pyruvate medium in the absence of capacitating agents (control), with the standard concentration of heparin (0.01 mM) and three different concentrations of OPN (0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL), both in the presence and absence of heparin, for 2 and 4 hours. Capacitation was assessed indirectly by estimating the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm after incubation with lysophosphatidylcholine. In order to determine the effect of OPN, in the presence of heparin, on fertilization (Experiment 2) and in vitro embryo development (experiment 3), in vitro-matured buffalo oocytes were fertilized in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL of OPN. After IVF, the presumptive zygotes were dezonated, fixed, stained, and then evaluated microscopically. At Days 5 and 7 of culture, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated, respectively. Two hours of treatment with OPN at the two higher concentrations (1 and 10 mcg/mL) promoted in vitro capacitation of buffalo sperm (experiment 1). A synergic action of OPN with heparin was also done for all OPN concentrations tested. At 4 hours incubation, all treatments, including heparin (20.4%), improved (P < 0.01) capacitation compared with the control (16.2%). Interestingly, the best results were reported in all groups treated with OPN + heparin (40.8%, 38.6%, and 33.8%, respectively; P < 0.01). The addition of OPN to the IVF medium had a positive influence on total penetration, synchronous pronuclei formation (experiment 2), and IVEP efficiency (experiment 3). In particular, the two lower concentrations of OPN (0.1 and 1 mcg/mL), compared with the control, gave higher synchronous pronuclei formation (73.5%, 75.0%, and 46.5%, respectively; P < 0.01) and

  18. Sperm storage, internal fertilization, and embryonic dispersal in vent and seep tubeworms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae: Vestimentifera).

    PubMed

    Hilário, Ana; Young, Craig M; Tyler, Paul A

    2005-02-01

    Vestimentiferan tubeworms are ecologically important members of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities, including hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Some are community dominants and others are primary colonists of new vent sites; they include some of the longest living and fastest growing marine invertebrates. Their mechanisms of propagation, dispersal, and genetic exchange have been widely discussed. Direct sperm transfer from males to females has been documented in one species, Ridgeia piscesae, but others are known to discharge what are apparently primary oocytes. Brooding of embryos has never been observed in any vestimentiferan. These observations have led to the supposition that fertilization might be external in most species. Here we report sperm storage at the posterior end of the oviduct in five species, including tubeworms from both vents and seeps. We show experimentally that most eggs are inseminated internally, that fertilization rate is typically lower than 100%, that meiosis is completed after eggs are released from the female, and that the dispersal phase includes the entire embryonic period.

  19. Bovine in vitro fertilization: in vitro oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation with heparin.

    PubMed

    Parrish, John J

    2014-01-01

    As a result of research in the 1980s on in vitro maturation, sperm capacitation, and in vitro fertilization, the bovine is now one of the important models for development. Further, the current production of bovine embryos in vitro rivals that of in vivo embryo production for commercial applications. Researchers of today may be unaware of why decisions were made in the procedures. This review addresses the state of the art at the time of the work by Parrish et al. (Bovine in vitro fertilization with frozen thawed semen. Theriogenology 1986;25:591-600), and how later work would explain success or failure of competing procedures. Important was the use of frozen semen and heparin capacitation, because this allowed future researchers/practitioners to change sperm numbers and capacitation conditions to adjust for variations among bulls. The large numbers of citation of the original work stand the testament of time in the repeatability and success of the procedures. The work was done within the environment of the N.L. First laboratory and the unique interactions with a large number of talented graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and technicians.

  20. An EAR-Dependent Regulatory Module Promotes Male Germ Cell Division and Sperm Fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Rutley, Nicholas; Kagale, Sateesh; Hamamura, Yuki; Gherghinoiu, Mihai; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sari, Ugur; Esparza-Franco, Manuel A; Sakamoto, Wataru; Rozwadowski, Kevin; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Twell, David

    2014-05-01

    The production of the sperm cells in angiosperms requires coordination of cell division and cell differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the germline-specific MYB protein DUO1 integrates these processes, but the regulatory hierarchy in which DUO1 functions is unknown. Here, we identify an essential role for two germline-specific DUO1 target genes, DAZ1 and DAZ2, which encode EAR motif-containing C2H2-type zinc finger proteins. We show that DAZ1/DAZ2 are required for germ cell division and for the proper accumulation of mitotic cyclins. Importantly, DAZ1/DAZ2 are sufficient to promote G2- to M-phase transition and germ cell division in the absence of DUO1. DAZ1/DAZ2 are also required for DUO1-dependent cell differentiation and are essential for gamete fusion at fertilization. We demonstrate that the two EAR motifs in DAZ1/DAZ2 mediate their function in the male germline and are required for transcriptional repression and for physical interaction with the corepressor TOPLESS. Our findings uncover an essential module in a regulatory hierarchy that drives mitotic transition in male germ cells and implicates gene repression pathways in sperm cell formation and fertility.

  1. Natural conception following total fertilization failure with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a couple with unexplained infertility: a case report.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Dorina; Coricovac, Anca; Mirzan, Luminita; Dracea, Laura; Marinescu, B; Boleac, I

    2013-01-01

    With the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), couples with severe male factor infertility have been able to achieve fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates comparable to other in vitro fertilization patients. However, despite the utilization of microsurgical sperm injection techniques, failure of fertilization still occurs in a few patients. How such fertilization failure after ICSI might impact later ICSI treatments is less understood. We report a case of total fertilization failure after ICSI using sperm from a normozoospermic husband of a patient with unexplained infertility. Six months after the cancelled cycle, the couple conceived naturally. Unfortunately, it was an ectopic pregnancy, which required laparoscopy and surgical removal of the right fallopian tube. This case shows that a failed ICSI cycle, therefore, does not imply a hopeless prognosis for future ICSI treatment. Moreover, in cases with unexplained ICSI failure, natural conception can subsequently occur. The aim of this study is two-fold: to discuss a rare case of a spontaneous pregnancy after total fertilization failure with ICSI and to develop counseling material for patients and doctors who are faced with such a rare situation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of spontaneous pregnancy after total fertilization failure with ICSI.

  2. Distribution and dynamics of mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase: implications for mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cardullo, R A; Wolf, D E

    1995-08-08

    It has been proposed that a mouse sperm surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase functions as a receptor for the zona pellucida during fertilization. In this paper we used two monovalent fluorescent probes specific for galactosyltransferase: a trinitrophenylated derivative of UDP-galactose and rhodaminated alpha-lactalbumin. We found that galactosyltransferase was initially present over the posterior head of acrosome-intact sperm but became progressively localized to the plasma membrane overlying the acrosomal region after it was cross-linked with an anti-galactosyltransferase polyclonal antibody. Labeled mouse sperm that were treated with the calcium ionophore A23187 revealed that galactosyltransferase remained on the posterior head after acrosomal exocytosis. However, if galactosyltransferase was first cross-linked and redistributed with antibody and then acrosome reacted with A23187, all head fluorescence was lost. In addition, although anti-galactosyltransferase antibody induced a surface redistribution, it did not, by itself, lead to the release of acrosin, the endpoint of the acrosome reaction. Finally, using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that, in the absence of bivalent antibody, mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase exhibited 40-50% recovery with a high diffusion coefficient on the anterior head (5-8 x 10(-9) cm2/s) approximately 2 times greater than on the posterior head (2-4 x 10(-9) cm2/s). When galactosyltransferase was cross-linked and redistributed to the anterior head using the bivalent antibody, the mobile fraction decreased to 20-30% with no significant change in the diffusion coefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Inhibitors of zinc-dependent metalloproteases hinder sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we report for the first time on a possible contribution of metalloproteases in sperm passage through the cumulus matrix in pigs. The presence of 20 μM 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PHEN), inhibitor of zinc-dependent metalloproteases, strongly inhibited the degree of sperm penetration in cumulus-intact (CI), but not in cumulus-free (CF), porcine oocytes during IVF. The inhibitory effect of 1,10-PHEN was due to the chelation of metal ions as a non-chelating analog (1,7-PHEN) did not affect IVF rates. Furthermore, incubation with 1,10-PHEN did not affect sperm binding to the zona pellucida nor sperm motility, membrane integrity, or acrosomal status. These findings led to the assumption that 1,10-PHEN interacts with a sperm- or cumulus-derived metalloprotease. Metalloproteases are key players in physiological processes involving degradation or remodeling of extracellular matrix. In vivo, their proteolytic activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP1-TIMP4). We tested the effect of TIMP3 on fertilization parameters after porcine IVF. Similar to 1,10-PHEN, TIMP3 inhibited total fertilization rate of CI but not CF oocytes and did not influence sperm quality parameters. Although the inhibitory effect was stronger in CI oocytes, TIMP3 also reduced the degree of sperm penetration in CF oocytes, suggesting the involvement of a metalloprotease in a subsequent step during fertilization. In conclusion, our results indicate the involvement of TIMP3-sensitive, zinc-dependent metalloprotease activity in sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus in pigs. The results should provide the basis for further biochemical research toward the localization and identification of the metalloprotease involved.

  4. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-12-21

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars.

  5. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  6. Sperm DNA integrity in frozen-thawed semen from Italian Mediterranean Buffalo bulls and its relationship to in vivo fertility.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Rosanna; Love, Charles C; Coletta, Angelo; Mari, Gaetano; Mislei, Beatrice; Caso, Chiara; Di Palo, Rossella

    2016-09-01

    The relationship among sperm attributes of DNA integrity, sperm motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and in vivo fertility of frozen-thawed Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) sperm has not been reported. Straws of frozen-thawed semen samples from three bulls were examined. Sperm DNA assays (i.e., neutral Comet assay, Sperm Bos Halomax-SBH and Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay-SCSA) were not correlated to each other (P>0.05). Many neutral Comet assay measures were correlated to total sperm motility-TMOT (% head-H-DNA, r=0.74; Olive moment, r=-0.76; P<0.05) and coiled tails (r-values ranged from% H-DNA, r=-0.80 to tail length, r=-0.71; P<0.05). The COMP-αt was negatively correlated to viable acrosome intact (VAI) sperm, and distal droplets (r=-0.60 and -0.61; P<0.05), whereas Mean-αt and Mode-αt were positively correlated to bent midpieces (r=0.63 and 0.61; P<0.05). The SBH assay was positively correlated to non-viable acrosome damaged (NVAD) sperm (r=0.60; P<0.05) and negatively correlated to viable acrosome damaged (VAD) sperm (r=-0.63; P<0.05). The overall pregnancy rate (PR-at 30 and 45d post artificial insemination-AI) and the calving rate were 57%, 55% and 45%, respectively. Among sperm features analyzed the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve was significant (P<0.05) for TMOT, NVAD, Standard Deviation-αt (SD-αt) and neutral comet measures (Olive tail moment and tail moment, % H- DNA and tail area) in estimating pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection reduces fertilization ability during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Wanqiu; Zhou, Hanying; Ren, Wenjuan; Shi, Juanzi

    2014-07-01

    Whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection impairs human infertility is unclear. The present retrospective case-controlled study investigated the impact of HBV on sperm parameters, ovarian stimulation, and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. A total of 224 couples with at least one partner being HBsAg-seropositive undergoing their first IVF and embryo transfer cycle were identified, which included 77 couples with female partners being HBsAg-seropositive, 136 couples with male partners being HBsAg-seropositive, and 11 couples with both partners being HBsAg-seropositive. A total of 448 both HBsAg-seronegative couples served as controls. The percentage of normal sperm morphology was significantly lower in HBsAg-seropositive male partners than that in HBsAg-seronegative male partners (11.9 ± 9.4% vs. 19.0 ± 11.9%, P < 0.01). The duration of infertility was significantly prolonged in HBV-seropositive patients compared with HBV-seronegative patients (4.9 vs. 4.1 years, P < 0.01). Couples with female partners being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower top-quality embryo rate than control group (22.4% vs. 31.6%, P < 0.01). In addition, the fertilization rates in groups with male or female partners being HBsAg-seropositive were both significantly lower than the matched controls (80.2% vs. 82.8%, P < 0.05; 76.6% vs. 84.3%, P < 0.01, respectively). HBV infection was also found to be associated negatively with fertilization rate by logistic regression analysis (odds ratios: 0.410, 95% confidence interval: 0.186-0.906, P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between HBsAg-seropositive and HBsAg-seronegative group. These results suggest that chronic HBV infection is likely to represent a significant cause of infertility.

  8. The need of MMP-2 on the sperm surface for Xenopus fertilization: its role in a fast electrical block to polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Iwao, Yasuhiro; Shiga, Keiko; Shiroshita, Ayumi; Yoshikawa, Tomoyasu; Sakiie, Maho; Ueno, Tomoyo; Ueno, Shuichi; Ijiri, Takashi W; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Monospermic fertilization in the frog, Xenopus laevis, is ensured by a fast-rising, positive fertilization potential to prevent polyspermy on the fertilized egg, followed by a slow block with the formation of a fertilization envelope over the egg surface. In this paper, we found that not only the enzymatic activity of sperm matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was necessary for a sperm to bind and/or pass through the extracellular coat of vitelline envelope, but also the hemopexin (HPX) domain of MMP-2 on the sperm surface was involved in binding and membrane fusion between the sperm and eggs. A peptide with a partial amino acid sequence of the HPX domain caused egg activation accompanied by an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in a voltage-dependent manner, similar to that in fertilization. The membrane microdomain (MD) of unfertilized eggs bound the HPX peptide, and this was inhibited by ganglioside GM1 distributed in the MD. The treatment of sperm with GM1 or anti-MMP-2 HPX antibody allows the sperm to fertilize an egg clamped at 0 mV, which untreated sperm cannot achieve. We propose a model accounting for the mechanism of voltage-dependent fertilization based on an interaction between the positively charged HPX domain in the sperm membrane and negatively-charged GM1 in the egg plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Sperm-Oocyte Interactions Opinions Relative to in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Messini, Christina; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Sotiriou, Sotiris; Messinis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest prerequisites for pregnancy is the fertilization step, where a human haploid spermatozoon interacts and penetrates one haploid oocyte in order to produce the diploid zygote. Although fertilization is defined by the presence of two pronuclei and the extraction of the second polar body the process itself requires preparation of both gametes for fertilization to take place at a specific time. These preparations include a number of consecutive biochemical and molecular events with the help of specific molecules and with the consequential interaction between the two gametes. These events take place at three different levels and in a precise order, where the moving spermatozoon penetrates (a) the outer vestments of the oocyte, known as the cumulus cell layer; (b) the zona pellucida (ZP); where exocytosis of the acrosome contents take place and (c) direct interaction of the spermatozoon with the plasma membrane of the oocyte, which involves a firm adhesion of the head of the spermatozoon with the oocyte plasma membrane that culminates with the fusion of both sperm and oocyte membranes (Part I). After the above interactions, a cascade of molecular signal transductions is initiated which results in oocyte activation. Soon after the entry of the first spermatozoon into the oocyte and oocyte activation, the oocyte’s coat (the ZP) and the oocyte’s plasma membrane seem to change quickly in order to initiate a fast block to a second spermatozoon (Part II). Sometimes, two spermatozoa fuse with one oocyte, an incidence of 1%–2%, resulting in polyploid fetuses that account for up to 10%–20% of spontaneously aborted human conceptuses. The present review aims to focus on the first part of the human sperm and oocyte interactions, emphasizing the latest molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling this process. PMID:25054321

  10. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial

  11. Separation of motile sperm for in vitro fertilization from frozen-thawed bull semen using progesterone induction on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchun; Ning, Bolin; Cao, Xinyan; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Li; Wei, Guosheng; Liu, Shengjun; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Aizhong; Wu, Rui; Li, Yanbing

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a novel method for the separation of motile sperm from non-progressive motile and immotile sperm and in vitro Fertilization (IVF). This separation of bull sperm was accomplished by inducing chemotaxis along a progesterone release agent in a 7.5-mm microchannel microchip composed of a biocompatible polydimethysiloxane layer and a glass gradient. The selected sperm was applied directly for IVF. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of different lengths of microchannnel (5mm, 7.5mm and 10mm) on quality parameter of separated sperm. The results showed that separated sperm using 7.5-mm microchannel chip were improved in sperm motility, swimming velocity, and beat frequency compared with other groups. In the second experiment, a medium containing sperm from swim-up method and outlet reservoir of our 7.5-mm microchannel chip was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by fluorescence microscopy. The sperm from the microchip had higher mitochondria activity (47.6%±6.0%) than the sperm from the swim-up method (23.6%±4.7%) (P<0.05). There were significant differences in rate of acrosome intactness between the swim-up method and the microchip (36.0%±4.1% vs. 66.8±2.1%, respectively, P<0.05). In the third experiment, we compared sperm penetration in the microchip-IVF system with a standard IVF method (droplet-IVF). The microchip-IVF group had the highest percentages of oocytes penetrated (82.2%±1.6% vs. 63.5%±2.4%) and monospermic oocytes (67.8%±3.4% vs. 42.4%±1.5%). In addition, early developmental competence of oocytes to the blastocyst stage was higher when the oocytes were inseminated in the microchip-IVF system compared with those inseminated in a standard droplet-IVF system. These results demonstrate that our microchip based on a sperm chemotaxis system is useful for motile sperm separation from frozen-thawed bull semen for IVF. Therefore, the optimized microchip system provides a good opportunity to sort

  12. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2‧-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials.

  13. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials. PMID:28211534

  14. Expression of DNA repair genes in porcine oocytes before and after fertilization by ICSI using freeze-dried sperm.

    PubMed

    Men, Nguyen Thi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Furusawa, Tadashi; Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Nakai, Michiko; Fukuda, Atsunori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Viet Linh, Nguyen; Xuan Nguyen, Bui; Tajima, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    Boar sperm freeze-dried with trehalose showed a protective effect against sperm DNA fragmentation. However, normal fertilization and embryonic development were not improved. Damaged sperm may activate maternal DNA repair genes when injected into oocytes. Therefore, we investigated the expression profile of some DNA repair genes in porcine oocytes after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. First, the expression levels of MGMT, UDG, XPC, MSH2, XRCC6 and RAD51 genes that are concerned with different types of DNA repair were examined in in vitro mature (IVM) oocytes injected with ejaculated sperm, or freeze-dried sperm with or without trehalose. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of six DNA repair genes in the oocytes at 4 h after injection did not differ among the four groups. Next, we investigated the gene expression levels of these genes at different stages of maturation. The relative expression levels of UDG and XPC were significantly up-regulated in mature oocytes compared with earlier stages. Furthermore, there was an increased tendency in relative expression of MSH2 and RAD51. These results suggested two possible mechanisms that messenger RNA of DNA repair genes are either accumulated during IVM to be ready for fertilization or increased expression levels of DNA repair genes in oocytes caused by suboptimal IVM conditions.

  15. Protein expression pattern of PAWP in bull spermatozoa is associated with sperm quality and fertility following artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chelsey E; Krieger, Kari Beth; Sutovsky, Miriam; Xu, Wei; Vargovič, Peter; Didion, Bradley A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hennessy, Madison E; Verstegen, John; Oko, Richard; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Post-acrosomal WW-domain binding protein (PAWP) is a signaling molecule located in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS) of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized that the proper integration of PAWP in the sperm PAS is reflective of bull-sperm quality and fertility. Cryopreserved semen samples from 298 sires of acceptable, but varied, fertility used in artificial insemination services were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for PAWP protein. In normal spermatozoa, PAWP fluorescence formed a regular band around the proximal PAS. Anomalies of PAWP labeling in defective spermatozoa were reflected in flow cytometry by varied intensities of PAWP-induced fluorescence. Distinct sperm phenotypes were also identified, including morphologically normal and some defective spermatozoa with moderate levels of PAWP; grossly defective spermatozoa with low/no PAWP; and defective spermatozoa with high PAWP. Analysis by ImageStream flow cytometry confirmed the prevalence of abnormal sperm phenotypes in the spermatozoa with abnormal PAWP content. Live/dead staining and video recording showed that some abnormal spermatozoa are viable and capable of progressive motility. Conventional flow-cytometric measurements of PAWP correlated significantly with semen quality and fertility parameters that reflect the sires' artificial insemination fertility, including secondary sperm morphology, conception rate, non-return rate, and residual value. A multiplex, flow-cytometric test detecting PAWP, aggresomes (ubiquitinated protein aggregates), and acrosomal integrity (peanut-agglutinin-lectin labeling) had a predictive value for conception rate, as demonstrated by step-wise regression analysis. We conclude that PAWP correlates with semen/fertility parameters used in the cattle artificial insemination industry, making PAWP a potential biomarker of bull fertility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hyaluronic acid improves frozen-thawed sperm quality and fertility potential in rooster.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Saied; Mehri, Morteza; Sharafi, Mohsen; Masoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Beneficial effects of Hyaluronic acid (HA) has not been yet assessed for cryopreservation of rooster sperm. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of HA (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8mM) in Beltsville extender on the cryopreservation of rooster sperm. Semen samples were collected from six Ross broiler breeders (24-week) using abdominal massage, then divided into five equal aliquots and cryopreserved in Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of HA. Motion characteristics, morphology, membrane functionality, viability, acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation and fertility potential of sperm were assessed after thawing. HA at concentration of 2mM (HA2) resulted in the highest (P<0.05) total motility (55.3±1.1%) and progressive motility (25.2±0.8%) compared to the other groups. HA8 produced the lowest significant (P<0.05) percentage of total (38.6±1.1%) and progressive (14.7±0.8%) motility. High significant percentage of membrane functionality were observed in HA1 and HA2 (43.2±1.0 and 46.1±1.0%, respectively) compared to HA4 (40.1±1.0%) and HA8 (32.5±1.0%). Moreover, HA1 and HA2 produced the higher percentage of acrosome integrity (54.8±1.2 and 57.5±1.2, respectively) compared to other groups. HA1 and HA2 reduced (P<0.05) malondialdehyde formation (3.66±0.08 and 3.75±0.08 nmol/ml) compared to other groups. Fertility rate and hatching rate obtained from artificial insemination were significantly higher in HA1 (63.7 and 54.7%) and HA2 (67.5 and 57.7%) compared to control group (40 and 37%). Our results showed that supplementation of Beltsville extender with 1 and 2mM HA significantly improved the quality of rooster sperm after freeze thawing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant effect of crocin on bovine sperm quality and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sapanidou, V; Taitzoglou, I; Tsakmakidis, Ι; Kourtzelis, I; Fletouris, D; Theodoridis, A; Zervos, I; Tsantarliotou, M

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production above critical levels affects the genetic and functional integrity of spermatozoa by causing oxidative stress. Spermatozoa are susceptible to oxidative stress in terms of motility and fertilization capacity. Crocin (crocetin di-gentiobiose ester), a main constituent of Crocus Sativus L. (saffron), is known for its antioxidant activity by scavenging ROS, especially superoxide anion. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of crocin on the quality characteristics of spermatozoa and fertilization rate. Frozen-thawed and washed spermatozoa from four different bulls were incubated with three different concentrations of crocin (0.5, 1, and 2 mM), for 120 and 240 minutes, in the presence of a negative control, and were evaluated in terms of motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation. The most potent concentration of crocin (1 mM) was also added in the fertilization medium to test its impact on fertilization outcome. The results indicate that the incubation of spermatozoa with 1 mM of crocin resulted in a statistically significant lower production of ROS, lower lipid peroxidation and in better maintenance of motility, viability, and acrosomal integrity, with a very small number of fragmented cells, compared to the control and the other treated groups (P < 0.05). Crocin concentration of 1 mM resulted in a significant increase of blastocyst rate, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). These data indicate that crocin (1 mM) improves bovine sperm quality and its fertilization capability, directly and/or indirectly, by modulating ROS concentration.

  18. DNA fragmentation in brighter sperm predicts male fertility independently from age and semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Monica; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Cambi, Marta; Lotti, Francesco; Natali, Ilaria; Filimberti, Erminio; Noci, Ivo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate whether sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF), measured in brighter, dimmer, and total populations, predicts natural conception, and to evaluate the intra-individual variability of sDF. Prospective study. Outpatient clinic and diagnostic laboratory. A total of 348 unselected patients and 86 proven fertile men. None. sDF was revealed with the use of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)/propidium iodide (PI). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built before and after matching fertile men to patients for age (76:152) or semen parameters (68:136) or both (49:98). Intra-individual variability of sDF was assessed over 2 years. Brighter (area under ROC curve [AUC] 0.718 ± 0.54), dimmer (AUC 0.655 ± 0.63), and total (AUC 0.757 ± 0.54) sDF predict male fertility in unmatched and age- or semen parameters-matched subjects. After matching for both age and semen parameters, only brighter (AUC 0.711 ± 0.83) and total (AUC 0.675 ± 0.92) sDF predict male fertility. At high values of total sDF, brighter predicts natural conception better than total sDF. Intra-individual coefficients of variation of sDF were 9.2 ± 8.6% (n = 25), 12.9 ± 12.7% (n = 53), and 14.0 ± 12.6% (n = 70) over, respectively, 100-day and 1- and 2-year periods, appearing to be the most stable of the evaluated semen parameters. The predictive power of total sDF partially depends on age and semen parameters, whereas brighter sDF independently predicts natural conception. Therefore, brighter sDF is a fraction of sDF that adds new information to the routine semen analysis. At high levels of sDF, distinguishing the two sperm populations improves the predictive power of sDF. Overall, our results support the idea that TUNEL/PI can be of clinical usefulness in the male fertility workup. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by cannabinoids derived from marihuana. III. Activation of phospholipase A2 in sperm homogenate by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Berkery, D; Laychock, S G; Schuel, H

    1991-07-25

    Inhibition of the egg jelly induced acrosome reaction by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is associated with the localized disruption of the nuclear envelope and the formation of lipid deposits in sea urchin sperm. This suggests that THC may activate phospholipase(s) within the sperm. We now report effects of THC on phospholipase A2 activity in homogenates of sea urchin sperm using 1-stearoyl-2-[1-14C]arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine as substrate. The release of radioactive arachidonic acid was measured after a 30-min incubation with the enzyme. In the absence of exogenous Ca2+, 100 microM THC produced a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in phospholipase A2 activity. THC activated phospholipase A2 in a concentration (1-100 microM) and time-dependent (0-30 min) manner. Exogenous calcium (10 mM) significantly augmented basal (P less than 0.001) and THC-stimulated (P less than 0.005) phospholipase A2 activity. Calcium chelators [ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)] inhibited the basal level of phospholipase A2 activity in the sperm homogenate, and prevented the activation of phospholipase A2 by THC. Submicromolar levels of free calcium ions were required for THC stimulation of phospholipase A2. Cannabinol which mimics the effects of THC on the acrosome reaction also activated phospholipase A2 in sperm homogenate. These results suggest that THC may alter lipid metabolism in sperm by activating calcium-dependent phospholipase A2. Putative metabolites derived from this process may inhibit the acrosome reaction and thereby reduce the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm.

  20. Sperm quality and fertility of boar seminal doses after 2 days of storage: does the type of extender really matter?

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Reixach, Josep; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The present approach was designed to evaluate the extender effects on sperm quality and fertility of short-term refrigerated seminal doses from Landrace boars lodged in husbandry-controlled conditions. For this purpose, we analyzed the sperm quality of seminal doses diluted in short-term (Beltsville Thawing Solution) and extra-long-term (Duragen) extenders from Days 0 to 2 of storage at 17 °C during an 8-month period. Pregnancy rates and litter size were evaluated from double inseminations within an interval of 12 hours (36 and 48 hours of refrigeration) of multiparous females using seminal doses diluted in each extender type. Sperm quality was assessed from the analyses of sperm motility and kinetics, sperm viability, expressed as plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels, and acrosin activity. Results indicated significant differences between the extenders in the sperm quality of seminal doses. Therefore, the seminal doses diluted in Duragen had higher percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and membrane-intact spermatozoa than those diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution throughout all the experimental months. Nevertheless, despite these differences in preserving the sperm quality, pregnancy rates (>90%) and litter sizes (>10 piglets born per litter) were similar between the extenders. Our results had great relevance from a practical point of view because they reported lack of an extender effect on the reproductive performance of seminal doses during short-tem storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index and Hyaluronan Binding Ability in Men from Infertile Couples and Men with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Sobkiewicz, Slawomir; Wojt, Malgorzata; Chmiel, Jacek; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm functional maturity in men from infertile couples (IC) and men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from 312 IC men and 23 men with TGCT before unilateral orchiectomy and oncological treatment. The sperm chromatin dispersion test was performed to determine DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and the ability of sperm to bind with hyaluronan (HA) was assessed. Results. In comparison with the IC men, the men with TGCT had a higher percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA (median 28% versus 21%; p < 0.01) and a lower percentage of HA-bound sperm (24% versus 66%; p < 0.001). Normal results of both analyses were observed in 24% of IC men and 4% of men with TGCT. Negative Spearman's correlations were found between DFI and the percentage of HA-bound sperm in the whole group and in IC subjects and those with TGCT analyzed separately. Conclusions. Approximately 76% of IC men and 96% with TGCT awaiting orchiectomy demonstrated DNA fragmentation and/or sperm immaturity. We therefore recommend sperm banking after unilateral orchiectomy, but before irradiation and chemotherapy; the use of such a deposit appears to be a better strategy to obtain functionally efficient sperms. PMID:27999814

  2. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index and Hyaluronan Binding Ability in Men from Infertile Couples and Men with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Sobkiewicz, Slawomir; Wojt, Malgorzata; Chmiel, Jacek; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm functional maturity in men from infertile couples (IC) and men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from 312 IC men and 23 men with TGCT before unilateral orchiectomy and oncological treatment. The sperm chromatin dispersion test was performed to determine DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and the ability of sperm to bind with hyaluronan (HA) was assessed. Results. In comparison with the IC men, the men with TGCT had a higher percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA (median 28% versus 21%; p < 0.01) and a lower percentage of HA-bound sperm (24% versus 66%; p < 0.001). Normal results of both analyses were observed in 24% of IC men and 4% of men with TGCT. Negative Spearman's correlations were found between DFI and the percentage of HA-bound sperm in the whole group and in IC subjects and those with TGCT analyzed separately. Conclusions. Approximately 76% of IC men and 96% with TGCT awaiting orchiectomy demonstrated DNA fragmentation and/or sperm immaturity. We therefore recommend sperm banking after unilateral orchiectomy, but before irradiation and chemotherapy; the use of such a deposit appears to be a better strategy to obtain functionally efficient sperms.

  3. Orally administered Chrysin improves post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of rooster.

    PubMed

    Zhandi, M; Ansari, M; Roknabadi, P; Zare Shahneh, A; Sharafi, M

    2017-07-10

    Chrysin is a bioflavonoid compound found in passion flower, chamomile, propolis and honey at high levels. Post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Chrysin-fed roosters were assessed in this study. Twenty 40-week-old male broiler breeders were randomly divided into four groups and fed basal diet supplemented with different levels of Chrysin including 0 (Ch-0), 25 (Ch-25), 50 (Ch-50) or 75 (Ch-75) mg/day for 12 consecutive weeks. Semen samples were weekly collected from 6th to 9th week of experiment to evaluate some sperm quality parameters including total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality (in fresh and post-thawed samples) and mitochondrial activity (only in post-thawed samples). Also, collected semen samples from 10th, 11th and 12th week of experiment were frozen and then artificially inseminated to test fertility rate. According to the results, an improvement in both fresh and post-thawed sperm quality including total [fresh: 88.00 ± 0.58 and 87.25 ± 0.67 (p < .01); post-thawed: 51.07 ± 2.05 and 52.72 ± 1.96 (p < .01)] and progressive motility [fresh: 76.00 ± 0.58 and 78.25 ± 0.65 (p < .01); post-thawed: 40.61 ± 2.01 and 39.88 ± 2.01 (p < .01)], plasma membrane integrity [fresh: 91.60 ± 0.58 and 89.85 ± 0.59 (p < .01); post-thawed: 56.99 ± 1.86 and 54.39 ± 1.86 (p < .01)] and functionality [fresh: 75.40 ± 0.42 and 77.90 ± 0.96 (p < .01); post-thawed: 45.69 ± 1.71 and 46.35 ± 1.71 (p < .01)] was noted for both Ch-50 and Ch-75, respectively, groups compared to control group. Despite no significant change in mitochondrial activity, fertility rate of post-thawed spermatozoa was significantly improved in all Chrysin-fed groups compared to Ch-0 group. In conclusion, oral Chrysin administration to roosters could ameliorate cryopreservation-induced impairment of sperm quality and fertility rate. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Structure and formation of the unusual sperm of Patelloida latistrigata (Mollusca : Patellogastropoda): implications for fertilization biology.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Alan N; Hodgson, Valerie; Eckelbarger, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    The structure of the spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of the lottiid limpet Patelloida latistrigata is described by transmission electron microscopy. Although the lengths of the spermatozoa (about 60 μm) and their head region (about 12 μm) are similar to those of other patellogastropods, the structure of the sperm head and midpiece are very different. The head consists of an unusually large acrosome (about 11-μm long) with a broad posterior invagination that houses the relatively small nucleus. The midpiece mitochondria, which are rather elongate with large folded tubular cristae, are housed in a cytoplasmic sheath posterior to the nucleus. The proximal centriole is unusually elongate (about 2-μm long). The axoneme that emerges from the distal centriole is surrounded anteriorly by the cytoplasmic sheath in which the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane has electron-dense material. The flagellum is enlarged at its terminal end. Spermatogenesis is similar to that described for other patellogastropods. Patelloida latistrigata, therefore, has spermatozoa that seem to meet the morphological criteria of ent-aquasperm, which raises the question of whether fertilization is truly external in this limpet. However, it is also possible that the modifications to the sperm are linked to unknown specializations of the egg or egg envelope.

  5. Nonylphenol reduces sperm viability and fertility of mature male breeders in Brown Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min-Chien; Chiang, Hsin-I; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hung, Che-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Yang; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Tso, Ko-Hua; Fan, Yang-Kwang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nonylphenol (NP), a widely used surfactant, on the reproductive performance of male Brown Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) (MBBTDs). Mature MBBTDs (n=100) were treated with NP by daily gavaging of 0, 1 (NP1), 10 (NP10) and 250 (NP250) mg/kg-BW/d for 14 wk. Semen quality, fertilization rate and specific factors in blood plasma were measured. Weights of organs were also measured at 14 wk after NP administration. Ducks from each treatment (n=4) were continually treated with NP thereafter for 12 mo to observe changes of tissue ultrastructure by microscopic examination. The results showed that ducks treated with amounts of NP of greater than 1mg NP/kg BW/d (NP1) for 14 wk had decreased sperm viability (32.3%) compared to those in the control group (74.1%, P<0.05). The fertilization rate of ducks treated with 250mg NP/kg-BW/d (NP250) for 14 wk was reduced (21.0%) compared to the control group (74.5%, P<0.05). Plasma aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were also greater in NP250 group at the 14th wk post-treatment. Plasma testosterone concentrations were increased by NP1 treatment at the 14th wk post-treatment. Administration at dosage 250mg NP/kg-BW/d for 12 mo resulted in reduced sperm counts (P<0.05) and histopathological changes, such as dilated seminiferous tubules (P<0.05) and degenerated spermatocytes (P<0.05). These findings strongly suggest that NP adversely affects the reproductive performance of MBBTDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity-Induced Infertility in Male Mice Is Associated With Disruption of Crisp4 Expression and Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

    PubMed

    Borges, Beatriz C; Garcia-Galiano, David; da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Han, Xingfa; Gavrilina, Galina B; Saunders, Thomas L; Auchus, Richard J; Hammoud, Saher S; Smith, Gary D; Elias, Carol F

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 15% of human couples of reproductive age have impaired fertility, and the male component accounts for about half of these cases. The etiology is usually unknown, but high correlation with the increase in obesity rates is documented. In this study, we show that diet-induced and genetically obese mice display copulatory behavior comparable to controls, but the number of females impregnated by obese males is remarkably low. Screening for changes in gene expression in the male reproductive tract showed decreased Crisp4 expression in testis and epididymis of obese mice. Lack of CRISP4 in the luminal membrane of epididymal cells indicated inadequate secretion. Consistent with CRISP4 action in acrosome reaction, sperm from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) had decreased fertilization capacity. CRISP4 treatment of sperm from HFD mice prior to in vitro fertilization improved fertilization rate. In leptin-deficient obese and infertile mice, leptin's effect to restore CRISP4 expression and function required gonadal hormones. Our findings indicate that the obesity-induced decline in sperm motility and fertilization capacity results in part from the disruption of epididymal CRISP4 expression and secretion. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  7. Tuning sperm chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Adán; Wood, Christopher D; Nishigaki, Takuya; Carneiro, Jorge; Darszon, Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Sperm chemotaxis is a long-term puzzle and most of our knowledge comes from studying marine animals that are external fertilizers. Sperm are attracted by diffusible chemical factors (chemoattractants) released from the egg which redirect their swimming paths towards their source. This redirection is driven by increases in flagellar curvature that correlate with transient flagellar Ca(2+) increases. Recent experimental and modelling results provide insights into the signal flow underlying the translation of an external chemical gradient into an intracellular molecular and motor response. A fundamental element of sea-urchin sperm chemotaxis lies in the ability of these cells to suppress Ca(2+)-mediated increases in flagellar curvature while experiencing an increasing chemoattractant gradient. The article considers this new evidence and summarizes the known underlying cellular mechanisms and behavioural strategies that sperm use to locate and fertilize the oocyte.

  8. Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Gustav; Prestegaard, Tore; Dannewitz, Johan; Olsén, K Håkan

    2013-06-01

    Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. Ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. It is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. In this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout (Salmo trutta) males exposed to a mix of female urine and ovarian fluids, and control males exposed only to 0.9 % sodium chloride. We also investigate priming effects on milt yield and sperm motility. Fertilization tests with sperm from single males, as well as sperm from two males (i.e., sperm competition), were performed. Primed males generated more larvae in both the single male and competition fertilization tests. No differences between treatments in milt yield and sperm motility could be established.

  9. Male fertility status is associated with DNA methylation signatures in sperm and transcriptomic profiles of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Jenna; Carrillo, José A; Namous, Hadjer; Daniels, Alyssa; Salih, Sana M; Song, Jiuzhou; Khatib, Hasan

    2017-04-05

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a concern where reduced fertilization rates and high embryonic loss are contributing factors. Studies of the paternal contribution to reproductive performance are limited. However, recent discoveries have shown that, in addition to DNA, sperm delivers transcription factors and epigenetic components that are required for fertilization and proper embryonic development. Hence, characterization of the paternal contribution at the time of fertilization is warranted. We hypothesized that sire fertility is associated with differences in DNA methylation patterns in sperm and that the embryonic transcriptomic profiles are influenced by the fertility status of the bull. Embryos were generated in vitro by fertilization with either a high or low fertility Holstein bull. Blastocysts derived from each high and low fertility bulls were evaluated for morphology, development, and transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Sequencing. Additionally, DNA methylation signatures of sperm from high and low fertility sires were characterized by performing whole-genome DNA methylation binding domain sequencing. Embryo morphology and developmental capacity did not differ between embryos generated from either a high or low fertility bull. However, RNA-Sequencing revealed 98 genes to be differentially expressed at a false discovery rate < 1%. A total of 65 genes were upregulated in high fertility bull derived embryos, and 33 genes were upregulated in low fertility derived embryos. Expression of the genes CYCS, EEA1, SLC16A7, MEPCE, and TFB2M was validated in three new pairs of biological replicates of embryos. The role of the differentially expressed gene TFB2M in embryonic development was further assessed through expression knockdown at the zygotic stage, which resulted in decreased development to the blastocyst stage. Assessment of the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa between high and low fertility bulls revealed 76 differentially methylated regions. Despite

  10. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M Rocío; Soler, A Josefa; Garde, José Julián

    2016-01-01

    The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment. PMID:27678465

  11. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M Rocío; Soler, A Josefa; Garde, José Julián

    2016-01-01

    The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment.

  12. A technique for the evaluation of sperm penetrating ability and quality of bovine semen processed in an extender made with Brackett-Oliphant medium and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J E; Degelos, S D; Canal, A M; Paul, J B

    1999-06-01

    Egg yolk-sodium citrate (EYC) semen extender was compared with an extender made of Brackett-Oliphant medium and egg yolk (BOEY). Ejaculates were divided into equal portions, processed and frozen. Semen was thawed and evaluated for quality. Additional semen was thawed, stained with Hoechst 33342 and the spermatozoa capacitated, after which they were co-incubated with zona-free hamster oocytes to determine their penetrating ability. Sperm penetration of non-compressed, unfixed oocytes was evaluated using an optical sectioning technique on a standard research microscope. Sperm penetration was considered successful if a fluorescing sperm head was observed within the living oocyte in a hanging drop of fertilization medium. There were small differences in percentage of secondary abnormalities and percentage of progressive motility immediately after thawing between spermatozoa extended in EYC or BOEY diluent. There were no differences due to by extender composition in percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes or percent of progressively motile after a 3 h incubation at 37 degrees C, nor the percentage of spermatozoa with head abnormalities. While there were significant correlations between all seminal quality characteristics, no quality measurements were correlated to percentage of oocyte penetration. The new penetration evaluation method allowed for examination of the fertilized oocytes using fluorescent microscopy initially and again after re-incubation for further development.

  13. Sperm content of postacrosomal WW binding protein is related to fertilization outcomes in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; Balakier, Hanna; Bashar, Siamak; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Sutovsky, Peter; Librach, Clifford L; Oko, Richard

    2014-08-01

    To determine the levels of postacrosomal WW binding protein (PAWP) in the spermatozoa of men that were used clinically for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to correlate them with infertility treatment outcomes. Prospective clinical and laboratory study. University-based laboratory and infertility clinic. Men undergoing ICSI for the treatment of couples' infertility (n=110). Quantitative analysis of sperm PAWP levels by flow cytometry and developmental analysis of PAWP expression by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. PAWP flow-cytometric levels and immunolocalization in spermatozoa. A strong positive correlation was found between PAWP expression levels and fertilization rates after ICSI, with high levels of PAWP being associated with higher fertilization rates; the positive correlation was independent of age, DNA fragmentation index, and other sperm parameters. PAWP expression levels were correlated with embryonic development, with high levels of PAWP being associated with a lower number of arrested embryos within 3-5 days post-ICSI. PAWP expression was detected during the late stages of human spermiogenesis in elongating spermatids, confirming previous findings in various animal models. Our clinical data from infertile couples demonstrate significant correlations between sperm PAWP levels and both fertilization rates and normal embryonic development after ICSI. Considering its proposed role in the initiation of oocyte activation, we suggest that PAWP could have potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of metronidazole, ipronidazole, and dibromochloropropane on rabbit and human sperm motility and fertility.

    PubMed

    Foote, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of protozoal pathogens in the reproductive system with chemical agents exposes flagellated sperm cells to potential toxicants. A widely used antiprotozoal agent is metronidazole. Its effect on rabbit and human sperm was compared with a more soluble 5-nitroazole compound, ipronidazole, and with a systemic environmental toxicant, dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The percentages of motile rabbit and human sperm incubated with the compounds, the velocity of sperm, migration of sperm in polyacrylamide gel, young born in rabbits, and penetration of hamster oocytes by treated human sperm were measured in seven experiments. Up to 10mg/ml metronidazole and 1mg/ml DBCP had little effect on most sperm characteristics. However, 10mg/ml metronidazole and 5mg/ml of ipronidazole increased attachment of human sperm to hamster oocytes, but oocyte penetration was unaffected. Rabbit sperm exposed to 5mg/ml ipronidazole were infertile. No oocytes were penetrated by DBCP-treated human sperm.

  15. SLO3 auxiliary subunit LRRC52 controls gating of sperm KSPER currents and is critical for normal fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Yang, Chengtao; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Min; Lingle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Following entry into the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm undergo a maturation process termed capacitation that results in competence to fertilize ova. Associated with capacitation is an increase in membrane conductance to both Ca2+ and K+, leading to an elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ critical for activation of hyperactivated swimming motility. In mice, the Ca2+ conductance (alkalization-activated Ca2+-permeable sperm channel, CATSPER) arises from an ensemble of CATSPER subunits, whereas the K+ conductance (sperm pH-regulated K+ current, KSPER) arises from a pore-forming ion channel subunit encoded by the slo3 gene (SLO3) subunit. In the mouse, both CATSPER and KSPER are activated by cytosolic alkalization and a concerted activation of CATSPER and KSPER is likely a common facet of capacitation-associated increases in Ca2+ and K+ conductance among various mammalian species. The properties of heterologously expressed mouse SLO3 channels differ from native mouse KSPER current. Recently, a potential KSPER auxiliary subunit, leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 52 (LRRC52), was identified in mouse sperm and shown to shift gating of SLO3 to be more equivalent to native KSPER. Here, we show that genetic KO of LRRC52 results in mice with severely impaired fertility. Activation of KSPER current in sperm lacking LRRC52 requires more positive voltages and higher pH than for WT KSPER. These results establish a critical role of LRRC52 in KSPER channels and demonstrate that loss of a non-pore-forming auxiliary subunit results in severe fertility impairment. Furthermore, through analysis of several genotypes that influence KSPER current properties we show that in vitro fertilization competence correlates with the net KSPER conductance available for activation under physiological conditions. PMID:25675513

  16. SLO3 auxiliary subunit LRRC52 controls gating of sperm KSPER currents and is critical for normal fertility.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Yang, Chengtao; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Min; Lingle, Christopher J

    2015-02-24

    Following entry into the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm undergo a maturation process termed capacitation that results in competence to fertilize ova. Associated with capacitation is an increase in membrane conductance to both Ca(2+) and K(+), leading to an elevation in cytosolic Ca(2+) critical for activation of hyperactivated swimming motility. In mice, the Ca(2+) conductance (alkalization-activated Ca(2+)-permeable sperm channel, CATSPER) arises from an ensemble of CATSPER subunits, whereas the K(+) conductance (sperm pH-regulated K(+) current, KSPER) arises from a pore-forming ion channel subunit encoded by the slo3 gene (SLO3) subunit. In the mouse, both CATSPER and KSPER are activated by cytosolic alkalization and a concerted activation of CATSPER and KSPER is likely a common facet of capacitation-associated increases in Ca(2+) and K(+) conductance among various mammalian species. The properties of heterologously expressed mouse SLO3 channels differ from native mouse KSPER current. Recently, a potential KSPER auxiliary subunit, leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 52 (LRRC52), was identified in mouse sperm and shown to shift gating of SLO3 to be more equivalent to native KSPER. Here, we show that genetic KO of LRRC52 results in mice with severely impaired fertility. Activation of KSPER current in sperm lacking LRRC52 requires more positive voltages and higher pH than for WT KSPER. These results establish a critical role of LRRC52 in KSPER channels and demonstrate that loss of a non-pore-forming auxiliary subunit results in severe fertility impairment. Furthermore, through analysis of several genotypes that influence KSPER current properties we show that in vitro fertilization competence correlates with the net KSPER conductance available for activation under physiological conditions.

  17. Canine gestation length: variation related to time of mating and fertile life of sperm.

    PubMed

    Concannon, P; Whaley, S; Lein, D; Wissler, R

    1983-10-01

    Variation in canine gestation length was studied in a Beagle colony (n = 290) in which apparent gestation length, estimated as the interval from the day of first mating to the day of parturition, ranged from 57 to 72 days, and averaged 65.3 +/- 0.2 days. The interval from the day of the peak in luteinizing hormone (LH) to parturition was less variable and ranged from 64 to 66 days and averaged 65.1 +/- 0.1 days (n = 54). Apparent gestation lengths less than or equal to 61 days all resulted from mating greater than or equal to 3 days after the LH peak; those greater than or equal to 68 days all followed initial or single matings occurring greater than or equal to 2 days before the LH peak. Fertile single matings 3 days before the LH peak provided evidence that the potential postcoital fertile longevity of canine sperm is at least 6 days and thus contributed, along with variability in the onset of estrus, to the observed variation in apparent gestation length in the dog. The limited range in the interval from the day of the preovulatory LH peak to the day of parturition (64, 65, or 66 days) demonstrates a considerable regularity in the sequential events of gestation in the dog.

  18. Network analyses of sperm-egg recognition and binding: ready to rethink fertility mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Nicola; Ordinelli, Alessandra; Di Agostino, Raffaele; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The rapid growth of published literature makes biomedical text mining increasingly invaluable for unpacking implicit knowledge hidden in unstructured text. We employed biomedical text mining and biological networks analyses to research the process of sperm egg recognition and binding (SERB). We selected from the literature the molecules expressed either on spermatozoa or on oocytes thought to be involved in SERB and, using an automated literature search software (Agilent Literature Search), we realized a network, SERBN, characterized by a hierarchical scale free and a small world topology. We used an integrated approach, either based on selection of hubs or by a cluster analysis, to discern the key molecules of SERB. We found that in most cases some of them are not directly situated on spermatozoa and oocyte, but are dispersed in oviductal fluid or embedded in exosomes present in the perivitelline space. To confirm and validate our results, we performed further analyses using STRING and Reactome FI software. Our findings underscore that the fertility is not a property of gametes in isolation, but rather depends on the functional integrity of the entire reproductive system. These observations collectively underscore the importance of integrative biology in exploring biological systems and in rethinking of fertility mechanisms in the light of this innovative approach.

  19. Purification of binder of sperm protein 1 (BSP1) and its effects on bovine in vitro embryo development after fertilization with ejaculated and epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villamil, P; Hoyos-Marulanda, V; Martins, J A M; Oliveira, A N; Aguiar, L H; Moreno, F B; Velho, A L M C S; Monteiro-Moreira, A C; Moreira, R A; Vasconcelos, I M; Bertolini, M; Moura, A A

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated functional aspects of binder of sperm 1 (BSP1) in the bovine species. In a first experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 1274) were incubated with frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL BSP1. Heparin followed by gelatin affinity chromatography was used for purification of BSP1 from bovine seminal vesicle fluid. With ejaculated sperm, cleavage rates were similar when Fert-TALP medium was incubated with heparin (74.1 ± 2.7%), 10 μg/mL BSP1 (77.8 ± 3.1%), or 20 μg/mL BSP1 (74 ± 2.0%). Day-7 blastocyst rates were equivalent after incubations with heparin (40.8 ± 5.0%) and 10 μg/mL BSP1 (34.1 ± 4.4%), but reduced after 20 μg/mL BSP1 (22.4 ± 2.9%) and 40 μg/mL BSP1 (19.3 ± 4.1%; P < 0.05). In the second experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 1213) were incubated with frozen-thawed cauda epididymal sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: no heparin, heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were similar after treatments with heparin (68.5 ± 1.3% and 24.7 ± 3.2%, respectively) or without heparin (65.5 ± 1.8% and 27.3 ± 1.6%, respectively). Cleavage was higher after treatment with any BSP1 concentrations (74.2 ± 2.7%-79.0 ± 1.1%) than without heparin (P < 0.05). Also, cleavage was better after Fert-TALP medium incubation with 40 μg/mL BSP1 (79.0 ± 1.1%) than with heparin (68.5 ± 1.3%; P < 0.05). Embryo development was higher (P < 0.05) after treatment with 20 μg/mL BSP1 (35.6 ± 2.5%) and 40 μg/mL (41.1 ± 2%) than after incubations with heparin (24.7 ± 3.2%) or without heparin (27.3 ± 1.6%). Interestingly, BSP1 did not cause reductions in blastocyst rates after fertilization with epididymal sperm, as observed with ejaculated sperm. On the basis of immunocytochemistry, there was BSP1 binding to frozen-thawed ejaculated but not to epididymal sperm. Also, anti-BSP1 reaction remained on ejaculated sperm (as expected) and

  20. Cross-talk between free and bound spermatozoa to modulate initial sperm:egg ratios at the site of fertilization in the mammalian oviduct.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R H F; Gadea, J

    2014-08-01

    This essay proposes that highly localized communication between free and bound spermatozoa in the caudal portion of the oviduct acts to regulate the numbers detaching from the epithelium and progressing to the site of fertilization close to the time of ovulation. Low initial sperm:egg ratios are essential for monospermic fertilization. Liberation of surface macromolecules and metabolic prompting from activated spermatozoa, together with altered patterns of sperm movement and dynamic differences in intracellular Ca(2+) ion status between neighboring sperm cells, would influence the progressive release of spermatozoa from the reservoir in the oviduct isthmus. Different intensities of preovulatory epithelial binding, reflecting a range of states in the sperm surface membranes and associated proteins, would provide a further explanation for a chronologically staggered periovulatory detachment of spermatozoa. Intimate sperm-sperm interactions within the confines of the oviduct isthmus offer a sensitive means of fine-tuning the vanguard of competent male gametes reaching the isthmo-ampullary junction.

  1. Sperm yield after single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Stuhtmann, G; Meurling, S; Lundgren, A; Winblad, C; Macias Garcia, B; Johannisson, A

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify laboratory tests that are predictive of sperm fertility, both to improve the quality of stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) and to identify potential breeding sires if no fertility data are available. Sperm quality at the stud is mostly evaluated by assessing subjective motility, although this parameter can be poorly indicative of fertility. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish stallions are correlated to pregnancy rate after AI. Because single layer centrifugation (SLC) selects for spermatozoa with normal morphology and good chromatin, retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate whether sperm yield after SLC is linked to potential fertility. Commercial semen doses for AI from 24 stallions (five stallions with four ejaculates each, 19 stallions with three ejaculates each; n = 77) obtained during the breeding season were cooled, and sent overnight to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in an insulated box for evaluation, with other doses being sent to studs for commercial AI. On arrival at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the semen was used for SLC and also for evaluation of sperm motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, and morphology. The seasonal pregnancy rates for each stallion were available. The yield of progressively motile spermatozoa after SLC (calculated as a proportion of the initial load) was found to be highly correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). Chromatin damage was highly negatively correlated with pregnancy rate (r = -0.69; P < 0.001). Pregnancy rate was also correlated with membrane integrity (r = 0.58; P < 0.01), progressive motility (r = 0.63; P < 0.01), and normal morphology (r = 0.45; P < 0.05). In conclusion, these preliminary results show that sperm yield after SLC is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate, and could be an alternative indicator of stallion fertility if breeding data are

  2. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Methods A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. Results The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). Conclusion In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26473112

  3. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Effects of pH during liquid storage of goat semen on sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-He; Dong, Hai-Bo; Ma, Dong-Li; Li, You-Wei; Han, Dong; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Chang, Zhong-Le; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    A specific problem in goat semen preservation is the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on sperm viability in extenders containing yolk or milk. Thus, the use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages. Although previous studies indicate that the initial pH of an extender is crucial to sustain high sperm motility, changes in extender pH during long-term semen storage have not been observed. Monitoring extender pH at different times of semen storage and modeling its variation according to nonlinear models is thus important for protocol optimization for long-term liquid semen preservation. The present results showed that during long-term liquid storage of goat semen, both sperm motility and semen pH decreased gradually, and a strong correlation was observed between the two. Whereas increasing the initial extender pH from 6.04 to 6.25 or storage with stabilized pH improved, storage with artificially lowered pH impaired sperm motility. Extender renewal improved sperm motility by maintaining a stable pH. Sperm coating with chicken (Gallus gallus) egg yolk improved motility by increasing tolerance to pH decline. A new extender (n-mZAP) with a higher buffering capacity was formulated, and n-mZAP maintained higher sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome intactness than the currently used mZAP extender did. Goat semen liquid-stored for 12 d in n-mZAP produced pregnancy and kidding rates similar to those obtained with freshly collected semen following artificial insemination. In conclusion, maintenance of a stable pH during liquid semen storage dramatically improved sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

  5. Use of the egg-share model to investigate the paternal influence on fertilization and embryo development after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Denny; D'Arcy, Yvonne; Percival, Gail; Sinclair, Lucinda; Afnan, Masoud; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2004-07-01

    To investigate whether sperm from different males can influence fertilization and embryo development. To use an egg-sharing model, in which the eggs from one woman are shared between herself and a recipient, and different spermatozoa are used to fertilize the eggs. Assisted Conception Unit, Birmingham Women's Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom. Infertile women undergoing egg sharing. In vitro fertilization (IVF). Fertilization rates and the mean day 2 or 3 embryo score (cell number X grade) were examined for egg-sharing pairs. A comparison was also made for pairs in which intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVF was used as the insemination method. A paired samples t-test was used to compare the sharer and recipient results. Pregnancy rates did not differ between sharer and recipient couples. Interestingly, when comparing fertilization, there was a significant difference (P<.05) in favor of IVF over ICSI. When comparing embryo development between egg-sharing pairs, we found that approximately 30% of patients showed a difference in mean embryo score of >or= 5 in all embryo development and 14% in the quality of embryos available for transfer. We showed that the egg-sharing model is a successful alternative for the treatment of women who required donated eggs. More important, the egg-sharing model shows that, in a certain percentage of couples, differences in early embryo development are paternally influenced.

  6. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2015-08-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for <10min does not trigger a cortical reaction or the formation of a perivitelline space. Results suggest that with a low sperm to egg ratio 0.5 to 1min pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater prior to fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the donor male on the fertility of frozen-thawed rabbit sperm after artificial insemination of females of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mocé, E; Lavara, R; Vicente, J S

    2005-12-01

    In this work, the influence of the donor male on the fertility of cryopreserved rabbit sperm after artificial insemination into females from different genotypes was evaluated. Females belonged to three lines selected for maternal characteristics (A, V and H) and all the possible crosses between them. Sperm from five males from the line selected for one of the maternal characteristics (line V) was frozen individually in a Tris-citric acid-glucose diluent with 1.75 m of DMSO and 0.05 m of sucrose (final concentrations). After artificial insemination of the cryopreserved sperm, fertility rates and prolificacy were similar for all groups of females (56% of fertility rate and 7.2 total born). Significant differences between males were observed for both fertility (p < 0.05) and kindling (p < 0.01) rate. These differences could be because of differences in the freezing resistance of sperm from the different males.

  8. Production of diabetic offspring using cryopreserved epididymal sperm by in vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination techniques in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Honda, Kasumi; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Hidaka, Tatsuro; Sekiguchi, Keito; Mochizuki, Hironori; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Masahito; Nagaya, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-17

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for creating pig strains that model human diseases. However, production of numerous cloned disease model pigs by SCNT for large-scale experiments is impractical due to its complexity and inefficiency. In the present study, we aimed to establish an efficient procedure for proliferating the diabetes model pig carrying the mutant human hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene. A founder diabetes transgenic cloned pig was generated by SCNT and treated with insulin to allow for normal growth to maturity, at which point epididymal sperm could be collected for cryopreservation. In vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination using the cryopreserved epididymal sperm resulted in diabetes model transgenic offspring. These results suggest that artificial reproductive technology using cryopreserved epididymal sperm could be a practical option for proliferation of genetically modified disease model pigs.

  9. The WASP-Arp2/3 complex signal cascade is involved in actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during double fertilization in tobacco and maize

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiongbo; Yan, Tingting; Sun, Mengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sperm nuclear migration during fertilization in Arabidopsis and rice has recently been found to be actin-dependent, but the driving force behind this actin cytoskeleton-dependent motion is unclear. Here, we confirmed that the actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during fertilization is a conserved mechanism in plants. Using in vitro fertilization systems, we showed that a functional actin is also essential in maize and tobacco for sperm nuclei migration after gamete membrane fusion. Cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibitor treatments supported the view that sperm nuclei migration is actin-dependent but microtubule-independent in both egg cell and central cell during double fertilization. We further revealed that the actin-based motor myosin is not the driving force for sperm nuclear migration in maize and tobacco. The WASP-Arp2/3 complex signal cascade is shown here to be involved in the regulation of sperm nuclear migration in maize and tobacco. It is interesting that sperm nuclei migration within somatic cell also need WASP-Arp2/3 complex signal cascade and actin, suggesting that the mechanism of sperm nuclear migration is not gamete specific. PMID:28225074

  10. Absence of Peroxiredoxin 6 Amplifies the Effect of Oxidant Stress on Mobility and SCSA/CMA3 Defined Chromatin Quality and Impairs Fertilizing Ability of Mouse Spermatozoa1

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defenses, is associated with male infertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes with a wide distribution in spermatozoa. PRDX6 is highly abundant and located in all subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Infertile men have lower levels of sperm PRDX6 associated with low sperm motility and high DNA damage. In order to better understand the role of PRDX6 in male reproduction, the aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of the lack of PRDX6 on male mouse fertility. Spermatozoa lacking PRDX6 showed significantly increased levels of cellular oxidative damage evidenced by high levels of lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (DNA oxidation), and protein oxidation (S-glutathionylation and carbonylation), lower sperm chromatin quality (high DNA fragmentation and low DNA compaction, due to low levels of protamination and a high percentage of free thiols), along with decreased sperm motility and impairment of capacitation as compared with wild-type (WT) spermatozoa. These manifestations of damage are exacerbated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide treatment in vivo. While WT males partially recovered the quality of their spermatozoa (in terms of motility and sperm DNA integrity), Prdx6−/− males showed higher levels of sperm damage (lower motility and chromatin integrity) 6 mo after the end of treatment. In conclusion, Prdx6−/− males are more vulnerable to oxidative stress than WT males, resulting in impairment of sperm quality and ability to fertilize the oocyte, compatible with the subfertility phenotype observed in these knockout mice. PMID:26792942

  11. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization.

  12. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcomes for in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women with different ovarian reserves.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Fei, Qianjin; Ni, Wuhua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

    2015-04-01

    To investigate effect of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technology in women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) versus reduced ovarian reserve (ROR). Retrospective clinical study. University-affiliated tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 2,865 consecutive couples undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. SDF assessed using sperm chromatin dispersion in sperm samples 1-2 months before treatment. SDF, IVF, and ICSI outcomes. The grouping criteria were [1] basal follicle stimulating hormone >10 IU/L, [2] antral follicle count <6, and [3] female age ≥38 years. Women fulfilling two of the three criteria were considered to have ROR, and those not meeting any criteria were considered to have NOR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.594 (0.539-0.648) for the ROR group and 0.510 (0.491-0.530) for the NOR group. A cutoff value for SDF to predict the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in the ROR group was 27.3%. When the SDF exceeded 27.3%, the live-birth and implantation rates in the ROR group were statistically significantly decreased, but the clinical pregnancy, live-birth, and implantation rates were not affected in the NOR group. The risk of early abortion increased significantly in the NOR group when the SDF exceeded 27.3%. Sperm DNA fragmentation has a greater impact on IVF and ICSI outcomes among women with ROR, so SDF testing may be of particular clinical significance for these couples. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of pig sperm hyaluronidase and improvement of the digestibility of cumulus cell mass by recombinant pSPAM1 hyaluronidase in an in vitro fertilization assay.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungwon; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Hongsang; Moon, Jisang; Kim, Ju-Sung; Min, Sung-Hun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Young Il; Kim, Ekyune

    2014-11-30

    Although sperm hyaluronidase is thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, the molecular function underlying these steps remains largely unknown. In mouse models, sperm-specific SPAM1 and HYAL5 hyaluronidase are believed to function in both sperm penetration of the cumulus matrix and sperm-ZP binding. However, gene-targeting studies for SPAM1 or HYAL5 show that hyaluronidases are not essential for fertilization, despite the fact that exogenous hyaluronidase can disrupt the cumulus matrix. Therefore, to evaluate whether sperm hyaluronidase is essential for mammalian fertilization, it is necessary to generate HYAL5/SPAM1 double-knockout mice. However, generating double-knockout mice is very difficult because these two genes exist on the same chromosome. Recently, investigators have begun to employ the pig model system to study human disease due to its similarities to human anatomy and physiology. In this study, we confirmed that pig SPAM1 exists as a single copy gene on chromosome 18 and is specifically expressed in the testis. In addition, we expressed recombinant pig SPAM1 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and showed that these enzymes possess hyaluronidase activity. We also demonstrated that a polyclonal antibody against pig sperm hyaluronidase inhibits sperm-egg interactions in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. Our results suggest that pig SPAM1 may play a critical role in pig fertilization and that recombinant SPAM1 can disperse the oocyte-cumulus complex in an IVF assay.

  14. Targeted Disruption of the Transition Protein 2 Gene Affects Sperm Chromatin Structure and Reduces Fertility in Mice†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Shirley, Cynthia R.; Yu, Y. Eugene; Mohapatra, Bhagyalaxmi; Zhang, Yun; Unni, Emmanual; Deng, Jian M.; Arango, Nelson A.; Terry, Nicholas H. A.; Weil, Michael M.; Russell, Lonnie D.; Behringer, Richard R.; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    During mammalian spermiogenesis, major restructuring of chromatin takes place. In the mouse, the histones are replaced by the transition proteins, TP1 and TP2, which are in turn replaced by the protamines, P1 and P2. To investigate the role of TP2, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of its gene, Tnp2. Spermatogenesis in Tnp2 null mice was almost normal, with testis weights and epididymal sperm counts being unaffected. The only abnormality in testicular histology was a slight increase of sperm retention in stage IX to XI tubules. Epididymal sperm from Tnp2-null mice showed an increase in abnormal tail, but not head, morphology. The mice were fertile but produced small litters. In step 12 to 16 spermatid nuclei from Tnp2-null mice, there was normal displacement of histones, a compensatory translationally regulated increase in TP1 levels, and elevated levels of precursor and partially processed forms of P2. Electron microscopy revealed abnormal focal condensations of chromatin in step 11 to 13 spermatids and progressive chromatin condensation in later spermatids, but condensation was still incomplete in epididymal sperm. Compared to that of the wild type, the sperm chromatin of these mutants was more accessible to intercalating dyes and more susceptible to acid denaturation, which is believed to indicate DNA strand breaks. We conclude that TP2 is not a critical factor for shaping of the sperm nucleus, histone displacement, initiation of chromatin condensation, binding of protamines to DNA, or fertility but that it is necessary for maintaining the normal processing of P2 and, consequently, the completion of chromatin condensation. PMID:11585907

  15. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    males may be useful to fit their needs and provide a constant daily supply of nutrients, with some sperm morphologic characteristics being improved, as well as the fertility of their pooled semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin and IR-beta in pig spermatozoa: a role of the hormone in the acquisition of fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Carpino, A; Rago, V; Guido, C; Casaburi, I; Aquila, S

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have revealed that insulin, the main regulator of the glucose homeostasis in somatic cells, is expressed in human spermatozoa which are also able to secrete it. This study investigated the expression of insulin and insulin receptor beta in pig spermatozoa, at immunohistochemical protein and mRNA level. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that insulin and its receptor were co-localized in the sperm midpiece, while insulin was also detected in the acrosomal region. Western blot evidenced a 36 kDa band for insulin and a 95 kDa band for insulin receptor, such as reported in somatic cells. In addition, both insulin and insulin receptor transcripts were detected in pig spermatozoa. Interestingly, a possible biological role of the hormone was evidenced during pig sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. In fact, the results showed that insulin (0.01 and 0.1 nm) can induce both the activities. A possible autocrine short loop of insulin in pig spermatozoa was suggested by the evaluation of the hormone secretion in both uncapacitated and capacitated spermatozoa. Furthermore, spontaneous sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction were stimulated by glucose and inhibited by the blockage of insulin release (nifedipine). In conclusion, this work has firstly demonstrated the expression of insulin and of its receptor, as well as the insulin secretion by pig spermatozoa, thereby suggesting an unexpected significance of the hormone in the acquisition of the male gamete fertilizing ability.

  17. An Epididymis-Specific Secretory Protein HongrES1 Critically Regulates Sperm Capacitation and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchuan; Zheng, Min; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Li; Zhen, Wei; Chen, Wenying; Zhang, Yonglian

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sperm capacitation is an essential prerequisite to fertilizion. Although progress had been made in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of capacitation, little is known about the potential roles of epididymal proteins during this process. Here we report that HongrES1, a new member of the SERPIN (serine proteinase inhibitor) family exclusively expressed in the rat cauda epididymis and up-regulated by androgen, is secreted into the lumen and covers the sperm head. Co-culture of caudal sperms with HongrES1 antibody in vitro resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa. Furthermore, the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa clearly increased in rats when HongrES1 was down-regulated by RNAi in vivo. Remarkably, knockdown of HongrES1 in vivo led to reduced fertility accompanied with deformed appearance of fetuses and pups. These results identify HongrES1 as a novel and critical molecule in the regulation of sperm capacitation and male fertility. PMID:19116669

  18. CatSperζ regulates the structural continuity of sperm Ca2+ signaling domains and is required for normal fertility

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jean-Ju; Miki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Doory; Shim, Sang-Hee; Shi, Huanan F; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Cai, Xinjiang; Iseri, Yusuf; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Clapham, David E

    2017-01-01

    We report that the Gm7068 (CatSpere) and Tex40 (CatSperz) genes encode novel subunits of a 9-subunit CatSper ion channel complex. Targeted disruption of CatSperz reduces CatSper current and sperm rheotactic efficiency in mice, resulting in severe male subfertility. Normally distributed in linear quadrilateral nanodomains along the flagellum, the complex lacking CatSperζ is disrupted at ~0.8 μm intervals along the flagellum. This disruption renders the proximal flagellum inflexible and alters the 3D flagellar envelope, thus preventing sperm from reorienting against fluid flow in vitro and efficiently migrating in vivo. Ejaculated CatSperz-null sperm cells retrieved from the mated female uterus partially rescue in vitro fertilization (IVF) that failed with epididymal spermatozoa alone. Human CatSperε is quadrilaterally arranged along the flagella, similar to the CatSper complex in mouse sperm. We speculate that the newly identified CatSperζ subunit is a late evolutionary adaptation to maximize fertilization inside the mammalian female reproductive tract. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23082.001 PMID:28226241

  19. In vitro effect of myo-inositol on sperm motility in normal and oligoasthenospermia patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Artini, P G; Casarosa, E; Carletti, E; Monteleone, P; Di Noia, A; Di Berardino, O M

    2017-02-01

    It is a known fact that abnormal seminal liquid specimens contain abnormal amounts of oxygen free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that the use of antioxidant molecules both in vivo and in vitro leads to improvement of semen quality in terms of motility, reduction in DNA damage, with obvious consequences on the fertilization potential. Myo-inositol has been observed to have anti-oxidant properties and be present in much greater concentrations specifically in seminal liquid than in the blood. Moreover, there seems to be a direct relationship between myo-inositol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and sperm motility. Studies performed in vivo have demonstrated that a dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques may improve sperm quality and motility in oligoasthenospermia (OAT) patients. In the following study we utilized myo-inositol in vitro to verify its effect on semen quality in both normal and OAT patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with respect to standard sperm medium. In vitro incubation of seminal liquid carried out using myo-inositol (Andrositol-Lab, Lo.Li. Pharma-Roma, Italy) at a concentration of 15 μl/ml improved progressive motility in both normospermia and OAT subjects. In our opinion, myo-inositol may prove to be a useful strategy to improve sperm preparation for clinical use in IVF.

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome and maternal obesity affect oocyte size in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    PubMed

    Marquard, Kerri L; Stephens, Sahar M; Jungheim, Emily S; Ratts, Valerie S; Odem, Randall R; Lanzendorf, Susan; Moley, Kelle H

    2011-05-01

    To determine the impact of maternal metabolic state on oocyte development in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI from 2008-2009 in a university-based fertility center. We determined that women with PCOS and obesity have smaller oocytes than control subjects, and that when further subdivided by body mass index, both PCOS and obesity independently influence oocyte size. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Arian rooster by oral administration of d-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahdi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Kohram, Hamid; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of d-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on post-thawed sperm quality, fertility and hatchability outcomes in male broiler breeders. Twenty 55-week-old roosters were selected and equally split into four groups (n = 5 rooster/group). Different daily D-Asp doses including 0 (D-0), 100 (D-100), 200 (D-200) or 300 (D-300) mg/kg BW were capsulated and individually administered for 12 weeks to roosters in each group. Semen samples were weekly collected from 7th to 12th week of experiment. Sperm quality from 7th to 11th week was evaluated in both fresh (total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality) and post-thawed (total and forward motility, plasma membrane functionality, apoptosis status and mitochondrial activity) conditions. Also, collected semen samples on the 12th week were frozen and artificially inseminated to evaluate fertility and hatchability. The results from fresh condition showed that total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality were significantly higher in D-200 compared to other groups. Also, interaction effect of time and treatment was not significant for all assessed parameters in fresh condition. In post-thawed condition, D-200 showed significantly higher total and forward motility, fertility and hatchability compared to other groups. The higher value for plasma membrane functionality and mitochondrial activity was observed in D-200 compared to D-0 and D300 groups. However, the percentage of live, early apoptotic and dead spermatozoa were not significantly affected by applied treatment in the current study. No significant difference for time and treat interaction effect was observed for all assessed parameters except forward motility. In conclusion, it seems that D-Asp administration could improve fresh and post-thawed sperm quality and post-thawed sperm fertility in male broiler breeders.

  2. Association study and expression analysis of porcine ESR1 as a candidate gene for boar fertility and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Asep; Kaewmala, Kanokwan; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Tesfaye, Dawit; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl

    2011-10-01

    Male fertility is impaired through the lack of ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) but little is known about the ESR1 roles in boar spermatogenesis and fertility. Therefore, this research was aimed at investigating the association with sperm quality and boar fertility traits in a total of 300 boars both from purebred Pietrain and Pietrain × Hampshire crosses. A SNP in coding region of ESR1g.672C>T in exon 1 was associated with sperm motility (P<0.05) and plasma droplet rate (P<0.01) while the polymorphism in non-coding region of ESR1g.35756T>C in inton 1 was associated with non-return rate (P<0.05). Furthermore, to analyse the mRNA and protein expression of ESR1 in boar reproductive tissues, a total of six boars were divided into two groups [Group I (G-I) and Group II (G-II)], where G-I had relatively better sperm quality. ESR1 expression was higher in tissues collected from G-I boars than those of collected from G-II boars, and the difference in mRNA expression was significant (P<0.01) in head of epididymis. The ESR1 protein expression results from western blot coincided with the results of qRT-PCR. The ESR1 protein localization observed a strong staining in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cell in the testis, in the epithelial cells in head and tail of epididymis, in smooth muscle in tail of epididymis, and in the post acrosomal region and tail of the spermatozoa. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the ESR1 in spermatogenesis within the reproductive tract and will shed light on ESR1 as a candidate in the selection of boar with good sperm quality and fertility.

  3. Performance of Rodent Spermatozoa Over Time Is Enhanced by Increased ATP Concentrations: The Role of Sperm Competition.

    PubMed

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Villar-Moya, Pilar; Varea-Sánchez, María; Luque-Larena, Juan J; Rial, Eduardo; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-09-01

    Sperm viability, acrosome integrity, motility, and swimming velocity are determinants of male fertility and exhibit an extreme degree of variation among closely related species. Many of these sperm parameters are associated with sperm ATP content, which has led to predictions of trade-offs between ATP content and sperm motility and velocity. Selective pressures imposed by sperm competition have been proposed as evolutionary causes of this pattern of diversity in sperm traits. Here, we examine variation in sperm viability, acrosome integrity, motility, swimming velocity, and ATP content over time, among 18 species of closely related muroid rodents, to address the following questions: (a) Do sperm from closely related species vary in ATP content after a period of incubation? (b) Are these differences in ATP levels related to differences in other sperm traits? (c) Are differences in ATP content and sperm performance over time explained by the levels of sperm competition in these species? Our results revealed a high degree of interspecific variability in changes in sperm ATP content, acrosome integrity, sperm motility and swimming velocity over time. Additionally, species with high sperm competition levels were able to maintain higher levels of sperm motility and faster sperm swimming velocity when they were incubated under conditions that support sperm survival. Furthermore, we show that the maintenance of such levels of sperm performance is correlated with the ability of sperm to sustain high concentrations of intracellular ATP over time. Thus, sperm competition may have an important role maximizing sperm metabolism and performance and, ultimately, the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa.

  4. Sperm Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mediates α7 Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Activation to Promote Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jaldety, Yael; Glick, Yair; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ickowicz, Debby; Gerber, Doron; Breitbart, Haim

    2012-01-01

    To attain fertilization the spermatozoon binds to the egg zona pellucida (ZP) via sperm receptor(s) and undergoes an acrosome reaction (AR). Several sperm receptors have been described in the literature; however, the identity of this receptor is not yet certain. In this study, we suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) might be a sperm receptor activated by ZP to induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated AR. We found that isolated ZP or α7 agonists induced the AR in sperm from WT but not α7-null spermatozoa, and the induced AR was inhibited by α7 or EGFR antagonists. Moreover, α7-null sperm showed very little binding to the egg, and microfluidic affinity in vitro assay clearly showed that α7nAChR, as well as EGFR, interacted with ZP3. Induction of EGFR activation and the AR by an α7 agonist was inhibited by a Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor. In conclusion we suggest that activation of α7 by ZP leads to SFK-dependent EGFR activation, Ca2+ influx, and the acrosome reaction. PMID:22577141

  5. A general description of additive and nonadditive elements of sperm competitiveness and their relation to male fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, Leif

    2013-05-01

    A complete understanding of male reproductive success, and thus sexual selection, often requires an insight into male success in sperm competition. Genuine conclusions on male sperm competitiveness can only be made in real competitive situations. However, statistical analyses of sperm competitiveness from fertilization success data have been shown to be problematic. Here, I first outline a comprehensive general description of the different additive and nonadditive elements relevant for the outcome of sperm competition staged between two males. Based on this description, I will highlight two main problems that are frequently encountered in experiments aiming at estimating sperm competitiveness. First, I focus on potential problems when using standardized competitors versus random mating trials, because trials with standardized competitors do not allow generalization if male-male interactions are important. Second, I illustrate the necessity to analyze data on the logit scale rather than on raw proportions, because only the logit scale allows a clean separation of additive and nonadditive effects (i.e., male × male and female × male interactions). © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. RAB-Like 2 Has an Essential Role in Male Fertility, Sperm Intra-Flagellar Transport, and Tail Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jennifer C. Y.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Connor, Anne E.; Borg, Claire; Clark, Brett J.; Whisstock, James C.; Field, Mark C.; Adams, Vicki; Ishikawa, Tomomoto; Aitken, R. John; Whittle, Belinda; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Ormandy, Christopher J.; O'Bryan, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    A significant percentage of young men are infertile and, for the majority, the underlying cause remains unknown. Male infertility is, however, frequently associated with defective sperm motility, wherein the sperm tail is a modified flagella/cilia. Conversely, a greater understanding of essential mechanisms involved in tail formation may offer contraceptive opportunities, or more broadly, therapeutic strategies for global cilia defects. Here we have identified Rab-like 2 (RABL2) as an essential requirement for sperm tail assembly and function. RABL2 is a member of a poorly characterized clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily. RABL2 is highly enriched within developing male germ cells, where it localizes to the mid-piece of the sperm tail. Lesser amounts of Rabl2 mRNA were observed in other tissues containing motile cilia. Using a co-immunoprecipitation approach and RABL2 affinity columns followed by immunochemistry, we demonstrated that within developing haploid germ cells RABL2 interacts with intra-flagella transport (IFT) proteins and delivers a specific set of effector (cargo) proteins, including key members of the glycolytic pathway, to the sperm tail. RABL2 binding to effector proteins is regulated by GTP. Perturbed RABL2 function, as exemplified by the Mot mouse line that contains a mutation in a critical protein–protein interaction domain, results in male sterility characterized by reduced sperm output, and sperm with aberrant motility and short tails. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the RABL protein family, an essential role for RABL2 in male fertility and a previously uncharacterised mechanism for protein delivery to the flagellum. PMID:23055941

  7. Comparison of effects of cryopreservation diluents on the ability of Ram sperm to reduce resazurin dye

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resazurin dye is an effective way to test the metabolism of sperm. As sperm move, they create metabolic waste which is detected by the dye. Another way sperm are evaluated is by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA). CASA detects motility, progression, curvilinear velocity, lateral head amplitude,...

  8. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  9. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  10. OPTIXcell improves the postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Akhter, S; Ashiq, M

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the liposome-containing, animal protein-free, commercially available OPTIXcell extender with the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender for postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo semen. Semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with an artificial vagina (at 42 °C) for 3 weeks (replicates). Semen ejaculates from each buffalo bull were divided into two aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL) in the OPTIXcell or Tris-citric-egg yolk (control) extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours, and filled in 0.5-mL straws. The semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. The straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). After 24 hours of storage, the semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 seconds to assess postthaw quality. Percentages of sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability, and acrosomal integrity were improved (P < 0.05) in the OPTIXcell extender compared to the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender. Values for DNA integrity (%) did not differ in the OPTIXcell and Tris-citric-egg yolk extenders. The overall conception rate in buffaloes was improved (P < 0.05) with semen cryopreserved in the OPTIXcell extender (59.5%) compared to semen cryopreserved in the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender (41.5%). It is concluded that the liposome-containing commercially available OPTIXcell extender is more efficient to conserve postthaw quality and resulted in higher fertility rate of buffalo in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Participation of epididymal cysteine-rich secretory proteins in sperm-egg fusion and their potential use for male fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Debora J; Da Ros, Vanina G; Busso, Dolores; Ellerman, Diego A; Maldera, Julieta A; Goldweic, Nadia; Cuasnicú, Patricia S

    2007-07-01

    Rat protein DE is an androgen-dependent cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) synthesized by proximal epididymal regions. DE, also known as CRISP-1, is localized on the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa and participates in gamete fusion through binding to egg complementary sites. Immunization of rats with DE inhibits fertility and sperm fusion ability, suggesting that DE represents a good epididymal contraceptive target. Recombinant DE fragments and synthetic peptides revealed that DE binds to the egg via a 12-amino acid region of an evolutionarily conserved motif, Signature 2 (S2). The ability of other CRISP to bind to the rat egg was correlated with their S2 amino acid sequences. Although testicular protein Tpx-1 (CRISP-2) was capable of binding to rodent eggs, human epididymal AEG-related protein (ARP) and helothermine (from lizard saliva) were not. The S2 region presented only two substitutions in Tpx-1 and four in ARP and helothermine, compared with the DE S2, suggesting that this amino acid sequence was relevant for egg interaction. Studies with Tpx-1 and anti-Tpx-1 revealed the participation of this protein in gamete fusion through binding to complementary sites in the egg. In competition studies, DE reduced binding of Tpx-1 dose-dependently, indicating that both CRISP share the egg complementary sites. That anti-DE and anti-Tpx-1 inhibit sperm-egg fusion while recognizing only the corresponding proteins, suggests functional cooperation between these homologous CRISP to ensure fertilization success. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gamete fusion and contribute to the development of new and safer fertility regulating methods.

  12. Post-thaw survival of ram spermatozoa and fertility after insemination as affected by prefreezing sperm concentration and extender composition.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, A G; Colonna, M A; Bellitti, A

    2001-03-15

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of prefreezing sperm concentration using two extenders on post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of ram spermatozoa (Experiment 1) and fertility after intrauterine insemination with differing doses of semen (Experiment 2). In autumn (Northern hemisphere), semen was collected by artificial vagina from 8 adult Leccese rams and ejaculates of good quality semen were pooled. Two extender systems for cryopreservation were considered, one based on milk-lactose egg yolk (Milk-LY) and the other based on tris-fructose egg yolk (Tris-FY). Experiment 1 (2 x 6 factorial scheme) examined the in vitro characteristics of spermatozoa in relation to the Milk-LY and Tris-FY extenders and six prefreezing sperm concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). Experiment 2 (2 x 4 factorial) evaluated the influence of the Milk-LY vs Tris-FY extenders and four doses (20, 40, 80 and 160 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.25 mL) corresponding to prefreezing spermatozoa concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL, on fertility of ewes inseminated in uterus by laparoscope. Prefreezing sperm concentration influenced (P < 0.01) freezability of spermatozoa and affected negatively all the in vitro parameters at 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. Overall, Milk-LY tended to ensure higher viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa after thawing at the intermediate sperm densities (range 100 to 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). At 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL concentration corresponded the best condition for survival of spermatozoa (71.2%), acrosome integrity (71.5%) and acrosomal loss (6.0%). At the lowest sperm concentration (50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL), Tris-FY resulted in a higher survival rate than Milk-LY (61.3%, P < 0.05) and lower acrosomal loss (9.7%, P < 0.05). Milk-LY supported spermatozoa motility better than Tris-FY after incubation at sperm concentration between 50 and 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL (0.05 > P < 0

  13. Hypotonic resistance of boar spermatozoa: sperm subpopulations and relationship with epididymal maturation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Druart, Xavier; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Huet, Sylvie; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Humblot, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Hypotonic resistance of boar spermatozoa was investigated by measuring the ratio of live/dead spermatozoa (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) by flow cytometry after hypotonic stress. The survival rate of ejaculated spermatozoa incubated in hypotonic solutions ranging from 3 to 330 mmol/kg followed a sigmoid curve that fitted a simple logistic model. The critical osmolality value (Osm(crit)) at which 50% of spermatozoa died was determined with this model. Hypotonic resistance of spermatozoa increased with temperature between 15 and 39 degrees C and decreased after hydrogen superoxide treatment, but was not modified during 8 days of preservation in Beltsville thawing solution. Hypotonic resistance markedly decreased during epididymal maturation and after ejaculation as Osm(crit) at 15 degrees C was 54.7+/-3.2, 68.5+/-10.6, 116.7+/-2.1 and 194.3+/-3.7 mmol/kg for the caput, corpus, cauda and ejaculated spermatozoa respectively. Hypo-osmotic stress of 100 mmol/kg revealed a sperm subpopulation exhibiting increased hypotonic resistance compared with the whole ejaculate (Osm(crit)=67.8+/-2.1 mmol/kg). Consistent differences were observed between lean and standard breeds (Pietrain versus Large White) and between boars within the same breed. According to data collected by artificial insemination centers during a large-scale field trial, hypotonic resistance of ejaculates was found to be positively correlated with in vivo fertility.

  14. The impact of sperm protamine deficiency and sperm DNA damage on human male fertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ni, K; Spiess, A-N; Schuppe, H-C; Steger, K

    2016-09-01

    Existing literature suggests evidence that protamine deficiency is related to DNA damage and male fertility. In this meta-analysis, we analyzed the relationship between the ratio of protamine-1 and protamine-2 with male fertility and the association of protamine deficiency with sperm DNA damage. Quality of available cohort studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a random effects model. The effect of the protamine ratio on male fertility was analyzed in nine studies demonstrating a significantly higher value of the protamine ratio in subfertile men (n = 633) when compared with controls (n = 453, SMD = 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.66, Z = 4.42, p < 0.00001). Both protamine mRNA (SMD = 0.45, 95% CI 0.11-0.79, Z = 2.63, p = 0.009) and protein ratio (SMD = 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.68, Z = 4.22, p < 0.0001) showed significantly increased values in subfertile patients. The association between protamine deficiency and DNA damage was analyzed in 12 studies (n = 845) exhibiting a combined overall correlation coefficient (COR) of 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.71, Z = 3.87, p < 0.001). Protamine deficiency measured by CMA3 staining was significantly associated with sperm DNA damage (COR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-0.85, Z = 4.87, p < 0.001), whereas the P1/P2 ratio was not (COR = 0.17, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.46, Z = 0.99, p = 0.33). It is concluded that the protamine ratio represents a suitable biomarker for the assessment of sperm quality and protamine deficiency is closely related with sperm DNA damage. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Biogenesis and function of tRNA fragments during sperm maturation and fertilization in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Jeremy M.; Boskovic, Ana; Derr, Alan G.; Bing, Xin Y.; Belleannee, Clemence; Kucukural, Alper; Serra, Ryan W.; Sun, Fengyun; Song, Lina; Carone, Benjamin R.; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Li, Xin Z.; Fauquier, Lucas; Moore, Melissa J.; Sullivan, Robert; Mello, Craig C.; Garber, Manuel; Rando, Oliver J.

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased levels of 5’ fragments of glycine tRNAs. tRNA fragments are scarce in testicular sperm, but are gained as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes – vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit – carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm, and deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-Gly-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, both in ES cells and embryos. Our results shed light on small RNA biogenesis, and its dietary regulation, during post-testicular sperm maturation, and link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo. PMID:26721685

  16. Use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin in donkey semen cryopreservation improves sperm viability but results in low fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R; Rates, D M; Pugliesi, G; Ker, P G; Arruda, R P; Moraes, E A; Carvalho, G R

    2014-10-01

    The use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on semen cryopreservation has been related with better sperm viability in several species; however, the effect on fertility is not known in donkey semen. Ejaculates (n = 25) from five donkeys were diluted in S-MEDIUM with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg of CLC/120 × 10(6) spermatozoa. Semen was frozen, and thawed samples were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analyser system (CASA), supravital test, hyposmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes to assess the integrity of sperm membranes. Mares (n = 60) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen treated with the doses of 0 or 1 mg CLC. Percentages of sperm with progressive motility and with functional plasma membrane were greater (p < 0.05) in the CLC-treated groups than in the control. Percentages of intact plasma membrane and intact plasma membrane and acrosome detected by fluorescent dyes were also greater (p < 0.05) in CLC-treated groups. Although no difference (p > 0.05) in conception rates was detected between groups (control, 3/30, 10%; CLC-treated, 1/30, 3.3%), fertility was low for artificial insemination programs in mares. Therefore, we firstly demonstrated that frozen semen treated with CLC in S-MEDIA extender before freezing improves the in vitro sperm viability, but semen treated or not with CLC in S-MEDIUM extender results in a very low conception rate in mares inseminated with thawed donkey semen.

  17. The role of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in couples with unexplained infertility after failed intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Remohí, J; Minguez, Y; Guanes, P P; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-07-01

    To determine an optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing IVF after failed IUI and the role of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. Prospective, randomized study in couples with unexplained infertility (n = 63) and mild endometriosis (n = 7) undergoing IVF after four IUI cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomized into standard IVF or ICSI insemination according to the order of retrieval. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Italy. Seventy couples with unexplained infertility undergoing IVF after failing to conceive with controlled ovarian stimulation and IUI. In vitro fertilization and ICSI. Fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality were compared in IVF- and ICSI-inseminated oocytes. There was no significant difference in fertilization rates between ICSI (60.4%) and conventional IVF (54.0%). Similarly, there was no difference in embryo quality between both groups. There was no total fertilization failure in ICSI-inseminated oocytes, whereas 8 (11.4%) of 70 cases showed absence of fertilization when conventional IVF was used. Couples with unexplained infertility and mild endometriosis failing to conceive with IUI and undergoing IVF have an 11.4% chance of fertilization failure that can be overcome easily by using ICSI in at least some oocytes. ICSI, however, is not superior to IVF as an insemination technique in most cases. These data should be used in counseling patients.

  18. Duplicate Abalone Egg Coat Proteins Bind Sperm Lysin Similarly, but Evolve Oppositely, Consistent with Molecular Mimicry at Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Springer, Stevan A.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis), some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp.), a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d N/d S) of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14), and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL. PMID:23408913

  19. Investigation on association and expression of ESR2 as a candidate gene for boar sperm quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, A; Cinar, M U; Uddin, M J; Kaewmala, K; Tesfaye, D; Phatsara, C; Tholen, E; Looft, C; Schellander, K

    2012-10-01

    ESR2 is involved in oestrogen-related apoptosis in cell cycle spermatogenesis but their effects have not yet confirmed in pig. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the association of ESR2 polymorphism with sperm quality and boar fertility traits and to analyse the ESR2 mRNA and protein expressions in boar reproductive tissues. DNA samples from 203 Pietrain (PI) and 100 Pietrain × Hampshire (PIHA) pigs with records of sperm quality [sperm concentration (SCON), motility (MOT), semen volume (VOL), plasma droplet rate (PDR) and abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR)] and fertility [non-return rate (NRR) and number of piglet born alive (NBA)] traits were available. A SNP in coding region of ESR2 g.35547A>G in exon 5 was associated with MOT and PDR in the PI and with SCON, VOL, MOT and PDR in PIHA population. For mRNA and protein expression study, a total of six boars were divided into two groups with group I (G-I) and group II (G-II) where G-I characterized for relatively a better sperm quality according to the mean of two groups. mRNA expression was higher in brain and testis than that in all parts of epididymis. Both qRT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that the ESR2 gene expression and protein expression were significantly higher in testis collected from G-II compared with that of G-I boars. Moreover, ESR2 protein localization in germ cell, Leydig and Sertoli cells, epithelial cells and spermatozoa was remarkable, which indicated the important role of ESR2 in spermatogenesis process. These results might shed new light on the roles of ESR2 in spermatogenesis as candidate for boar fertility, but still the lack of association across populations should be considered. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows fertilization and development of a chromosomally balanced embryo from a binovular zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Safran, A; Reubinoff, B E; Porat-Katz, A; Werner, M; Friedler, S; Lewin, A

    1998-09-01

    A binovular zona pellucida was found in two in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. In both cases, two oocytes of slightly unequal size were enclosed within a single zona pellucida, the larger oocyte appearing as a metaphase II oocyte while the smaller one as an immature oocyte with a germinal vesicle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed in the mature oocyte of each pair led to normal fertilization and embryonic development in both cases. Results of genetic analysis performed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization in one of the two treatment cycles were consistent with a diploid chromosomal status of both the non-injected immature oocyte as well as the embryo which developed following the microinjection. These results indicate that, in this case, the binovular zona pellucida was most probably created when granulosa cells failed to separate two distinct oocytes during follicular formation. It may also imply that selective fertilization of a single mature oocyte in a binovular zona pellucida by intracytoplasmic sperm injection can lead to the development of a chromosomally balanced embryo and can prevent the undesired consequences that may result if the two oocytes are fertilized in the course of standard IVF.

  1. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for couples with unexplained infertility after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, S; Minoura, H; Shibahara, T; Shen, X; Futamura, N; Toyoda, N

    2000-10-01

    The objective was to determine the optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) and the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. In case-control studies, 53 couples with unexplained infertility who underwent IVF after four failed DIPI cycles were compared with 75 couples with tubal or endometriosis infertility as controls. Thirty couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI and conventional IVF who underwent ICSI and 58 couples with male-factor infertility as controls also were compared. Fertilization cleavage, embryo quality, implantation, and pregnancy were compared after IVF and after ICSI. There was a significant difference in fertilization rates after IVF between cases of unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI (40.4%) and patients with tubal or endometriosis infertility (67.9%). There also was a significant difference in total fertilization failure rates between the two groups (30.4% and 3.9%, respectively). There was a slight but significant difference in numbers of fertilized oocytes after ICSI between patients with low fertilization rate undergoing IVF after failing to conceive DIPI (85.8%) and patients with male factor (90.4%). Total fertilization failure was not observed in these cases. Couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI show a failed fertilization or a low fertilization rate after IVF. However, they demonstrated a good chance of becoming pregnant after subsequent ICSI, even with statistically significant difference in fertilization rate as compared with male-factor cases.

  2. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on the in vitro fertilizing ability of mice spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; García-Montalvo, E A; Izquierdo-Vega, J A; Del Razo, L M

    2008-08-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for mammals, being integral part of antioxidant system. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium deficiency on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa and on oxidative stress in these cells. Male C57BL/6N mice were maintained on selenium-deficient or selenium-sufficient diets (0.02 or 0.2 ppm of selenium as selenomethionine, respectively) for 4 months. Liver glutathione peroxidase activity measurements were used to confirm selenium deficiency. Sperm quality and IVF capability among both groups were evaluated. To assess oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde production was determined in spermatozoa as well as the testes. Ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa nuclei using transmission electron microscopy were also performed. The percentage of eggs fertilized with sperm from selenium-deficient mice was significantly decreased by approximately 67%. This reduced fertilization capacity was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in both the testes and sperm, indicating that selenium deficiency induced oxidative stress. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from selenium-deficient animals exhibited altered chromatin condensation. Deficiency in dietary selenium decreases the reproductive potential of male mice and is associated with oxidative damage in spermatozoa.

  3. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional assessments, seminal plasma composition, and field fertility after AI with either non-sorted or sex-sorted bull semen.

    PubMed

    Holden, S A; Fernandez-Fuertes, B; Murphy, C; Whelan, H; O'Gorman, A; Brennan, L; Butler, S T; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that different in vitro parameters are required to predict the in vivo fertility of non-sorted (NS) and sex-sorted (SS) semen. Thus, the aim was to correlate in vitro bull sperm functional parameters (experiment 1) and seminal plasma composition (experiment 2) with pregnancy rates using 2 cohorts of bulls (NS and SS). Experiment 1: ejaculates from each bull (n = 3 ejaculates per bull; n = 6 bulls for both NS and SS) were assessed for motility, thermal stress tolerance and morphology using microscopy, and viability, osmotic resistance, mitochondrial membrane potential, and acrosome integrity using flow cytometry. Fertilizing ability was assessed using IVF. Experiment 2: ejaculates (n = 3 per bull; n = 8 and 6 bulls for NS and SS, respectively) were collected, seminal plasma harvested and frozen and later analyzed for amino acid and fatty acid composition using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the NS cohort of bulls, there was no correlation between pregnancy rate and any of the sperm functional parameters assessed. However, within the SS cohort, motility and viability were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.80, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between IVF outcome and pregnancy rate in either the SS or NS cohort of bulls. In the NS cohort of bulls, concentrations of the amino acid isoleucine and the fatty acid tricosylic acid (C23:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.80 and 0.74, respectively; P < 0.05). Within the SS cohort of bulls, the amino acid glutamic acid and the fatty acid arachidic acid (C20:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that different in vitro markers of fertility are required to predict the fertility of NS and SS sperm.

  4. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  5. Proteolytic processing of a protein involved in sperm-egg fusion correlates with acquisition of fertilization competence

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    A protein located on the surface of guinea pig sperm (PH-30) has been implicated in the process of sperm-egg fusion (Primakoff, P., H. Hyatt, and J. Tredick-Kline. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 104:141-149). In this paper we have assessed basic biochemical properties of PH-30 and have analyzed the molecular forms of PH-30 present at different stages of sperm maturation. We show the following: (a) PH-30 is an integral membrane glycoprotein; (b) it is composed of two tightly associated and immunologically distinct subunits; (c) both subunits are made as larger precursors; (d) processing of the two subunits occurs at different developmental stages; (e) the final processing step occurs in the region of the epididymis where sperm become fertilization competent; (f) processing can be mimicked in vitro; (g) processing exposes at least two new epitopes on PH-30-one of the newly exposed epitopes is recognized by a fusion-inhibitory monoclonal antibody. These results are discussed in terms of the possible role of PH-30 in mediating fusion with the egg plasma membrane. PMID:2114412

  6. Effect of sperm capacitation and fertilization media on IVF and early embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, D; Villamediana, P; Palomo, M J; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop an improved IVF system for prepubertal goat oocytes matured in vitro. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were obtained by slicing ovaries from slaughtered prepubertal goats. Oocytes were matured in TCM199 supplemented with 20% estrous goat serum (EGS) + 10 micrograms/mL FSH + 10 micrograms/mL LH + 1 microgram/mL estradiol 17 beta for 27 h at 38.5 degrees C in 5% CO2 in air. In Experiments 1 and 2, freshly ejaculated spermatozoa were capacitated in 1 of 3 media: TALP/H, modified Defined Medium (mDM) and mH-M199 with 50 micrograms/mL heparin for 45 min. Matured oocytes were fertilized in TALP, mDM or mH-M199 in Experiment 1 and in TALP in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, three media were used for sperm capacitation and fertilization: Treatment A (control group): spermatozoa were capacitated in mDM with 50 micrograms/mL heparin for 45 min and fertilized in TALP medium with 1 microgram/mL hypotaurine; Treatment B: spermatozoa were capacitated in mDM with 50 micrograms/mL heparin + 388 micrograms/mL caffeine for 30 min and fertilized in TALP medium without hypotaurine; Treatment C: spermatozoa were capacitated in mDM with 50 micrograms/mL heparin for 45 min and fertilized in TALP medium with PHE (20 microM penicillamine, 10 microM hypotaurine and 2 microM epinephrine). At 24 h post insemination, the ova were transferred to a granulosa cell monolayer, and early embryo development was evaluated until Day 8. In experiment 2, the results show, that mDM plus heparin for sperm capacitation and TALP medium with hypotaurine for oocyte fertilization provided the highest proportion of penetrated oocytes, both total number (79.6%) and normal fertilization (55.1%), whereas the use of caffeine (44.6 and 31.2%, total and normal fertilization rate, respectively) and PHE (31.8 and 20.6%, total and normal fertilization rate, respectively) as motility enhancers did not improve the results obtained in the control group (48.7% and 37.2%, total and normal

  7. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  8. Sperm-egg interaction and functional assessment of springbok, impala and blesbok cauda epididymal spermatozoa using a domestic cattle in vitro fertilization system.

    PubMed

    Chatiza, F P; Bartels, P; Nedambale, T L; Wagenaar, G M

    2013-12-01

    The study assesses the possibility to estimate the potential fertility of post-thawed antelope (Antidorcas marsupialis), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and blesbok (Damaliscus dorcus phillipsi) epididymal sperm using homologous and heterologous IVF and the functioning of cattle IVF system to produce antelope embryos. Cauda epididymal sperm were collected from the antelope and cryopreserved under field conditions. In vitro matured domestic cow, blesbok and springbok oocytes were co-incubated in modified-Tyrode Lactate (m-TL) IVF media with springbok, impala and blesbok sperm for heterologous IVF and springbok and blesbok sperm for homologous IVF. A group of presumptive zygotes from each treatment were examined for sperm penetration and male pronuclear formation after 18h and the remainder were cultured and evaluated for embryo cleavage 22h later. The study shows that Modified Tyrode Lactate in vitro fertilization media supports survivability, capacitation and hyperactivation of springbok, impala and blesbok sperm. Springbok, impala and blesbok post-thawed epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilizing domestic cow oocytes under conditions that support domestic cattle IVF. Penetration, male pronuclear formation and embryo cleavage did not differ (p>0.05) between cow oocytes inseminated with sperm from springbok, impala or blesbok however these parameters were higher (p<0.05) for oocytes inseminated with bull sperm. Modified Tyrode Lactate IVF media supported homologous fertilization and embryo development in springbok and blesbok however did not support blastocyst development. These findings suggest that cattle provide a useful model for evaluating springbok, impala and blesbok post-thawed cauda epididymal sperm functionality. Domestic cattle embryo culture conditions need to be modified to promote blastosyst development in these antelope species. Such research provides an important tool in assisted reproductive technology development when high biological value

  9. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and the nuclear architecture of sperm - a study in a fertile and an infertile brother.

    PubMed

    Karamysheva, Tatyana; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Guediche, Narjes; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are found about four times more frequently in subfertile compared to the general population. The reason for this finding is still unclear. However, a connection of interphase architecture and genome function is suggested. And as we found in a previous study the presence of sSMC influences the nuclear architecture of peripheral blood cells and fibroblasts, we hypothesized that sSMC could have similar effects in sperm cells possibly leading to infertility. Here we applied for the first time 3-dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to characterize the position of an extra-chromosome with respect to its sister- and selected other chromosomes (6, 15, 18, 19, 21, X, and Y) in sperm. Two sSMC carrier brothers with the identical sSMC derived from chromosome 15 were studied. One of the brothers was fertile and the other brother was infertile. Deviations from the normal positioning of chromosomes 21 and Y were seen in both brothers and for chromosomes 19 and X only in the infertile brother. Most striking were high rates of nullisomy and/or disomy for chromosomes 15, including sSMC (15), and 18 exclusively seen in the infertile brother. Overall, further evidence is provided that sSMC influence the nuclear architecture of a cell, including sperm. Further studies are necessary in sperm of fertile and infertile sSMC carriers to elaborate if the detected aneuploidy like that seen in the infertile brother is due to sSMC presence and disturbance of nuclear architecture.

  10. Production of fertile sperm from in vitro propagating enriched spermatogonial stem cells of farmed catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Swapnarani; Ferosekhan, Shajahan; Sahoo, Sangram Ketan; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly co-ordinated and complex process. In vitro propagation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) could provide an avenue in which to undertake in vivo studies of spermatogenesis. Very little information is known about the SSC biology of teleosts. In this study, collagenase-treated testicular cells of farmed catfish (Clarias batrachus, popularly known as magur) were purified by Ficoll gradient centrifugation followed by magnetic activated cell sorting using Thy1.2 (CD90.2) antibody to enrich for the spermatogonial cell population. The sorted spermatogonial cells were counted and gave ~3 × 106 cells from 6 × 106 pre-sorted cells. The purified cells were cultured in vitro for >2 months in L-15 medium containing fetal bovine serum (10%), carp serum (1%) and other supplements. Microscopic observations depicted typical morphological SSC features, bearing a larger nuclear compartment (with visible perinuclear bodies) within a thin rim of cytoplasm. Cells proliferated in vitro forming clumps/colonies. mRNA expression profiling by qPCR documented that proliferating cells were Plzf + and Pou2+, indicative of stem cells. From 60 days onwards of cultivation, the self-renewing population differentiated to produce spermatids (~6 × 107 on day 75). In vitro-produced sperm (2260 sperm/SSC) were free swimming in medium and hence motile (non-progressive) in nature. Of those, 2% were capable of fertilizing and generated healthy diploid fingerlings. Our documented evidence provides the basis for producing fertile magur sperm in vitro from cultured magur SSCs. Our established techniques of SSC propagation and in vitro sperm production together should trigger future in vivo experiments towards basic and applied biology research.

  11. Age effect of broiler breeders on fertility and sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer of the ovum.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the age effect of a broiler breeder flock on duration of fertility and number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc (SP/mm(2) GDIPVL). Moreover, in the second half of the flock's reproductive life, the effect of using ejaculates of young roosters (CA2) in artificial insemination (AI) on the above parameters of fertility was estimated. The commercial flock of broiler breeder hens (n = 100) was inseminated six times from 31 to 62 weeks of age. Additional inseminations, with ejaculates of roosters aged 31 and 36 weeks (CA2), were performed at 56 and 62 weeks of age. AI was performed during two consecutive days (D0 and D1) with an insemination dose of 125 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.06 ml containing pooled ejaculates. The following parameters were studied: the effective and maximum duration of fertility (De and Dm), percent of fertility on different days after AI (FD10, FD15 and FD20), indices of duration of sperm penetration (DSP, SP < or = 3/GDIPVL), SP/mm(2) GDIPVL in eggs laid on successive days after insemination of hens at different age, and correlations between some fertility indices. Both for De and Dm, the highest values were noted after AI of the layers at 36 weeks of age (14.8 +/- 0.49 and 17.4 +/- 0.46 days, respectively), which were about 2 days longer than at 56 weeks. All fertility indices decreased gradually with age, starting from AI at peak egg production (31-36 weeks of age), while the use of ejaculates from CA2 did not help to increase them significantly. Correlation coefficients between SP/mm(2) GDIPVL and the other fertility indices were positive and highest for eggs laid on D3. It is concluded that high De values can be obtained from broiler breeders in adequate environmental and technological conditions of AI. It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases. The

  12. Incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in children whose fathers underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with epididymal sperm aspiration: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; de Marchi, Patricia Leme; Mafra, Fernanda Abani; Cavalcanti, Viviane; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). Methods A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60). Y-chromosome microdeletions research was performed by polymerase chain reaction on fathers and children, evaluating 20 regions of the chromosome. Results The results showed no Y-chromosome microdeletions in any of the studied subjects. The incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa recovered by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration did not differ between the groups, and there was no difference between control subjects born from natural pregnancies or population incidence in fertile men. Conclusion We found no association considering microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome and assisted reproduction. We also found no correlation between these Y-chromosome microdeletions and vasectomies, which suggests that the assisted reproduction techniques do not increase the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions. PMID:28076602

  13. Effect of caffeine on motility and vitality of sperm and in vitro fertilization of outbreed mouse in T6 and M16 media

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Narges; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh; Shiravi, Abdollhossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caffeine increases the CAMP production that stimulates spermatozoa movement. Caffeine is also used for induction of in vitro acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa, an important step in achieving fertilization. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on sperm's motility, vitality and laboratory fertilization rates in mouse in two T6 and M16 media. Materials and Methods: Epididymal mouse sperms were collected and treated by caffine in T6 and M16 media and their motility and vitality rates were evaluated. The pretreated sperms were added to oocytes in T6 and M16 media with and without caffeine and fertilization rates were recorded after 24 hours incubation. Results: Sperm's motility (81.7±1.67%) and vitality (88.7±1.33%) rates and percentage of fertilized oocytes (67.52±8.16%) in T6 medium plus caffeine compare to control group have increased and shown significant differences at p≤0.01. While the percentages of these parameters in M16 medium supplemented with caffeine were 68.3±6.01%, 78±6.11%, and 42.6±12.96 respectively and in comparison to control group (M16 without caffeine) have not shown significant differences. Conclusion: Addition of caffeine to T6 medium promotes the sperm's motility and vitality and enhances fertilization and early in vitro development of mouse embryos. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Narges Navabi) PMID:24639814

  14. Effect of caffeine on motility and vitality of sperm and in vitro fertilization of outbreed mouse in T6 and M16 media.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Narges; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh; Shiravi, Abdollhossein

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine increases the CAMP production that stimulates spermatozoa movement. Caffeine is also used for induction of in vitro acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa, an important step in achieving fertilization. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on sperm's motility, vitality and laboratory fertilization rates in mouse in two T6 and M16 media. Epididymal mouse sperms were collected and treated by caffine in T6 and M16 media and their motility and vitality rates were evaluated. The pretreated sperms were added to oocytes in T6 and M16 media with and without caffeine and fertilization rates were recorded after 24 hours incubation. Sperm's motility (81.7±1.67%) and vitality (88.7±1.33%) rates and percentage of fertilized oocytes (67.52±8.16%) in T6 medium plus caffeine compare to control group have increased and shown significant differences at p≤0.01. While the percentages of these parameters in M16 medium supplemented with caffeine were 68.3±6.01%, 78±6.11%, and 42.6±12.96 respectively and in comparison to control group (M16 without caffeine) have not shown significant differences. Addition of caffeine to T6 medium promotes the sperm's motility and vitality and enhances fertilization and early in vitro development of mouse embryos. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Narges Navabi).

  15. The SLO3 sperm-specific potassium channel plays a vital role in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Celia M; Martínez-López, Pablo; de la Vega-Beltrán, José Luis; Butler, Alice; Alisio, Arturo; Darszon, Alberto; Salkoff, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Here we show a unique example of male infertility conferred by a gene knock-out of the sperm-specific, pH-dependent SLO3 potassium channel. In striking contrast to wild-type sperm which undergo membrane hyperpolarization during capacitation, we found that SLO3 mutant sperm undergo membrane depolarization. Several defects in SLO3 mutant sperm are evident under capacitating conditions, including impaired motility, a bent “hairpin” shape, and failure to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR). The failure of AR is rescued by valinomycin which hyperpolarizes mutant sperm. Thus SLO3 is the principal potassium channel responsible for capacitation-induced hyperpolarization, and membrane hyperpolarization is crucial to the AR. PMID:20138882

  16. Improvement by ergonovine of sperm transport, fertilization and pregnancy rates in ewes in natural or prostaglandin-induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Hawk, H W; Cooper, B S

    1984-09-01

    Eight experiments were conducted with 451 ewes to test effects of ergonovine, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and phenylephrine on sperm transport and fertility. In most experiments, ewes were mated at estrus and necropsied 2 or 3 h later. Sperm were flushed from the oviducts, uterus and anterior, middle and posterior thirds of the cervix and counted. Various doses of PGF2 alpha or phenylephrine given im at mating caused no significant increase in sperm numbers in any segment of the tract 2 h later. Three different dose levels of ergonovine were given im to ewes in natural estrus 1 h after mating and ewes were necropsied 3 h after mating. Doses of .2 and 1.0 mg were ineffective, but .5 mg increased sperm numbers about 10-fold in the oviducts and uterus. When given im at the time of artificial insemination, .6 mg of ergonovine increased the fertilization rate at 3 d from 5/25 in control ewes to 12/25 (P less than .05). In three experiments with ewes in PGF2 alpha-induced estrus, .6 mg of ergonovine increased sperm numbers in the cervix and uterus at 3 h after mating and in the uterus and oviducts at 23 h, near ovulation. Other ewes were artificially inseminated in the external cervical os and one-half of the ewes were given .6 mg of ergonovine im; ewes not returning to estrus were laparotomized at 22 to 26 d and embryos removed. After insemination during natural estrus with .2 ml of semen, pregnancy rates were 14/25 for control ewes and 15/25 for ergonovine-treated ewes; after insemination during natural estrus with .1 ml of semen, 6/35 and 18/35 (P less than .005); after insemination during PGF2 alpha-induced estrus with .2 ml of semen, 7/60 and 12/60. Fertilization and pregnancy rates combined were 32/145 (22%) for all control ewes and 57/145 (39%) for ergonovine-treated ewes (P less than .005).

  17. Fertilization in C. elegans requires an intact C-terminal RING finger in sperm protein SPE-42

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The C. elegans sperm protein SPE-42, a membrane protein of unknown structure and molecular function, is required for fertilization. Sperm from worms with spe-42 mutations appear normal but are unable to fertilize eggs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 8 conserved cysteine residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of this protein suggesting these residues form a zinc-coordinating RING finger structure. Results We made an in silico structural model of the SPE-42 RING finger domain based on primary sequence analysis and previously reported RING structures. To test the model, we created spe-42 transgenes coding for mutations in each of the 8 cysteine residues predicted to coordinate Zn++ ions in the RING finger motif. Transgenes were crossed into a spe-42 null background and protein function was measured by counting progeny. We found that all 8 cysteines are required for protein function. We also showed that sequence differences between the C-terminal 29 and 30 amino acids in C. elegans and C. briggsae SPE-42 following the RING finger domain are not responsible for the failure of the C. briggsae SPE-42 homolog to rescue C. elegans spe-42 mutants. Conclusions The results suggest that a bona fide RING domain is present at the C-terminus of the SPE-42 protein and that this motif is required for sperm-egg interactions during C. elegans fertilization. Our structural model of the RING domain provides a starting point for further structure-function analysis of this critical region of the protein. The C-terminal domain swap experiment suggests that the incompatibility between the C. elegans and C. briggsae SPE-42 proteins is caused by small amino acid differences outside the C-terminal domain. PMID:21345212

  18. Courtship rate signals fertility in an externally fertilizing fish

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Laura K.; Grant, James W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Sperm limitation is widespread across many animal species. Several mechanisms of sperm allocation have been proposed, including optimal allocation according to clutch size and equal allocation across females. However, considerably less effort has been directed at investigating the behavioural signals associated with sperm limitation in males, which may include mating rate and the intensity of courtship. We investigated whether multiple successive spawnings affect individual male fertilization success, mating rates and courtship rates in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Across an average of 17 spawning events per male, fertilization success decreased from 83.7 per cent for the first spawning to 40 per cent for the last spawning while courtship rate decreased from 3.4 to 1.5 min−1. Females appeared to respond to male sperm depletion by reducing clutch size. Our results suggest that male Japanese medaka are sperm-limited, and that courtship rate may be an honest indication of fertilization ability. PMID:20410031

  19. [Relationship between characteristics of sexual behavior and male sperm competitive ability in taxa of superspecies complex Mus musculus sensu lato].

    PubMed

    Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species.

  20. Sperm chromatin structure assay results after swim-up are related only to embryo quality but not to fertilization and pregnancy rates following IVF.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Hong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Yi-Juan; Feng, Yun

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) results after swim-up are related to fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 223 couples undergoing IVF in our hospital from October 2008 to September 2009 were included in this study. Data on the IVF process and sperm chromatin structure assay results were collected. Fertilization rate, embryo quality and IVF success rates of different DNA fragmentation index (DFI) subgroups and high DNA stainability (HDS) subgroups were compared. There were no significant differences in fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy or delivery rates between the DFI and HDS subgroups. However, the group with abnormal DFI had a lower good embryo rate. So, we concluded that the SCSA variables, either DFI or HDS after swim-up preparation, were not valuable in predicting fertilization failure or pregnancy rate, but an abnormal DFI meant a lower good embryo rate following IVF.

  1. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortega, Claudia; Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; Cancino-Villareal, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM) with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete. PMID:27803591

  2. Evaluation of human embryo development in in vitro fertilization- and intracytoplasmic sperm injection-fertilized oocytes: A time-lapse study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Jang, Jung Mi; Lee, Won Don; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Jin Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether the insemination method (in vitro fertilization [IVF] or intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI]) affected morphokinetic events and abnormal cleavage events in embryonic development. A total of 1,830 normal fertilized embryos were obtained from 272 IVF and ICSI cycles that underwent ovum retrieval culture using a time-lapse system (Embryoscope) from June 2013 to March 2015. All embryos were investigated by a detailed time-lapse analysis that measured the developmental events in the hours after IVF or ICSI insemination. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding clinical outcomes (p>0.05). ICSI-derived embryos showed significantly faster morphokinetics than those derived from conventional IVF, from the time to pronuclear fading to the time to 6 cells (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found from the time to 7 cells to the time to expanded blastocyst (p>0.05). There were no differences in abnormal cleavage events between the two groups (p>0.05); they showed the same rates of direct cleavage from 1 to 3 cells, 2 multinucleated cells, 2 uneven cells, and reverse cleavage. The morphokinetics of embryo development was found to vary between IVF- and ICSI-fertilized oocytes, at least until the 6-cell stage. However, these differences did not affect the clinical outcomes of the embryo. Additionally, no significant differences in abnormal cleavage events were found according to the fertilization method.

  3. Sperm cryopreservation update: Cryodamage, markers, and factors affecting the sperm freezability in pigs.