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Sample records for sphagnum moss peat

  1. Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew G; Granath, Gustaf; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Pouliot, Remy; Stenøien, Hans K; Rochefort, Line; Rydin, Håkan; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers-species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genus-the hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Treesearch

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  3. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  4. Clonal in vitro propagation of peat mosses (Sphagnum L.) as novel green resources for basic and applied research.

    PubMed

    Beike, Anna K; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Lüth, Volker; Steinhart, Feray; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Krebs, Matthias; Adamo, Paola; Rey-Asensio, Ana Isabel; Angel Fernández, J; Giordano, Simonetta; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    As builders and major components of peatlands, Sphagnopsida (peat mosses) are very important organisms for ecosystems and world's climate. Nowadays many Sphagnum species as well as their habitats are largely protected, while their scientific and economic relevance remains considerable. Advanced methods of in vitro cultivation provide the potential to work in a sustainable way with peat mosses and address aspects of basic research as well as biotechnological and economical topics like biomonitoring or the production of renewable substrates for horticulture ( Sphagnum farming). Here, we describe the establishment of axenic in vitro cultures of the five peat moss species Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. and Hook., Sphagnum magellanicum Brid., Sphagnum palustre L., Sphagnum rubellum Wils. and Sphagnum subnitens Russ. and Warnst. with specific focus on large-scale cultivation of S. palustre in bioreactors. Axenic, clonal cultures were established to produce high quantities of biomass under standardized laboratory conditions. For advanced production of S. palustre we tested different cultivation techniques, growth media and inocula, and analyzed the effects of tissue disruption. While cultivation on solid medium is suitable for long term storage, submerse cultivation in liquid medium yielded highest amounts of biomass. By addition of sucrose and ammonium nitrate we were able to increase the biomass by around 10- to 30-fold within 4 weeks. The morphology of in vitro-cultivated gametophores showed similar phenotypic characteristics compared to material from the field. Thus the tested culture techniques are suitable to produce S. palustre material for basic and applied research.

  5. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  7. Tangled history of the European uses of Sphagnum moss and sphagnol.

    PubMed

    Drobnik, Jacek; Stebel, Adam

    2017-09-14

    Sphagnum mosses and peat could have been utilized as wound dressings for centuries, however reliable data on this subject are ambiguous; sometimes even no distinction between peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) and peat is made or these terms become confused. The first scientific account on surgical use of peat comes from 1882: a peat digger who successfully, by himself and in the way unknown to the then medicine, cured an open fracture of his forearm with peat. The peat, and very soon the peat moss itself (which is the major constituent of peat) drew attention of the 19th-century surgeons. We search for reliable information on: (1) inspirations for Sphagnum usage for medical purposes and its beginnings in the 19th century, (2) substances or products named sphagnol and their connections with (1); (3) on the origin of this name, (4) and on the occurrence of this name in medical sources. We have identified and studied published sources on the uses of peat-based and Sphagnum-based preparations and products of any processing level (including herbal stock, distillate, isolated pure or impure active principle, or a mixture of such) in surgery, pharmacy or cosmetics. A special attention was paid to the name sphagnol, which appeared many a time, in more than one context since 1899. Source publications were critically analysed from the taxonomical, pharmacognostical and ethnopharmacological points of view. Gathered data were cross-checked with the modern knowledge of the biologically active principles of Sphagnum and the prospects of their medical use. The application of peat in surgery started 1882. The use of peat moss as dressings was developed in the 1880's. It returned to surgical practice during WW1. The name sphagnol has two meanings: (1) A chemical substance isolated from the cell walls of Sphagnum mosses in 1899. A post-1950 research showed it to be a mixture of phenols dominated by sphagnum acid. (2) A product of dry distillation of peat contains solid and liquid fractions

  8. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  9. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Angel Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. North American origin and recent European establishments of the amphi-Atlantic peat moss Sphagnum angermanicum.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, Hans K; Shaw, A Jonathan; Shaw, Blanka; Hassel, Kristian; Gunnarsson, Urban

    2011-04-01

    Genetic and morphological similarity between populations separated by large distances may be caused by frequent long-distance dispersal or retained ancestral polymorphism. The frequent lack of differentiation between disjunct conspecific moss populations on different continents has traditionally been explained by the latter model, and has been cited as evidence that many or most moss species are extremely ancient and slowly diverging. We have studied intercontinental differentiation in the amphi-Atlantic peat moss Sphagnum angermanicum using 23 microsatellite markers. Two major genetic clusters are found, both of which occur throughout the distributional range. Patterns of genetic structuring and overall migration patterns suggest that the species probably originated in North America, and seems to have been established twice in Northern Europe during the past 40,000 years. We conclude that similarity between S. angermanicum populations on different continents is not the result of ancient vicariance and subsequent stasis. Rather, the observed pattern can be explained by multiple long-distance dispersal over limited evolutionary time. The genetic similarity can also partly be explained by incomplete lineage sorting, but this appears to be caused by the short time since separation. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that Sphagnum, constituting a significant part of northern hemisphere biodiversity, may be more evolutionary dynamic than previously assumed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  13. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  14. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses. PMID:21724892

  15. Photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather moss species in undrained, drained and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Laura; Maanavilja, Liisa; Hájek, Tomáš; Juurola, Eija; Chimner, Rodney A; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-01-01

    In restored peatlands, recovery of carbon assimilation by peat-forming plants is a prerequisite for the recovery of ecosystem functioning. Restoration by rewetting may affect moss photosynthesis and respiration directly and/or through species successional turnover. To quantify the importance of the direct effects and the effects mediated by species change in boreal spruce swamp forests, we used a dual approach: (i) we measured successional changes in moss communities at 36 sites (nine undrained, nine drained, 18 rewetted) and (ii) photosynthetic properties of the dominant Sphagnum and feather mosses at nine of these sites (three undrained, three drained, three rewetted). Drainage and rewetting affected moss carbon assimilation mainly through species successional turnover. The species differed along a light-adaptation gradient, which separated shade-adapted feather mosses from Sphagnum mosses and Sphagnum girgensohnii from other Sphagna, and a productivity and moisture gradient, which separated Sphagnum riparium and Sphagnum girgensohnii from the less productive S. angustifolium, S. magellanicum and S. russowii. Undrained and drained sites harbored conservative, low-production species: hummock-Sphagna and feather mosses, respectively. Ditch creation and rewetting produced niches for species with opportunistic strategies and high carbon assimilation. The direct effects also caused higher photosynthetic productivity in ditches and in rewetted sites than in undrained and drained main sites. PMID:24634723

  16. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  17. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  18. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  19. Effect of water-table fluctuations on the degradation of Sphagnum phenols in surficial peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Swain, Eleanor Y.; Muhammad, Aminu B.; Allton, Kathryn; Belyea, Lisa R.; Laing, Christopher G.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2013-04-01

    A much improved understanding of how water-table fluctuations near the surface affect decomposition and preservation of peat-forming plant litter and surficial peats is needed in order to predict possible feedbacks between the peatland carbon cycle and the global climate system. In this study peatland plants (bryophytes and vascular plants), their litter and peat cores were collected from the Ryggmossen peatland in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden. The extracted insoluble residues from whole plant tissues were depolymerized using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of both unlabelled and 13C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) which yielded both vascular plant- and Sphagnum-derived phenols. Methylated 4-isopropenylphenol (IUPAC: 1-methoxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzene), methylated cis- and trans-3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-2-enoic acid (IUPAC: (E/Z)-methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-2-enoate), and methylated 3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-3-enoic acid (IUPAC: methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-3-enoate) (van der Heijden et al., 1997) are confirmed as TMAH thermochemolysis products of "bound" sphagnum acid and also as being specific to Sphagnum mosses. These putative biomarkers were also significant components in the unlabelled TMAH thermochemolysis products from the depolymerization of ultrasonically extracted samples from eight peat cores, one from a hummock and one from a hollow at each of the four stages along the bog plateau-to-swamp forest gradient. We have proposed and measured two parameters namely (i) σ which is defined as the total amount of these four molecules normalised to 100 mg of OC; and (ii) an index (SR%) which is the ratio of σ to the Λ parameter giving a measure of the relative amounts of "bound" sphagnum acid to the "bound" vascular plant phenols in peat moss and the surficial peat layers. Changes in σ and SR% down the bog plateau (BP), bog margin (BM) and fen lagg (FL) cores in the Ryggmossen mire indicates

  20. Validating modelled data on major and trace element deposition in southern Germany using Sphagnum moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Sphagnum mosses were collected from four ombrotrophic bogs in two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year later, plant matter was harvested and productivity determined. Major and trace element concentrations (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn) were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. Variation in element accumulation rates within a bog is mostly the result of the annual production rate of the Sphagnum mosses which masks not only the impact of site effects, such as microtopography and the presence of dwarf trees, but also local and regional conditions, including land use in the surrounding area, topography, etc. The difference in productivity between peat bogs results in distinctly higher element accumulation rates at the NBF bogs compared to those from OB for all studied elements. The comparison with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP; wet-only and total deposition) and Modelling of Air Pollutants and Ecosystem Impact (MAPESI; total deposition) data shows that accumulation rates obtained using Sphagnum are in the same range of published values for direct measurements of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, and V in both regions. The accordance is very dependent on how atmospheric deposition rates were obtained, as different models to calculate the deposition rates may yield different fluxes even for the same region. In future studies of atmospheric deposition of trace metals, both Sphagnum moss and deposition collectors have to be used on the same peat bog and results compared. Antimony, however, shows considerable discrepancy, because it is either under-estimated by Sphagnum moss or over-estimated by both atmospheric deposition

  1. Newly resolved relationships in an early land plant lineage: Bryophyta class Sphagnopsida (peat mosses).

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Cox, Cymon J; Buck, William R; Devos, Nicolas; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney; Shaw, Blanka; Larraín, Juan; Andrus, Richard; Greilhuber, Johann; Temsch, Eva M

    2010-09-01

    The Sphagnopsida, an early-diverging lineage of mosses (phylum Bryophyta), are morphologically and ecologically unique and have profound impacts on global climate. The Sphagnopsida are currently classified in two genera, Sphagnum (peat mosses) with some 350-500 species and Ambuchanania with one species. An analysis of phylogenetic relationships among species and genera in the Sphagnopsida were conducted to resolve major lineages and relationships among species within the Sphagnopsida. • Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences from the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes (11 704 nucleotides total) were conducted and analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference employing seven different substitution models of varying complexity. • Phylogenetic analyses resolved three lineages within the Sphagnopsida: (1) Sphagnum sericeum, (2) S. inretortum plus Ambuchanania leucobryoides, and (3) all remaining species of Sphagnum. Sister group relationships among these three clades could not be resolved, but the phylogenetic results indicate that the highly divergent morphology of A. leucobryoides is derived within the Sphagnopsida rather than plesiomorphic. A new classification is proposed for class Sphagnopsida, with one order (Sphagnales), three families, and four genera. • The Sphagnopsida are an old lineage within the phylum Bryophyta, but the extant species of Sphagnum represent a relatively recent radiation. It is likely that additional species critical to understanding the evolution of peat mosses await discovery, especially in the southern hemisphere.

  2. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  3. The narrow endemic Norwegian peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum originated before the last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Stenøien, H K; Shaw, A J; Stengrundet, K; Flatberg, K I

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly found that individual hybrid, polyploid species originate recurrently and that many polyploid species originated relatively recently. It has been previously hypothesized that the extremely rare allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum has originated multiple times, possibly after the last glacial maximum in Scandinavia. This conclusion was based on low linkage disequilibrium in anonymous genetic markers within natural populations, in which sexual reproduction has never been observed. Here we employ microsatellite markers and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)-encoded trnG sequence data to test hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of this species. We find that S. tenellum is the maternal progenitor and S. balticum is the paternal progenitor of S. troendelagicum. Using various Bayesian approaches, we estimate that S. troendelagicum originated before the Holocene but not before c. 80 000 years ago (median expected time since speciation 40 000 years before present). The observed lack of complete linkage disequilibrium in the genome of this species suggests cryptic sexual reproduction and recombination. Several lines of evidence suggest multiple origins for S. troendelagicum, but a single origin is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. We hypothesize that S. troendelagicum originated in a peat-dominated refugium before last glacial maximum, and subsequently immigrated to central Norway by means of spore flow during the last thousands of years. PMID:20717162

  4. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles. ...

  5. Cellulose and Lignin Carbon Isotope Signatures in Sphagnum Moss Reveal Complementary Environmental Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Beilman, D. W.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of Sphagnum moss is increasingly used as a proxy for past surface wetness in peatlands. However, conflicting interpretations of these carbon isotope records have recently been published. While the water film hypothesis suggests that the presence of a thick (thin) water film around hollow (hummock) mosses leads to less (more) negative δ13C values, the carbon source hypothesis poses that a significant (insignificant) amount of CH4 assimilation by hollow (hummock) mosses leads to more (less) negative δ13C values. To evaluate these competing mechanisms and their impact on moss δ13C, we gathered 30 moss samples from 6 peatlands in southern Patagonia. Samples were collected along a strong hydrological gradient, from very dry hummocks (80 cm above water table depth) to submerged hollows (5 cm below water surface). These peat bogs have the advantage of being colonized by a single cosmopolitan moss species, Sphagnum magellanicum, limiting potential biases introduced by species-specific carbon discrimination. We measured δ13C from stem cellulose and leaf waxes on the same samples to quantify compound-specific carbon signatures. We found that stem cellulose and leaf-wax lipids were both strongly negatively correlated with moss water content, suggesting a primary role of water film thickness on carbon assimilation. In addition, isotopic fractionation during wax synthesis was greater than for cellulose. This offset decreases as conditions get drier, due to (i) a more effective carbon assimilation, or (ii) CH4 uptake through symbiosis with methanotrophic bacteria within the leaves of wet mosses. Biochemical analysis (carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrophenols, cutin acids) of surface moss are currently being conducted to characterize moss carbon allocation under different hydrological conditions. Overall, this modern calibration work should be of use for interpreting carbon isotope records from peatlands.

  6. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  7. Substrate-induced growth and isolation of Acidobacteria from acidic Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofei A; Serkebaeva, Yulia M; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2008-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to estimate the population size of the poorly characterized phylum Acidobacteria in acidic peat sampled from nine different Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. The cell numbers of these bacteria in oxic peat layers ranged from 0.4 x 10(6) to 1.3 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising up to 4% of total bacterial cells. Substrate-induced growth of acidobacteria was observed after amendment of peat samples with glucose, pectin, xylan, starch, ethanol and methanol, while weak or no response was obtained for acetate, pyruvate, mannitol and cellobiose. Using low-nutrient media and FISH-mediated monitoring of the isolation procedure, we succeeded in obtaining nine strains of acidobacteria in pure cultures. These strains belonged to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria and represented strictly aerobic, heterotrophic organisms. Except for methanol, the substrate utilization patterns of these isolates matched the results obtained in our substrate-amendment experiments with native peat. All strains were also capable of utilizing galacturonic acid, a characteristic component of the cell wall in Sphagnum spp, which is released during moss decomposition. Most isolates from subdivision 1 were truly acidophilic organisms with the growth optimum at pH 3.5-4.5, while the isolates from subdivision 3 grew optimally at pH 5.5-6.5. Another important phenotypic trait of novel strains was their capability of active growth at low temperatures. Both acidophily and low-temperature growth are consistent with the occurrence of acidobacteria in cold and acidic northern wetlands.

  8. Evolutionary and ecophysiological significance of sugar utilization by the peat moss Sphagnum compactum (Sphagnaceae) and the common charophycean associates Cylindrocystis brebissonii and Mougeotia sp. (Zygnemataceae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Linda E; Kim, Eunsoo; Arancibia-Avila, Patricia; Graham, James M; Wilcox, Lee W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to illuminate the evolutionary history and ecological importance of plant mixotrophy-the uptake and utilization of exogenous organic compounds. • We quantitatively assessed the effect of sugar amendments on laboratory growth of Sphagnum compactum as a representative emergent peat moss and two species of ecologically associated zygnematalean algae, Cylindrocystis brebissonii and Mougeotia sp. • Together with observations published elsewhere, our results suggest that under carbon or light limitation, the uptake of exogenous sugars by cells of charophycean algae and peat mosses may help these organisms maintain positive carbon balance. Utilization of 1% glucose by aquatic-grown algae helped to relieve dissolved inorganic carbon limitation, enhancing photoautotrophic growth by factors of 9.0 and 1.7, respectively. After an 8-wk growth period, amendments of 1% and 2% glucose enhanced air-grown moss biomass by 28 and 39 times, respectively, that of controls lacking sugar amendments. After 9 wk, 1% fructose enhanced biomass by 21 times, and 2% sucrose enhanced biomass by 31 times. • Our results indicate that plant mixotrophy is an early-evolved trait. The results also indicate that quantitative differences in sugar utilization by bryophytes and charophycean algae correlate with relative investments in protective cell-wall polyphenolics measured in previous studies, suggesting that sugar utilization may subsidize the cost of producing phenolic wall compounds in bryophytes.

  9. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the U.S. peat market as of July 2013. Peat is produced from deposits of plant organic materials in wetlands and includes varieties such as reed-sedge, sphagnum moss, and humus. Use for peat include horticultural soil additives, filtration, and adsorbents. Other topics include effects of environmental protection regulations on peat extraction, competition from products such as coir, composted organic waste, and wood products, and peatland carbon sinks.

  10. The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire.

    PubMed

    Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tiirola, Marja; Nykänen, Hannu; Martikainen, Pertti J; Yrjälä, Kim; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu

    2010-08-01

    Peatlands are a major natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are lower than those measured from other mire types. This observation may partly be due to methanotrophic (i.e., methane-consuming) bacteria associated with Sphagnum. Twenty-three of the 41 Sphagnum species in Finland can be found in the peatland at Lakkasuo. To better understand the Sphagnum-methanotroph system, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) all these Sphagnum species support methanotrophic bacteria; (2) water level is the key environmental determinant for differences in methanotrophy across habitats; (3) under dry conditions, Sphagnum species will not host methanotrophic bacteria; and (4) methanotrophs can move from one Sphagnum shoot to another in an aquatic environment. To address hypotheses 1 and 2, we measured the water table and CH4 oxidation for all Sphagnum species at Lakkasuo in 1-5 replicates for each species. Using this systematic approach, we included Sphagnum spp. with narrow and broad ecological tolerances. To estimate the potential contribution of CH4 to moss carbon, we measured the uptake of delta13C supplied as CH4 or as carbon dioxide dissolved in water. To test hypotheses 2-4, we transplanted inactive moss patches to active sites and measured their methanotroph communities before and after transplantation. All 23 Sphagnum species showed methanotrophic activity, confirming hypothesis 1. We found that water level was the key environmental factor regulating methanotrophy in Sphagnum (hypothesis 2). Mosses that previously exhibited no CH4 oxidation became active when transplanted to an environment in which the microbes in the control mosses were actively oxidizing CH4 (hypothesis 4). Newly active transplants possessed a Methylocystis signature also found in the control Sphagnum spp. Inactive transplants also supported a Methylocystis signature in common with active transplants and control mosses, which rejects hypothesis 3. Our

  11. Behavior of lead in pristine and urbanized acid wetlands in the New Jersey pinelands with special reference to the role of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Vedagiri, U.K.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of lead in naturally acidic Sphagnum moss-dominated wetlands of the New Jersey Pinelands and to compare it to the behavior of lead in similar wetlands which had been impacted by storm-water runoff. Data from the field showed that the runoff-impacted sites were characterized by elevated pH, elimination of Spaghnum ground cover, erosion of peat substrate and high lead accumulations, contributing to an effective but decreasing sink capacity. Laboratory experiments explored differences in fractionation, mobility and bioavailability of lead between the two systems. The low pH and high dissolved organic mattermore » of the pristine waters led to higher solubilization and complexing of added lead compared to impacted waters. Lead added to runoff showed unexpectedly high solubility and lability, possibly due to low suspended solids. Lead added to runoff was also much more mobile vertically through peat columns than lead added to swampwater, possibly due to its high lability. The extremely high porosity of the peat substrate allows rapid vertical migration of solutes during events of sudden influx, such as storms. Sphagnum moss greatly decreased vertical transport by binding and flow retardation. The lead that is held in the moss layer was differentially available to different species. Red maple seedlings were better able to take up lead from the peat substrate in the absence of moss cover while cranberry plants showed the reverse pattern. This may be related to differences in rooting requirements and growth of the two species. Lead added in runoff was initially less available to the plants than in swampwater, but was ultimately taken up the red maple, which could tolerate conditions in the impacted substrates.« less

  12. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  13. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  14. Net photosynthesis in Sphagnum mosses has increased in response to the last century's 100 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serk, Henrik; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands store >25% of the global soil C pool, corresponding to 1/3 of the contemporary CO2-C in the atmosphere. The majority of the accumulated peat is made up by remains of Sphagnum peat mosses. Thus, understanding how various Sphagnum functional groups respond, and have responded, to increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature constitutes a major challenge for our understanding of the role of peatlands under a changing climate. We have recently demonstrated (Ehlers et al., 2015, PNAS) that the abundance ratio of two deuterium isotopomers (molecules carrying D at specific intramolecular positions, here D6R/S) of photosynthetic glucose reflects the ratio of oxygenation to carboxylation metabolic fluxes at Rubisco. The photosynthetic glucose is prepared from various plant carbohydrates including cellulose. This finding has been established in CO2 manipulation experiments and observed in carbohydrate derived glucose isolated from herbarium samples of all investigated C-3 species. The isotopomer ratio is connected to specific enzymatic processes thus allowing for mechanistic implicit interpretations. Here we demonstrate a clear increase in net photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in response to the increase of 100 ppm CO2 during the last century as deduced from analysis on S. fuscum remains from peat cores. The D6R/S ratio declines from bottom to top in peat cores, indicating CO2-driven reduction of photorespiration in contemporary moss biomass. In contrast to the hummock-forming S. fuscum, hollow-growing species, e.g. S. majus did not show this response or gave significantly weaker response, suggesting important ecological consequences of rising CO2 on peatland ecosystem services. We hypothesize that photosynthesis in hollow-growing species under water saturation is fully or partly disconnected from the atmospheric CO2 partial pressure and thus showing weaker or no response to increased atmospheric CO2. To further test the field observations we grow both hummock and

  15. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  16. The Sphagnum microbiome: new insights from an ancient plant lineage

    Treesearch

    Joel E. Kostka; David J. Weston; Jennifer B. Glass; Erik A. Lilleskov; A. Jonathan Shaw; Merritt Turetsky

    2016-01-01

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum play a major role in global carbon storage and dominate many northern peatland ecosystems, which are currently being subjected to some of the most rapid climate changes on Earth.Arapidly expanding database indicates that a diverse community of microorganisms is intimately associated with Sphagnum...

  17. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  18. Comparison of pelletized biochar derived from two source materials as replacements for peat in potting substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilless substrates are primarily used in the production of containerized greenhouse and nursery crops, with sphagnum peat moss being a primary constituent of most substrates. We are examining biochars for several horticultural applications, including as peat moss replacements. Biochar was prepared ...

  19. Climatic modifiers of the response to nitrogen deposition in peat-forming Sphagnum mosses: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Limpens, J; Granath, G; Gunnarsson, U; Aerts, R; Bayley, S; Bragazza, L; Bubier, J; Buttler, A; van den Berg, L J L; Francez, A-J; Gerdol, R; Grosvernier, P; Heijmans, M M P D; Hoosbeek, M R; Hotes, S; Ilomets, M; Leith, I; Mitchell, E A D; Moore, T; Nilsson, M B; Nordbakken, J-F; Rochefort, L; Rydin, H; Sheppard, L J; Thormann, M; Wiedermann, M M; Williams, B L; Xu, B

    2011-07-01

    Peatlands in the northern hemisphere have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) during the Holocene than any other terrestrial ecosystem, making peatlands long-term C sinks of global importance. Projected increases in nitrogen (N) deposition and temperature make future accumulation rates uncertain. Here, we assessed the impact of N deposition on peatland C sequestration potential by investigating the effects of experimental N addition on Sphagnum moss. We employed meta-regressions to the results of 107 field experiments, accounting for sampling dependence in the data. We found that high N loading (comprising N application rate, experiment duration, background N deposition) depressed Sphagnum production relative to untreated controls. The interactive effects of presence of competitive vascular plants and high tissue N concentrations indicated intensified biotic interactions and altered nutrient stochiometry as mechanisms underlying the detrimental N effects. Importantly, a higher summer temperature (mean for July) and increased annual precipitation intensified the negative effects of N. The temperature effect was comparable to an experimental application of almost 4 g N m(-2)  yr(-1) for each 1°C increase. Our results indicate that current rates of N deposition in a warmer environment will strongly inhibit C sequestration by Sphagnum-dominated vegetation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. The Sphagnum microbiome: New insights from an ancient plant lineage

    DOE PAGES

    Kostka, Joel E.; Weston, David J.; Glass, Jennifer B.; ...

    2016-05-13

    Here, peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum play a major role in global carbon storage and dominate many northern peatland ecosystems, which are currently being subjected to some of the most rapid climate changes on Earth. A rapidly expanding database indicates that a diverse community of microorganisms is intimately associated with Sphagnum, inhabiting the tissues and surface of the plant. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the Sphagnum microbiome and provide a perspective for future research directions. Although the majority of the microbiome remains uncultivated and its metabolic capabilities uncharacterized, prokaryotes and fungi have the potential tomore » act as mutualists, symbionts, or antagonists of Sphagnum. For example, methanotrophic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria may benefit the plant host by providing up to 20–30% of Sphagnum carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Next-generation sequencing approaches have enabled the detailed characterization of microbiome community composition in peat mosses. However, as with other ecologically or economically important plants, our knowledge of Sphagnum–microbiome associations is in its infancy. In order to attain a predictive understanding of the role of the microbiome in Sphagnum productivity and ecosystem function, the mechanisms of plant–microbiome interactions and the metabolic potential of constituent microbial populations must be revealed.« less

  1. The Sphagnum microbiome: New insights from an ancient plant lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Kostka, Joel E.; Weston, David J.; Glass, Jennifer B.

    Here, peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum play a major role in global carbon storage and dominate many northern peatland ecosystems, which are currently being subjected to some of the most rapid climate changes on Earth. A rapidly expanding database indicates that a diverse community of microorganisms is intimately associated with Sphagnum, inhabiting the tissues and surface of the plant. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the Sphagnum microbiome and provide a perspective for future research directions. Although the majority of the microbiome remains uncultivated and its metabolic capabilities uncharacterized, prokaryotes and fungi have the potential tomore » act as mutualists, symbionts, or antagonists of Sphagnum. For example, methanotrophic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria may benefit the plant host by providing up to 20–30% of Sphagnum carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Next-generation sequencing approaches have enabled the detailed characterization of microbiome community composition in peat mosses. However, as with other ecologically or economically important plants, our knowledge of Sphagnum–microbiome associations is in its infancy. In order to attain a predictive understanding of the role of the microbiome in Sphagnum productivity and ecosystem function, the mechanisms of plant–microbiome interactions and the metabolic potential of constituent microbial populations must be revealed.« less

  2. The Sphagnum microbiome: new insights from an ancient plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joel E; Weston, David J; Glass, Jennifer B; Lilleskov, Erik A; Shaw, A Jonathan; Turetsky, Merritt R

    2016-07-01

    57 I. 57 II. 58 III. 59 IV. 59 V. 61 VI. 62 63 References 63 SUMMARY: Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum play a major role in global carbon storage and dominate many northern peatland ecosystems, which are currently being subjected to some of the most rapid climate changes on Earth. A rapidly expanding database indicates that a diverse community of microorganisms is intimately associated with Sphagnum, inhabiting the tissues and surface of the plant. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the Sphagnum microbiome and provide a perspective for future research directions. Although the majority of the microbiome remains uncultivated and its metabolic capabilities uncharacterized, prokaryotes and fungi have the potential to act as mutualists, symbionts, or antagonists of Sphagnum. For example, methanotrophic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria may benefit the plant host by providing up to 20-30% of Sphagnum carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Next-generation sequencing approaches have enabled the detailed characterization of microbiome community composition in peat mosses. However, as with other ecologically or economically important plants, our knowledge of Sphagnum-microbiome associations is in its infancy. In order to attain a predictive understanding of the role of the microbiome in Sphagnum productivity and ecosystem function, the mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions and the metabolic potential of constituent microbial populations must be revealed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  4. Effects of volume change on the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of Sphagnum moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, V.; Whittington, P.

    2018-04-01

    Due to the non-vascular nature of Sphagnum mosses, the capitula (growing surface) of the moss must rely solely on capillary action to receive water from beneath. Moss subsides and swells in accordance with water table levels, an effect called "mire-breathing", which has been thought to be a self-preservation mechanism, although no systematic studies have been done to demonstrate exactly how volume change affects hydrophysical properties of moss. In this study, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Kunsat) and water content of two different species of Sphagnum moss were measured at different compression rates, up to the maximum of 77%. The findings show that the Kunsat increases by up to an order of magnitude (10×) with compression up to a certain bulk density of the moss, after which higher levels of compression result in lowered unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was coupled with an increase in soil water retention with increased compression. The increase of the Kunsat with compression suggests that the mire-breathing effect should be considered a self-preservation mechanism to provide sufficient amount of water to growing moss in times of low water availability.

  5. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  6. Ozone effects on the ultrastructure of peatland plants: Sphagnum mosses, Vaccinium oxycoccus, Andromeda polifolia and Eriophorum vaginatum.

    PubMed

    Rinnan, Riikka; Holopainen, Toini

    2004-10-01

    Ozone effects on peatland vegetation are poorly understood. Since stress responses are often first visible in cell ultrastructure, electron microscopy was used to assess the sensitivity of common peatland plants to elevated ozone concentrations. Three moss species (Sphagnum angustifolium, S. magellanicum and S. papillosum), a graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) and two dwarf shrubs (Vaccinium oxycoccus and Andromeda polifolia), all growing within an intact canopy on peat monoliths, were exposed to a concentration of 0, 50, 100 or 150 ppb ozone in two separate growth chamber experiments simulating either summer or autumn conditions in central Finland. After a 4- or 5-week-long exposure, samples were photographed in a transmission electron microscope and analysed quantitatively using image processing software. In the chlorophyllose cells of the Sphagnum moss leaves from the capitulum, ozone exposure led to a decrease in chloroplast area and in granum stack thickness and various changes in plastoglobuli and cell wall thickness, depending on the species and the experiment. In E. vaginatum, ozone exposure significantly reduced chloroplast cross-sectional areas and the amount of starch, whereas there were no clear changes in the plastoglobuli. In the dwarf shrubs, ozone induced thickening of the cell wall and an increase in the size of plastoglobuli under summer conditions. In contrast, under autumn conditions the cell wall thickness remained unchanged but ozone exposure led to a transient increase in the chloroplast and starch areas, and in the number and size of plastoglobuli. Ozone responses in the Sphagnum mosses were comparable to typical ozone stress symptoms of higher plants, and indicated sensitivity especially in S. angustifolium. The responses in the dwarf shrubs suggest stimulation of photosynthesis by low ozone concentrations and ozone sensitivity only under cool autumn conditions.

  7. Ozone Effects on the Ultrastructure of Peatland Plants: Sphagnum Mosses, Vaccinium oxycoccus, Andromeda polifolia and Eriophorum vaginatum

    PubMed Central

    RINNAN, RIIKKA; HOLOPAINEN, TOINI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Ozone effects on peatland vegetation are poorly understood. Since stress responses are often first visible in cell ultrastructure, electron microscopy was used to assess the sensitivity of common peatland plants to elevated ozone concentrations. • Methods Three moss species (Sphagnum angustifolium, S. magellanicum and S. papillosum), a graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) and two dwarf shrubs (Vaccinium oxycoccus and Andromeda polifolia), all growing within an intact canopy on peat monoliths, were exposed to a concentration of 0, 50, 100 or 150 ppb ozone in two separate growth chamber experiments simulating either summer or autumn conditions in central Finland. After a 4- or 5-week-long exposure, samples were photographed in a transmission electron microscope and analysed quantitatively using image processing software. • Key Results In the chlorophyllose cells of the Sphagnum moss leaves from the capitulum, ozone exposure led to a decrease in chloroplast area and in granum stack thickness and various changes in plastoglobuli and cell wall thickness, depending on the species and the experiment. In E. vaginatum, ozone exposure significantly reduced chloroplast cross-sectional areas and the amount of starch, whereas there were no clear changes in the plastoglobuli. In the dwarf shrubs, ozone induced thickening of the cell wall and an increase in the size of plastoglobuli under summer conditions. In contrast, under autumn conditions the cell wall thickness remained unchanged but ozone exposure led to a transient increase in the chloroplast and starch areas, and in the number and size of plastoglobuli. • Conclusions Ozone responses in the Sphagnum mosses were comparable to typical ozone stress symptoms of higher plants, and indicated sensitivity especially in S. angustifolium. The responses in the dwarf shrubs suggest stimulation of photosynthesis by low ozone concentrations and ozone sensitivity only under cool autumn conditions. PMID:15333464

  8. Nitrogen deposition does not enhance Sphagnum decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manninen, S; Kivimäki, S; Leith, I D; Leeson, S R; Sheppard, L J

    2016-11-15

    Long-term additions of nitrogen (N) to peatlands have altered bryophyte growth, species dominance, N content in peat and peat water, and often resulted in enhanced Sphagnum decomposition rate. However, these results have mainly been derived from experiments in which N was applied as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), neglecting the fact that in polluted areas, wet deposition may be dominated either by NO3(-) or NH4(+). We studied effects of elevated wet deposition of NO3(-) vs. NH4(+) alone (8 or 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) over and above the background of 8kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 5 to 11years) or combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on Sphagnum quality for decomposers, mass loss, and associated changes in hummock pore water in an ombrotrophic bog (Whim). Adding N, especially as NH4(+), increased N concentration in Sphagnum, but did not enhance mass loss from Sphagnum. Mass loss seemed to depend mainly on moss species and climatic factors. Only high applications of N affected hummock pore water chemistry, which varied considerably over time. Overall, C and N cycling in this N treated bog appeared to be decoupled. We conclude that moss species, seasonal and annual variation in climatic factors, direct negative effects of N (NH4(+) toxicity) on Sphagnum production, and indirect effects (increase in pH and changes in plant species dominance under elevated NO3(-) alone and with PK) drive Sphagnum decomposition and hummock C and N dynamics at Whim. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of crustose lichen on soil CO2 efflux in sphagnum moss regime of tundra, west Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S. J.; Suzuki, R.; Lee, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing ambient temperatures across the Arctic have induced changes in plant extent and phenology, degradation of permafrost, snow depth and covered extent, decomposition of soil organic matter, and subsequently, soil carbon emission to the atmosphere. However, there is fully not understood on the effect of crustose lichen on soil CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Although the spores of lichen are spread by wind and animals, the crustose lichen is infected to the only sphagnum moss widely distributed in the Arctic, and is terminally killed the moss. Here, we report the research findings on the soil CO2 efflux-measurement with forced diffusion (FD) chamber system that is continuously monitored in sphagnum moss regime of west Alaska for the growing season of 2016. The environmental parameters (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) were measured at intact and infected sphagnum moss regime. The FD chamber is measured at an interval of 10-min and 30-min, which is not significant difference between both intervals (R2 = 0.94; n = 1360; RMSE = 0.043; p < 0.001) based on a one-way ANOVA at the 95% confidence level. Mean soil CO2 effluxes (standard deviation) in June, July, August, and September of 2016 were 0.47(0.22), 0.52(0.21), 0.55(0.31), and 0.32(0.54) in infected sphagnum moss, and 0.27(0.47), 0.45(0.17), 0.50(0.22), and 0.31(0.49) in intact sphagnum moss, respectively. This finding demonstrates that 1) soil CO2 in infected sphagnum moss is one of atmospheric CO2 source in June and July, and 2) soil CO2 efflux is not significant difference between both regimes for August and September of 2016.

  10. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  11. The rare peat moss Sphagnum wulfianum (Sphagnaceae) did not survive the last glacial period in northern European refugia.

    PubMed

    Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell I; Stenøien, Hans K

    2012-04-01

    Organisms may survive unfavorable conditions either by moving to more favorable areas by means of dispersal or by adapting to stressful environments. Pleistocene glacial periods represent extremely unfavorable conditions for the majority of life forms, especially sessile organisms. Many studies have revealed placements of refugial areas and postglacial colonization patterns of seed plants, but little is still known about areas of long-term survival and historical migration routes of bryophytes. Given overall differences in stress tolerance between seed plants and bryophytes, it is of interest to know whether bryophytes have survived periods of extreme climatic conditions better then seed plants in northern areas. The haploid and rarely spore-producing peat moss Sphagnum wulfianum is mostly found in areas that were covered by ice during the last glacial maximum. Twelve microsatellite markers were amplified from 43 populations (367 shoots) of this species, and data were analyzed using population genetic diversity statistics, Bayesian clustering methods, and coalescence-based inference tools to estimate historical and demographic parameters. Genetic diversity within populations was low, but populations were highly differentiated, with two main genetic clusters being recognized. The two main genetic groups have diverged quite recently in the Holocene, and the pattern of genetic variability and structuring gives no support for survival in Scandinavian refugia during the last glacial period in this species. The dispersal ability of this plant thus seems surprisingly high despite its infrequent spore production.

  12. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-01-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population. PMID:26905464

  13. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  14. Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli K; Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Mets, Anchelique; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2015-09-01

    Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Mets, Anchelique; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2015-01-01

    Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface. PMID:26150465

  16. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  17. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  18. Holocene climate variability revealed by oxygen isotope analysis of Sphagnum cellulose from Walton Moss, northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. J.; Barber, K. E.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Marshall, J. D.; Crowley, S. F.; Fisher, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Stable isotope analyses of Sphagnum alpha-cellulose, precipitation and bog water from three sites across northwestern Europe (Raheenmore, Ireland, Walton Moss, northern England and Dosenmoor, northern Germany) over a total period of 26 months were used to investigate the nature of the climatic signal recorded by Sphagnum moss. The δ18O values of modern alpha-cellulose tracked precipitation more closely than bog water, with a mean isotopic fractionation factor αcellulose-precipitation of 1.0274 ± 0.001 (1 σ) (≈27‰). Sub-samples of isolated Sphagnum alpha-cellulose were subsequently analysed from core WLM22, Walton Moss, northern England yielding a Sphagnum-specific isotope record spanning the last 4300 years. The palaeo-record, calibrated using the modern data, provides evidence for large amplitude variations in the estimated oxygen isotope composition of precipitation during the mid- to late Holocene. Estimates of palaeotemperature change derived from statistical relationships between modern surface air temperatures and δ18O precipitation values for the British Isles give unrealistically large variation in comparison to proxies from other archives. We conclude that use of such relationships to calibrate mid-latitude palaeo-data must be undertaken with caution. The δ18O record from Sphagnum cellulose was highly correlated with a palaeoecologically-derived index of bog surface wetness (BSW), suggesting a common climatic driver.

  19. Microbial Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide in Anoxic Sphagnum Peat

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, R. P.; Hines, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Peat bogs dominated by Sphagnum spp. have relatively high areal rates of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emission to the atmosphere. DMS was produced in anoxic slurries of Sphagnum peat with a linear time course and with an average rate of 40.4 (range, 22.0 to 68.6) nmol per liter of slurry (middot) day(sup-1) observed in nine batches of slurry. Methanethiol (MeSH) was produced at roughly similar rates over the typical 4- to 8-day incubations. DMS and MeSH production in these acidic (pH 4.2 to 4.6) peats were biological, as they were stopped completely by autoclaving and inhibited strongly by addition of antibiotics and 500 (mu)M chloroform. Endogenous DMS production may be due to the degradation of S-methyl-methionine, dimethyl sulfoxide, or methoxyaromatic compounds (e.g., syringic acid), each of which stimulated DMS formation when added at 5 to 10 (mu)M concentrations. However, on the basis of the high rates of thiol (MeSH and ethanethiol) methylation activity that we observed and the availability of endogenous MeSH, we suggest that methylation of MeSH is the major pathway leading to DMS formation in anaerobic peat. Solid-phase adsorption of MeSH plays a key role in its availability for biomethylation reactions. Additions of acetate (1.5 mM) or compounds which could cause acetate to accumulate (e.g., glucose, alanine, and 2-bromoethanesulfonate) suppressed DMS formation. It is likely that acetogenic bacteria are involved in DMS formation, but our data are insufficient to allow firm conclusions about the metabolic pathways or organisms involved. Our observations are the first which point to the methylation of MeSH as the major mechanism for endogenous DMS production in any environment. The rates of net DMS production observed are sufficient to explain the relatively high fluxes of DMS emitted to the atmosphere from Sphagnum sp.-dominated wetlands. PMID:16535080

  20. Vertical transmission explains the specific Burkholderia pattern in Sphagnum mosses at multi-geographic scale

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Anastasia; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia is known for its versatile interactions with its hosts that can range from beneficial to pathogenic. A plant-beneficial-environmental (PBE) Burkholderia cluster was recently separated from the pathogen cluster, yet still little is known about burkholderial diversity, distribution, colonization, and transmission patterns on plants. In our study, we applied a combination of high-throughput molecular and microscopic methods to examine the aforementioned factors for Burkholderia communities associated with Sphagnum mosses – model plants for long-term associations – in Austrian and Russian bogs. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons libraries revealed that most of the Burkholderia are part of the PBE group, but a minor fraction was closely related to B. glathei and B. andropogonis from the pathogen cluster. Notably, Burkholderia showed highly similar composition patterns for each moss species independent of the geographic region, and Burkholderia-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization of Sphagnum gametophytes exhibited similar colonization patterns in different Sphagnum species at multi-geographic scales. To explain these patterns, we compared the compositions of the surrounding water, gametophyte-, and sporophyte-associated microbiome at genus level and discovered that Burkholderia were present in the Sphagnum sporophyte and gametophyte, but were absent in the flark water. Therefore, Burkholderia is a part of the core microbiome transmitted from the moss sporophyte to the gametophyte. This suggests a vertical transmission of Burkholderia strains, and thus underlines their importance for the plants themselves. PMID:24391630

  1. AmeriFlux CA-WP2 Alberta - Western Peatland - Poor Fen (Sphagnum moss)

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-WP2 Alberta - Western Peatland - Poor Fen (Sphagnum moss). Site Description - Peatland (poor fen) Alberta. 55.5375°N, 112.3343°W North of the AB-WPL site.

  2. Carbon balance modification in Sphagnum-dominated peat mesocosms invaded by Molinia caerulea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Fabien; Gogo, Sébastien; Guimbaud, Christophe; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    Plant communities have a key role in regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in peatland ecosystems and thus on their capacity to act as carbon (C) sink. However, in response to global change, boreal and temperate peatlands may shift from Sphagnum to vascular plant-dominated peatlands that may alter their C-sink function. We set up a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the main GHG fluxes (CO2 and CH4) are affected by plant community modification from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea dominance. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and CH4 emissions models were used to compare the C balance and global warming potential under both vegetation cover. While the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions modeling estimated an output of respectively 652 and 18 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms, it represented a release of 1473 and 50 gC m-2 y-1 with Molinia caerulea occurrence. Annual modeled GPP was respectively -495 and -1968 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum and Molinia mesocosms leading to a net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of 175 g gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms (i.e., a C-source) and of -445 gC m-2 y-1 for Molinia ones (i.e., a C-sink). Even if CH4 emission accounted for a small part of the gaseous C efflux ( 3%), its global warming potential value to get CO2 equivalent makes both plant communities acting as a warming climate effect. The vegetation shift from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea seems beneficial for C sequestration regarding the gaseous pool. However, roots and litters of Molinia caerulea could further provide substrates for C emissions and dissolved organic C release.

  3. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  4. Nitrous oxide emission potentials of Burkholderia species isolated from the leaves of a boreal peat moss Sphagnum fuscum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yanxia; Li, Li; Wang, Mengcen; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Using a culture-based nitrous oxide (N2O) emission assay, three active N2O emitters were isolated from Sphagnum fuscum leaves and all identified as members of Burkholderia. These isolates showed N2O emission in the medium supplemented with [Formula: see text] but not with [Formula: see text], and Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 showed the most efficient N2O emission (0.20 μg·vial(-1)·day(-1)) at 1.0 mM KNO3. In Burkholderia sp. SF-E2, the optimum pH for N2O production was 5.0, close to that of the phyllosphere of Sphagnum mosses, while the optimum temperature was uniquely over 30 °C. The stimulating effect of additional 1.5 mM sucrose on N2O emission was ignorable, but Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 upon exposure to 100 mg·L(-1) E-caffeic acid showed uniquely 67-fold higher N2O emission. All of the three N2O emitters were negative in both acetylene inhibition assay and PCR assay for nosZ-detection, suggesting that N2O reductase or the gene itself is missing in the N2O-emitting Burkholderia.

  5. Analysis of ecological factors limiting the destruction of high-moor peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-03-01

    This review presents an analysis of literature data and original studies by the authors aimed at revealing the factors inhibiting the destruction of high-moor (oligotrophic) peat. Each of the ecological factors that prevent the decomposition of the high-moor peat by different groups of microorganisms is considered. The acid reaction, low temperatures, and lack of nutrients were found not to be the primary factors inhibiting the destruction of the peat. The limited content of oxygen in the peatbogs leads to a drastic decrease in the number of mycelial microorganisms and a reduction of the activity of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. The main factor inhibiting the decomposition of sphagnum is its mechanical and chemical stability, since animals crushing sphagnum are absent in the soil, and this moss has polysaccharides of special composition. The toxicity of phenol compounds, which is manifested under the aerobic conditions, prevents the activity of all the hydrolytic enzymes. This is the main reason for the slow decomposition of sphagnum peat and the long-term preservation of the residues of bodies and food in high-moor peatlands.

  6. Sphagnum mosses harbour highly specific bacterial diversity during their whole lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about Sphagnum-associated microbial communities, their structure and their origin is important to understand and maintain climate-relevant Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems. We studied bacterial communities of two cosmopolitan Sphagnum species, which are well adapted to different abiotic parameters (Sphagnum magellanicum, which are strongly acidic and ombrotrophic, and Sphagnum fallax, which are weakly acidic and mesotrophic), in three Alpine bogs in Austria by a multifaceted approach. Great differences between bacterial fingerprints of both Sphagna were found independently from the site. This remarkable specificity was confirmed by a cloning and a deep sequencing approach. Besides the common Alphaproteobacteria, we found a discriminative spectrum of bacteria; although Gammaproteobacteria dominated S. magellanicum, S. fallax was mainly colonised by Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Using this information for fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, corresponding colonisation patterns for Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were detected. Bacterial colonies were found in high abundances inside the dead big hyalocytes, but they were always connected with the living chlorocytes. Using multivariate statistical analysis, the abiotic factors nutrient richness and pH were identified to modulate the composition of Sphagnum-specific bacterial communities. Interestingly, we found that the immense bacterial diversity was transferred via the sporophyte to the gametophyte, which can explain the high specificity of Sphagnum-associated bacteria over long distances. In contrast to higher plants, which acquire their bacteria mainly from the environment, mosses as the phylogenetically oldest land plants maintain their bacterial diversity within the whole lifecycle.

  7. Sphagnum mosses harbour highly specific bacterial diversity during their whole lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about Sphagnum-associated microbial communities, their structure and their origin is important to understand and maintain climate-relevant Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems. We studied bacterial communities of two cosmopolitan Sphagnum species, which are well adapted to different abiotic parameters (Sphagnum magellanicum, which are strongly acidic and ombrotrophic, and Sphagnum fallax, which are weakly acidic and mesotrophic), in three Alpine bogs in Austria by a multifaceted approach. Great differences between bacterial fingerprints of both Sphagna were found independently from the site. This remarkable specificity was confirmed by a cloning and a deep sequencing approach. Besides the common Alphaproteobacteria, we found a discriminative spectrum of bacteria; although Gammaproteobacteria dominated S. magellanicum, S. fallax was mainly colonised by Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Using this information for fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, corresponding colonisation patterns for Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were detected. Bacterial colonies were found in high abundances inside the dead big hyalocytes, but they were always connected with the living chlorocytes. Using multivariate statistical analysis, the abiotic factors nutrient richness and pH were identified to modulate the composition of Sphagnum-specific bacterial communities. Interestingly, we found that the immense bacterial diversity was transferred via the sporophyte to the gametophyte, which can explain the high specificity of Sphagnum-associated bacteria over long distances. In contrast to higher plants, which acquire their bacteria mainly from the environment, mosses as the phylogenetically oldest land plants maintain their bacterial diversity within the whole lifecycle. PMID:22094342

  8. Extracted sweet corn tassels as a renewable alternative to peat in greenhouse substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilless substrates are primarily used in the production of containerized greenhouse and nursery crops. Sphagnum peat moss is a primary constituent of these substrates and its harvest from endangered ecosystems has become a worldwide concern. Ethanol-extracted, coarse-ground corn (Zea mays L. ‘Sil...

  9. Active moss biomonitoring of trace elements with Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Anicić, M; Tasić, M; Frontasyeva, M V; Tomasević, M; Rajsić, S; Mijić, Z; Popović, A

    2009-02-01

    Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss bags was used to examine trace element atmospheric deposition in the urban area of Belgrade. The element accumulation capability of Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow was tested in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition. Moss bags were mounted for five 3-month periods (July 2005-October 2006) at three representative urban sites. For the same period monthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected. The concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses and atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant accumulation of most elements occurred in the exposed moss bags compared with the initial moss content. High correlations between the elements in moss and bulk deposits were found for V, Cu, As, and Ni. The enrichment factors of the elements for both types of monitor followed the same pattern at the corresponding sites.

  10. Water storage characteristics of several peats in situ

    Treesearch

    D.H. Boelter

    1964-01-01

    Water storage characteristics of the various horizons in a northern Minnesota bog were found to vary considerably with peat type. Surface horizons of sphagnum moss contain 0.020 g. per cc. of dry material and 95 to nearly 100% water by volume at saturation. Its total porosity consisted primarily of large pores which released 0.80 cc. of water per cc. between saturation...

  11. Environmental controls on δ13C variations of Sphagnum derived n-alkanes in the Dajiuhu peatland, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Xue, J.; Wang, X.; WANG, H.; Meyers, P. A.; Qin, Y.; Gong, L.; Ding, W.

    2012-12-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the very important atmospheric carbon sinks and represent about 30% of the global soil organic carbon (Gorham, 1991). In peatland conditions, high water levels and consequent anoxia make them an important source of methane. A recent study revealed that methanotrophic bacteria growing on stems or in hyaline cells of Sphagnum can provide methane derived carbon for photosynthesis (Raghoebarsing et al., 2005). This interaction has been found to be globally prevalent in peat-moss ecosystems and can contribute up to 30% of carbon for Sphagnum photosynthesis (Kip et al., 2010). Due to the uptake of 13C-depleted methane-derived CO2 and the sensitivity of methane oxidizing bacteria to the surface wetness, the carbon isotopic signatures of Sphagnum derived lipids have the potential to be used as a proxy for the surface wetness in peatlands and hence as paleoclimate archives (Nichols et al., 2009). In this study, we report the δ13C variations of the Sphagnum derived n-C23 alkane in both fresh Sphagnum and surface peat samples in the Dajiuhu peatland, a small fen located in the Shennongjia forestry region, Hubei province, central China. The δ13C23 values of Sphagnum show a negative correlation with the water level, supporting the idea that that the carbon isotope fractionation of Sphagnum is mainly manifested by the diffusion resistance of CO2 in hyaline cells of Sphagnum. However, δ13C23 values of surface peats collected in Sphagnum dominated ecosystems display a positive relation with the water level when the water level is less than 30 cm. Such an inconsistency probably results from the higher potential for methane-oxidizing activity in the lower parts of Sphagnum in fen meadows. When the water level is higher than 30 cm, the influence of symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria on Sphagnum derived n-C23 alkane is weak or nearly absent. These findings provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that the carbon isotopic signatures of Sphagnum

  12. Investigations of the structure and function of bacterial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Katja; Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-11-01

    High acidity, low temperature and extremely low concentration of nutrients form Sphagnum bogs into extreme habitats for organisms. Little is known about the bacteria associated with living Sphagnum plantlets, especially about their function for the host. Therefore, we analysed the endo- and ectophytic bacterial populations associated with two widely distributed Sphagnum species, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, by a multiphasic approach. The screening of 1222 isolates for antagonistic activity resulted in 326 active isolates. The bacterial communities harboured a high proportion of antifungal (26%) but a low proportion of antibacterial isolates (0.4%). Members of the genus Burkholderia (38%) were found to be the most dominant group of antagonistic bacteria. The finding that a large proportion (89%) of the antagonistic bacteria produced antifungal compounds may provide an explanation for the well-known antimicrobial activity of certain Sphagnum species. The secondary metabolites of the Sphagnum species themselves were analysed by HPLC-PDA. The different spectra of detected compounds may not only explain the antifungal activity but also the species specificity of the microbial communities. The latter was analysed using cultivation-independent single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Using Burkholderia-specific primers we found a high diversity of Burkholderia isolates in the endophytic and ectophytic habitats of Sphagnum. Furthermore, a high diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was detected by using nifH-specific primers, especially inside Sphagnum mosses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that both Sphagnum species were colonized by characteristic bacterial populations, which appear to be important for pathogen defence and nitrogen fixation.

  13. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (δ15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our δ15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution

  15. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    three moss species and weighting by their abundances within each plot (percent cover), phosphatase activities differed between N treatments in the bog (p=0.0388) and the poor fen (p=0.0005), with the latter exhibiting a clear increase in enzyme activity with increasing N deposition, and a doubling of phosphatase activity between the control plots and the 25 kg/kg/yr N deposition treatment. Although the three moss species responded differently, at the plot scale, increasing N deposition stimulated phosphatase activity, suggesting that microbial enzyme activity in peat is sensitive to increasing N deposition from oil sands development, with potential consequences for peatland nutrient cycling.

  16. Sphagnum Moss as an Indicator of Contemporary Rates of Atmospheric Dust Deposition in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Belland, Rene; Devito, Kevin; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shotyk, William

    2017-07-05

    Sphagnum moss was collected from ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs to quantify dust emissions from the open-pit mining and upgrading of Athabasca bituminous sands (ABS). A total of 30 bogs were sampled in the ABS region, and 5 were sampled in central Alberta. Ash was separated into the acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid-soluble ash (ASA) fractions using HCl. The AIA concentrations increase toward industry from 0.4 ± 0.5% to 4.7 ± 2.0% over a distance of 30 km; the control site at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) yielded 0.29 ± 0.07% (n = 30). Mass accumulations rates showed similar spatial variation. The morphology and mineralogy of the AIA particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and the particle size distributions using optical methods. Particle size was more variable in moss closer to industry. Major ions in the ASA fraction showed elevated accumulation rates of Ca, K, Fe, Mg, P, and S, with P being up to 5 times greater in samples nearest industry compared to those in distal locations. Given that P has been regarded as the growth-limiting nutrient in bogs, fertilization of nutrient-poor ecosystems, such as these from fugitive emissions of dusts from open-pit mining, may have long-term ecological ramifications.

  17. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  18. Investigating carbon dynamics in Siberian peat bogs using molecular-level analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Total hydrolysable carbohydrates, and lignin and cutin acid compounds were analyzed in peat cores collected 56.8 N (SIB04), 58.4 N (SIB06), 63.8 N (G137) and 66.5 N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland to investigate vegetation, chemical compositions and the stage of decomposition. Sphagnum mosses dominated peatland vegetation in all four cores. High-resolution molecular analyses revealed rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years in the southern cores Sib4 and Sib6. Syringyl and vanillyl (S/V) ratios and cutin acids indicated these vegetation changes were due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm and root material. In the G137 and E113 cores lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants. Molecular decomposition indicators used in this study tracked the decomposition of different organic constituents of peat organic matter. The carbohydrate decomposition index was sensitive to the polysaccharide component of all peat-forming plants, whereas acid/aldehyde ratios of S and V phenols (Ac/AlS,V) followed the lignin component of vascular plants. Low carbohydrate decomposition indices in peat layers corresponded well with elevated (Ad/Al)S,V ratios. This suggested both classes of biochemicals were simultaneously decomposed, and decomposition processes were associated with extensive total mass loss in these ombrotrophic systems. Selective decomposition or transformation of lignin was observed in the permafrost-influenced northern cores G137 and E113. Both cores exhibited the highest (Ad/Al)S,V ratios, almost four-fold higher than measured in peat-forming plants. The extent of decomposition in the four peat cores did not uniformly increase with age, but showed episodic extensive decomposition events. Variable decomposition events independent of climatic conditions and vegetation shifts highlight the complexity of peatland dynamics.

  19. A pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias Karl David; Iden, Sascha Christian; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the acrotelm (vadoze zone) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Thus, variably saturated flow processes determine whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon, and modelling these processes is crucial to assess effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. We show that the Richards equation can be used to accurately describe the moisture dynamics under evaporative conditions in variably saturated peat soil, encompassing the transition from the topmost living moss layer to the decomposed peat as part of the vadose zone. Soil hydraulic properties (SHP) were identified by inverse simulation of evaporation experiments on samples from the entire acrotelm. To obtain consistent descriptions of the observations, the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model was extended to account for non-capillary water storage and flow. We found that the SHP of the uppermost moss layer reflect a pore-size distribution (PSD) that combines three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss. For deeper samples, acrotelm pedogenesis changes the shape of the SHP due to the collapse of inter-plant pores and an infill with smaller particles. This leads to gradually more homogeneous and bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth, which in turn can serve as a proxy for increasing state of pedogenesis in peatlands. From this, we derive a nomenclature and size classification for the pore spaces of Sphagnum mosses and define inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore spaces, with effective pore diameters of > 300, 300-30, and 30-10 µm, respectively.

  20. Shallow peatland ecohydrology - the control of peat depth on moss productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Kettridge, Nicholas; Moore, Paul; Devito, Kevin; Tilak, Amey; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Northern peatlands represent an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Shallow peatlands and marginal connective wetlands can be essential components of many northern peatland landscape mosaics, playing a vital role in landscape connectivity and wider landscape hydrology. However the ecohydrological function of these shallow, marginal systems has been largely overlooked, with peatland hydrology research focused on relatively deep bog systems. In order to predict landscape scale wetland function and its vulnerability to climate change we need to understand how these shallow connective systems function. The balance between moss productivity and water loss provide a key component of these systems, as water use efficiency controls the rate of moss growth and thus controls the amount of atmospheric carbon sequestered in peat. Understanding how productivity of shallow peatland systems responds to changes in evaporative stress will aid predictions of peatland landscape hydrological function in a changing climate. To determine the factors influencing peat productivity, water balance simulations using Hydrus 1-D were conducted over annual growing seasons for different soil profile depths, compositions and antecedent moisture conditions. Our results demonstrate a bimodal distribution of peatland responses; either primarily conserving water by limiting evapotranspiration or, maximizing productivity. For sustained periods of evaporative stress, shallow marginal systems are least able to buffer periods of evaporative stress due to limited labile water storage, and will limit evaporation, conserve water and be less productive. Conversely, where present, both deep water storage and a shallow initial water table prolong the onset of high vegetative stress, thus maximizing moss productivity. However, a total depth of 0.8 m is identified as the threshold above which increasing peat depth has no further effect on changing vegetative stress response and thus landscape function

  1. Late-Holocene hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability in southern Patagonia: insights from triple stable isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, δD) of peat bog Sphagnum moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z.; Yu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Loisel, J.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SHWWs) exert important influences on regional and global climates, but their long-term behaviors and dynamics are still poorly understood but critical for projecting future changes. Here we present a 5,500-year record from a Sphagnum-dominated peat bog located on the lee side of the Andes at 54.2 °S in southern Patagonia—based on plant macrofossils, Sphagnum cellulose δ18O and δ13C, and lipid δD data—to document and understand the variability in hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation. There is a striking negative correlation between cellulose δ18O and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the last millennium; particularly the 2.5‰ negative shift of δ18O is concurrent with the observed positive trend in the SAM over the recent decades. The interval of Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 850-600 yr BP) is characterized by a 2.5‰ negative shift of δ18O and low δ13C values, while the Little Ice Age (LIA, 500-300 yr BP) is characterized by a 2.5‰ positive shift of δ18O and high δ13C values. Furthermore, we find the largest negative shift of δ18O ( 3‰) at 2,300 yr BP, suggesting a significantly positive shift in the SAM. We interpret high Sphagnum abundance and high cellulose δ13C values to reflect great moss moisture conditions, while cellulose δ18O variations primarily reflect moisture sources and atmospheric circulation. During the positive phase of SAM (e.g., the MCA and recent decades), strengthened SHWWs enhance the rain-shadow effect, resulting in dry climate and 18O-depleted precipitation (low δ18O values) in the study region. During the negative phase of SAM (e.g., the LIA), weakened SHWWs reduce rain-shadow effect, resulting in wet climate and high δ18O values caused by increases in moisture contributions from the southerly and easterly flows that do not experience strong Rayleigh distillation process during air mass transports. Furthermore, coupling cellulose δ18O and lipid δD enables

  2. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  3. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0005, n = 12). This indicates that application of an internal standard is a reliable method to assess biomarker depth records, which enormously facilitates the use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  4. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  5. Seasonal variations in CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different plant compositions of a Sphagnum-dominated Alpine peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollinger, Simon; Maier, Andreas; Karer, Jasmin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are the only type of ecosystems which have the ability to accumulate significant amounts of carbon (C) under undisturbed conditions. The amount of C sequestered in peatlands depends on the balance between gross primary production, ecosystem respiration and decomposition of plant material. Sphagnum-dominated bogs possess the greatest peat accumulation potential of all peatlands, thus in turn, feature highest C release potentials. Many studies report about the C balances of undisturbed northern peat bogs, however, little is known about the effects of peatland degradation on the C balance between different plant compositions within peat bog ecosystems. Particularly in the Alpine region, where temperature increase during the last century has been almost twice as high as the global mean. The investigated peat bog is located in the inner Alpine Enns valley in the Eastern Alps, Austria (N 47˚ 34.873' E 14˚ 20.810'). It is a pine peat bog covered by Sphagnum mosses and a present extent of about 62 ha. Due to increasing differences in surface height of the peatland compared to the surrounding areas and related lowered water retention capacity attributed to the subsidence of the adjacent intensively managed meadows on deeply drained peat soils, the function of the peatland as a carbon sink is strongly endangered. Hence, the current mean water table depth of the central peat bog area is about -12 cm. To reveal differences in peatland-atmosphere C exchanges within the peatland ecosystem, we investigated CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different vegetation compositions (PM1-PM4) at the treeless central peat bog area. PM1 is dominated by the graminoids Rhynchospora alba and Eriophorum vaginatum. PM2 is inhabited by small individuals (< 35 cm) of the conifer Pinus mugo, whereas PM3 is dominated by the ericaceous plant Calluna vulgaris. PM4 again is populated by Pinus mugo, but higher growing (35 - 60 cm) and with corresponding higher amount of biomass. Fluxes were measured

  6. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  7. Contrasting phylogeographic patterns in Sphagnum fimbriatum and Sphagnum squarrosum (Bryophyta, Sphagnopsida) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Szövényi, Péter; Hock, Zsófia; Urmi, Edwin; Schneller, Jakob J

    2006-01-01

    The chloroplast phylogeography of two peat mosses (Sphagnum fimbriatum and Sphagnum squarrosum) with similar distributions but different life history characteristics was investigated in Europe. Our main aim was to test whether similar distributions reflect similar phylogeographic and phylodemographic processes. Accessions covering the European distributions of the species were collected and approx. 2000 bp of the chloroplast genome of each species was sequenced. Maximum parsimony, statistical parsimony and phylodemographic analyses were used to address the question of whether these species with similar distributions show evidence of similar phylogeographic and phylodemographic processes. The chloroplast haplotypes of the currently spreading species S. fimbriatum showed strong geographic structure, whereas those of S. squarrosum, which has stable historical population sizes, showed only very weak geographic affinity and were widely distributed. We hypothesize that S. fimbriatum survived the last glaciations along the Atlantic coast of Europe, whereas S. squarrosum had numerous, scattered refugia in Europe. The dominance of one haplotype of S. fimbriatum across almost all of Europe suggests rapid colonization after the last glacial maximum. We hypothesize that high colonizing ability is an inherent characteristic of the species and its recent expansion in Europe is a response to climate change.

  8. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  9. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Adatto, Isaac; Montesdeoca, Mario R; Driscoll, Charles T; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury (Hg) and MeHg accumulation (190.5 and 18.6 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake's ecosystem. Although MPN estimates showed a low biomass of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 2.8 × 10⁴ cells mL⁻¹ in mat samples, evidence consisting of (1) a twofold stimulation of potential methylation by the addition of sulfate, (2) a significant decrease in Hg methylation in the presence of the sulfate reduction inhibitor molybdate, and (3) presence of dsrAB-like genes in mat DNA extracts, suggested that SRB were involved in Hg methylation. Sequencing of dsrB genes indicated that novel SRB, incomplete oxidizers including Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfovibrio spp., and syntrophs dominated the sulfate-reducing guild in the Sphagnum moss mat. Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrasting diversity of testate amoebae communities in Sphagnum and brown-moss dominated patches in relation to shell counts.

    PubMed

    Lizoňová, Zuzana; Horsák, Michal

    2017-04-01

    Ecological studies of peatland testate amoebae are generally based on totals of 150 individuals per sample. However, the suitability of this standard has never been assessed for alkaline habitats such as spring fens. We explored the differences in testate amoeba diversity between Sphagnum and brown-moss microhabitats at a mire site with a highly diversified moss layer which reflects the small-scale heterogeneity in groundwater chemistry. Relationships between sampling efficiency and sample completeness were explored using individual-based species accumulation curves and the effort required to gain an extra species was assessed. Testate amoeba diversity differed substantially between microhabitats, with brown mosses hosting on average twice as many species and requiring greater shell totals to reach comparable sample analysis efficiency as for Sphagnum. Thus, for samples from alkaline conditions an increase in shell totals would be required and even an overall doubling up to 300 individuals might be considered for reliable community description. Our small-scale data are likely not robust enough to provide an ultimate solution for the optimization of shell totals. However, the results proved that testate amoebae communities from acidic and alkaline environments differ sharply in both species richness and composition and they might call for different methodological approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing growth of ponderosa pine in two growing media

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    I compared growth of container ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings grown in a 1:1 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:coarse vermiculite medium (P:V) and a 7:3 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:Douglas-fir sawdust medium (P:S) at three different irrigation regimes. By using exponential fertilization techniques, I was able to supply seedlings with similar amounts...

  12. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved.

    PubMed

    Hájek, T; Vicherová, E

    2014-07-01

    As ecosystem engineers, Sphagnum mosses control their surroundings through water retention, acidification and peat accumulation. Because water retention avoids desiccation, sphagna are generally intolerant to drought; however, the literature on Sphagnum desiccation tolerance (DT) provides puzzling results, indicating the inducible nature of their DT. To test this, various Sphagnum species and other mesic bryophytes were hardened to drought by (i) slow drying; (ii) ABA application and (iii) chilling or frost. DT tolerance was assessed as recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters after severe desiccation. We monitored the seasonal course of DT in bog bryophytes. Under laboratory conditions, following initial de-hardening, untreated Sphagnum shoots lacked DT; however, DT was induced by all hardening treatments except chilling, notably by slow drying, and in Sphagnum species of the section Cuspidata. In the field, sphagna in hollows and lawns developed DT several times during the growing season, responding to reduced precipitation and a lowered water table. Hummock and aquatic species developed DT only in late autumn, probably as a response to frost. Sphagnum protonemata failed to develop DT; hence, desiccation may limit Sphagnum establishment in drier habitats with suitable substrate chemistry. Desiccation avoiders among sphagna form compact hummocks or live submerged; thus, they do not develop DT in the field, lacking the initial desiccation experience, which is frequent in hollow and lawn habitats. We confirmed the morpho-physiological trade-off: in contrast to typical hollow sphagna, hummock species invest more resources in water retention (desiccation avoidance), while they have a lower ability to develop physiological DT. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. [Analysis of the bacterial community developing in the course of Sphagnum moss decomposition].

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Belova, S E; Kevbrin, V V; Dedysh, S N; Zavarzin, G A

    2007-01-01

    Slow degradation of organic matter in acidic Sphagnum peat bogs suggests a limited activity of organotrophic microorganisms. Monitoring of the Sphagnum debris decomposition in a laboratory simulation experiment showed that this process was accompanied by a shift in the water color to brownish due to accumulation of humic substances and by the development of a specific bacterial community with a density of 2.4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1). About half of these organisms are metabolically active and detectable with rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Molecular identification of the components of this microbial community showed the numerical dominance of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Phanctomycetes. The population sizes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are believed to be the main agents of bacterially-mediated decomposition in eutrophic wetlands, were low. The numbers of planctomycetes increased at the final stage of Sphagnum decomposition. The representative isolates of Alphaproteobacteria were able to utilize galacturonic acid, the only low-molecular-weight organic compound detected in the water samples; the representatives of Planctomycetes were able to decompose some heteropolysaccharides, which points to the possible functional role of these groups of microorganisms in the community under study. Thus, the composition of the bacterial community responsible for Sphagnum decomposition in acidic and low-mineral oligotrophic conditions seems to be fundamentally different from that of the bacterial community which decomposes plant debris in eutrophic ecosystems at neutral pH.

  14. Biological properties of the Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Gloria; Portaluppi, Mariana C; Salas, Francisco A; Díaz, María F

    2009-01-01

    An ethanol extract prepared from the gametophyte Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum was dried out, weighed and dissolved in distilled water. This extract was then assayed for its antibacterial activity against the G(-) bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and the G(+) bacteria Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, and Streptococcus type beta. The growth of the cultures of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and V. cholerae was inhibited at a concentration of 581 microg/ml of extract, while the cultures of E. coli, S. typhi and Streptococcus type beta were inhibited at a concentration of 1.16 microg/mL of extract. The concentration of phenolic compounds was 4.294 mg/mL; the presence of vanillic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, gallic, 3-4 hydrozybenzoic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids was identified using RP- High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

  15. The effect of Sphagnum farming on the greenhouse gas balance of donor and propagation areas, irrigation polders and commercial cultivation sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Jan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture, forestry and peat extraction turned these landscapes into hotspots of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate protection now fosters rewetting projects to restore the natural peatland function as a sink of atmospheric carbon. One possible way to combine ecological and economical goals is Sphagnum farming, i.e. the cultivation of Sphagnum mosses as high-quality substrates for horticulture. This project scientifically evaluates the attempt of commercial Sphagnum farming on former peat extraction sites in north-western Germany. The exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) of the whole peatland-based production chain comprising a donor mire, a propagation area, an irrigation polder and a cultivation site will be determined in a high temporal resolution for two years using manual chambers. This will allow evaluating the greenhouse gas balance of Sphagnum farming sites in comparison to near-natural sites and the potential of Sphagnum farming for restoring drained peatlands to sinks of atmospheric carbon. The influence of different irrigation techniques will also be tested. Additionally, selected plots will be equipped with open top chambers in order to examine the greenhouse gas exchange under potential future climate change conditions. Finally, a 13C pulse labeling experiment will make it possible to trace the newly sequestered CO2 in biomass, soil, respiration and dissolved organic carbon.

  16. Spatio-temporal trends of nitrogen deposition and climate effects on Sphagnum productivity in European peatlands.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Limpens, Juul; Posch, Maximilian; Mücher, Sander; de Vries, Wim

    2014-04-01

    To quantify potential nitrogen (N) deposition impacts on peatland carbon (C) uptake, we explored temporal and spatial trends in N deposition and climate impacts on the production of the key peat forming functional group (Sphagnum mosses) across European peatlands for the period 1900-2050. Using a modelling approach we estimated that between 1900 and 1950 N deposition impacts remained limited irrespective of geographical position. Between 1950 and 2000 N deposition depressed production between 0 and 25% relative to 1900, particularly in temperate regions. Future scenarios indicate this trend will continue and become more pronounced with climate warming. At the European scale, the consequences for Sphagnum net C-uptake remained small relative to 1900 due to the low peatland cover in high-N areas. The predicted impacts of likely changes in N deposition on Sphagnum productivity appeared to be less than those of climate. Nevertheless, current critical loads for peatlands are likely to hold under a future climate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition Affects Biological N2 Fixation and Sphagnum Moss in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Ardichvili, A.; Moore, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Most of the 18 Pg nitrogen (N) accumulated in northern nutrient-poor and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands (bogs and fens) can be attributed to N2 fixation by diazotrophs either associated with the live Sphagnum or non-symbiotically in the deeper peat. Where atmospheric N deposition is low (< 0.2 g m-2 y-1), ombrotrophic bogs rely on N2 fixation as the primary source of N that sustains primary production. The industrial revolution and anthropogenic impacts in the last 200 years have resulted in larger atmospheric N deposition as ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3). One effect of increased N deposition in Sphagnum is a switch from N to phosphorus (P) limitation suggested by the increase in tissue N:P>16. It is unclear how Sphagnum hosted diazotrophic activity may be affected by N deposition and thus changes in N:P ratio. We investigated the effects of long-term addition of different sources of nitrogen (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1 as NH4Cl and NaNO3), and phosphorus (5 g P m-2 y-1 as KH2PO4) on Sphagnum nutrient status (N, P and N:P), net primary productivity (NPP) and Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation at Mer Bleue, a temperate ombrotrophic bog. Our study shows that N concentration in Sphagnum tissue increased with larger rates of N addition, with a stronger effect on Sphagnum from NH4 than NO3. The addition of P created a 3.5 fold increase in Sphagnum P content compared to controls. Sphagnum NPP decreased linearly with the rise in N:P ratio, while linear growth declined exponentially with increase in Sphagnum N content. N2 fixation significantly decreased in response to even the smallest addition of both N species. In contrast, the addition of P increased N2 fixation by up to 100 times compared to N treatments and up to 5-30 times compared to controls. The change in N2 fixation was best modeled by the N:P ratio, across all experimental treatments. Although elevated N deposition substantially decreases N2 fixation, the N:P ratio in Sphagnum may be a good predictor, likely

  18. Bacterial populations and environmental factors controlling cellulose degradation in an acidic Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Ivanova, Anastasia O; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner

    2011-07-01

    Northern peatlands represent a major global carbon store harbouring approximately one-third of the global reserves of soil organic carbon. A large proportion of these peatlands consists of acidic Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs, which are characterized by extremely low rates of plant debris decomposition. The degradation of cellulose, the major component of Sphagnum-derived litter, was monitored in long-term incubation experiments with acidic (pH 4.0) peat extracts. This process was almost undetectable at 10°C and occurred at low rates at 20°C, while it was significantly accelerated at both temperature regimes by the addition of available nitrogen. Cellulose breakdown was only partially inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that bacteria participated in this process. We aimed to identify these bacteria by a combination of molecular and cultivation approaches and to determine the factors that limit their activity in situ. The indigenous bacterial community in peat was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The addition of cellulose induced a clear shift in the community structure towards an increase in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes. Increasing temperature and nitrogen availability resulted in a selective development of bacteria phylogenetically related to Cytophaga hutchinsonii (94-95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which densely colonized microfibrils of cellulose. Among isolates obtained from this community only some subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were capable of degrading cellulose, albeit at a very slow rate. These Acidobacteria represent indigenous cellulolytic members of the microbial community in acidic peat and are easily out-competed by Cytophaga-like bacteria under conditions of increased nitrogen availability. Members of the phylum Firmicutes, known to be key players in cellulose degradation in neutral habitats, were not detected in the cellulolytic community enriched at low pH. © 2011 Society for

  19. Sphagnan--a pectin-like polymer isolated from Sphagnum moss can inhibit the growth of some typical food spoilage and food poisoning bacteria by lowering the pH.

    PubMed

    Stalheim, T; Ballance, S; Christensen, B E; Granum, P E

    2009-03-01

    Investigate if the antibacterial effect of sphagnan, a pectin-like carbohydrate polymer extracted from Sphagnum moss, can be accounted for by its ability to lower the pH. Antibacterial activity of sphagnan was assessed and compared to that of three other acids. Sphagnan in its acid form was able to inhibit growth of various food poisoning and spoilage bacteria on low-buffering solid growth medium, whereas sphagnan in its sodium form at neutral pH had no antibacterial activity. At similar acidic pH, sphagnan had comparable antibacterial activity to that of hydrochloric acid and a control rhamnogalacturonan pectin in its acid form. Sphagnan in its acid form is a weak macromolecular acid that can inhibit bacterial growth by lowering the pH of environments with a low buffering capacity. It has previously been suggested that sphagnan is an antimicrobial polysaccharide in the leaves of Sphagnum moss with a broad range of potential practical applications. Our results now show that sphagnan in its acid form can indeed inhibit bacterial growth, but only of acid-sensitive species. These findings represent increased knowledge towards our understanding on how sphagnan or Sphagnum moss might be used in practical applications.

  20. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O.

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified themore » potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  1. Sphagnum growth and ecophysiology during mire succession.

    PubMed

    Laine, Anna M; Juurola, Eija; Hájek, Tomáš; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2011-12-01

    Sphagnum mosses are widespread in areas where mires exist and constitute a globally important carbon sink. Their ecophysiology is known to be related to the water level, but very little is currently known about the successional trend in Sphagnum. We hypothesized that moss species follow the known vascular plant growth strategy along the successional gradient (i.e., decrease in production and maximal photosynthesis while succession proceeds). To address this hypothesis, we studied links between the growth and related ecophysiological processes of Sphagnum mosses from a time-since-initiation chronosequence of five wetlands. We quantified the rates of increase in biomass and length of different Sphagnum species in relation to their CO(2) assimilation rates, their photosynthetic light reaction efficiencies, and their physiological states, as measured by the chlorophyll fluorescence method. In agreement with our hypothesis, increase in biomass and CO(2) exchange rate of Sphagnum mosses decreased along the successional gradient, following the tactics of more intensely studied vascular plants. Mosses at the young and old ends of the chronosequence showed indications of downregulation, measured as a low ratio between variable and maximum fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)). Our study divided the species into three groups; pioneer species, hollow species, and ombrotrophic hummock formers. The pioneer species S. fimbriatum is a ruderal plant that occurred at the first sites along the chronosequence, which were characterized by low stress but high disturbance. Hollow species are competitive plants that occurred at sites with low stress and low disturbance (i.e., in the wet depressions in the middle and at the old end of the chronosequence). Ombrotrophic hummock species are stress-tolerant plants that occurred at sites with high stress and low disturbance (i.e., at the old end of the chronosequence). The three groups along the mire successional gradient appeared to be somewhat analogous

  2. Carbon nanosheet frameworks derived from peat moss as high performance sodium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jia; Wang, Huanlei; Li, Zhi; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Cui, Kai; Xu, Zhanwei; Zahiri, Beniamin; Tan, Xuehai; Lotfabad, Elmira Memarzadeh; Olsen, Brian C; Mitlin, David

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate that peat moss, a wild plant that covers 3% of the earth's surface, serves as an ideal precursor to create sodium ion battery (NIB) anodes with some of the most attractive electrochemical properties ever reported for carbonaceous materials. By inheriting the unique cellular structure of peat moss leaves, the resultant materials are composed of three-dimensional macroporous interconnected networks of carbon nanosheets (as thin as 60 nm). The peat moss tissue is highly cross-linked, being rich in lignin and hemicellulose, suppressing the nucleation of equilibrium graphite even at 1100 °C. Rather, the carbons form highly ordered pseudographitic arrays with substantially larger intergraphene spacing (0.388 nm) than graphite (c/2 = 0.3354 nm). XRD analysis demonstrates that this allows for significant Na intercalation to occur even below 0.2 V vs Na/Na(+). By also incorporating a mild (300 °C) air activation step, we introduce hierarchical micro- and mesoporosity that tremendously improves the high rate performance through facile electrolyte access and further reduced Na ion diffusion distances. The optimized structures (carbonization at 1100 °C + activation) result in a stable cycling capacity of 298 mAh g(-1) (after 10 cycles, 50 mA g(-1)), with ∼150 mAh g(-1) of charge accumulating between 0.1 and 0.001 V with negligible voltage hysteresis in that region, nearly 100% cycling Coulombic efficiency, and superb cycling retention and high rate capacity (255 mAh g(-1) at the 210th cycle, stable capacity of 203 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1)).

  3. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  4. Vapour-Phase Processes Control Liquid-Phase Isotope Profiles in Unsaturated Sphagnum Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T. W.; Yi, Y.; Price, J. S.; Whittington, P. N.

    2009-05-01

    Seminal work in the early 1980s clearly established the basis for predicting patterns of heavy-isotope enrichment of pore waters in soils undergoing evaporation. A key feature of the process under steady-state conditions is the development of stable, convex-upward profiles whose shape is controlled by the balance between downward-diffusing heavy isotopologues concentrated by evaporative enrichment at the surface and the upward capillary flow of bulk water that maintains the evaporative flux. We conducted an analogous experiment to probe evaporation processes within 20-cm columns of unsaturated, living and dead (but undecomposed) Sphagnum moss evaporating under controlled conditions, while maintaining a constant water table. The experiment provided striking evidence of the importance of vapour-liquid mass and isotope exchange in the air-filled pores of the Sphagnum columns, as evidenced by the rapid development of hydrologic and isotopic steady-state within hours, rather than days, i.e., an order of magnitude faster than possible by liquid-phase processes alone. This is consistent with the notion that vapour-phase processes effectively "short-circuit" mass and isotope fluxes within the Sphagnum columns, as proposed also in recent characterizations of water dynamics in transpiring leaves. Additionally, advection-diffusion modelling of our results supports independent estimates of the effective liquid-phase diffusivities of the respective heavy water isotopologues, 2.380 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 for 1H1H18O and 2.415 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 for 1H2H16O, which are in notably good agreement with the "default" values that are typically assumed in soil and plant water studies.

  5. Biodegradation of diesel by mixed bacteria immobilized onto a hybrid support of peat moss and additives: a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Chul; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ahn, Yeonghee; Shin, Min-Chul; Lee, Myungjin; Yang, Ji-Won

    2010-11-15

    We report microbial cell immobilization onto a hybrid support of peat moss for diesel biodegradation. Three strains isolated from a site contaminated with diesel oil were used in this study: Acinetobacter sp., Gordonia sp., and Rhodococcus sp. To increase not only diesel adsorption but also diesel biodegradation, additives such as zeolite, bentonite, chitosan, and alginate were tested. In this study, a peat moss, bentonite, and alginate (2/2.9/0.1 g, w/w/w) hybrid support (PBA) was the best support matrix, considering both diesel physical adsorption capacity and mixed microbial immobilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  7. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  8. Influence of a step-change increase of peat moisture content on the horizontal propagation of smouldering fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat-Guitart, Nuria; Belcher, Claire M.; Hadden, Rory M.; Rein, Guillermo; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2015-04-01

    In shallow layers of peat, the transition between moss species causes a step-change of the horizontal distribution of peat moisture content. Post-fire studies in peatlands have reported shallow layers being consumed in irregular distributions. The unburned areas were found to be patches of wet Sphagnum moss. Our laboratory scale study analyses the effect of a horizontal step-change in moisture content on the spread of smouldering. We designed a laboratory-scale experiment (20×18×5 cm) within an insulated box filled with milled peat. Peat was ignited on one side of the box from which the smouldering fire horizontally self-propagates through a region of dry peat (MC1) and then through a wetter region of peat (MC2). An infrared camera, a webcam and thermocouples monitor the position of the smouldering fire spreading horizontally. The experiment was repeated with peats at different moisture content combinations to analyse the smouldering behaviour on a range of moisture content step-change conditions. The data analysis estimates the burned area and examines smouldering fire behaviour across a wide range of moisture content combinations reproducing realistic scenarios. We found that the area burned depends on peat moisture content before the step-change (MC1) as well as the increase in moisture of the step-change itself (difference between MC1 and MC2). Our study assists in researching the influence of peat moisture content on the spread of smouldering in peatland fire and contributes to a better understanding of the post-fire peatland landscape, helping to reconstruct smouldering fire events.

  9. Influence of different kind of peats on some physic-chemical properties, biochemical activity, the content of different forms of nitrogen and fractions of humic substances of The Great Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Mires, or peatlands belong to the wetlands ecosystems where carbon is bounded in primary production and deposited as peat in water saturated, anoxic conditions. In those conditions, the rate of the supply of new organic matter has exceeded that the decomposition, resulting in carbon accumulation. Place of sampling belongs to an oligotrophic landscapes of the river Klyuch basin in spurs of Vasyugan mire. The catchment represents reference system for Bokchar swampy area (political district of Tomsk region). Landscape profile crosses main kinds of swampy biogeocoenosis (BGC) toward the mire center: paludal tall mixed forest, pine undershrub Sphagnum (high riam, trans-accumulative part of a profile, P2), pine-undershrub Sphagnum (low riam, transit part, P3), sedge-moss swamp (eluvial part, P5). The latter represents an eluvial part of a slope of watershed massif where it is accomplished discharge of excess, surface, soil-mire waters. The depth of peat deposit of sedge-moss swamp reaches 2,5m. To the depth of 0,6m there is a layer of Sphagnum raised bog peat, then it is a mesotrophic Scheuchzeria Sphagnum layer and at the bottom there is a thick layer of low-mire horsetail peat. The samples of peats were taken from two places (P2 and P3), both from the depth 0-75 cm of the great Vasyugan Mire. These materials represent (P2) Sphagnum fuscum peat (ash content ranged from 10.8 to 15.1%), but samples P3 belong to low-moor sedge peat (ash content ranged from 4.5-4.8%). The differences in water level, redox potential, pH, degree of degradation, bulk density, number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, different kinds of nitrogen and humic substances were studied in two different peat soils characterized by different type of peat. In general in P2 the redox potential changed from 858 to /-140/ mV, higher activity of xanthine oxidase and peroxidase, different kinds of microorganisms (ammonifing bacteria and cellulose decomposing microorganisms) and different kinds of

  10. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Decreasing concentrations of metals in Sphagnum mosses in ombrotrophic mires of the Sudety mountains (SW Poland) since late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the evaluation of changes in metal pollution between 1986 until 2011 by Sphagnum species as bioindicators in 100 km part of the Sudety mountains influenced by the former Black Triangle Region. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in various Sphagnum species all from ombrotrophic bogs in the Sudety mountains (SW Poland). The tested hypothesis was that overall improvements in pollution control in the former Black Triangle Region between 1986 until recent reduced the amount of metals deposited and accumulated by these plants. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Sphagnum species were very high in 1986 indicating a heavy pollution of the examined bogs in this period, and significantly higher than in samples collected in 2011. The PCCA ordination showed the similar pattern in all bogs. In 2011 concentration of the Co was significantly higher in hollow species and concentration of Mn was significantly higher in those from hummocks. Differences between hollow/hummock sites were more important than species-specific abilities of Sphagnum mosses to accumulate metals. Species from hollows were better bioindicators of Co and those from hummocks were better bioindicators of Mn pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acrotelm pedogenesis of a Sphagnum bog is reflected in effective unsaturated hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. Modeling of these processes is crucial in assessing effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. The Richards equation (RE) is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. To check the suitability of the RE to describe the water dynamics in drying moss and peat we conducted transient laboratory evaporation experiments on undisturbed samples from the entire acrotelm. The experimental data consisted of measured pressure heads in two depths and water fluxes, and were evaluated by inverse modelling using the RE as process model. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well only if the soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) were represented by a suitable model. A successful parameterisation of the SHPs of the moss was based on pore-size distributions (PSD) which combine three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss, reflecting an inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore space. We had to extend the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model to account for non-capillary water storage and flow to obtain consistent descriptions of the observations. For the deeper samples, the pedogenesis of the acrotelm, a process of compaction and biochemical degradation of the solid matrix, had considerably impact on the shape of the SHPs. The collapse of the inter-plant pores and their filling with smaller particles led gradually to bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth. This coincides with a homogenisation and a considerably reduction in horizontal variability of SHPs at greater depths. We conclude that the RE with adequate representation of SHPs is a valid process

  13. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  14. Applications of peat-based sorbents for removal of metals from water

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Stack, E.M.; Eltayeb, S.

    1995-12-31

    The results reported in this paper are derived from one part of an ongoing investigation of peat sorption properties, in particular, the capacities of acid-treated peats to adsorb chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium from water. Acid treatment was done to remove as much previously adsorbed metal as possible before testing. Four peat types were selected for study, two highly decomposed types (a woody, Taxodium-dominated peat from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia and a sedge-dominated, charcoal-rich peat from the Tamiami Trail region of Florida) and two less decomposed ones (a Sphagnum moss-dominated peat from Maine and a Nymphaea-dominated peat frommore » the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia). Single metal and mixed metal solutions were tested in slurry experiments with each peat type. Solutions were analyzed using a Perkin-Elmer model 305B Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. In single metal tests, chromium and copper tended to be adsorbed to a greater extent than the other metals. Three of the peats were found to be capable of adsorbine more copper ions than zince ions, while a fourth type adsorbed approximately the same amounts of each. Degree of decomposition of the peats tended to affect sorption properties for certain metals. The results of batch studies revealed that chromium was always preferentially adsorbed regardless of the peat type tested. The results of these studies further confirm that remediation of metal-contaminated waters using peats will require selection of specific peats to match the contaminants.« less

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-03-01

    . The yearly GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 ± 465.2 to 644.5 ± 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 ± 176.5 and -234.9 ± 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the exported carbon through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years after rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground surface. Sphagnum farming is a climate friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

  16. Factors controlling fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni

    1992-01-01

    . Dissolved DMS, MSH, and OCS in the surface of the water table were supersaturated with respect to their concentrations in the atmosphere. Sphagnum mosses did not appear to be a direct source of VSC's, however they increase transport of DMS from the peat surface to the atmosphere.

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Deepening of the Combustion Front into Peat Layers Different in Botanical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasymov, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The deepening of the center of combustion into peat layers of different botanical compositions (pine-cotton grass and grass-sphagnum peats), typical for the Tomsk region, was investigated experimentally. Peats were ignited from a model ground forest fire initiated by firing of a needle-litter layer. As a result of laboratory investigations, the change in the temperature in the bulk of peat samples with time was determined and analyzed, and the rates of their combustion in the horizontal and vertical directions were estimated. It was established that a fire penetrates deep into a layer of grass-sphagnum peat, containing more than 70% of combustion conductors in its composition, more rapidly as compared to that of pine-cotton grass peat. The rates of combustion of grass-sphagnum peat in the vertical and horizontal directions are larger by 20 and 22%, respectively, than those of pine-cotton grass peat, which is evidently due to the botanical composition of grass-sphagnum peat and the random arrangement of components in its layers.

  18. PCA and multidimensional visualization techniques united to aid in the bioindication of elements from transplanted Sphagnum palustre moss exposed in the Gdańsk City area.

    PubMed

    Astel, Aleksander; Astel, Karolina; Biziuk, Marek

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, a technique for assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy elements was developed based on the principle that samples of moss are able to accumulate elements and airborne particles from rain, melting snow and dry deposition. Despite a broad interest in bioindication there are still ongoing works aimed at the preparation of a standard procedure allowing for a comparison of research carried out in various areas. This is why the comparison of living and dry moss of the same species and growth site seems to be interesting, logical and promising. A most reliable approach seems to be the application of bioindication connected with multivariate statistics and efficient visualization techniques in the interpretation of monitoring data. The aim of this study was: (i) to present cumulative properties of transplanted Sphagnum palustre moss with differentiation into dry and living biomaterial; (ii) to determine and geographically locate types of pollution sources responsible for a structure of the monitoring data set; (iii) to visualize geographical distribution of analytes in the Gdańsk metropolitan area and to identify the high-risk areas which can be targeted for environmental hazards and public health. A six month air pollution study based on Sphagnum palustre bioindication is presented and a simplified procedure of the experiment is given. The study area was located at the mouth of the Vistula River on the Baltic Sea, in Gdańsk City (Poland). Sphagnum palustre was selected for research because of its extraordinary morphological properties and its ease in being raised. The capability of dry and living moss to accumulate elements characteristic for anthropogenic and natural sources was shown by application of Principal Component Analysis. The high-risk areas and pollution profiles are detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. The original selection of elements included all those that could be reliably determined by

  19. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Yan, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanan; Fang, Yanming

    2018-02-22

    Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation ( p < 0.05) between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation ( p < 0.05) was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  20. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Yan, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanan; Fang, Yanming

    2018-01-01

    Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution. PMID:29470433

  1. Differing source water inputs, moderated by evaporative enrichment, determine the contrasting δ18OCELLULOSE signals in maritime Antarctic moss peat banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royles, Jessica; Sime, Louise C.; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Convey, Peter; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen isotope palaeoclimate records, preserved in moss tissue cellulose, are complicated by environmental influences on the relationships between source water inputs and evaporative conditions. We carried out stable isotope analyses of precipitation collected from the maritime Antarctic and cellulose extracted from co-located Chorisodontium aciphyllum dominated moss peat bank deposits accumulated since 1870 A.D. Analyses of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of summer precipitation on Signy Island (60.7°S, 45.6°W) established a local meteoric water line (LMWL) similar to both the global MWL and other LMWLs, and almost identical to the HadAM3 isotope-enabled global circulation model output. The oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose (δ18OC) revealed little temporal variation between four moss peat banks on Signy Island since 1870. However, δ18OC followed two patterns with Sites A and D consistently 3‰ enriched relative to δ18OC values from Sites B and C. The growing moss surfaces at Sites A and D are likely to have been hydrated by isotopically heavier summer precipitation, whilst at Sites B and C, the moss banks are regularly saturated by the isotopically depleted snow melt streams. Laboratory experiments revealed that evaporative enrichment of C. aciphyllum moss leaf water by 5‰ occurred rapidly following saturation (ecologically equivalent to post-rainfall or snow melt periods). In addition to the recognized source water-cellulose fractionation extent of 27 ± 3‰, such a shift would account for the 32‰ difference measured between δ18O of Signy Island precipitation and cellulose.

  2. A phylogenetic delimitation of the "Sphagnum subsecundum complex" (Sphagnaceae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Boles, Sandra; Shaw, Blanka

    2008-06-01

    A seemingly obvious but sometimes overlooked premise of any evolutionary analysis is delineating the group of taxa under study. This is especially problematic in some bryophyte groups because of morphological simplicity and convergence. This research applies information from nucleotide sequences for eight plastid and nuclear loci to delineate a group of northern hemisphere peat moss species, the so-called Sphagnum subsecundum complex, which includes species known to be gametophytically haploid or diploid (i.e., sporophytically diploid-tetraploid). Despite the fact that S. subsecundum and several species in the complex have been attributed disjunct ranges that include all major continents, phylogenetic analyses suggest that the group is actually restricted to Europe and eastern North America. Plants from western North America, from California to Alaska, which are morphologically similar to species of the S. subsecundum complex in eastern N. America and Europe, actually belong to a different deep clade within Sphagnum section Subsecunda. One species often considered part of the S. subsecundum complex, S. contortum, likely has a reticulate history involving species in the two deepest clades within section Subsecunda. Nucleotide sequences have a strong geographic structure across the section Subsecunda, but shallow tip clades suggest repeated long-distance dispersal in the section as well.

  3. Light-stress avoidance mechanisms in a Sphagnum-dominated wet coastal Arctic tundra ecosystem in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zona, D; Oechel, Walter C; Richards, James H; Hastings, Steven; Kopetz, Irene; Ikawa, Hiroki; Oberbauer, Steven

    2011-03-01

    The Arctic experiences a high-radiation environment in the summer with 24-hour daylight for more than two months. Damage to plants and ecosystem metabolism can be muted by overcast conditions common in much of the Arctic. However, with climate change, extreme dry years and clearer skies could lead to the risk of increased photoxidation and photoinhibition in Arctic primary producers. Mosses, which often exceed the NPP of vascular plants in Arctic areas, are often understudied. As a result, the effect of specific environmental factors, including light, on these growth forms is poorly understood. Here, we investigated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the ecosystem scale, net Sphagnum CO2 exchange (NSE), and photoinhibition to better understand the impact of light on carbon exchange from a moss-dominated coastal tundra ecosystem during the summer season 2006. Sphagnum photosynthesis showed photoinhibition early in the season coupled with low ecosystem NEE. However, later in the season, Sphagnum maintained a significant CO2 uptake, probably for the development of subsurface moss layers protected from strong radiation. We suggest that the compact canopy structure of Sphagnum reduces light penetration to the subsurface layers of the moss mat and thereby protects the active photosynthetic tissues from damage. This stress avoidance mechanism allowed Sphagnum to constitute a significant percentage (up to 60%) of the ecosystem net daytime CO2 uptake at the end of the growing season despite the high levels of radiation experienced.

  4. Development of the sphagnoid areolation pattern in leaves of Palaeozoic protosphagnalean mosses.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Oleg V; Maslova, Elena V; Ignatov, Michael S

    2018-04-11

    Protosphagnalean mosses constitute the largest group of extinct mosses of still uncertain affinity. Having the general morphology of the Bryopsida, some have leaves with an areolation pattern characteristic of modern Sphagna. This study describes the structure and variation of these patterns in protosphagnalean mosses and provides a comparison with those of modern Sphagna. Preparations of fossil mosses showing preserved leaf cell structure were obtained by dissolving rock, photographed, and the resulting images were transformed to graphical format and analysed with Areoana computer software. The sphagnoid areolation pattern is identical in its basic structure for both modern Sphagnum and Palaeozoic protosphagnalean mosses. However, in the former group the pattern develops through unequal oblique cell divisions, while in the latter the same pattern is a result of equal cell divisions taking place in a specific order with subsequent uneven cell growth. The protosphagnalean pathway leads to considerable variability in leaf structure. Protosphagnalean mosses had a unique ability to switch the development of leaf areolation between a pathway unique to Sphagnum and another one common to all other mosses. This developmental polyvariancy hinders attempts to classify these mosses, as characters previously considered to be of generic significance can be shown to co-occur in one individual leaf. New understanding of the ontogeny has allowed us to re-evaluate the systematic significance of such diagnostic characters in these Palaeozoic plants, showing that their similarity to Sphagnum is less substantial.

  5. Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov., a photochromogenic bacterium isolated from sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Geoffrey D; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Fordice, Daniel; Welch, Jacqueline B; Dahl, John L

    2013-01-01

    Several intermediate-growing, photochromogenic bacteria were isolated from sphagnum peat bogs in northern Minnesota, USA. Acid-fast staining and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed these environmental isolates in the genus Mycobacterium, and colony morphologies and PCR restriction analysis patterns of the isolates were similar. Partial sequences of hsp65 and dnaJ1 from these isolates showed that Mycobacterium arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T) was the closest mycobacterial relative, and common biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities existed between the isolates and M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T). However, compared to nonchromogenic M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T), the environmental isolates were photochromogenic, had a different mycolic acid profile and had reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity in liquid culture. The data reported here support the conclusion that the isolates are representatives of a novel mycobacterial species, for which the name Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DL49(T) (=DSM 45633(T) = JCM 17932(T) = NCCB 100399(T)).

  6. Sphagnum establishment in alkaline fens: Importance of weather and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vicherová, Eliška; Hájek, Michal; Šmilauer, Petr; Hájek, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    Sphagnum expansion to alkaline fens has accelerated during the last decades in Europe, leading to changes in diversity, habitat distributions and carbon storage. The causes are still not clearly understood and involve an interplay between climate change, hydrology, nutrient supply and Sphagnum physiology. We conducted a 4-year field experiment in eight fens in Central European highlands and assessed survival and establishment of individual apical shoot fragments of S. flexuosum, S. warnstorfii and S. squarrosum transplanted along the microtopographical gradient. In a laboratory experiment, we tested combined effects of desiccation and high calcium bicarbonate concentration on Sphagnum survival. We found that in unflooded positions, living shoots of Sphagnum and brown mosses lowered [Ca 2+ ] and pH in their capillary water, in contrast to dead fragments; yet without differences between species. Survival and expansion of Sphagnum fragments, which did not die of acute calcium toxicity during first weeks/months, was negatively affected by dry weather and alkaline water chemistry, reflecting Sphagnum intolerance to desiccation and to combined high [Ca 2+ ] and pH. Shoot fragments expanded to patches only when precipitation was high. Interestingly, non-toxic concentration of calcium bicarbonate reduced desiccation damage in Sphagnum, probably through protection of membranes or other cell components. This mechanism would facilitate Sphagnum survival in elevated, frequently desiccated microhabitats of calcareous fens such as brown-moss hummocks. However, since water-retaining capacity of few Sphagnum shoots is insufficient to change water chemistry in its surroundings, surface acidification may occur only once the environment (e.g. sufficient humidity) enabled expansion to larger mats. Then, the retained rainwater together with hardly decomposable Sphagnum litter would separate mire surface from groundwater, speeding up successional shift towards poor fens. Sphagnum

  7. Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szövényi, Péter; Hock, Zsófia; Schneller, Jakob J; Tóth, Zoltán

    2007-01-01

    Background Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the information accumulated in the species' DNA over its history. Recent development of the coalescent theory makes it possible to reconstruct the demographic history of species using nucleotide polymorphism data. To separate the effect of natural selection and demography, multilocus analysis is needed because these two forces can produce similar patterns of polymorphisms. In this study we investigated the amount and pattern of sequence variability of a Europe wide sample set of two peat moss species (Sphagnum fimbriatum and S. squarrosum) with similar distributions and mating systems but presumably contrasting historical demographies using 3 regions of the nuclear genome (appr. 3000 bps). We aimed to draw inferences concerning demographic, and phylogeographic histories of the species. Results All three nuclear regions supported the presence of an Atlantic and Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum suggesting glacial survival of the species along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Contrarily, S. squarrosum haplotypes showed three clades but no geographic structure at all. Maximum likelihood, mismatch and Bayesian analyses supported a severe historical bottleneck and a relatively recent demographic expansion of the Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum, whereas size of S. squarrosum populations has probably decreased in the past. Species wide molecular diversity of the two species was nearly the same with an excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum. Similar levels of molecular diversity, contrasting phylogeographic patterns and excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum

  8. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  9. SPRUCE: Sphagnum Productivity and Community Composition in the SPRUCE Experimental Plots

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Childs, J.

    This data set reports annual dry matter production of Sphagnum in replicated growth columns, the composition of the moss community, and plot-average Sphagnum productivity in the SPRUCE experimental study plots located in the S1-Bog. Data are reported for 2016 (October 2015 to October 2016) and 2017 (October 2016 to October 2017). Additional data will be appended as they become available.

  10. [Effect of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum on the structure and physiological state of bacterial communities].

    PubMed

    Dobrovol'skaya, T G; Golovchenko, A V; Yakushev, A V; Manucharova, N A; Yurchenko, E N

    2014-01-01

    The microcosm method was used to demonstrate an increase in bacterial numbers and drastic changes in the taxonomic structure of saprotrophic bacteria as a result of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum moss. Ekkrisotrophic agrobacteria predominant in untreated moss were replaced by hydrolytic bacteria. Molecular biological approaches revealed such specific hydrolytic bacteria as Janthinobacterium agaricum and Streptomyces purpurascens among the dominant taxa. The application of kinetic technique for determination of the physiological state of bacteria in situ revealed higher functional diversity of hydrolytic bacteria in ground moss than in untreated samples. A considerable decrease of the C/N ratio in ground samples of living Sphagnum incubated using the microcosm technique indicated decomposition of this substrate.

  11. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Plant diversity affects GHG fluxes in an ecological engineering experiment in a disturbed Sphagnum peatland (La Guette, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogo, Sébastien; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Leroy, Fabien; Guimbaud, Christophe; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2017-04-01

    Many Sphagnum peatlands are experiencing vegetation change caused mainly by hydrological disturbances. In the context of these direct and indirect modifications, greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes are affected by peat oxygenation, changes in litter composition (and thus decomposition) and rhizospheric processes (such as root exudates). This could lead a C sink system to switch to a source. To restore peatland functioning, ecological engineering works can be undertaken. Our study site, La Guette peatland (central France) is invaded by Molinia caerulea because a drain at the output decreased the water table depth. It was shown that it functioned as a source of C. In 2014, hydrological works were undertaken: 8 dams were installed, ditches were dug perpendicular to the water flow and back-filled with a mixture of shales and bentonite. In addition, a biodiversity experiment with 2 identical experimental stations was implemented: "downstream", close to the hydraulic works (relatively wet), "upstream", (relatively dry), with types of 3 vegetation plot (2m x 2m, n=4): 1) "control": intact vegetation (Molinia caerulea, Erica tetralix), 2) "bare" peat: vegetation and 5cm of peat were removed, 3) "Sphagnum": bare peat+Sphagnum. Our study aims to assess the effect of the vegetation treatment on the GHG fluxes. CO2 (ecosystem respiration or ER, Gross Primary Production or GPP, and Net Ecosystem Exchange) and CH4 fluxes (manual accumulation chamber), air and soil temperature, water table level, soil moisture were measured. After 18 months, half of the surface of "bare" and "Sphagnum" plots were covered by vegetation (Eriophorum angustifolium, Rynchospora alba, Trichophorum cespitosum). With time, as succession unfolds in these 2 types of station, ER and GPP increased. The sensitivity of ER to temperature increased sharply in "bare" and "Sphagnum" plots with years and became higher than the sensitivity in "control" plots. GPP increased with the total vegetation percentage cover

  13. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    Treesearch

    Anthony P. Walker; Kelsey R. Carter; Lianhong Gu; Paul J. Hanson; Avni Malhotra; Richard J. Norby; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Stan D. Wullschleger; David J. Weston

    2017-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum...

  14. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  15. Three-genome mosses: complex double allopolyploid origins for triploid gametophytes in Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Eric F; Boles, S B; Ricca, M; Temsch, E M; Greilhuber, J; Shaw, A J

    2009-04-01

    This paper documents the occurrence of allotriploidy (having three differentiated genomes) in gametophytes of two Southern Hemisphere Sphagnum species (S. australe, S. falcatulum). The pattern of microsatellite alleles indicates that both species are composed of a complex of allodiploid and allotriploid gametophytes, with the latter resulting from two allopolyploidization events. No haploid (n = x) gametophytes were found for either species. The ploidal levels suggested by the pattern of microsatellite alleles were confirmed by flow cytometry and Feulgen DNA image densitometry. For both S. australe and S. falcatulum, the respective allodiploid plants (or their ancestors) are one of the parent species of the allotriploid plants. This is the first report of triploidy in Sphagnum gametophytes occurring in nature and also the first report of the presence of three differentiated genomes in any bryophyte. It is also the first report of intersectional allopolyploidy in Sphagnum, with S. australe appearing to have parental species from Sphagnum sections Rigida and Sphagnum, and S. falcatulum having parental species from Sphagnum sections Cuspidata and Subsecunda. In both species, the allotriploid cytotypes were the most prevalent cytotype on the South Island of New Zealand. The pattern of microsatellite alleles shows the presence of two genetically distinct populations of allodiploid S. australe, possibly indicating multiple origins of polyploidy for that allodiploid cytotype. Morphological evidence is also highly indicative of recurrent polyploidy in the allotriploid cytotype of S. falcatulum. Allopolyploidy has clearly played a major evolutionary role in these two Southern Hemisphere taxa. This study, in conjunction with other recent research, indicates that allopolyploidy is a common, if not the predominant, form of polyploidy in Sphagnum.

  16. Sphagnum palustre clone vs native Pseudoscleropodium purum: A first trial in the field to validate the future of the moss bag technique.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Adamo, P; Di Palma, A; Aboal, J R; Bargagli, R; Fernandez, J A; Lopez Mahia, P; Reski, R; Tretiach, M; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2017-06-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on the use of transplanted mosses for biomonitoring of air pollution, no article has addressed so far the use and the accumulation performance of a cloned moss for this purpose. In this work, a direct comparison of metal accumulation between bags filled with a Sphagnum palustre L. clone or with native Pseudoscleropodium purum Hedw., one of the most used moss species in biomonitoring surveys, was investigated. The test was performed in sites with different atmospheric contamination levels selected in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of Italy and Spain. Among the eighteen elements investigated, S. palustre was significantly enriched in 10 elements (Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sr, V and Zn), while P. purum was enriched only in 6 elements (Al, Ba, Cu, Hg, Pb and Sr), and had a consistently lower uptake capacity than S. palustre. The clone proved to be more sensitive in terms of metal uptake and showed a better performance as a bioaccumulator, providing a higher accumulation signal and allowing a finer distinction among the different land uses and levels of pollution. The excellent uptake performance of the S. palustre clone compared to the native P. purum and its low and stable baseline elemental content, evidenced in this work, are key features for the improvement of the moss bag approach and its large scale application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water relations in cutover peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jonathan S.; Ketcheson, Scott J.

    Sphagnum mosses, the dominant peat-forming plant in many northern peatlands, generally do not regenerate spontaneously in mined peatlands because water transfer between the cutover peat and incipient moss diaspores cannot overcome the capillary barrier effect between the two hydraulically distinct layers. Artificial drainage networks established throughout peatlands, coupled with the removal of the acrotelm during the peat extraction process, drastically alter the natural system function through the exposure of more decomposed catotelm peat and increased compression, oxidation, and shrinkage, subsequently decreasing average pore diameter and enhancing this capillary barrier effect. Water table (WT) fluctuations, constrained within the reduced specific yield of the altered catotelm, exhibit increased variability and rapid decline. The increased effective stress caused by a declining WT can result in seasonal surface subsidence of 8 to 10 cm, thereby reducing saturated hydraulic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Restoration efforts aim to alter the disturbed hydrological regime, creating conditions more favorable for the recolonization of Sphagnum mosses and the ultimate reestablishment of an upper acrotelm layer. Due to the large areal coverage and high organic carbon content, the response of peatlands to disturbances caused by resource extraction, and their return to functioning ecosystems, must be thoroughly addressed. This paper integrates both published and unpublished work to facilitate an overview of our understanding of the hydrological impact of peat cutting and its implications for restoration.

  18. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  19. Development of a Waste Water Regenerative System - Using Sphagnum Moss Ion-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeon, M.; Wheeler, R.; Leahy, Jj

    The use of inexpensive, light weight and regenerative systems in an enclosed environment is of great importance to sustained existence in such habitats as the International Space Station, Moon or even Mars. Many systems exist which utilise various synthetic ion exchangers to complete the process of waste water clean-up. These systems do have a very good exchange rate for cations but a very low exchange rate for anions. They also have a maximum capacity before they need regeneration. This research proposes a natural alternative to these synthetic ion-exchangers that utilises one of natures greatest ion-exchangers, that of Sphagnum Moss. Sphagna can be predominantly found in the nutrient poor environment of Raised Bogs, a type of isolated wetland with characteristic low pH and little interaction with the surrounding water table. All nutrients come from precipitation. The sphagna have developed as the bog's sponges, soaking up all available nutrients (both cation & anion) from the precipitation and eventually distributing them to the surrounding flora and fauna, through the water. The goal of this research is to use this ability in the processing of waste water from systems similar to isolated microgravity environments, to produce clean water for reuse in these environments. The nutrients taken up by the sphagna will also be utilised as a growth medium for cultivar growth, such as those selected for hydroponics' systems.

  20. Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gajewski, K. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Viau, A. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sawada, M. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Atkinson, D. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, S. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of Sphagnum spores in North America and Eurasia are mapped for the past 21ka, as described in Gajewski et al. (2002). In summary, spore data were taken from existing pollen data bases, as were radiocarbon chronologies. The abundance of Sphagnum spores was mapped at 2000-year intervals beginning 21000 years BP (before present). The present-day distribution of abundant Sphagnum spores corresponds closely to areas with peatland development, with maximum Sphagnum abundance between 630 and 1300 mm annual precipitation and between -2° and 60°C mean annual air temperature. Carbon content of peatlands was generated from estimated peatland area, calculated values of peat thickness, and specified values of bulk density (112 × 103 g m-3) and fraction of carbon (51.7%).

  1. Review of the inorganic geochemistry of peats and peatland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William

    1988-06-01

    The major floristic and geochemical differences between bogs, fens, and swamps are summarized, and the most common peat types described. This is followed by a critical, historical review of the literature. The methods used to measure the pH of peatland (mire) waters are examined, and the pH range of various peatland types is reported. In addition, horizontal and vertical pH variations are illustrated, and factors affecting the pH of these waters reviewed. The cause of the low pH of surface waters of Sphagnum bogs (approximately pH 4) is critically investigated, and the relative importance of dissolved CO 2 and other inorganic acids, and organic acids to the low pH is assessed. Cation exchange on the surfaces of Sphagnum mosses is found to be a relatively unimportant acidification mechanism, but important to the chemical ecology of the plants. The redox chemistry of mire waters is described in terms of the geochemistry of such redox indicators as O 2, CO 2, CH 4, CO, H 2, H 2S, SO 42-, native Cu, and siderite (FeCO 3). Published studies of Eh in peatlands are cited, and the problems of Eh measurement and interpretation are explored. The chemical composition of mire waters (major and trace metals, and nonmetallic species) is examined, and factors affecting their composition reported. The abundance and distribution of mineral matter in peats is described, and the occurrence and formation of minerals of Fe (pyrite and other sulphides, siderite, vivianite), Cu (chalcopyrite, native Cu, covellite) and Zn (smithsonite and wurtzite) investigated. The abundance and distribution of major elements (Si, Al, Na, K, Mg, Ca) and trace metals (Ni, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, U, Zn, Pb) is described, and factors affecting their solubility examined.

  2. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

  3. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on greenhouse gas fluxes from peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. D.; Rezanezhad, F.; Markelov, I.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ongoing displacement of climate zones by global warming is increasing the frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles in middle and high latitude regions, many of which are dominated by organic soils such as peat. Repeated freezing and thawing of soils changes their physical properties, geochemistry, and microbial community structure, which together govern the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. In this presentation, we focus on how freeze-thaw cycles influence greenhouse gas fluxes from peat using a newly developed experimental soil column system that simulates realistic soil temperature profiles during freeze-thaw cycles. We measured the surface and subsurface changes to gas and aqueous phase chemistry to delineate the diffusion pathways and quantify soil greenhouse gas fluxes during freeze-thaw cycles using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a conservative tracer. Three peat columns were assembled inside a temperature controlled chamber with different soil structures. All three columns were packed with 40 cm of undisturbed, slightly decomposed peat, where the soil of two columns had an additional 10 cm layer on top (one with loose Sphagnum moss and one with an impermeable plug). The results indicate that the release of SF6 and CO2 gas from the soil surface was influenced by the recurrent development of a physical ice barrier, which prevented gas exchange between the soil and atmosphere during freezing conditions. With the onset of thawing a pulse of SF6 and CO2 occurred, resulting in a flux of 3.24 and 2095.52 µmol/m2h, respectively, due to the build-up of gases in the liquid-phase pore space during freezing. Additionally, we developed a model to determine the specific diffusion coefficients for each peat column. These data allow us to better predict how increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles will affect greenhouse gas emissions in northern peat soils.

  4. Sphagnum mosses limit total carbon consumption during fire in Alaskan black spruce forests

    Treesearch

    G. Shetler; .R. Turetsky; E. Kane; E. Kasischke

    2008-01-01

    The high water retention of hummock-forming Sphagnum species minimizes soil moisture fluctuations and might protect forest floor organic matter from burning during wildfire. We hypothesized that Sphagnum cover reduces overall forest floor organic matter consumption during wildfire compared with other ground-layer vegetation. We...

  5. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  6. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  7. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  8. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. The maximum discharge speed measured was 3.6 m s(-1). Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R(2) = 0.58-0.65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0.84-1.86 cm s(-1), about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species.

  9. Ecohydrology of a Sphagnum peatland in transitional climate - an interdysciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowińska, S.; Słowiński, M.; Lamentowicz, M.; Skrzypek, G.

    2012-04-01

    Sphagnum peatlands of the Central Europe are regarded as the valuable and endangered habitats. Their existence depends on the complex climatic, hydrological, topographical and botanical conditions. Good understanding of peatlands' ecohydrology is crucial for the appropriate environmental management. Our long-term ecological study is focused on a poor fen located in Northern Poland - a unique floristic nature reserve and Nature 2000 area. Main aims of the research were to: a) understand an influence of the temperature and precipitation on the ground water, b) explain an impact of the local climate and the groundwater table level on testate amoebae communities, Sphagnum mosses growth and stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope compositions, c) use the neo- ecological data for the quantitative palaeoecological reconstructions. We have been conducting the monitoring of the growth of Sphagnum mosses in five plots. Vegetation was sampled three times during the growing season for the stable isotope and testate amoebae analyses (July, September and December 2009). Temperature of the air and acrotelm, air humidity, precipitation and groundwater table were recorded using automatic data loggers. Our research confirmed that even small fluctuation of temperature, precipitation and annual distribution of precipitation have a very strong impact on the hydrology of the peatland. Testate amoeba communities and stable isotopes from Sphagnum clearly indicated the hydrological response of the mire in the different parts of the peatland. The next step is a detailed seasonal study supported by the manipulative warming experiment.

  10. Evaluation of biochar-anaerobic potato digestate mixtures as renewable components of horticultural potting media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various formulations are used in horticultural potting media, with sphagnum peat moss, vermiculite and perlite currently among the most common components. We are examining a dried anaerobic digestate remaining after the fermentation of potato processing wastes to replace organic components such as p...

  11. Dielectric Properties of Marsh Vegetation in a Frequency Range of 0.1-18 GHz Under Variation of Temperature and Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, A. N.; Kochetkova, T. D.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Shcheglova, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric characteristics of some species of marsh vegetation: lichen Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar, moss Sphagnum, and a representative of Bryidae mosses - Dicranum polysetum are studied in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 18 GHz. At a frequency of 1.41 GHz, the influence of temperature in the range from -12 to +20°C on the behavior of dielectric characteristics of mosses, lichens, and peat is studied. The dependences of the dielectric characteristics of vegetation on the volumetric wetness are established.

  12. The response of vegetation structure to active warming and precipitation reduction of the Sphagnum peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuców, Dominika; Basińska, Anna; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Gąbka, Maciej; Józefczyk, Damian; Juszczak, Radosław; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz; Reczuga, Monika; Samson, Mateusz; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    The recent climate change (e.g. increased temperature and decreased precipitation) is expected to affect biodiversity and vegetation structure of the European peatlands, as well as carbon fluxes. Our experimental study carried out in Western Poland, tests the hypothesis that the increased temperature, in particular in combination with rainfall reduction affects vegetation structure of the Sphagnum peatland, through changes in moss and vascular plants abundance. The innovative climate manipulation system was installed on the Rzecin peatland in 2014. The field site consists of four blocks: "drought" "warming and drought" "warming" and "control". The air and peat temperatures were increased in 2015 and 2016 by about 0.2 oC and 1.0 oC, respectively, using infrared radiators. Precipitation was reduced by automatic curtain operated only during the nights by about 37 % in both years. Data resulting from the analyses of digital pictures as well as Point Intercept method were used to identify changes in vegetation structure as a response to warming and drought. We observed increase in abundance of vascular plant and decrease in abundance of mosses during the very dry 2015 vegetation season. It appeared that Carex spp. (C. limosa and C. rostrata) abundance responded positively to warming, while Sphagnum spp. (S. angustifolium and S. teres) responded negatively. The "warming" block was characterized by an increase in abundance of Carex spp. by 8.3 % to 16.7 % and decreased abundance of Sphagnum spp. from 25 % to 19.4 %, whereas in the block of "warming and drought" 11.4 % to by 18.3 and 38 % to 26.9 %, respectively in the August 2015. However, we observed decrease in Sphagnum spp. abundance in the treatment with rainfall reduction in wetter 2016, and their increase in the control. Our results show how considerable changes in vegetation structure can be expected under the stress of warming and modified rainfall conditions, even after a short-term manipulation. However, it is

  13. Water Use and Growth of Two Woody Taxa Produced in Varying Indigenous Douglas-Fir Based Soilless Substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) container crops are grown in soilless substrates that contain different percentages of Douglas-fir bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss and pumice. Previous research conducted by Gabriel et al. found varying combinations and ratios of these components result in differing phy...

  14. Effect of mechanical fragmentation of sphagnum on population density and structure of micromycete communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, T. A.; Golovchenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The population density and taxonomic structure of micromycetes were monitored for six months in a model experiment with natural and mechanically fragmented (fine and coarse) samples of sphagnum. Sphagnum fragmentation favored an increase in the number of micromycetes only during the first week of the experiment. On the average, the number of micromycetes in fine-fragmented samples was two times greater than that in the coarse-fragmented samples. The diversity of micromycetes increased in the fragmented samples of sphagnum owing to the activation of some species, which remained in the inactive state as spores in the peat before fragmentation.

  15. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. <20 Ma). Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Organellar phylogenomics of an emerging model system: Sphagnum (peatmoss).

    PubMed

    Jonathan Shaw, A; Devos, Nicolas; Liu, Yang; Cox, Cymon J; Goffinet, Bernard; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Shaw, Blanka

    2016-08-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands contain approx. 30 % of the terrestrial carbon pool in the form of partially decomposed plant material (peat), and, as a consequence, Sphagnum is currently a focus of studies on biogeochemistry and control of global climate. Sphagnum species differ in ecologically important traits that scale up to impact ecosystem function, and sequencing of the genome from selected Sphagnum species is currently underway. As an emerging model system, these resources for Sphagnum will facilitate linking nucleotide variation to plant functional traits, and through those traits to ecosystem processes. A solid phylogenetic framework for Sphagnum is crucial to comparative analyses of species-specific traits, but relationships among major clades within Sphagnum have been recalcitrant to resolution because the genus underwent a rapid radiation. Herein a well-supported hypothesis for phylogenetic relationships among major clades within Sphagnum based on organellar genome sequences (plastid, mitochondrial) is provided. We obtained nucleotide sequences (273 753 nucleotides in total) from the two organellar genomes from 38 species (including three outgroups). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a variety of methods applied to nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The Sphagnum phylogeny was rooted with sequences from the related Sphagnopsida genera, Eosphagnum and Flatbergium Phylogenetic analyses of the data converge on the following subgeneric relationships: (Rigida (((Subsecunda) (Cuspidata)) ((Sphagnum) (Acutifolia))). All relationships were strongly supported. Species in the two major clades (i.e. Subsecunda + Cuspidata and Sphagnum + Acutifolia), which include >90 % of all Sphagnum species, differ in ecological niches and these differences correlate with other functional traits that impact biogeochemical cycling. Mitochondrial intron presence/absence are variable among species and genera of the Sphagnopsida. Two new nomenclatural combinations are made

  17. Organellar phylogenomics of an emerging model system: Sphagnum (peatmoss)

    PubMed Central

    Jonathan Shaw, A.; Devos, Nicolas; Liu, Yang; Cox, Cymon J.; Goffinet, Bernard; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Shaw, Blanka

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Sphagnum-dominated peatlands contain approx. 30 % of the terrestrial carbon pool in the form of partially decomposed plant material (peat), and, as a consequence, Sphagnum is currently a focus of studies on biogeochemistry and control of global climate. Sphagnum species differ in ecologically important traits that scale up to impact ecosystem function, and sequencing of the genome from selected Sphagnum species is currently underway. As an emerging model system, these resources for Sphagnum will facilitate linking nucleotide variation to plant functional traits, and through those traits to ecosystem processes. A solid phylogenetic framework for Sphagnum is crucial to comparative analyses of species-specific traits, but relationships among major clades within Sphagnum have been recalcitrant to resolution because the genus underwent a rapid radiation. Herein a well-supported hypothesis for phylogenetic relationships among major clades within Sphagnum based on organellar genome sequences (plastid, mitochondrial) is provided. Methods We obtained nucleotide sequences (273 753 nucleotides in total) from the two organellar genomes from 38 species (including three outgroups). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a variety of methods applied to nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The Sphagnum phylogeny was rooted with sequences from the related Sphagnopsida genera, Eosphagnum and Flatbergium. Key Results Phylogenetic analyses of the data converge on the following subgeneric relationships: (Rigida (((Subsecunda) (Cuspidata)) ((Sphagnum) (Acutifolia))). All relationships were strongly supported. Species in the two major clades (i.e. Subsecunda + Cuspidata and Sphagnum + Acutifolia), which include >90 % of all Sphagnum species, differ in ecological niches and these differences correlate with other functional traits that impact biogeochemical cycling. Mitochondrial intron presence/absence are variable among species and genera of the Sphagnopsida. Two

  18. Effect of biochar type on macronutrient retention and release from soilless substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of column studies were conducted to determine the influence of three different biochar types on nitrate, phosphate, and potassium retention and leaching in a typical greenhouse soilless substrate. Glass columns were filled with 85 sphagnum peat moss : 15 perlite (v:v) and amended with 10% ...

  19. The Effect of Long-term Nutrient Addition on Peat Properties in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Bubier, J. L.; Knorr, K. H.; Roy, C.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric inputs of nutrients, particularly N and P, to ecosystems have increased and may have a significant effect on nutrient-deficient peatlands such as bogs. At the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Canada, we have conducted an experiment over 10 to 20 years by adding 1.6 to 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1 (as NH4NO3), with/without 6 g P m-2 yr-1 (as K phosphate), to evaluate the effect of increased inputs on ecosystem functions. Increased N and P amendment has changed the vegetation from a mixed shrub-Sphagnum community into one dominated by shrubs with the disappearance of mosses, with changes in plant production and litter input. The largest N and P amendments have resulted in an increase in bulk density at 0-10 cm and a lowering of the peat surface by 10 to 20 cm, creating an effective rise in the water table and an increase in CH4 emission from 15 to 50 mg m-2 d-1. Peat cores to a depth of 40 cm were collected after 10 to 15 yr of amendment and showed little change in soil pH (range 4.1 to 4.5). There were substantial increases in the concentration of N and P in the peat (8 to 14 and 0.5 to 1.5 mg g-1, respectively) and general decreases in Ca and Mg concentration. The von Post humification index increased by about 1 unit in the heavily fertilized plots, with shrub leaves replacing Sphagnum as the primary litterfall. FTIR analysis of the 0-20 cm peat showed significant increases in abundance of phenolic+aliphatic, aromatic, and carboxylic relative to polysaccharide components, revealed by the following ratios of absorbance at the respective wavenumbers: 1420/1090 cm-1, 0.41 to 0.45; 1510/1090 cm-1, 0.23 to 0.30; 1630/1090 cm-1, 0.53 to 0.65; and 1720/1090 cm-1, 0.44 to 0.48, respectively. Laboratory incubations of peat samples showed that potential rates of aerobic CH4 consumption were unaffected by nutrient treatment, apart from position relative to the water table, whereas potential rates of anaerobic CH4 production near the water table increased under the P

  20. Bryophytes as Climate Indicators: moss and liverwort photosynthetic limitations and carbon isotope signals in organic material and peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, H.; Royles, J.; Horwath, A.; Hodell, D. A.; Convey, P.; Hodgson, D.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.

    2011-12-01

    Bryophytes make a significant contribution to carbon sequestration and storage in polar, boreal, temperate and tropical biomes, and yet there is limited understanding of the determinants of carbon isotope composition. Bryophytes are poikilohydric and lack stomata in the vegetative (gametophyte) stage, and lack of roots and reliance on liquid water to maintain hydration status also imposes diffusional limitations on CO2 uptake and extent of carbon isotope discrimination. Real-time gas exchange and instantaneous discrimination studies can be used to quantify responses to liquid phase limitation. Thus, wetted tissues show less negative δ13C signals due to liquid phase conductance and, as the thallus surface dries, maximum CO2 assimilation and discrimination are attained when the limitation is primarily the internal (mesophyll) conductance. Continued desiccation then leads to additional biochemical limitation in drought tolerant species, and low discrimination, although the carbon gain is low at this time. In this paper we explore the extent of carbon isotope discrimination in bulk organic material and cellulose as a function of climatic and environmental conditions, in temperate, tropical and Antarctic bryophytes. Field studies have been used to investigate seasonal variations in precipitation and water vapour inputs for cloud forest formations as a function of bryophyte biomass, diversity and isotope composition in epiphytes (particularly leafy liverworts) along an altitudinal gradient in Peru. In the Antarctic, moss banks sampled on Signy Island consisted of only two species, primarily Chorisodontium aciphyllum and some Polytrichum strictum, allowing the collection of shallow and deep cores representative of growth over the past 200 to 2000 years. The well-preserved peat has provided data on growth (14C) and stable isotopic proxies (13C, 18O) for material contemporary with recent anthropogenic climate forcing (over the past 200 years), for comparison with longer

  1. Novel insights on the structure and composition of pseudostomata of Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Merced, Amelia

    2015-03-01

    The occurrence of stomata on sporophytes of mosses and hornworts is congruent with a single origin in land plants. Although true stomata are absent in early-divergent mosses, Sphagnum has specialized epidermal cells, pseudostomata, that partially separate but do not open to the inside. This research examined two competing hypotheses that explain the origin of pseudostomata: (1) they are modified stomata, or (2) they evolved from epidermal cells independently from stomata.• Capsule anatomy and ultrastructure of pseudostomata were studied using light and electron microscopy, including immunolocalization of pectins.• Cell walls in pseudostomata are thin, two-layered, and rich in pectins, similar to young moss stomata, including the presence of cuticle on exterior walls. Outer and ventral walls have a thick cuticle that suggests that initial separation of ventral walls involves cuticle deposition as in true stomata. Further mechanical separation between ventral walls does not form a pore and occurs as the capsule dries.• As in moss stomata, pseudostomata wall architecture and behavior facilitate capsule dehydration, shape change, and dehiscence, supporting a common function. The divergent structure and fate of pseudostomata may be explained by the retention of Sphagnum sporophytes within protective leaves until nearly mature. Ultrastructural and immunocytological data suggest that pseudostomata are related to stomata but do not conclusively support either hypothesis. Solving the relationship of early land plants is critical to understanding stomatal evolution. Pseudostomata are structurally and anatomically unique, but their relationship to true stomata remains to be determined. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Re-assessing the vertical distribution of testate amoeba communities in surface peats: Implications for palaeohydrological studies.

    PubMed

    Roe, Helen M; Elliott, Suzanne M; Patterson, R Timothy

    2017-08-01

    Testate amoeba-derived transfer functions are frequently used in peatland palaeohydrological studies and involve the development of training sets from surficial peats. However, within acrotelmic peats, considerable vertical variation in assemblage composition can occur, particularly along Sphagnum stems, which may limit the representation of the associated 'contemporary' testate amoeba samples as analogues for the peatland surface. This paper presents contiguous testate amoeba assemblage data from nine monoliths collected from different peatland microforms (hummock, hollow, lawn) in three Sphagnum dominated ombrotrophic peatlands in Ontario and Quebec, eastern Canada. The aim is to: (i) gain a greater understanding of the vertical distribution of xerophilous/hygrophilous taxa along Sphagnum stems; (ii) determine the vertical extent of live/encysted taxa along this gradient; and (iii) assess the significance of this distribution on surface sampling protocols. The results show that testate amoeba communities in the uppermost acrotelmic peat layers display considerable variability. This may reflect a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic controls, including moisture, temperature, light and other characteristics, food availability, and mineral particle availability for test construction. These findings underline the complexity of testate amoeba community structure and highlight the importance of analysing both living and dead Sphagnum stem sections when developing calibration sets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered peat hydrophysical properties following drainage and wildfire increases peatland vulnerability to ecosystem regime shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, James; Kettridge, Nick; Sherwood, James; Granath, Gustaf

    2015-04-01

    Northern peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reservoir, composed largely of legacy carbon which is no longer part of the active carbon cycle. However, it is unclear whether this legacy carbon is vulnerable as a result of enhanced peat smouldering and combustion under the moderate drying conditions predicted for northern peatlands as a result of climate change and/or disturbance from forestry, mining, and associated transport development. A significant loss in legacy carbon as a result of wildfire has already been observed in smaller tropical peatlands where deep peat soils have been destabilized due to severe drainage and a shift in vegetation. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland several decades post drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition, previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands, when accompanied by wildfire. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire resulted in a shift of the peat surface down the peat profile, exposing denser peat at the surface. In undisturbed northern peatlands where depth of burn is typically low, low-density near-surface peats help regulate water-table position and near-surface moisture availability post-fire, both of which are favourable to Sphagnum recolonization. As a result of drainage and fire at the study site, the self-regulating properties of the low-density Sphagnum surface were lost. We demonstrate that changes in peat hydrophysical properties increased hydrological limitations to Sphagnum recovery leading to the conversion to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy carbon stored in the peat.

  4. Ecophysiological adjustment of two Sphagnum species in response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Gunnarsson, Urban; Ericson, Lars; Nordin, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Here, it was investigated whether Sphagnum species have adjusted their nitrogen (N) uptake in response to the anthropogenic N deposition that has drastically altered N-limited ecosystems, including peatlands, worldwide. A lawn species, Sphagnum balticum, and a hummock species, Sphagnum fuscum, were collected from three peatlands along a gradient of N deposition (2, 8 and 12 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The mosses were subjected to solutions containing a mixture of four N forms. In each solution one of these N forms was labeled with (15)N (namely (15)NH(+)(4), (15)NO(-)(3) and the amino acids [(15)N]alanine (Ala) and [(15)N]glutamic acid (Glu)). It was found that for both species most of the N taken up was from , followed by Ala, Glu, and very small amounts from NO(-)(3). At the highest N deposition site N uptake was reduced, but this did not prevent N accumulation as free amino acids in the Sphagnum tissues. The reduced N uptake may have been genetically selected for under the relatively short period with elevated N exposure from anthropogenic sources, or may have been the result of plasticity in the Sphagnum physiological response. The negligible Sphagnum NO(-)(3) uptake may make any NO(-)(3) deposited readily available to co-occurring vascular plants.

  5. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Methods Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. Key Results The maximum discharge speed measured was 3·6 m s−1. Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R2 = 0·58–0·65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0·84–1·86 cm s−1, about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. Conclusions The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species. PMID:20123930

  6. Freezing cytorrhysis and critical temperature thresholds for photosystem II in the peat moss Sphagnum capillifolium.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2010-07-01

    Leaflets of Sphagnum capillifolium were exposed to temperatures from -5 degrees C to +60 degrees C under controlled conditions while mounted on a microscope stage. The resultant cytological response to these temperature treatments was successfully monitored using a light and fluorescence microscope. In addition to the observable cytological changes during freezing cytorrhysis and heat exposure on the leaflets, the concomitant critical temperature thresholds for inactivation of photosystem II (PS II) were studied using a micro fibre optic and a chlorophyll fluorometer mounted to the microscope stage. Chlorophyllous cells of S. capillifolium showed extended freezing cytorrhysis immediately after ice nucleation at -1.1 degrees C in the water in which the leaflets were submersed during the measurement. The occurrence of freezing cytorrhysis, which was visually manifested by cell shrinkage, was highly dynamic and was completed within 2 s. A total reduction of the mean projected diameter of the chloroplast containing area during freezing cytorrhysis from 8.9 to 3.8 microm indicates a cell volume reduction of approximately -82%. Simultaneous measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence of PS II was possible even through the frozen water in which the leaf samples were submersed. Freezing cytorrhysis was accompanied by a sudden rise of basic chlorophyll fluorescence. The critical freezing temperature threshold of PS II was identical to the ice nucleation temperature (-1.1 degrees C). This is significantly above the temperature threshold at which frost damage to S. capillifolium leaflets occurs (-16.1 degrees C; LT(50)) which is higher than observed in most higher plants from the European Alps during summer. High temperature thresholds of PS II were 44.5 degrees C which is significantly below the heat tolerance of chlorophyllous cells (49.9 degrees C; LT(50)). It is demonstrated that light and fluorescence microscopic techniques combined with simultaneous chlorophyll fluorescence

  7. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    DOE PAGES

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Norby, Richard J.; Hanson, Paul J.; ...

    2017-04-18

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum gross primary production (GPP)—the entry point of carbon into wetland ecosystems. Continuous flux measurements and flux partitioning show a seasonal cycle of Sphagnum GPP that peaked in the late summer, well after the peak in photosynthetically active radiation. Wavelet analysis showed that water table height was the key driver of weekly variation in Sphagnum GPPmore » in the early summer and that temperature was the primary driver of GPP in the late summer and autumn. Flux partitioning and a process-based model of Sphagnum photosynthesis demonstrated the likelihood of seasonally dynamic maximum rates of photosynthesis and a logistic relationship between the water table and photosynthesizing tissue area when the water table was at the Sphagnum surface. Here, the model also suggested that variability in internal resistance to CO 2 transport, a function of Sphagnum water content, had minimal effect on GPP. To accurately model Sphagnum GPP, we recommend the following: (1) understanding seasonal photosynthetic trait variation and its triggers in Sphagnum; (2) characterizing the interaction of Sphagnum photosynthesizing tissue area with water table height; (3) modeling Sphagnum as a “soil” layer for consistent simulation of water dynamics; and (4) measurement of Sphagnum “canopy” properties: extinction coefficient (k), clumping (Ω), and maximum stem area index (SAI).« less

  9. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    SciTech Connect

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Norby, Richard J.; Hanson, Paul J.

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum gross primary production (GPP)—the entry point of carbon into wetland ecosystems. Continuous flux measurements and flux partitioning show a seasonal cycle of Sphagnum GPP that peaked in the late summer, well after the peak in photosynthetically active radiation. Wavelet analysis showed that water table height was the key driver of weekly variation in Sphagnum GPPmore » in the early summer and that temperature was the primary driver of GPP in the late summer and autumn. Flux partitioning and a process-based model of Sphagnum photosynthesis demonstrated the likelihood of seasonally dynamic maximum rates of photosynthesis and a logistic relationship between the water table and photosynthesizing tissue area when the water table was at the Sphagnum surface. Here, the model also suggested that variability in internal resistance to CO 2 transport, a function of Sphagnum water content, had minimal effect on GPP. To accurately model Sphagnum GPP, we recommend the following: (1) understanding seasonal photosynthetic trait variation and its triggers in Sphagnum; (2) characterizing the interaction of Sphagnum photosynthesizing tissue area with water table height; (3) modeling Sphagnum as a “soil” layer for consistent simulation of water dynamics; and (4) measurement of Sphagnum “canopy” properties: extinction coefficient (k), clumping (Ω), and maximum stem area index (SAI).« less

  10. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Carter, Kelsey R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hanson, Paul J.; Malhotra, Avni; Norby, Richard J.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Weston, David J.

    2017-05-01

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum gross primary production (GPP)—the entry point of carbon into wetland ecosystems. Continuous flux measurements and flux partitioning show a seasonal cycle of Sphagnum GPP that peaked in the late summer, well after the peak in photosynthetically active radiation. Wavelet analysis showed that water table height was the key driver of weekly variation in Sphagnum GPP in the early summer and that temperature was the primary driver of GPP in the late summer and autumn. Flux partitioning and a process-based model of Sphagnum photosynthesis demonstrated the likelihood of seasonally dynamic maximum rates of photosynthesis and a logistic relationship between the water table and photosynthesizing tissue area when the water table was at the Sphagnum surface. The model also suggested that variability in internal resistance to CO2 transport, a function of Sphagnum water content, had minimal effect on GPP. To accurately model Sphagnum GPP, we recommend the following: (1) understanding seasonal photosynthetic trait variation and its triggers in Sphagnum; (2) characterizing the interaction of Sphagnum photosynthesizing tissue area with water table height; (3) modeling Sphagnum as a "soil" layer for consistent simulation of water dynamics; and (4) measurement of Sphagnum "canopy" properties: extinction coefficient (k), clumping (Ω), and maximum stem area index (SAI).

  11. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3

  12. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  13. Spectral detection of near-surface moisture content and water-table position in northern peatland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Karl M. Meingast; Michael J. Falkowski; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Brian W. Benscoter; Alistair M.S. Smith; Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez; Mary Ellen Miller

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence has been increasing in peatland ecosystems during recent decades. As such, there is a need for broadly applicable tools to detect and monitor controls on combustion such as surface peat moisture and water-table position. A field portable spectroradiometer was used to measure surface reflectance of two Sphagnum moss-dominated...

  14. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.

    2007-11-26

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident formore » Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd.« less

  15. Molybdenum-based diazotrophy in a Sphagnum peatland in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Warren, Melissa J; Lin, Xueju; Gaby, John C; Kretz, Cecilia B; Kolton, Max; Morton, Peter L; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weston, David J; Schadt, Christopher W; Kostka, Joel E; Glass, Jennifer B

    2017-06-30

    Microbial N 2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO 2 and susceptible to changing climate. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in a ombrotrophic Sphagnum -dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 ) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) reduction and 15 N 2 incorporation. Molecular analysis of metabolically active microbial communities suggested that diazotrophy in surface peat was primarily mediated by Alphaproteobacteria ( Bradyrhizobiaceae and Beijerinckiaceae ). Despite higher dissolved vanadium (V; 11 nM) than molybdenum (Mo; 3 nM) in surface peat, a combination of metagenomic, amplicon sequencing and activity measurements indicated that Mo-containing nitrogenases dominate over the V-containing form. Acetylene reduction was only detected in surface peat exposed to light, with the highest rates observed in peat collected from hollows with the highest water content. Incorporation of 15 N 2 was suppressed 90% by O 2 and 55% by C 2 H 2 , and was unaffected by CH 4 and CO 2 amendments. These results suggest that peatland diazotrophy is mediated by a combination of C 2 H 2 -sensitive and C 2 H 2 -insensitive microbes that are more active at low O 2 and show similar activity at high and low CH 4 Importance Previous studies indicate that diazotrophy provides an important nitrogen source and is linked to methanotrophy in Sphagnum -dominated peatlands. However, the environmental controls and enzymatic pathways of peatland diazotrophy, as well as the metabolically active microbial populations that catalyze this process remain in question. Our findings indicate that oxygen levels and photosynthetic activity override low

  16. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J D; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R; Clark, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to 'end-of-pipe' solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  17. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E.; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions through management of ecosystem service provision. PMID:27857210

  18. Investigating the impact of land cover change on peak river flow in UK upland peat catchments, based on modelled scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jihui; Holden, Joseph; Kirkby, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Changes to land cover can influence the velocity of overland flow. In headwater peatlands, saturation means that overland flow is a dominant source of runoff, particularly during heavy rainfall events. Human modifications in headwater peatlands may include removal of vegetation (e.g. by erosion processes, fire, pollution, overgrazing) or pro-active revegetation of peat with sedges such as Eriophorum or mosses such as Sphagnum. How these modifications affect the river flow, and in particular the flood peak, in headwater peatlands is a key problem for land management. In particular, the impact of the spatial distribution of land cover change (e.g. different locations and sizes of land cover change area) on river flow is not clear. In this presentation a new fully distributed version of TOPMODEL, which represents the effects of distributed land cover change on river discharge, was employed to investigate land cover change impacts in three UK upland peat catchments (Trout Beck in the North Pennines, the Wye in mid-Wales and the East Dart in southwest England). Land cover scenarios with three typical land covers (i.e. Eriophorum, Sphagnum and bare peat) having different surface roughness in upland peatlands were designed for these catchments to investigate land cover impacts on river flow through simulation runs of the distributed model. As a result of hypothesis testing three land cover principles emerged from the work as follows: Principle (1): Well vegetated buffer strips are important for reducing flow peaks. A wider bare peat strip nearer to the river channel gives a higher flow peak and reduces the delay to peak; conversely, a wider buffer strip with higher density vegetation (e.g. Sphagnum) leads to a lower peak and postpones the peak. In both cases, a narrower buffer strip surrounding upstream and downstream channels has a greater effect than a thicker buffer strip just based around the downstream river network. Principle (2): When the area of change is equal

  19. Anomalous concentrations of zinc and copper in highmoor peat bog, southeast coast of Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. A.; Bogush, A. A.; Leonova, G. A.; Krasnobaev, V. A.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2011-08-01

    When examining the peat deposit discovered in Vydrinaya bog, South Baikal region, the authors encountered anomalous Zn and Cu concentrations for highmoors being up to 600-500 ppm on a dry matter basis in the Early Holocene beds (360-440 cm) formed 11 000-8500 years ago. It has been demonstrated that Zn and Cu are present inside the plant cells of peat moss in the form of authigenic sulfide minerals of micron size. Apart from Zn and Cu, native Ag particles (5-7 um) have been encountered in the peat of the Vydrinaya bog at a depth of 390-410 cm; these particles formed inside the organic matter of the plasma membrane of peat moss containing Ca, Al, S, and Cu. This study suggests probable patterns of the formation of zinc sulfides, copper sulfides, and native silver in peat moss. The results obtained indicate that biogenic mineral formation plays a significant role in this system, which is a very important argument in the discussion on the ore genesis, in which physicochemical processes are normally favored, while the role of living matter is quite frequently disregarded.

  20. Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.

  1. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material. Strain S26(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH 3.2-7.1 (optimum at pH 4.8-5.0) and at 4-33 °C (optimum at 20-26 °C). Most sugars, several organic acids and polyalcohols were the preferred growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6c,12c. The major neutral lipids were n-C(31:9) hydrocarbon and squalene; the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and components with an unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of strain S26(T) was 62.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain S26(T) is a member of the order Planctomycetales. Among taxonomically characterized representatives of this order, highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95.1-95.2%) were observed with strains of the non-filamentous, peat-inhabiting planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Strain S26(T) could be differentiated from Singulisphaera acidiphila based on pigmentation, significant differences in substrate utilization patterns, greater tolerance of acidic conditions and the presence of C(16:1)ω9c. Based on the data presented, strain S26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Singulisphaera, for which the name Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S26(T) (=DSM 23044(T)=VKM B-2599(T)).

  2. Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat

  3. High specificity but contrasting biodiversity of Sphagnum-associated bacterial and plant communities in bog ecosystems independent of the geographical region.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Katja; Berg, Christian; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-10-01

    Mosses represent ecological niches that harbor a hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial diversity. To investigate which factors affect the biodiversity of bryophyte-associated bacteria, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with two moss species, which exhibit different ecological behaviors and importance in bog ecosystems, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, from six temperate and boreal bogs in Germany and Norway. Furthermore, their surrounding plant communities were studied. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using eubacterial and genus-specific primers for the dominant genera Burkholderia and Serratia as well as by sequence analysis of a Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene clone library. Plant communities were analyzed by monitoring the abundance and composition of bryophyte and vascular plant species, and by determining ecological indicator values. Interestingly, we found a high degree of host specificity for associated bacterial and plant communities of both Sphagnum species independent of the geographical region. Calculation of diversity indices on the basis of SSCP gels showed that the S. fallax-associated communities displayed a statistically significant higher degree of diversity than those associated with S. magellanicum. In contrast, analyses of plant communities of Sphagnum-specific habitats resulted in a higher diversity of S. magellanicum-specific habitats for all six sites. The higher content of nutrients in the S. fallax-associated ecosystems can explain higher diversity of microorganisms.

  4. A comparison of the properties of polyurethane immobilised Sphagnum moss, seaweed, sunflower waste and maize for the biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in continuous flow packed columns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles

    2006-02-01

    The biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni from a mixed solution of the metals was investigated in continuous flow packed columns containing polyurethane immobilised biomass. The characteristics and biosorption properties of Sphagnum moss, the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, waste biomass from the preparation of sunflower oil, and whole plant maize were compared. All the biomass types showed a preference for the sequestration of Pb followed by Cu, with Ni and Zn having roughly equal affinity. With continuous metal loading to the column there was an initial binding of all metals and then a displacement of the lower affinity metals by those with a high affinity. This led to a chromatographic effect in the column with breakthrough concentrations for low-affinity metals higher than the concentration in the feed. A similar phenomenon was found on desorption using acidic solutions where low-affinity metals were desorbed preferentially. The results also indicated that despite competitive displacement of one metal species by another the biomass appeared to succeed in retaining some low-affinity metal species indicating that there may be selective sites present with different affinity characteristics. When using a multi-metal solution with Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni at equal 10 mgl(-1) concentrations as column influent, the total quantities of metal sequestered were: seaweed, 117.3 mg g(-1); sunflower waste, 33.2 mg g(-1); Sphagnum moss, 32.5 mg g(-1); and maize, 2.3 mg g(-1). The use of an acid base potentiometric titration showed a relationship between the number of acid functional groups and biosorption capacity, although this was not proportional for the biomass types studied. It can, however, be used in conjunction with a simple classification of metals into high and low-affinity bands to make a preliminary assessment of a biosorption system.

  5. Molybdenum-Based Diazotrophy in a Sphagnum Peatland in Northern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Melissa J.; Lin, Xueju; Gaby, John C.; Kretz, Cecilia B.; Kolton, Max; Morton, Peter L.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weston, David J.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial N2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO2 and are susceptible to the changing climate. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O2, CO2, and CH4) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C2H2) reduction and 15N2 incorporation. A molecular analysis of metabolically active microbial communities suggested that diazotrophy in surface peat was primarily mediated by Alphaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobiaceae and Beijerinckiaceae). Despite higher concentrations of dissolved vanadium ([V] 11 nM) than molybdenum ([Mo] 3 nM) in surface peat, a combination of metagenomic, amplicon sequencing, and activity measurements indicated that Mo-containing nitrogenases dominate over the V-containing form. Acetylene reduction was only detected in surface peat exposed to light, with the highest rates observed in peat collected from hollows with the highest water contents. Incorporation of 15N2 was suppressed 90% by O2 and 55% by C2H2 and was unaffected by CH4 and CO2 amendments. These results suggest that peatland diazotrophy is mediated by a combination of C2H2-sensitive and C2H2-insensitive microbes that are more active at low concentrations of O2 and show similar activity at high and low concentrations of CH4. IMPORTANCE Previous studies indicate that diazotrophy provides an important nitrogen source and is linked to methanotrophy in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. However, the environmental controls and enzymatic pathways of peatland diazotrophy, as well as the metabolically active microbial populations that catalyze this process, remain in question. Our findings indicate that oxygen levels

  6. The effect of temperature on growth and competition between Sphagnum species

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Berendse, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Peat bogs play a large role in the global sequestration of C, and are often dominated by different Sphagnum species. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how Sphagnum vegetation in peat bogs will respond to global warming. We performed a greenhouse experiment to study the effect of four temperature treatments (11.2, 14.7, 18.0 and 21.4°C) on the growth of four Sphagnum species: S. fuscum and S. balticum from a site in northern Sweden and S. magellanicum and S. cuspidatum from a site in southern Sweden. In addition, three combinations of these species were made to study the effect of temperature on competition. We found that all species increased their height increment and biomass production with an increase in temperature, while bulk densities were lower at higher temperatures. The hollow species S. cuspidatum was the least responsive species, whereas the hummock species S. fuscum increased biomass production 13-fold from the lowest to the highest temperature treatment in monocultures. Nutrient concentrations were higher at higher temperatures, especially N concentrations of S. fuscum and S. balticum increased compared to field values. Competition between S. cuspidatum and S. magellanicum was not influenced by temperature. The mixtures of S. balticum with S. fuscum and S. balticum with S. magellanicum showed that S. balticum was the stronger competitor, but it lost competitive advantage in the highest temperature treatment. These findings suggest that species abundances will shift in response to global warming, particularly at northern sites where hollow species will lose competitive strength relative to hummock species and southern species. PMID:18283501

  7. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    PubMed

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  8. Dynamic response of peatbank moss communities to hydroclimate over the last 2000 years in the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, J.; Yu, Z.; Beilman, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula experienced rapid warming in late half of the 20th century in part due to a positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) causing poleward expansion of the southern westerly wind belt that brings warmer and moister air to the peninsula. However, we do not know how coastal terrestrial ecosystems have responded to changes in temperature and hydroclimate. Here we present a paleoecological and geochemical record of ecosystem history derived from late Holocene peatbank deposits on Litchfield Island (64°46'S; 64°06'W) to reconstruct terrestrial response to temperature and hydroclimate fluctuations. Chronology of our 80-cm-long peat core from the north-facing slope is constrained by 11 AMS 14C dates covering the last 2500 years. Our macrofossil results show that relative abundance of the two dominant moss species fluctuates between <10 and 90%. Furthermore, the δ13C values of bulk peat range from -26.4 to -22.1‰ that mostly reflects species relative abundance change through time. The periods with C:N values of <20—lower than the expected C:N values (40 to 80) of fresh moss plants—corresponds with intervals containing abundant fine debris (>50%), indicating greater decomposition and selective removal of carbon from peat. Our record shows that periods where moss dominance shifts to Polytrichum, a dry and cold tolerant moss, peat decomposition increases, and coincides with periods of negative SAM. Conversely, dominance shifts to Chorisodontium, a less drought tolerant moss, with decomposition decreased during periods of strong positive SAM. This study demonstrates that ecosystem structure and geochemical signature within these moss peatbanks is sensitive to regional moisture change that can potentially be used to reconstruct shifts in hydroclimate and possibly atmospheric circulation.

  9. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  11. Old Lineages in a New Ecosystem: Diversification of Arcellinid Amoebae (Amoebozoa) and Peatland Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Leander, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Arcellinid testate amoebae (Amoebozoa) form a group of free-living microbial eukaryotes with one of the oldest fossil records known, yet several aspects of their evolutionary history remain poorly understood. Arcellinids occur in a range of terrestrial, freshwater and even brackish habitats; however, many arcellinid morphospecies such as Hyalosphenia papilio are particularly abundant in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, a relatively new ecosystem that appeared during the diversification of Sphagnum species in the Miocene (5–20 Myr ago). Here, we reconstruct divergence times in arcellinid testate amoebae after selecting several fossils for clock calibrations and then infer whether or not arcellinids followed a pattern of diversification that parallels the pattern described for Sphagnum. We found that the diversification of core arcellinids occurred during the Phanerozoic, which is congruent with most arcellinid fossils but not with the oldest known amoebozoan fossil (i.e. at ca. 662 or ca. 750 Myr). Overall, Sphagnum and the Hyalospheniidae exhibit different patterns of diversification. However, an extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of distinct clades within H. papilio species complex demonstrated a correlation between the recent diversification of H. papilio, the recent diversification of Sphagnum mosses, and the establishment of peatlands. PMID:24762929

  12. Food waste composting: its use as a peat replacement.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2010-01-01

    We successfully co-composted catering waste with green waste and shredded paper to yield two high-nitrogen composts for use in horticulture. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in various mixtures of the compost and a commercially available peat-based compost to assess the efficacy of catering waste-based composts for peat replacement. Height, head diameter, seed mass and above-ground biomass were measured, with all mixtures giving a significant increase in yield or size over the commercially available peat-free control compost. We conclude that differences in physical structure governed sunflower growth over substrate chemistry, and none of the compost mixtures were nutrient deficient. We recommend that catering waste co-compost can be substituted to at least 75% within Sphagnum-based traditional growing media, providing a viable replacement for a large proportion of peat used as a growth medium in the horticulture industry. Our catering waste compost yielded similar seed head, seed mass and above-ground biomass values to 100% peat-based compost in all food waste compost blends tested in this study. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Lamit, Louis J; Romanowicz, Karl J; Potvin, Lynette R; Rivers, Adam R; Singh, Kanwar; Lennon, Jay T; Tringe, Susannah G; Kane, Evan S; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2017-07-01

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to (i) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table and plant functional group at the onset of a multiyear mesocosm experiment, and (ii) test if fungi are correlated with abiotic variables of peat and pore water. We hypothesized that each factor influenced fungi, but that depth would have the strongest effect early in the experiment. We found that (i) communities were strongly depth stratified; fungi were four times more abundant in the upper (10-20 cm) than the lower (30-40 cm) depth, and dominance shifted from ericoid mycorrhizal fungi to saprotrophs and endophytes with increasing depth; (ii) the influence of plant functional group was depth dependent, with Ericaceae structuring the community in the upper peat only; (iii) water table had minor influences; and (iv) communities strongly covaried with abiotic variables, including indices of peat and pore water carbon quality. Our results highlight the importance of vertical stratification to peatland fungi, and the depth dependency of plant functional group effects, which must be considered when elucidating the role of fungi in peatland carbon dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. A comparison of lead pollution record in Sphagnum peat with known historical Pb emission rates in the British Isles and the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Erel, Yigal; Zemanova, Leona; Bottrell, Simon H.; Adamova, Marie

    Vertical Pb concentration gradients and isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb) are reported for five 210Pb-dated Sphagnum peat profiles. The studied peat bogs are in the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Mull, Scotland; and Connemara, Eire) and central Europe (Ocean, northern Czech Republic; Rybarenska slat, southern Czech Republic). Both the U.K. and the Czech Republic experienced maximum Pb emissions from Ag-Pb smelting around 1880. Pb emissions from coal burning peaked in 1955 in the U.K. and in the 1980s in the Czech Republic. In both countries, use of alkyl-lead additives to gasoline resulted in large Pb emissions between 1950 and 2000. We hypothesized that peaks in Pb emissions from smelting, coal burning and gasoline burning, respectively, should be mirrored in the peat profiles. However, a more complicated pattern emerged. Maximum annual Pb accumulation rates occurred in 1870 at Ocean, 1940 at Thorne Moors, 1988 at Rybarenska slat, and 1990 at Mull and Connemara. Atmospheric Pb inputs decreased in the order Thorne Moors ≥ Ocean > Rybarenska slat > Mull > Connemara. The Ocean bog was unique in the central European region in that its maximum Pb pollution dated back to the 19th century and coincided with maximum Pb smelting at Freiberg and Pribram. In contrast, numerous previously studied sites showed no Pb accumulation maximum in the 19th century, but increasing pollution until the 1980s. It remains unclear why Ocean did not record the regional peak in Pb emissions caused by high coal and gasoline burning around 1980, while an array of nearby bogs studied previously did record the 1980 coal/gasoline peak, but no 1880 smelting peak. Mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios of potential pollution sources were 1.07 and 1.11 for gasoline, 1.17 and 1.17 for local ores, and 1.18 and 1.19 for coal in the U.K. and the Czech Republic, respectively. The calculated percentages of gasoline-derived Pb in peat (≤55% for the British Isles and ≤63% for the Czech Republic

  15. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  16. Molybdenum-Based Diazotrophy in a Sphagnum Peatland in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Melissa J.; Lin, Xueju; Gaby, John C.

    We present that Microbial N 2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO 2 and are susceptible to the changing climate. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O 2, CO 2, and CH 4) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C 2H 2) reduction and 15N 2incorporation. A molecularmore » analysis of metabolically active microbial communities suggested that diazotrophy in surface peat was primarily mediated by Alphaproteobacteria (15N 2 was suppressed 90% by O 2 and 55% by C 2H 2 and was unaffected by CH 4 and CO 2 amendments. These results suggest that peatland diazotrophy is mediated by a combination of C 2H 2-sensitive and C 2H 2-insensitive microbes that are more active at low concentrations of O 2 and show similar activity at high and low concentrations of CH 4. Importance: Previous studies indicate that diazotrophy provides an important nitrogen source and is linked to methanotrophy in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. However, the environmental controls and enzymatic pathways of peatland diazotrophy, as well as the metabolically active microbial populations that catalyze this process, remain in question. In conclusion, our findings indicate that oxygen levels and photosynthetic activity override low nutrient availability in limiting diazotrophy and that members of the Alphaproteobacteria (Rhizobiales) catalyze this process at the bog surface using the molybdenum-based form of the nitrogenase enzyme.« less

  17. Molybdenum-Based Diazotrophy in a Sphagnum Peatland in Northern Minnesota

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Melissa J.; Lin, Xueju; Gaby, John C.; ...

    2017-06-30

    We present that Microbial N 2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO 2 and are susceptible to the changing climate. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O 2, CO 2, and CH 4) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C 2H 2) reduction and 15N 2incorporation. A molecularmore » analysis of metabolically active microbial communities suggested that diazotrophy in surface peat was primarily mediated by Alphaproteobacteria (15N 2 was suppressed 90% by O 2 and 55% by C 2H 2 and was unaffected by CH 4 and CO 2 amendments. These results suggest that peatland diazotrophy is mediated by a combination of C 2H 2-sensitive and C 2H 2-insensitive microbes that are more active at low concentrations of O 2 and show similar activity at high and low concentrations of CH 4. Importance: Previous studies indicate that diazotrophy provides an important nitrogen source and is linked to methanotrophy in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. However, the environmental controls and enzymatic pathways of peatland diazotrophy, as well as the metabolically active microbial populations that catalyze this process, remain in question. In conclusion, our findings indicate that oxygen levels and photosynthetic activity override low nutrient availability in limiting diazotrophy and that members of the Alphaproteobacteria (Rhizobiales) catalyze this process at the bog surface using the molybdenum-based form of the nitrogenase enzyme.« less

  18. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Carbon isotope evidence for recent climate-related enhancement of CO 2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Hodgson, Dominic A; Convey, Peter; Griffiths, Howard

    2012-10-01

    Signy Island, maritime Antarctic, lies within the region of the Southern Hemisphere that is currently experiencing the most rapid rates of environmental change. In this study, peat cores up to 2 m in depth from four moss banks on Signy Island were used to reconstruct changes in moss growth and climatic characteristics over the late Holocene. Measurements included radiocarbon dating (to determine peat accumulation rates) and stable carbon isotope composition of moss cellulose (to estimate photosynthetic limitation by CO 2 supply and model CO 2 assimilation rate). For at least one intensively 14 C-dated Chorisodontium aciphyllum moss peat bank, the vertical accumulation rate of peat was 3.9 mm yr -1 over the last 30 years. Before the industrial revolution, rates of peat accumulation in all cores were much lower, at around 0.6-1 mm yr -1 . Carbon-13 discrimination (Δ), corrected for background and anthropogenic source inputs, was used to develop a predictive model for CO 2 assimilation. Between 1680 and 1900, there had been a gradual increase in Δ, and hence assimilation rate. Since 1800, assimilation has also been stimulated by the changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, but a recent decline in Δ (over the past 50-100 years) can perhaps be attributed to documented changes in temperature and/or precipitation. The overall increase in CO 2 assimilation rate ( 13 C proxy) and enhanced C accumulation ( 14 C proxy) are consistent with warmer and wetter conditions currently generating higher growth rates than at any time in the past three millennia, with the decline in Δ perhaps compensated by a longer growing season. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Changes in vegetation, peat properties and peat accumulation in Swedish peatlands as revealed by archive data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoning, Kristian; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation we have studied patterns in peat accumulation and changes in mire status since the early 1900s for two areas in Sweden. In the early 1900s the Geological Survey of Sweden collected a vast amount of peat and peatland data, including information on vegetation and land-use. We have used this archive data to evaluate changes in mire vegetation, mire wetness and surface peat properties, rates of peat accumulation, succession in young wetlands and the effects of cultivation on peatlands. In total 156 mires in an uplift area of eastern middle Sweden were included in the data-set, including both pristine mires and peatlands used for agricultural purposes. In this area new peatlands have continuously been formed during the past 7 000 years making it possible to evaluate changes in peat accumulation over time. The other study area is situated in the south Swedish Uplands where we have revisited some larger bogs. The results from our investigation show that many of the peatlands have underwent major changes since the early 1900s. In most of the small peatlands we have found important changes in vegetation where mire vegetation has been replaced by nutrient demanding and/or dry species flora while the tree stand on large mires in south Sweden have increased. In some mires humification has increased in the uppermost peat-layers and the mire surface have become drier compared to the early 1900s. In eastern middle Sweden there are indications that the peat accumulation is lower 0,5 mm/year in older peatlands compared with younger ones 1,2 mm/year, although the mire vegetation in the older peatlands is dominated by sphagnum. The peat depth of the cultivated mires in this area shows a mean decrease of 40 cm since the early 1900s.

  1. [Chemical-nutritional characterization of the moss Spagnum magellanicum].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Mario; Biolley, Edith; Yáñez, Enrique; Peralta, Rosario

    2002-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to know the chemical characteristics of the moss Sphagnum magellanicum (S.M.) growing in the southern part of Chile, spreading approximately. in a geographic area of 500.000 Has. Very few antecedents are reported in the literature concerning the functional properties of this resource, with the exception of the water absorption and holding capacity. Many of the industrial or agricultural uses of this moss are strongly related with this characteristic. Looking for other alternatives of utilization, it has been planned its incorporation to staple foods as a source of dietary fiber. But first it is necessary to know its chemical characteristics Representative samples of this material were submitted to different chemical analysis such as proximal analysis, fractional fiber analysis and anti nutrient factors.. Results of those analysis show the high amount of dietary fiber founded in this resource (77%), higher than reported data for other traditional fiber sources such as lupin bran, rice hull, barley hull, oat bran, etc. Finally it is important emphasize the absence of antinutrient factor in this moss, that could make feasible its use for human nutrition.

  2. Symbiosis revisited: phosphorus and acid buffering stimulate N2 fixation but not Sphagnum growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Elzen, Eva; Kox, Martine A. R.; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; Hensgens, Geert; Fritz, Christian; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-03-01

    In pristine Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, (di)nitrogen (N2) fixing (diazotrophic) microbial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses contribute substantially to the total nitrogen input, increasing carbon sequestration. The rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation reported for Sphagnum peatlands, are, however, highly variable, and experimental work on regulating factors that can mechanistically explain this variation is largely lacking. For two common fen species (Sphagnum palustre and S. squarrosum) from a high nitrogen deposition area (25 kg N ha-1 yr-1), we found that diazotrophic activity (as measured by 15 - 15N2 labeling) was still present at a rate of 40 nmol N gDW-1 h-1. This was surprising, given that nitrogen fixation is a costly process. We tested the effects of phosphorus availability and buffering capacity by bicarbonate-rich water, mimicking a field situation in fens with stronger groundwater or surface water influence, as potential regulators of nitrogen fixation rates and Sphagnum performance. We expected that the addition of phosphorus, being a limiting nutrient, would stimulate both diazotrophic activity and Sphagnum growth. We indeed found that nitrogen fixation rates were doubled. Plant performance, in contrast, did not increase. Raised bicarbonate levels also enhanced nitrogen fixation, but had a strong negative impact on Sphagnum performance. These results explain the higher nitrogen fixation rates reported for minerotrophic and more nutrient-rich peatlands. In addition, nitrogen fixation was found to strongly depend on light, with rates 10 times higher in light conditions suggesting high reliance on phototrophic organisms for carbon. The contrasting effects of phosphorus and bicarbonate on Sphagnum spp. and their diazotrophic communities reveal strong differences in the optimal niche for both partners with respect to conditions and resources. This suggests a trade-off for the symbiosis of nitrogen fixing microorganisms with their Sphagnum

  3. Monitoring of trace element atmospheric deposition using dry and wet moss bags: accumulation capacity versus exposure time.

    PubMed

    Anicić, M; Tomasević, M; Tasić, M; Rajsić, S; Popović, A; Frontasyeva, M V; Lierhagen, S; Steinnes, E

    2009-11-15

    To clarify the peculiarities of trace element accumulation in moss bags technique (active biomonitoring), samples of the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii Rusow were exposed in bags with and without irrigation for 15 days up to 5 months consequently in the semi-urban area of Belgrade (Serbia) starting from July 2007. The accumulation capacity for 49 elements determined by ICP-MS in wet and dry moss bags was compared. The concentration of some elements, i.e. Al, V, Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Pb, and Sm increased continuously with exposure time in both dry and wet moss bags, whereas concentration of Na, Cl, K, Mn, Rb, Cs, and Ta decreased. Irrigation of moss resulted in a higher accumulation capacity for most of the elements, especially for Cr, Zn, As, Se, Br, and Sr. Principal component analysis was performed on the datasets of element concentrations in wet and dry moss bags for source identification. Results of the factor analysis were similar but not identical in the two cases due to possible differences in element accumulation mechanisms.

  4. The Contribution of Mosses to the Complex Pattern of Diurnal and Seasonal Metabolism the wet Coastal Tundra Ecosystems Near Barrow Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, D.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.; Oberbauer, S.; Kopetz, I.; Ikawa, H.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the abundance and importance bryophytes in the Alaskan Arctic tundra there is relatively little information on the role of these plants in determining the CO2 fluxes of Arctic tundra and, in particular, the environmental controls and climate change sensitivities of current and future photosynthesis in Arctic mosses. Studies in the tundra biome during the IBP program implicated high light together with high temperature as causes of decreases in photosynthesis in arctic mosses. Several authors have reported midday depression of moss photosynthesis due to high irradiance, even under optimum temperature and fully hydrated conditions. The focus of this study is to understand the role of Sphagnum ssp. mosses of various species, the dominant moss in the Alaska coastal wet Tundra on the total ecosystem carbon exchange throughout the season and in particular soon after snowmelt when the ecosystem is a carbon source. Our hypothesis is that the ecosystem carbon source activity during this critical period may be a result of sensitivity of mosses to light and photoinhibition in the absence of the protective canopy layer of vascular plants. In this study we measured daily courses of photosynthesis and fluorescence in the moss layer and we compare it to the total ecosystem carbon fluxes determined by the eddy covariance technique. The measurements were conducted in wet coastal tundra from June 2006, right after the snow melt, to August 2006 in the Biological Experimental Observatory (BEO) in Barrow, Alaska. The photosynthesis in the moss layer was found to be strongly inhibited when the radiation exceeded 800 ìmol m-2 s-1. Mosses remained fully hydrated throughout the season, precluding drying as a cause of decreased photosynthesis. Dark-adapted fluorescence measurements (Fv/Fm) showed a relatively low value (0.6) right after the snow melt, and remained fairly stable throughout the season. This low value was previously reported as characteristic of photoinhibited

  5. Decadal changes in peat carbon accrual rates in bogs in Northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; McFarlane, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene, peatland ecosystems have accumulated substantial amounts of carbon (C) and currently store about one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC) worldwide. Large uncertainty still persists on whether peatland ecosystems located in northern latitudes will continue to act as C sinks, or if the effects of global warming will have greater effects on decomposition processes than on net ecosystem production. We investigated decadal C accrual rates of the top 25 cm of peats in three Sphagnum-rich peatlands located in Northern Minnesota (two ombrotrophic bogs and one fen). We used radiocarbon analysis of Sphagnum cellulose and model fitting to determine peat ages, and peat FTIR spectroscopy to determine humification indices and relative decomposition of peat samples with depth. We had the scope to detect whether recent warming has had an effect on peat decomposition and C accumulation rates. Modeled C accumulation rates in the three peatlands during the past five decades ranged between 78 and 107 g C m-2 yr-1 in the top 25 cm analyzed in this study, values that are higher than the 22 to 29 g C m-2 yr-1 obtained for long-term (millennial) accumulations for the entire bog profiles. Peat IR spectra and C:N ratios confirm low levels of decomposition across the bog sites, especially in the uppermost parts of the peat. The fen site showed very limited decomposition across the entire sampled profile. Higher rates of C accumulation, combined with low decomposition rates close to the surface provide a good estimate of net primary productivity. As substrate decomposition progresses over time, net rates of accumulation decrease. Peat decomposition was more pronounced in the lower depths of the sampled cores in the two ombrotrophic bogs than in the fen, likely an effect of larger temporal variation in water table depth in the bogs than in the fen. Some of the variation in C accumulation and decomposition observed in our bogs and fen suggests that future C

  6. The effect of drought on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from peatland soil and vegetation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Brazier, Richard E.; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Drought conditions are expected to increase in frequency and severity as the climate changes, representing a threat to carbon sequestered in peat soils. Downstream water treatment works are also at risk of regulatory compliance failures and higher treatment costs due to the increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often observed after droughts. More frequent droughts may also shift dominant vegetation in peatlands from Sphagnum moss to more drought-tolerant species. This paper examines the impact of drought on the production and treatability of DOC from four vegetation litters (Calluna vulgaris, Juncus effusus, Molinia caerulea and Sphagnum spp.) and a peat soil. We found that mild droughts caused a 39.6 % increase in DOC production from peat and that peat DOC that had been exposed to oxygen was harder to remove by conventional water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation). Drought had no effect on the amount of DOC production from vegetation litters; however large variation was observed between typical peatland species (Sphagnum and Calluna) and drought-tolerant grassland species (Juncus and Molinia), with the latter producing more DOC per unit weight. This would therefore suggest the increase in riverine DOC often observed post-drought is due entirely to soil microbial processes and DOC solubility rather than litter layer effects. Long-term shifts in species diversity may, therefore, be the most important impact of drought on litter layer DOC flux, whereas pulses related to drought may be observed in peat soils and are likely to become more common in the future. These results provide evidence in support of catchment management which increases the resilience of peat soils to drought, such as ditch blocking to raise water tables.

  7. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen cycling in ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic: Is microbial N-fixation occurring at atmospheric depositions of reactive N higher than 10 kg/ha/yr?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Cejkova, Bohuslava; Buzek, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Stepanova, Marketa; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Komarek, Arnost

    2017-04-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in peat bogs are coupled. Whereas at low pollution levels, reactive nitrogen (Nr, mainly nitrate- and ammonium-N) inputs may positively affect C storage, high Nr deposition may have a detrimental effect on C storage. We have previously reported N isotope systematics at two ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic, receiving medium levels of Nr of about 10 kg/ha/yr via atmospheric deposition. Nitrogen of living Sphagnum was systematically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001), and close to the N isotope signature of atmospheric N2 (del15N-N2 of 0.0 per mil). We argued that even at medium Nr pollution, such as that in the Czech Republic, the amount of Nr in rainfall becomes minute toward the end of major precipitation events, possible triggering off microbial N-fixation. This process may be responsible for the del15N shift in Sphagnum from negative values of atmospheric deposition to the zero value of N2. In 2016, we conducted a laboratory study in which living Sphagnum from sites receiving annually slightly over 10 kg Nr/ha/yr via atmospheric deposition was incubated in an atmosphere enriched in 15N-N2. At the end of the incubation, we detected a 1 to 3 per mil increase in del15N of Sphagnum. Rinsing Sphagnum capitula in deionized water prior to the 15N-N2 incubation has led to a slight further increase in del15N of Sphagnum. Also in 2016, we monitored del15N of atmospheric deposition at three medium Nr-polluted peat bogs. Open-area precipitation had the following mean del 15N values: Uhlirska -6.1 per mil (NH4) and -6.2 per mil (NO3); Brumiste -1.7 per mil (NH4) and -3.4 per mil (NO3); Male Mechove Jezirko -3.3 per mil (NH4) and -3.9 per mil (NO3). At all sites, atmospheric Nr deposition was made up by NO3-N and NH4-N in a roughly 1.1 ratio. We found that N of winter-time deposition became isotopically extremely light (less than -10.0 per mil). During the growing season, del15N of total

  9. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  10. Genotoxic effect of Pb and Cd on in vitro cultures of Sphagnum palustre: An evaluation by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Maria Cristina; Capozzi, Fiore; Giordano, Simonetta; Spagnuolo, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, the genotoxic effect of cadmium and lead supplied in a laboratory trial, was investigated for the first time in the moss Sphagnum palustre, by ISSR molecular markers. A total of 169 reproducible bands were obtained with 12 primers, ten of which gave polymorphisms (i.e., appearance/disappearance of bands), indicating a clear genotoxic effect induced by the metals. Both metals induced a decrease of the genome template stability in a dose dependent manner. At concentration >10 -5 Cd also induced a general toxic effect in S. palustre, leading to chlorophyll degradation and moss death. Moreover, we followed the fate of supplied heavy metals into the moss tissue by SEM-EDX to see if they entered the cells. SEM-EDX observations on moss cultures treated with equimolar concentrations of the two metals showed that most Pb precipitated in form of particles on moss surface, while Cd did not aggregate in particles and was not found on moss surface. In light of these findings, we concluded that probably Pb induced a genotoxic effect at lower intracellular concentrations than Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of a reciprocal peat transplant between two contrasting Central European sites on C cycling and C isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M.; Zemanova, L.; Buzek, F.; Jackova, I.; Adamova, M.; Komarek, A.; Vile, M. A.; Kelman Wieder, R.; Stepanova, M.

    2010-03-01

    An 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between two peatlands in the Czech Republic. Both sites were 100% Sphagnum-covered, with no vascular plants, and no hummocks and hollows. Atmospheric depositions of sulfur were up to 10 times higher at the northern site Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ), compared to the southern site Cervene blato (CB). Forty-cm deep peat cores, 10-cm in diameter, were used as transplants and controls in five replicates. Our objective was to evaluate whether CO2 and CH4 emissions from Sphagnum peat bogs are governed mainly by organic matter quality in the substrate, or by environmental conditions. Emission rates and δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 were measured in the laboratory at time t=18 months. All measured parameters converged to those of the host site, indicating that, at least in the short-term perspective, environmental conditions were a more important control of greenhouse gas emissions than organic carbon quality in the substrate. Since sulfate reducers outcompete methanogens, we hypothesized that the S-polluted site VJJ should have lower methane emissions than CB. In fact, the opposite was true, with significantly (p<0.01) higher methane emissions from VJJ. Additionally, as a first step in an effort to link C isotope composition of emitted gases and residual peat substrate, we determined whether multiple vertical δ13C profiles in peat agree. A high degree of within-site homogeneity in δ13C was found. When a specific vertical δ13C trend was seen in one peat core, the same trend was also seen in all the remaining peat cores from the wetland. The δ13C value increased downcore at both CB and VJJ. At VJJ, however, 20 cm below surface, a reversal to lower δ13C downcore was seen. Based on 210Pb dating, peat at 20-cm depth at VJJ was only 15 years old. Increasing δ13C values in VJJ peat accumulated between 1880-1990 could not be caused by assimilation of atmospheric CO2 gradually enriched in the light isotope 12C due to

  12. Water Table Depth Reconstruction in Ombrotrophic Peatlands Using Biomarker Abundance Ratios and Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Jackson, S. T.; Booth, R. K.; Pendall, E. G.; Huang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment cores from ombrotrophic peat bogs provide sensitive records of changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance. Various proxies have been developed to reconstruct surface moisture conditions in peat bogs, including testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, and peat humification. Studying species composition of testate amoeba assemblages is time consuming and requires specialized training. Humification index can be influenced by environmental factors other than moisture balance. The plant macrofossil proxy is less quantitative and cannot be performed on highly decomposed samples. We demonstrate that the ratio of C23 alkane to C29 alkane abundance may provide a simple alternative or complementary means of tracking peatland water-table depth. Data for this proxy can be collected quickly using a small sample (100 mg dry). Water-table depth decreases during drought, and abundance of Sphagnum, the dominant peat-forming genus, decreases as vascular plants increase. Sphagnum moss produces mainly medium chain-length alkanes (C21-C25) while vascular plants (grasses and shrubs) produce primarily longer chain-length alkanes (C27-C31). Therefore, C23:C29 n-alkane ratios quantitatively track the water table depth fluctuations in peat bogs. We compared C23:C29 n-alkane ratios in a core from Minden Bog (southeastern Michigan) with water table depth reconstructions based on testate-amoeba assemblages and humification. The 184-cm core spans the past ~3kyr of continuous peat deposition in the bog. Our results indicate that the alkane ratios closely track the water table depth variations, with C29 most abundant during droughts. We also explored the use of D/H ratios in Sphagnum biomarkers as a water-table depth proxy. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratio analyses were performed on Sphagnum biomarkers: C23 and C25 alkane and C24 acid. Dry periods are represented in these records by an enrichment of deuterium in these Sphagnum-specific compounds. These events also correlate

  13. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  14. Sphagnum can 'filter' N deposition, but effects on the plant and pore water depend on the N form.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Leeson, Sarah R; Tang, Y Sim; Cape, J Neil

    2016-07-15

    The ability of Sphagnum moss to efficiently intercept atmospheric nitrogen (N) has been assumed to be vulnerable to increased N deposition. However, the proposed critical load (20kgNha(-1)yr(-1)) to exceed the capacity of the Sphagnum N filter has not been confirmed. A long-term (11years) and realistic N manipulation on Whim bog was used to study the N filter function of Sphagnum (Sphagnum capillifolium) in response to increased wet N deposition. On this ombrotrophic peatland where ambient deposition was 8kgNha(-1)yr(-1), an additional 8, 24, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of either ammonium (NH4(+)) or nitrate (NO3(-)) has been applied for 11years. Nutrient status of Sphagnum and pore water quality from the Sphagnum layer were assessed. The N filter function of Sphagnum was still active up to 32kgNha(-1)yr(-1) even after 11years. N saturation of Sphagnum and subsequent increases in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration in pore water occurred only for 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of NH4(+) addition. These results indicate that the Sphagnum N filter is more resilient to wet N deposition than previously inferred. However, functionality will be more compromised when NH4(+) dominates wet deposition for high inputs (56kgNha(-1)yr(-1)). The N filter function in response to NO3(-) uptake increased the concentration of dissolved organic N (DON) and associated organic anions in pore water. NH4(+) uptake increased the concentration of base cations and hydrogen ions in pore water though ion exchange. The resilience of the Sphagnum N filter can explain the reported small magnitude of species change in the Whim bog ecosystem exposed to wet N deposition. However, changes in the leaching substances, arising from the assimilation of NO3(-) and NH4(+), may lead to species change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Framework for Quantifying past Methane Recycling by Sphagnum-Methanotroph Symbiosis Using Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Wax Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Isles, Peter D. F.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane is strongly linked to variations in Earth's climate. Currently, we can directly reconstruct the total atmospheric concentration of methane, but not individual terms of the methane cycle. Northern wetlands, dominated by Sphagnum, are an important contributor of atmospheric methane, and we seek to understand the methane cycle in these systems. We present a novel method for quantifying the proportion of carbon Sphagnum assimilates from its methanotrophic symbionts using stable isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers. Carbon isotope ratios of Sphagnum compounds are determined by two competing influences, water content and the isotope ratio of source carbon. We disentangled these effects using a combined hydrogen and carbon isotope approach. We constrained Sphagnum water content using the contrast between the hydrogen isotope ratios of Sphagnum and vascular plant biomarkers. We then used Sphagnum water content to calculate the carbon isotope ratio of Sphagnum's carbon pool. Using a mass balance equation, we calculated the proportion of recycled methane contributed to the Sphagnum carbon pool, 'PRM.' We quantified PRM in peat monoliths from three microhabitats in the Mer Bleue peatland complex. Modern studies have shown that water table depth and vegetation have strong influences on the peatland methane cycle on instrumental time scales. With this new approach, delta C-13 of Sphagnum compounds are now a useful tool for investigating the relationships among hydrology, vegetation, and methanotrophy in Sphagnum peatlands over the time scales of entire peatland sediment records, vital to our understanding of the global carbon cycle through the Late Glacial and Holocene.

  16. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  17. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Turetsky, M R; Bond-Lamberty, B; Euskirchen, E; Talbot, J; Frolking, S; McGuire, A D; Tuittila, E-S

    2012-10-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries - permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography - and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  19. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Properties of High-Moor Peat Soils under Local Pyrogenesis in Northeastern Sakhalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and properties of oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, and pyrogenic oligotrophic peat soils identified on a plot 0.5 km2 in area in the northeast of Sakhalin Island have been studied. The vertical distributions of physicochemical, chemical, and ecotoxicological parameters in the profiles of some bog soil groups have been considered. An increase in ash content, a less acid reaction, and a deficit of available nitrogen and potassium have been revealed in the upper horizons of pyrogenic soils. No accumulation of mobile heavy metals is manifested in the pyrogenic horizons of peat soils. Statistical parameters of the spatial variation in pHKCl and total acidity, as well as the contents of ash, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, mobile heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb), and benzo[ a]pyrene, have been calculated for the moss and sublitter horizons. The variation coefficients are 30-100% for most of the studied parameters and reach 100-200% for available phosphorus; ammonium nitrogen; and mobile Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd. An increase in the content of benzo[ a]pyrene, although without MPC exceedance, is noted in the moss of pyrogenic soils and the peat horizons untouched by fires.

  20. What controls the oxidative ratio of UK peats? A multi-site study of elemental CHNO concentrations in peat cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth; Worrall, Fred; Masiello, Carrie

    2013-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.82 and 1.27 with a median value of 1.08 which is within the range of world soils. There were significant differences in OR of the peat between sites with the data falling into two broad groupings - Group 1: Forsinard, Auchencorth, Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor; Group 2: Moor House, Thorne Moor, Westhay Moor, Whixhall Moss. Whilst there were significant changes (p < 0.05) in elemental ratios with increasing peat depth (increasing C:N ratio and decreasing O:C ratio) there was no significant difference overall in OR with depth. This paper will explore some of the possible controlling factors on these ratios. Local

  1. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQ T ), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  2. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-05

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks.

  4. Water flow in Sphagnum hummocks: Mesocosm measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jonathan S.; Whittington, Peter N.

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThe internal water fluxes within Sphagnum mosses critically affect the rate of evaporation and the wetness of the living upper few centimetres of moss (capitula) and the physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis) that support them. To quantify water fluxes and stores in Sphagnum rubellum hummocks we used a 30 cm high column (mesocosm) of undisturbed hummock moss including the capitula, and applied a number of experiments to investigate (1) staged lowering (and raising) of the water table ( wt) with a manometer tube; (2) pumped seepage of about 0.7 cm d -1 to produce a wt drop of 1.5 cm day -1; and (3) evaporation averaging 3.2 mm d -1. Water content ( θ) at saturation ( θ s) was ˜0.9 cm 3 cm -3 for all depths. Residual water content ( θ r) was 0.2 cm 3 cm -3 at 5 cm depth, increasing to 0.47 cm 3 cm -3 at 25 cm depth. Hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the same top 5 cm layer ranged from 1.8 × 10 -3 m s -1 at θ s to 4 × 10 -8 m s -1 at θ r. By comparison K at 25 cm depth had a much more limited range from 2.3 × 10 -4 m s -1 at θ s to 1.1 × 10 -5 m s -1 at θ r. Staged wt lowering from -10 cm to -30 cm (no evaporation allowed) resulted in an abrupt change in θ that reached a stable value generally within an hour, indicating the responsiveness of moss to drainage. Staged increases also resulted in an abrupt rise in θ, but in some cases several days were required for θ to equilibrate. Pumped seepage resulted in a sequential decline of θ, requiring about 10 days for each layer to reach θ r after the water table dropped below the sensor at the respective depths. Evaporation resulted in a similar pattern of decline but took almost three times as long. The computer simulation Hydrus 1D was used to model the fluxes and provided a good fit for the staged lowering and pumped seepage experiments, but overestimated the water loss by evaporation. We believe the reason for this is that over the longer evaporation experiment, the monolith underwent

  5. The effect of a reciprocal peat transplant between two contrasting Central European sites on C cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M.; Zemanova, L.; Buzek, F.; Jackova, I.; Adamova, M.; Komarek, A.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R. K.; Stepanova, M.

    2009-10-01

    An 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between two peatlands in the Czech Republic. Both sites were 100% Sphagnum-covered, with no vascular plants, and no hummocks and hollows. Atmospheric depositions of sulfur were up to 10 times higher at the northern site Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ), compared to the southern site Cervene blato (CB). Forty-cm deep peat cores, 10 cm in diameter, were used as transplants and controls in five replicates. Our objective was to evaluate whether CO2 and CH4 production potentials in Sphagnum peat bogs are governed mainly by organic matter quality, or by environmental conditions. Production rates and δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 were measured in the laboratory at time t=18 months. All measured parameters converged to those of the host site, indicating that, at least in the short-term perspective, environmental conditions were a more important control of greenhouse gas emissions than organic carbon quality. Since sulfate reducers outcompete methanogens, we hypothesized that the S-polluted site VJJ should have lower methane emissions than CB. In fact, the opposite was true, with higher methane emissions from VJJ. As a first step in an effort to link C isotope composition of emitted gases and residual peat substrate, we determined whether multiple vertical δ13C profiles in peat agree. A high degree of within-site homogeneity in δ13C was found. The δ13C value increased downcore at both CB and VJJ. However, 20 cm below surface, a reversal to lower δ13C downcore was seen at VJJ. Based on 210Pb dating, peat at 20 cm depth at VJJ was only 15 years old. Increasing δ13C values in VJJ peat accumulated between 1880-1990 could not be caused by assimilation of atmospheric CO2 gradually enriched in the light isotope 12C due to fossil fuel burning.

  6. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  7. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to 1) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table (WT) and plant functional group (PFG) at the ons...

  8. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire: field measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Zatsarinnaya, Dina; Novenko, Elena

    2014-05-01

    CO2 for the atmosphere. ET is reached maximal values in the central part of the mire (0.34±0.20 mm hour-1 in May 2013) mainly due to high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. ET the peripheral part of the mire was much smaller and usually didn't exceed 0.03±0.02 mm hour-1. To estimate the total mire NEE and ET taking into account spatial heterogeneity of solar radiation, thermal and soil moisture conditions within the mire the process-based Mixfor-3D model was applied. Parameters describing the photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration variability were derived from results of the field measurements. This study was supported by grants of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR 11-04-01622-a, 14-04-01568-a).

  9. Towards the methodological optimization of the moss bag technique in terms of contaminants concentrations and replicability values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, A.; Fernández, J. A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The moss bag technique is a simple and economical environmental monitoring tool used to monitor air quality. However, routine use of the method is not possible because the protocols involved have not yet been standardized. Some of the most variable methodological aspects include (i) selection of moss species, (ii) ratio of moss weight to surface area of the bag, (iii) duration of exposure, and (iv) height of exposure. In the present study, the best option for each of these aspects was selected on the basis of the mean concentrations and data replicability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn measured during at least two exposure periods in environments affected by different degrees of contamination. The optimal choices for the studied aspects were the following: (i) Sphagnum denticulatum, (ii) 5.68 mg of moss tissue for each cm-2 of bag surface, (iii) 8 weeks of exposure, and (iv) 4 m height of exposure. Duration of exposure and height of exposure accounted for most of the variability in the data. The aim of this methodological study was to provide data to help establish a standardized protocol that will enable use of the moss bag technique by public authorities.

  10. [Optimization of a cake formulation with functional characteristics using resistant starch, Sphagnum magellanicum moss and deffated hazel nut flour (Gevuina avellana, Mol)].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Mario; Reyes, Carla; Hazbun, Julia; Karmelic, Julia

    2007-03-01

    Resistant starch (RS) Hi Maize 260, Sphagnum magellanicum Moss (SM) both natural resources rich in total dietary fiber, and defatted hazel nut flour (DHN) as protein resource were used in the development of a pastry product (queque) with functional characteristics. Taguchi methodology was utilized in the optimization process using the orthogonal array L934 with four control factors: RS, SM. DHN and Master Gluten 4000 (MG), 3 factor levels and 9 experimental trials. The best result of Sensory Quality (SQ) and signal to noise ratio (S/N) was obtained combining the minor levels of the independent variables. Main effect (average effects of factor) analysis and anova analysis showed that SM and DHN were the control factors with a significant influence (p<0.05) on the CS with a relative contribution of 83%. It is important to emphasize the total dietary fiber (8.7%) and protein (7.2%) values, the formers due to the presence of RS and SM. Shelf life study showed that the sensory characteristics flavour, appearance and texture were not affected when samples were stored at refrigerated temperatures but not at 20 degrees C, specifically flavour always kept a good preference during the whole period of time. Samples of optimized cakes showed very good results when they were submitted to hedonic test with 100% of favorable consumer's opinions.

  11. Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Strengbom, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Sphagnum, the main genus which forms boreal peat, is strongly affected by N and S deposition and raised temperature, but the physiological mechanisms behind the responses are largely unknown. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)), maximum efficiency of photosystem II [variable fluorescence (F (v))/maximum fluorescence yield (F (m))] and concentrations of N, C, chlorophyll and carotenoids as responses to N and S addition and increased temperature in Sphagnum balticum (a widespread species in the northern peatlands) in a 12-year factorial experiment. NP(max) did not differ between control (0.2 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high N (3.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)), but was higher in the mid N treatment (1.5 g N m(-2) year(-1)). N, C, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration increased in shoot apices after N addition. F (v)/F (m) did not differ between N treatments. Increased temperature (+3.6 degrees C) had a small negative effect on N concentration, but had no significant effect on NP(max) or F (v)/F (m). Addition of 2 g S m(-2) year(-1) showed a weak negative effect on NP(max) and F (v)/F (m). Our results suggest a unimodal response of NP(max) to N addition and tissue N concentration in S. balticum, with an optimum N concentration for photosynthetic rate of ~13 mg N g(-1). In conclusion, high S deposition may reduce photosynthetic capacity in Sphagnum, but the negative effects may be relaxed under high N availability. We suggest that previously reported negative effects on Sphagnum productivity under high N deposition are not related to negative effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, but differences in optimum N concentration among Sphagnum species may affect their competitive ability under different N deposition regimes.

  12. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Eutrophic mire, its characteristics and modern conditions of peat genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Zaplatnikova, Yu. D.; Dubrovskaya, L. I.

    2009-04-01

    The study of structure functional organization of Siberian mire ecosystems is the base of after-effects influence of their reclamation on global changes of biosphere. The aim of this investigation is to study the structure functional organization of eutrophic mire ecosystem "Tagan". Peat deposit "Tagan" (West Siberia, 20 kilometers near Tomsk) is situated on the second flood-plain terrace of the river Tom of ancient flow channel. Maximum power of peat deposit is 9.3 meters. Subsoil is made up from sand, more seldom from loamy sand and loam. Eutrophic vegetation covers almost the whole mire. It is presented by woody sedge, sedge, sedge-moss and grass undershrub phytocenoses. The oligotrophic vegetation is presented by Sphagnum pine cotton-grass phytocenosis. There were organized three observation points on the mire in 2007. They watched dynamics of hydrothermic, redox, biological, hydrochemical regimes. There were studied physicochemical properties at given points. Peats with normal ash basically refer to grass, woody grass group of lowland type. They are characterized by high degree of decomposition which is increased down deposit. Group composition of organic matters of investigated peats showed that bitumen content in peat changes from 1.4 to 3.56%, and humid acids content is within the limits of 16.67 - 44.34 %. Water-soluble and hardly-hydrolyzed matters are contained in quantity of 19.04 - 49.76% of the whole dry peat mass. The overall nitrogen content changes within the limits of 1.76 - 3.52%. It is presented mainly by fraction of unhydrolyzed nitrogen (72.07 - 95.67% of the whole nitrogen). Highly-hydrolyzed nitrogen is the most available reserve of mineral compound of nitrogen and its content changes within the limits of 0.18 - 4.79 of the overall nitrogen. 2008 year is characterized as an average year at conditions of moistening and heat providing. Investigations, made during this year, revealed the following results. Bog waters were kept at a surface

  14. Rhodoblastus sphagnicola sp. nov., a novel acidophilic purple non-sulfur bacterium from Sphagnum peat bog.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Guzev, Vladimir S; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2006-06-01

    An isolate of purple non-sulfur bacteria was obtained from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain RS(T). The colour of cell suspensions of this bacterium growing in the light under anaerobic conditions is purplish red. Cells of strain RS(T) are rod-shaped, 0.8-1.0 microm wide and 2.0-6.0 microm long, motile by means of polar flagella, reproduce by budding and have a tendency to form rosette-like clusters in older cultures. The cells contain lamellar intracytoplasmic membranes underlying, and parallel to, the cytoplasmic membrane. The photosynthetic pigments are bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids; the absorption spectrum of living cells shows maxima at 377, 463, 492, 527, 592, 806 and 867 nm. The cells grow photoheterotrophically under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions with various organic carbon sources or grow photolithoautotrophically with H(2) and CO(2). Strain RS(T) is a moderately acidophilic organism exhibiting growth at pH values between 4.8 and 7.0 (with an optimum at pH 5.2-5.5). The major fatty acids are 16 : 1omega7c and 18 : 1omega7c; the major quinones are Q-10 and Q-9. The DNA G + C content of strain RS(T) is 62.6 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is most closely related (97.3 % sequence similarity) to the type strain ATCC 25092(T) of the moderately acidophilic purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus, formerly named Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. However, in contrast to Rbl. acidophilus, strain RS(T) is not capable of aerobic growth in the dark, has no spirilloxanthin among the carotenoids and differs in the pattern of substrate utilization. The value for DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RS(T) and Rbl. acidophilus ATCC 25092(T) is only 22 %. Thus, strain RS(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhodoblastus, for which the name Rhodoblastus sphagnicola sp. nov. is proposed. Strain RS(T) (=DSM 16996(T) = VKM B-2361(T)) is the type strain.

  15. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat

    Treesearch

    Louis J. Lamit; Karl J. Romanowicz; Lynette R. Potvin; Adam R. Rivers; Kanwar Singh; Jay T. Lennon; Susannah G. Tringe; Evan S. Kane; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to (i) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table and plant functional group at the onset of a multiyear mesocosm experiment, and (ii) test if fungi are correlated with...

  16. Evolution of plant cell wall: Arabinogalactan-proteins from three moss genera show structural differences compared to seed plants.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Desirée; Baumann, Alexander; Maeder, Malte; Geske, Thomas; Heise, Esther Marie; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Classen, Birgit

    2017-05-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Allo-allo-triploid Sphagnum × falcatulum: single individuals contain most of the Holantarctic diversity for ancestrally indicative markers.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Eric F; Smouse, Peter E

    2017-08-01

    Allopolyploids exhibit both different levels and different patterns of genetic variation than are typical of diploids. However, scant attention has been given to the partitioning of allelic information and diversity in allopolyploids, particularly that among homeologous monoploid components of the hologenome. Sphagnum × falcatulum is a double allopolyploid peat moss that spans a considerable portion of the Holantarctic. With monoploid genomes from three ancestral species, this organism exhibits a complex evolutionary history involving serial inter-subgeneric allopolyploidizations. Studying populations from three disjunct regions [South Island (New Zealand); Tierra de Fuego archipelago (Chile, Argentina); Tasmania (Australia)], allelic information for five highly stable microsatellite markers that differed among the three (ancestral) monoploid genomes was examined. Using Shannon information and diversity measures, the holoploid information, as well as the information within and among the three component monoploid genomes, was partitioned into separate components for individuals within and among populations and regions, and those information components were then converted into corresponding diversity measures. The majority (76 %) of alleles detected across these five markers are most likely to have been captured by hybridization, but the information within each of the three monoploid genomes varied, suggesting a history of recurrent allopolyploidization between ancestral species containing different levels of genetic diversity. Information within individuals, equivalent to the information among monoploid genomes (for this dataset), was relatively stable, and represented 83 % of the grand total information across the Holantarctic, with both inter-regional and inter-population diversification each accounting for about 5 % of the total information. Sphagnum × falcatulum probably inherited the great majority of its genetic diversity at these markers by reticulation

  18. The use of Sphagnum cellulose oxygen isotope ratios in ombrotrophic peatlands as a proxy for paleoclimate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Pendall, E.; Jackson, S.; Booth, R. K.; Nichols, J. E.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Developing proxies for discerning paleoclimate that are independent of the pollen record can provide insight into various aspects of climate variability and improve confidence in the interpretation of climate-vegetation interactions. To date, proxies including plant macrofossils, humification indices, testate amoebae, and ratios of n-alkane abundances have been used to infer past climate variability from temperate ombrotrophic peatlands in upper Midwestern North America. These proxies are used to infer past changes in surface-moisture conditions, which in ombrotrophic peatlands is primarily a function of precipitation and temperature. This study investigates the potential uses of stable oxygen isotopes to complement hydrologic proxies. δ18O of surface water and Sphagnum moss cellulose from bogs throughout North America indicates a correlation between average growing season temperatures and δ18O-values. The existence of a modern temperature signal in moss cellulose suggests that δ18O-derived records will not only complement paleohydrological records, but also help assess relative changes in precipitation and temperature. Humification and testate amoebae data from two cores taken from Minden and Irwin Smith Bogs in central and northeastern Michigan have recorded several extreme drought events during the Holocene, including one at 1000 YBP. Comparison of δ18O-values of picked Sphagnum remains to down-core humification and testate amoebae data suggest good temporal correspondence, with the δ18O-values around 1000 YBP indicating a warmer growing season.

  19. Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Binet, Philippe; Buttler, Alexandre; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Delarue, Frédéric; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Francez, André-Jean; Gilbert, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Moss and peat hydraulic properties are optimized to maximise peatland water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, Nicholas; Tilak, Amey; Devito, Kevin; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Peatland ecosystems are globally important carbon and terrestrial surface water stores that have formed over millennia. These ecosystems have likely optimised their ecohydrological function over the long-term development of their soil hydraulic properties. Through a theoretical ecosystem approach, applying hydrological modelling integrated with known ecological thresholds and concepts, the optimisation of peat hydraulic properties is examined to determine which of the following conditions peatland ecosystems target during this development: i) maximise carbon accumulation, ii) maximise water storage, or iii) balance carbon profit across hydrological disturbances. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and empirical van Genuchten water retention parameter α are shown to provide a first order control on simulated water tensions. Across parameter space, peat profiles with hypothetical combinations of Ks and α show a strong binary tendency towards targeting either water or carbon storage. Actual hydraulic properties from five northern peatlands fall at the interface between these goals, balancing the competing demands of carbon accumulation and water storage. We argue that peat hydraulic properties are thus optimized to maximise water use efficiency and that this optimisation occurs over a centennial to millennial timescale as the peatland develops. This provides a new conceptual framework to characterise peat hydraulic properties across climate zones and between a range of different disturbances, and which can be used to provide benchmarks for peatland design and reclamation.

  1. Environmental factors controlling fluxes of dimethyl sulfide in a New Hampshire fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The major environmental factors controlling fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland were investigated in a poor fen in New Hampshire. DMS emissions from the surface of the peatland varied greatly over 24 hours and seasonally. Maximum DMS emissions occurred in summer with minima in the late fall. Temperature was the major environmental factor controlling these variabilities. There was also some evidence that the changes in water table height might have contributed to the seasonable variability in DMS emission. The influence of the water table was greater during periods of elevated temperature. DMS and MSH were the most abundant dissolved volatile sulfur compound (VSC) in the surface of the water table. Concentrations of dissolved VSC's varied with time and space throughout the fen. Dissolved MDS, MSH, and OCS in the surface of the water table were supersaturated with respect to their concentrations in the atmosphere suggesting that the peat surface was a source of VSC's in the peatland. VCS in peatlands seemed to be produced primarily by microbial processes in the anoxic surface layers of the peat rich in organic matter and inorganic sulfide. Sphagnum mosses were not a direct source of VSC's. However, they increased transport of DMS from the peat surface to the atmosphere.

  2. Nutrient load can lead to enhanced CH4 fluxes through changes in vegetation, peat surface elevation and water table depth in ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutinen, Sari; Bubier, Jill; Larmola, Tuula; Humphreys, Elyn; Arnkil, Sini; Roy, Cameron; Moore, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands, particularly in temperate areas, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. It is vital to understand the temporal scales and mechanisms of the changes, because peatlands are long-term sinks of C, but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. Rainwater fed (ombrotrophic) bogs are considered to be vulnerable to nutrient loading due to their natural nutrient poor status. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, now for 11-16 years with N (NO3 NH4) at 0.6, 3.2, and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1 (~5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition during summer months) with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured CH4 fluxes with static chambers weekly from May to September 2015 and peat samples were incubated in laboratory to measure CH4 production and consumption potentials. Methane fluxes at the site were generally low, but after 16 years, mean CH4 emissions have increased and more than doubled in high nitrogen addition treatments if P and K input was also increased (3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2yr-1 with PK), owing to drastic changes in vegetation and soil moisture. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new species, typical to minerogenic mires, which together with increased decomposition have led to decreased surface elevation and to higher water table level relative to the surface. The trajectories indicate that the N only treatments may result in similar responses, but only over longer time scales. Elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients to peatlands may increase loss of C not only due to changes in CO2 exchange but also due to enhanced CH4 emissions in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions

  3. Impact of the Little Ice Age cooling and 20th century climate change on peatland vegetation dynamics in central and northern Alberta using a multi-proxy approach and high-resolution peat chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnan, Gabriel; van Bellen, Simon; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Garneau, Michelle; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Zaccone, Claudio; Shotyk, William

    2018-04-01

    Northern boreal peatlands are major terrestrial sinks of organic carbon and these ecosystems, which are highly sensitive to human activities and climate change, act as sensitive archives of past environmental change at various timescales. This study aims at understanding how the climate changes of the last 1000 years have affected peatland vegetation dynamics in the boreal region of Alberta in western Canada. Peat cores were collected from five bogs in the Fort McMurray region (56-57° N), at the southern limit of sporadic permafrost, and two in central Alberta (53° N and 55° N) outside the present-day limit of permafrost peatlands. The past changes in vegetation communities were reconstructed using detailed plant macrofossil analyses combined with high-resolution peat chronologies (14C, atmospheric bomb-pulse 14C, 210Pb and cryptotephras). Peat humification proxies (C/N, H/C, bulk density) and records of pH and ash content were also used to improve the interpretation of climate-related vegetation changes. Our study shows important changes in peatland vegetation and physical and chemical peat properties during the Little Ice Age (LIA) cooling period mainly from around 1700 CE and the subsequent climate warming of the 20th century. In some bogs, the plant macrofossils have recorded periods of permafrost aggradation during the LIA with drier surface conditions, increased peat humification and high abundance of ericaceous shrubs and black spruce (Picea mariana). The subsequent permafrost thaw was characterized by a short-term shift towards wetter conditions (Sphagnum sect. Cuspidata) and a decline in Picea mariana. Finally, a shift to a dominance of Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia (mainly Sphagnum fuscum) occurred in all the bogs during the second half of the 20th century, indicating the establishment of dry ombrotrophic conditions under the recent warmer and drier climate conditions.

  4. Structure of peat soils and implications for biogeochemical processes and hydrological flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Gharedaghloo, B.; Kleimeier, C.; Milojevic, T.; Liu, H.; Weber, T. K. D.; Price, J. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Lenartz, B.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon and play major roles in global water, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. The structure of peatland soils (i.e., peat) are highly complex with unique physical and hydraulic properties; where significant, and only partially reversible, shrinkage occurs during dewatering (including water table fluctuations), compression and/or decomposition. These distinct physical and hydraulic properties controls water flow, which in turn affect reactive and non-reactive solute transport (such as, sorption or degradation) and biogeochemical functions. Additionally, peat further attenuates solute migration through molecular diffusion into the inactive pores of Sphagnum dominated peat. These slow, diffusion-limited solute exchanges between the pore regions may give rise to pore-scale chemical gradients and heterogeneous distributions of microbial habitats and activity in peat soils. Permafrost peat plateaus have the same essential subsurface characteristics as other widely organic soil-covered peatlands, where the hydraulic conductivity is related to the degree of decomposition and soil compression. Increasing levels of decomposition correspond with a reduction of effective pore diameter and consequently restrict water and solute flow (by several orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity between the ground surface and a depth of 50 cm). In this presentation, we present the current knowledge of key physical and hydraulic properties related to the structure of globally available peat soils and discuss their implications for water storage, flow and the migration of solutes.

  5. Nutrient Addition Leads to a Weaker CO2 Sink and Higher CH4 Emissions through Vegetation-Microclimate Feedbacks at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubier, J. L.; Arnkil, S.; Humphreys, E.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.; Moore, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands globally, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. Nutrient-limited boreal bogs are long-term sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, for 10-15 years with N as NO3 and NH4 at 5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition (0.6-0.8 g N m-2 y-1), with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration, and CH4 flux with climate-controlled chambers; leaf-level CO2 exchange and biochemistry; substrate-induced respiration, CH4 production and consumption potentials with laboratory incubations; plant species composition and abundance; and microclimate (peat temperature, moisture, light interception). After 15 years, we have found that NEE has decreased, and CH4 emissions have increased, in the highest nutrient treatments owing to changes in vegetation, microtopography, and peat characteristics. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new deciduous species. Simulated atmospheric N deposition has not benefitted the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant evergreen shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration, contributing to a weaker ecosystem CO2 sink. Loss of moss has led to wetter near-surface substrate, higher rates of decomposition and CH4 emission, and a shift in microbial communities. Thus, elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients may endanger C storage in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions among vegetation, microclimate, and microbial communities.

  6. The sensitivity of peat soil and peatland vegetation to drought: release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, Jonathan; Graham, Nigel; Templeton, Michael; Freeman, Christopher; Clark, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Organic rich peat soils are a major store of carbon worldwide. Their existence is predicated on high year-round water tables which create an anoxic environment, thus limiting decay, and also to the recalcitrance of plant litter (dead plant material) commonly found in peatland areas. Climate change threatens the stability of peat soils by altering the biogeochemical cycles which control plant decay, lowering water tables so that oxic degradation can occur and by changing habitat niches such that less recalcitrant species can thrive in peatlands. One of the major fluxes of carbon from peatlands is through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters. As peatland areas in the UK are often used as source waters for drinking water supply this presents a problem to water utilities as DOC must be effectively removed to limit colour, odour and the formation of potentially carcinogenic by-products on disinfection. Changes in catchment vegetation may occur due to climate change, nutrient deposition and changing bioclimatic envelopes. How different peatland vegetation contribute to DOC flux and how this may change in the future is therefore of interest. A six week laboratory simulation was performed on typical peatland litter (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, Juncus effusus) and a peat soil collected from Exmoor National Park, UK. The simulation monitored DOC flux from the decaying litter/soil and considered the impact of different drought severities using the 50th, 25th, 10th and 5th percentiles of the mean July/August monthly rainfall for Exmoor. On rewetting following the drought, all sources produced significantly different amounts of DOC (Tukey HSD p<0.05) in the order Molinia>Juncus>Calluna>Sphagnum>peat. The source also had a significant (ANOVA p<0.001) effect on coagulation removal efficiency, a typical method of removing DOC during drinking water treatment, with Juncus DOC proving the easiest to remove whilst Sphagnum DOC was the most difficult

  7. Nitrogen Inputs via Nitrogen Fixation in Northern Plants and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dominated by cold and often acidic water logged environments, mineralization of organic matter is slow in the majority of northern ecosystems. Measures of extractable ammonium and nitrate are generally low and can be undetectable in peat pore waters. Despite this apparent nitrogen limitation, many of these environments produce deep deposits of soil organic matter. Biological nitrogen fixation carried out by autotrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs associated with cryptograms provides the majority of known nitrogen inputs in these northern ecosystems. Nitrogen fixation was assessed in a variety of northern soils within rhizospheres of dominant plant communities. We investigated the availability of this newly fixed nitrogen to the vascular plant community in nitrogen limited northern plant communities. We tracked nitrogen flow from 15N2 gas fixed in Sphagnum mosses into tissues of two native vascular plant species, boreal cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) and black spruce (Picea mariana). 15N-labeled Sphagnum microcosms were grown within variable mesh size exclusion/inclusion fabrics in a nitrogen addition experiment in situ in order to investigate the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of newly fixed nitrogen. Up to 24% of daily fixed 15N label was transferred to vascular plant tissues during 2 months. Nitrogen addition resulted in decreased N2 fixation rates; however, with higher nitrogen availability there was a higher rate of 15N label uptake into the vascular plants, likely the result of increased production of dissolved organic nitrogen. Reliance on mycorrhizal networks for nitrogen acquisition was indicated by nitrogen isotope fractionation patterns. Moreover, N2 fixation activities in mosses were stimulated when vascular plants were grown in moss microcosms versus "moss only" treatments. Results indicate that bog vascular plants may derive considerable nitrogen from atmospheric N2 biologically fixed within Sphagnum mosses. This work demonstrates that

  8. High-resolution Record of Holocene Climate, Vegetation, and Fire from a Raised Peat Bog, Prince Edward Island, Canadian Maritimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M. C.; Chan, K.; Ponsford, L.; Carroll, J.; Magnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Raised peat bogs receive all precipitation and nutrients from the atmosphere and are thus widely used archives for information on past environments and climates. In this paper we provide high-resolution multi-proxy data from a raised bog from northeastern Prince Edward Island, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. We studied testate amoeba (a proxy for water table depth), macrocharcoal (a proxy for local-scale fire), peat humification (a proxy for decomposition), plant macrofossils (indicative of local-scale vegetation), and organic matter content (yielding carbon accumulation rates) from a 5.5 m long core lifted from the center of Baltic Bog. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates show that peat accumulation began before 9000 cal yr BP and continued almost uninterrupted until the present. The macrofossil data show that a transition from a sedge-dominated fen to a sphagnum-dominated bog occurred around 8000 cal yr BP, and sphagnum remained dominant in the bog throughout most of the Holocene. A testate amoeba-based reconstruction of water table depth indicates that conditions were drier during the early Holocene (~8000 to 5000 cal yr BP) and became gradually wetter into the late Holocene. In addition, a number of higher frequency shifts in precipitation are inferred throughout the Holocene on the basis of the testate amoeba and humification results. The macrocharcoal evidence indicates fire—probably in the surrounding forest—was relatively more common during the early Holocene, perhaps due to drier climate conditions. A large influx of charcoal at around 2000 cal yr BP suggests the presence of one or more major fires at this time, and a concurrent decrease in the rate of peat accumulation indicates the fire may have affected the bog itself. The data from Baltic Bog is broadly comparable to other proxy data (in particular pollen studies) from the Canadian Maritimes. This work is important because it: 1) helps us better understand the role of hydroclimatic

  9. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  10. Towards a conceptual model of hydrological change on an abandoned cutover bog, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Seters, Tim E.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2002-07-01

    Cutover bogs do not return to functional peatland ecosystems after abandonment because re-establishment of peat-forming mosses is poor. This paper presents a conceptual model of bog disturbance caused by peat harvesting (1942-1972), and the hydrological evolution that occurred after abandonment (1973-1998). Two adjacent bogs of similar size and origin, one harvested and the other essentially undisturbed, provide the basis for understanding what changes occurred. The model is based on historical trends evident from previous surveys of land-use, bog ecology and resource mapping; and from recent hydrological and ecological data that characterize the current condition. Water balance data and historical information suggest that runoff increased and evapotranspiration decreased following drainage, but tended towards pre-disturbance levels following abandonment, as vegetation recolonized the surface and drainage became less efficient over time. Dewatering of soil pores after drainage caused shrinkage and oxidation of the peat and surface subsidence of approximately 80 cm over 57 years. Comparisons with a nearby natural bog suggest that bulk density in the upper 50 cm of cutover peat increased from 0·07 to 0·13 g cm-3, specific yield declined from 0·14 to 0·07, water table fluctuations were 67% greater, and mean saturated hydraulic conductivity declined from 4·1 × 10-5 to 1·3 × 10-5 cm s-1. More than 25 years after abandonment, Sphagnum mosses were distributed over broad areas but covered less than 15% of the surface. Areas with good Sphagnum regeneration (>10% cover) were strongly correlated with high water tables (mean -22 cm), especially in zones of seasonal groundwater discharge, artefacts of the extraction history. Forest cover expanded from 5 to 20% of the study area following abandonment. The effect of forest growth (transpiration and interception) and drainage on lowering water levels eventually will be countered by slower water movement through the

  11. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  12. SPRUCE S1 Bog Sphagnum CO2 Flux Measurements and Partitioning into Re and GPP

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker, A. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Carter, K. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Hanson, P. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Nettles, W. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Philips, J. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Sebestyen, S. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.; Weston, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    2015-06-01

    This data set provides (1) the results of in-situ Sphagnum-peat hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measured using a LICOR 8100 gas exchange system and (2) the component fluxes -- gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re), derived using empirical regressions.NEE measurements were made from 6 June to 6 November 2014 and 20 March to 10 May 2015. Three 8100 chambers per dominant species (S. magellanicum or S. fallax) were placed in the S1 Bog in relatively open ground where there was no obvious hummock-hollow microtopography. The 8100 chambers were not located in the SPRUCE experimental enclosures.

  13. Sporotrichosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sporothrix . This fungus lives throughout the world in soil and on plant matter such as sphagnum moss, ... that causes sporotrichosis, lives in the environment in soil and on plant matter such as sphagnum moss, ...

  14. Biological N2 fixation mainly controlled by Sphagnum tissue N:P ratio in ombrotrophic bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, Tatjana; Moore, Tim R.

    2017-04-01

    Most of the 18 Pg nitrogen (N) accumulated in northern nutrient-poor and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands (bogs and fens) can be attributed to N2-fixation by diazotrophs either associated with the live Sphagnum or non-symbiotically in the deeper peat such as through methane consumption close to the water table. Where atmospheric N deposition is low (< 0.2 g m-2 y-1), ombrotrophic bogs rely on N2-fixation as the primary source of N that sustains primary production. Due to high energetic requirements, N2-fixation depends on the available phosphorus (P). Anthropogenic impacts in the last 200 years increased atmospheric N deposition, resulting in a switch from N to P limitation in Sphagnum, suggested by the increase in tissue N:P to >16. It is unclear how Sphagnum-hosted diazotrophic activity may be affected by N deposition and thus changes in N:P ratio. First, we investigated the effects of long-term addition of different sources of nitrogen (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1as NH4Cl and NaNO3), and phosphorus (5 g P m-2 y-1as KH2PO4) on Sphagnum nutrient status (N, P and N:P ratio), net primary productivity (NPP) and Sphagnum-associated N2fixation at Mer Bleue, a temperate ombrotrophic bog. We show that N concentration in Sphagnum tissue increased with larger rates of N addition, with a stronger effect on Sphagnum from NH4 than NO3. The addition of P created a 3.5 fold increase in Sphagnum P content compared to controls. Sphagnum NPP decreased linearly with the rise in N:P ratio, while linear growth declined exponentially with increase in Sphagnum N content. Rates of N2-fixation determined in the laboratory significantly decreased in response to even the smallest addition of both N species. In contrast, the addition of P increased N2 fixation by up to 100 times compared to N treatments and up to 5-30 times compared to controls. The change in N2-fixation was best modeled by the N:P ratio, across all experimental treatments. Secondly, to test the role of N:P ratio on N2

  15. The paleoecology, peat chemistry and carbon storage of a discontinuous permafrost peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Julie; Pelletier, Nicolas; Olefeldt, David; Turetsky, Merritt; Blodau, Christian; Sonnentag, Oliver; Quinton, William

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost in peatlands strongly influences ecosystem biogeochemical functioning, vegetation composition and hydrological functions. Permafrost peatlands of northwestern Canada store large amounts of carbon but the peatlands located at the southern margin of the permafrost zone are thawing rapidly. This thaw triggers changes in vegetation, hydrology and peat characteristics, and may affect carbon stocks. We present data from a permafrost plateau to thermokarst bog chronosequence located in the southern portion of the Scotty Creek watershed near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada. We assessed changes in plant communities, hydrology, biogeochemistry and permafrost status over 9000 years of peatland development using plant macrofossil, testate amoeba and peat chemical characteristics. Peat accumulation started after the infilling of a lake 8500 cal. yr BP. Minerotrophic peat prevailed at the site until permafrost formed around 5000 cal. yr BP. Permafrost apparently formed three times, although there is spatial variability in the permafrost aggradation - degradation cycles. Permafrost thawed 550 cal. yr BP in the center of the thermokarst bog. Ombrotrophic peat is a fairly recent feature of the peat profiles, only appearing after the most recent permafrost thaw event. Both allogenic (temperature/precipitation/snow cover changes and wildfire) and autogenic (peat accumulation, Sphagnum growth) processes likely influenced permafrost aggradation and thaw. While apparent carbon accumulation rates were lower during present and past permafrost periods than during non-permafrost periods, long term carbon accumulation remained similar between cores with different permafrost period lengths. Deep peat was more decomposed in the thermokarst bog peat profile than in the permafrost plateau profile, highlighting the importance of considering potential deep peat carbon losses to project the fate of thawing permafrost peat carbon stores. Average long-term carbon accumulation

  16. Can we Ecohydrologically Rehabilitate Disturbed Peatlands? From "Wetlands of Mass Decomposition" to "Yes We Can"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, J. M.; Cagampan, J.; Lucchese, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Duval, T. P.

    2009-05-01

    The natural carbon storage function of peatland ecosystems can be severely affected by human and natural disturbances such as drainage, peat extraction, drought and wildfire. Cutover peatands, for example, become a large and persistent source of atmospheric CO2 following peat extraction. The recovery (rehabilitation, re- establishment, restoration) of disturbed peatlands to a net carbon sink depends to a large extent on the rate of recovery of the surface peat layer referred to as the acrotelm. The acrotelm serves to stabilize water table variation providing ideal conditions for vegetation re-establishment, particularly peat forming Sphagnum moss. Here we present results from several ecosystem-scale field experiments where we examined the change in hydrophysical properties of peat following peat extraction and subsequent restoration and discuss how this affects peatland-atmosphere CO2. We found that moisture retention properties of a new peat layer at a restored peatland were distinct from near- by natural and naturally regenerated sites. Despite considerable biomass accumulation and increase in peat thickness, the new peat layer differed with respect to its moisture retention properties, an indication that factors other than growth have an impact on the restoration of the returning moss layer. Similarly in an acrotelm transplant experiment we determined that the restored peatland experienced high variability in volumetric moisture content (VMC) in the capitula zone (upper 2 cm) where large diurnal changes in VMC (~30%) were observed, suggesting possible disturbance to the peat matrix structure during the extraction-restoration process. However, soil - water retention analysis and physical peat properties (porosity and bulk density) suggest that no significant differences existed between the natural and restored sites. A simple hydrologic model demonstrated that the new peat layer will become an acrotelm in ~20 years when ~20 cm of peat has accumulated, an approach

  17. Nutrient loading enhances methane flux in an ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubier, Jill L.; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim; Arnkil, Sini; Humphreys, Elyn; Marincak, Brenden; Roy, Cameron; Larmola, Tuula

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) and emission rates may be affected by atmospheric nutrient inputs and associated changes in vegetation. In a long-term (10-15 yr) fertilization experiment at a nutrient-poor, Sphagnum moss- and dwarf shrub-dominated bog in eastern Canada, we tested the effect of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3,0 to 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1) and potassium phosphate (KH2PO4,5 g P m-2 yr-1) on fluxes of CH4. Fluxes were measured using a closed chamber technique over the growing seasons of 2005 and 2015. The effect of long-term field treatments on aerobic consumption and anaerobic production potentials of CH4 was tested by laboratory incubations of peat samples, as well as an amendment with KH2PO4on anaerobic production potentials at the water table. Over the 10-15 yr, three levels of N plus PK addition and N-only addition of 6.4g N m-2yr-1 decreased the abundance of Sphagnum and Polytrichum mosses, increased the growth and coverage of dwarf shrubs, and caused a decline in surface elevation and thus a higher water table. Overall, CH4 flux was small, ˜ 12 mg m-2 d-1 in the control plots, primarily because of the low water table (30 to 50 cm beneath the peat surface), but flux varied as a function of water table position and treatment. KH2PO4 addition was associated with the highest fluxes: in the 5th treatment year, the PK treatment had the largest CH4 flux (˜25 mg m-2 d-1), whereas in the 15th year the 6.4NPK treatment had the largest flux (˜50 mg m-2 d-1). Rates of potential production and consumption of CH4in laboratory incubations of peat samples were associated with position relative to the water table. Anaerobic potential CH4production was largest in the PK treatment and overall was marginally increased by PK amendment; there were no clear effects of NH4NO3 on CH4 production. The major increase in CH4 flux appearing in the long term seemed to be result of the change in water table position owing to peat subsidence and loss of moss

  18. Simulated climate change impact on summer dissolved organic carbon release from peat and surface vegetation: implications for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R; Brazier, Richard E; Verhoef, Anne; Freeman, Chris; Clark, Joanna M

    2014-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g(-1)) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g(-1)) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of Viral Abundance and Diversity in a Sphagnum-Dominated Peatland: Temporal Fluctuations Prevail Over Habitat.

    PubMed

    Ballaud, Flore; Dufresne, Alexis; Francez, André-Jean; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Quaiser, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different layers of the peat surface. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7 x 10(6) to 5.6 x 10(8) particles mL(-1), and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with prokaryote abundance and dissolved organic carbon, and negatively correlated with water-table height and dissolved oxygen. Using shotgun metagenomics we observed a shift in viral diversity between winter/spring and summer/autumn, indicating a seasonal succession of viral communities, mainly driven by weather-related environmental changes. Based on the seasonal asynchrony between viral and microbial diversity, we hypothesize a seasonal shift in the active microbial communities associated with a shift from lysogenic to lytic lifestyles. Our results suggest that temporal variations of environmental conditions rather than current habitat differences control the dynamics of virus-host interactions in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands.

  20. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial and Fungal Communities in a Degraded Ombrotrophic Peatland Undergoing Natural and Managed Re-Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon J. M.; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Sen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare

  2. Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David R; Caporn, Simon J M; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R Henrik; Sen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat

  3. Formalized classification of moss litters in swampy spruce forests of intermontane depressions of Kuznetsk Alatau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, T. T.; Avrova, A. F.; Efremov, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    The approaches of multivariate statistics have been used for the numerical classification of morphogenetic types of moss litters in swampy spruce forests according to their physicochemical properties (the ash content, decomposition degree, bulk density, pH, mass, and thickness). Three clusters of moss litters— peat, peaty, and high-ash peaty—have been specified. The functions of classification for identification of new objects have been calculated and evaluated. The degree of decomposition and the ash content are the main classification parameters of litters, though all other characteristics are also statistically significant. The final prediction accuracy of the assignment of a litter to a particular cluster is 86%. Two leading factors participating in the clustering of litters have been determined. The first factor—the degree of transformation of plant remains (quality)—specifies 49% of the total variance, and the second factor—the accumulation rate (quantity)— specifies 26% of the total variance. The morphogenetic structure and physicochemical properties of the clusters of moss litters are characterized.

  4. Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov., a facultatively methanotrophic bacterium from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Methylocystis (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993.

    PubMed

    Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Bodelier, Paul L E; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2013-03-01

    A novel species is proposed for two facultatively methanotrophic representatives of the genus Methylocystis, strains H2s(T) and S284, which were isolated from an acidic (pH 4.3) Sphagnum peat-bog lake (Teufelssee, Germany) and an acidic (pH 3.8) peat bog (European North Russia), respectively. Cells of strains H2s(T) and S284 are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, curved coccoids or short rods that contain an intracytoplasmic membrane system typical of type-II methanotrophs. They possess both a soluble and a particulate methane monooxygenase (MMO); the latter is represented by two isozymes, pMMO1 and pMMO2. The preferred growth substrates are methane and methanol. In the absence of C1 substrates, however, these methanotrophs are capable of slow growth on acetate. Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by means of an aerotolerant nitrogenase. Strains H2s(T) and S284 grow between pH 4.2 and 7.6 (optimum pH 6.0-6.5) and at 8-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω8c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω7c; the major quinone is Q-8. The DNA G+C content is 62.0-62.3 mol%. Strains H2s(T) and S284 share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which displayed 96.6-97.3 % similarity to sequences of other taxonomically characterized members of the genus Methylocystis. Therefore, strains H2s(T) and S284 are classified as members of a novel species, for which the name Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov. is proposed; strain H2s(T) ( = DSM 21852(T)  = VKM B-2545(T)) is the type strain.

  5. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg-1.K-1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg-1.K-1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of specific heat

  7. Metatranscriptomics reveals the hydrolytic potential of peat-inhabiting Planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia A; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2018-06-01

    Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are common inhabitants of northern Sphagnum-dominated wetlands. Evidence is accumulating that, in these environments, some planctomycetes may be involved in degrading polymeric organic matter. The experimental data, however, remain scarce due to the low number of characterized representatives of this phylum. In a previous study, we used metatranscriptomics to assess the activity response of peat-inhabiting microorganisms to biopolymers abundantly present in native peat. The community responses to cellulose, xylan, pectin, and chitin availability were analysed relative to unamended controls. Here, we re-analysed these metatranscriptomes and retrieved a total of 1,602,783 rRNA and 35,522 mRNA sequences affiliated with the Planctomycetes. Each of the four polymers induced specific planctomycete responses. These were most pronounced on chitin. The two groups with increased 16S rRNA transcript pools were Gemmata- and Phycisphaera-like planctomycetes. Among uncultivated members of the Planctomycetaceae, two increased transcript pools were detected in pectin-amended samples and belonged to Pirellula-like bacteria. The analysis of taxonomically assigned mRNA reads confirmed the specific response of Gemmata-related planctomycetes to chitin amendment suggesting the presence of chitinolytic capabilities in these bacteria.

  8. pH Lowering Ability of Sphagnum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glime, Janice M.; Li, Yenhung

    1998-01-01

    States that the ecological role of Sphagnum species in peatlands is enormous. Presents a cation exchange experiment and background information on the characteristics and economic importance of Sphagnum. Contains 42 references. (DDR)

  9. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  10. Potentials and problems of building detailed dust records using peat archives: An example from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander, Malin E.; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; Bindler, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Rauch, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust deposition is a process often overlooked in northern mid-latitudes, despite its potential effects on ecosystems. These areas are often peat-rich, providing ample material for the reconstruction of past changes in atmospheric deposition. The highly organic (up to 99% in some cases) matrix of atmospherically fed mires, however, makes studying the actual dust particles (grain size, mineralogy) challenging. Here we explore some of the potentials and problems of using geochemical data from conservative, lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Rb, Sc, Y, Zr, Th, Ti and REE) to build detailed dust records by using an example from the 8900-yr peat sequence from Store Mosse (the ;Great Bog;), which is the largest mire complex in the boreo-nemoral region of southern Sweden. The four dust events recorded at this site were elementally distinct, suggesting different dominant mineral hosts. The oldest and longest event (6385-5300 cal yr BP) sees a clear signal of clay input but with increasing contributions of mica, feldspar and middle-REE-rich phosphate minerals over time. These clays are likely transported from a long-distance source (<100 km). While dust deposition was reduced during the second event (5300-4370 cal yr BP), this is the most distinct in terms of its source character with [Eu/Eu∗]UCC revealing the input of plagioclase feldspar from a local source, possibly active during this stormier period. The third (2380-2200 cal yr BP) and fourth (1275-1080 cal yr BP) events are much shorter in duration and the presence of clays and heavy minerals is inferred. Elemental mass accumulation rates reflect these changes in mineralogy where the relative importance of the four dust events varies by element. The broad changes in major mineral hosts, grain size, source location and approximated net dust deposition rates observed in the earlier dust events of longer duration agree well with paleoclimatic changes observed in northern Europe. The two most recent dust events are much

  11. GPR survey to detect buried prehistorical remains at North Ballachulish Moss (Scotland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Persico, R.; Utsi, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work deals with the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) exploitation to map the underlying topography of North Ballachulish Moss as part of an archaeological evaluation of the area that was under threat of development. The aim of the survey has been to reconstruct peat depth and detect and locate buried localised targets [1]. During the survey many radar anomalies have been detected and the reliability of the radar survey has been confirmed by ground-truthing under the form of sediment coring, test-pitting and trial excavations. Sediment coring and test-pitting provided corroborative evidence for the peat depths as defined by the radar survey. Trial trenching revealed that a suite of radar anomalies, identified during the course of the survey, are related to a buried prehistoric surface with an associated abundance of man-made artefacts (wooden stakes). The data interpretation has benefited of the representation of the GPR results under the format of horizontal time-slices that well pointed out the depth of the peat and the localization and the shape of the buried localised targets. In particular, the series of time-slices show the development of discrete surfaces and their relationship to an adjacent headland. The orientation of the site and its proximity to the location of a buried prehistoric wooden figure suggest ritual importance. Finally, the measurements have been processed by a novel data processing approach based on the microwave tomography [3-4]; the results of this data processing have been compared with the ones of the standard data processing and have confirmed the above said outcomes of the standard data processing. [1] C.M. Clarke, E.Utsi, V. Utsi, "Ground penetrating radar investigations at North Ballachulish Moss, Highland, Scotland", Archaeological Prospection, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 107-121-75 , 1999 [2] E. Utsi, "Ground-penetrating radar time-slices from North Ballachulish Moss", Archaeological Prospection, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 65-75, 2004. [3] F

  12. Can frequent precipitation moderate drought impact on peatmoss carbon uptake in northern peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijp, Jelmer; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Berendse, Frank; Robroek, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands represent one of the largest global carbon stores that can potentially be released by water table drawdown during extreme summer droughts. Small precipitation events may moderate negative impacts of deep water levels on carbon uptake by sustaining photosynthesis of peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.), the key species in these ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the importance of the temporal distribution of precipitation for Sphagnum water supply and carbon uptake during a stepwise decrease in water levels in a growth chamber. CO2 exchange and the water balance were measured for intact cores of three peatmoss species representative of three contrasting habitats in northern peatlands (Sphagnum fuscum, S. balticum and S. majus). For shallow water levels, capillary rise was the most important source of water for peatmoss photosynthesis and precipitation did not promote carbon uptake irrespective of peatmoss species. For deep water levels, however, precipitation dominated over capillary rise and moderated adverse effects of drought on carbon uptake by peat mosses. The ability to use the transient water supply by precipitation was species-specific: carbon uptake of S. fuscum increased linearly with precipitation frequency for deep water levels, whereas S. balticum and S. majus showed depressed carbon uptake at intermediate precipitation frequencies. Our results highlight the importance of precipitation for carbon uptake by peatmosses. The potential of precipitation to moderate drought impact, however, is species specific and depends on the temporal distribution of precipitation and water level. These results also suggest that modelling approaches in which water level depth is used as the only state variable determining water availability in the living moss layer and (in)directly linked to Sphagnum carbon uptake may have serious drawbacks. The predictive power of peatland ecosystem models may be reduced when deep water levels prevail, as precipitation

  13. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

  14. The Paradox of Excess Nitrogen in Boreal Peatlands: Biogeochemical Gaps in Nitrogen Cycling Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vile, M. A.; Prsa, T.; Wieder, R.; Lamers, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Globally, peatlands cover 3-4 % of the Earth's land surface (over 4 million km 2, yet they store 25-30 % of the world's soil carbon (C) and 9-16% of the world's soil nitrogen (N, 8-15 Pg) in peat. As in other terrestrial ecosystems, the cycling of C and N is closely linked, especially for ombrotrophic bogs. Bogs receive nutrient and water exclusively from the atmosphere, which ensures an N-limited, nutrient-poor habitat. In Alberta, NW Canada, peatlands have received exceptionally low atmospheric inputs of N (< 1 7 kg/ha/yr) from their first introduction on the landscape ~ 7000 yrs bp, up to the present time. Paradoxically, despite these low inputs of atmospheric N deposition, bases on 210-fixation Pb dating of peat cores, we have shown that over the past 50 years these bogs have accumulated approximately 11-21 times more N in peat than can be explained by inputs of atmospheric N. A likely missing input is N2-fixation from cyanobacteria associated with Sphagnum mosses, however this process has been largely overlooked in boreal peatlands. Here we demonstrate the importance of N2-fixation in explaining the high accumulation rates of N found in unpolluted, boreal bogs of western Canada. Calibrated (using theoretical ratio of 1.5-3:1) rates of N2-fixation for 4 bogs in northern Alberta ranged from 1.6 to 8.0 ± 0.7 kg/ha/yr, indicating that 42-58 % of the N accumulated over in peat, can be attributed to biological N2-fixation. Although most of northern Alberta's peatlands continue to receive exceptionally low atmospheric N deposition rates, over the last 3 decades, rapid development and industrial expansion of Alberta's Oil Sands Mining (OSM) potentially threaten the pristine nature of peatlands through regionally elevated deposition of N-compounds (NOx). Prior to OSM, N inputs to bogs were limited exclusively to (1) biological N fixation, and (2) bulk background deposition. We examined the response of peatlands located in the OSM area to enhanced N deposition. Despite

  15. Antibacterial activity of sphagnum acid and other phenolic compounds found in Sphagnum papillosum against food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mellegård, H; Stalheim, T; Hormazabal, V; Granum, P E; Hardy, S P

    2009-07-01

    To identify the phenolic compounds in the leaves of Sphagnum papillosum and examine their antibacterial activity at pH appropriate for the undissociated forms. Bacterial counts of overnight cultures showed that whilst growth of Staphylococcus aureus 50084 was impaired in the presence of milled leaves, the phenol-free fraction of holocellulose of S. papillosum had no bacteriostatic effect. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of an acetone-methanol extract of the leaves detected eight phenolic compounds. Antibacterial activity of the four dominating phenols specific to Sphagnum leaves, when assessed in vitro as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were generally >2.5 mg ml(-1). MIC values of the Sphagnum-specific compound 'sphagnum acid' [p-hydroxy-beta-(carboxymethyl)-cinnamic acid] were >5 mg ml(-1). No synergistic or antagonistic effects of the four dominating phenols were detected in plate assays. Sphagnum-derived phenolics exhibit antibacterial activity in vitro only at concentrations far in excess of those found in the leaves. We have both identified the phenolic compounds in S. papillosum and assessed their antibacterial activity. Our data indicate that phenolic compounds in isolation are not potent antibacterial agents and we question their potency against food-borne pathogens.

  16. Persistent high temperature and low precipitation reduce peat carbon accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Buttler, Alexandre; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Albrecht, Remy; Zaccone, Claudio; Jassey, Vincent E J; Signarbieux, Constant

    2016-12-01

    Extreme climate events are predicted to become more frequent and intense. Their ecological impacts, particularly on carbon cycling, can differ in relation to ecosystem sensitivity. Peatlands, being characterized by peat accumulation under waterlogged conditions, can be particularly sensitive to climate extremes if the climate event increases soil oxygenation. However, a mechanistic understanding of peatland responses to persistent climate extremes is still lacking, particularly in terms of aboveground-belowground feedback. Here, we present the results of a transplantation experiment of peat mesocosms from high to low altitude in order to simulate, during 3 years, a mean annual temperature c. 5 °C higher and a mean annual precipitation c. 60% lower. Specifically, we aim at understanding the intensity of changes for a set of biogeochemical processes and their feedback on carbon accumulation. In the transplanted mesocosms, plant productivity showed a species-specific response depending on plant growth forms, with a significant decrease (c. 60%) in peat moss productivity. Soil respiration almost doubled and Q 10 halved in the transplanted mesocosms in combination with an increase in activity of soil enzymes. Spectroscopic characterization of peat chemistry in the transplanted mesocosms confirmed the deepening of soil oxygenation which, in turn, stimulated microbial decomposition. After 3 years, soil carbon stock increased only in the control mesocosms whereas a reduction in mean annual carbon accumulation of c. 30% was observed in the transplanted mesocosms. Based on the above information, a structural equation model was built to provide a mechanistic understanding of the causal connections between peat moisture, vegetation response, soil respiration and carbon accumulation. This study identifies, in the feedback between plant and microbial responses, the primary pathways explaining the reduction in carbon accumulation in response to recurring climate extremes in

  17. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F

    2015-01-01

    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Accumulation of n-alkanes and carboxylic acids in peat mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Gruzdev, I. V.; Yakovleva, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The quantitative and qualitative compositions of n-alkanes and carboxylic acids have been identified, and the features of their vertical stratification in peat mound profiles of the forest-tundra zone of Komi Republic have been revealed. The composition of n-alkanes (structures with C23, C25, C27, C29, and C31) and carboxylic acids (C24, C26, and C28) and their proportions make it possible to determine changes in plant communities of peat mounds with time and can be used as markers for the degree of decomposition of organic matter. In cryogenic horizons, the contents of n-alkanes (mainly C23, C25, and C27) and carboxylic acids (C24, C26, and C28) significantly decrease because of the different botanic composition of cryogenic horizons (grass-woody residues) and seasonally thawing horizons (moss-subshrub residues) and the almost complete stopping of the equilibrium accumulation and transformation of organic compounds in permafrost.

  20. The importance of pH and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Marilou B; Price, Jonathan; Rochefort, Line

    2015-11-01

    A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ∼5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S. pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J. balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J. balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreasing Toxic Metal Bioavailability with Novel Soil Amendment Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    approach with loading levels designed for scale-up to the field. Loading levels for humus or sphagnum moss will be 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 % w/w. Such...treatment strategies are economical for implementing at the field scale. Premium grade humus or sphagnum moss cost $0.10 per kg which suggests treating a

  2. Air quality in urban parking garages (PM10, major and trace elements, PAHs): Instrumental measurements vs. active moss biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Kuzmanoski, Maja; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Popović, Aleksandar

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in four parking garages in downtown of Belgrade with the aim to provide multi-pollutant assessment. Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority PAHs and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in PM10 samples. The carcinogenic health risk of employees' occupational exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) and PAHs (B[a]A, Cry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P and DB[ah]A) was estimated. A possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for monitoring of trace element air pollution in semi-enclosed spaces was evaluated as well. The results showed that concentrations of PM10, Cd, Ni and B[a]P exceeded the EU Directive target values. Concentration of Zn, Ba and Cu were two orders of magnitude higher than those measured at different urban sites in European cities. Cumulative cancer risk obtained for heavy metals and PAHs was 4.51 × 10-5 and 3.75 × 10-5 in M and PP, respectively; upper limit of the acceptable US EPA range is 10-4. In the moss, higher post-exposure than pre-exposure (background) element concentrations was observed. In comparison with instrumental monitoring data, similar order of abundances of the most elements in PM10 and moss samples was found. However, using of the S. girgensohnii moss bag technique in indoor environments needs further justification.

  3. Utilization of ICP/OES for the determination of trace metal binding to different humic fractions.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, G; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2003-02-28

    In this study, the use of inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) to determine multi-metal binding to three biomasses, Sphagnum peat moss, humin and humic acids is reported. All the investigations were performed under part per billion (ppb) concentrations. Batch pH profile experiments were performed using multi-metal solutions of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The results showed that at pH 2 and 3, the metal affinity of the three biomasses exposed to the multi-metal solution that included Cr(III) presented the following order: Cu(II), Pb(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(III)>Cd(II). On the other hand, when Cr(VI) was in the heavy metal mixture, Sphagnum peat moss and humin showed the following affinity: Cu(II), Pb(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Cd(II); however, the affinity of the humic acids was: Cu(II)>Pb(II), Cr(VI)>Ni(II)>Cd(II). The results demonstrated that pH values of 4 and 5 were the most favorable for the heavy metal binding process. At pH 5, all the metals, except for Cr(VI), were bound between 90 and 100% to the three biomasses. However, the binding capacity of humic acids decreased at pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). The results showed that the ICP/OES permits the determination of heavy metal binding to organic matter at ppb concentration. These results will be very useful in understanding the role of humic substances in the fate and transport of heavy metals, and thus could provide information to develop new methodologies for the removal of low concentrations of toxic heavy metals from contaminated waters.

  4. A Database and Synthesis of Northern Peatland Soil Properties and Holocene Carbon and Nitrogen Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loisel, Julie; Yu, Zicheng; Beilman, David W.; Camill, Philip; Alm, Jukka; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Anderson, David; Andersson, Sofia; Bochicchio, Christopher; Barber, Keith; hide

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present results from the most comprehensive compilation of Holocene peat soil properties with associated carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates for northern peatlands. Our database consists of 268 peat cores from 215 sites located north of 45 deg N. It encompasses regions within which peat carbon data have only recently become available, such as the West Siberia Lowlands, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Kamchatka in Far East Russia, and the Tibetan Plateau. For all northern peatlands, carbon content in organic matter was estimated at 42 +/- 3% (standard deviation) for Sphagnum peat, 51 +/- 2% for non-Sphagnum peat, and at 49 +/- 2% overall. Dry bulk density averaged 0.12 +/- 0.07 g/cu cm, organic matter bulk density averaged 0.11 +/- 0.05 g/cu cm, and total carbon content in peat averaged 47 +/- 6%. In general, large differences were found between Sphagnum and non-Sphagnum peat types in terms of peat properties. Time-weighted peat carbon accumulation rates averaged 23 +/- 2 (standard error of mean) g C/sq m/yr during the Holocene on the basis of 151 peat cores from 127 sites, with the highest rates of carbon accumulation (25-28 g C/sq m/yr) recorded during the early Holocene when the climate was warmer than the present. Furthermore, we estimate the northern peatland carbon and nitrogen pools at 436 and 10 gigatons, respectively. The database is publicly available at https://peatlands.lehigh.edu.

  5. Distribution and speciation of mercury in the peat bog of Xiaoxing'an Mountain, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruhai; Wang, Qichao; Lu, Xianguo; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Yan

    2003-01-01

    Most reports on mercury (Hg) in boreal ecosystems are from the Nordic countries and North America. Comparatively little information is available on Hg in wetlands in China. We present here a study on Hg in the Tangwang River forested catchment of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain in the northeast of China. The average total Hg (THg) in peat profile ranged from 65.8 to 186.6 ng g(-1) dry wt with the highest at the depth of 5-10 cm. THg in the peat surface was higher than the background in Heilongjiang province, the Florida Everglades, and Birkeness in Sweden. MethylHg (MeHg) concentration ranged from 0.16 to 1.86 ng g(-1) dry wt, with the highest amount at 10-15 cm depth. MeHg content was 0.2-1.2% of THg. THg and MeHg all decreased with the depth. THg in upland layer of soil (0-20 cm) was comparable to the peat surface, but in deeper layers THg concentration in peat was much higher than that in the forested mineral soil. THg in the peat bog increased, but MeHg decreased after it was drained. THg content in plant was different; THg contents in moss (119 ng g(-1) dry wt, n=12) were much higher than in the herbage, the arbor, and the shrubs. The peat bog has mainly been contaminated by Hg deposition from the atmosphere.

  6. Northern Peatland Shifts Under Changing Climate and Their Impact on Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, T.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of peatlands depends primarily on climate and its interactions with hydrology, soil thermal regimes, plant composition, and nutrients. A water balance with precipitation exceeding evaporation is necessary for their formation. The rate of peat accumulation also greatly depends on thermal resources. The prominent impact of the water balance and temperature on peatland formation is evident in the West Siberia Lowland. The rate of peat accumulation steadily increases from arctic tundra to moss tundra, to forest tundra, to northern taiga, and to southern taiga. This increase is a result in increase in air temperature and length of the growing season because all of these zones have water balance favorable for peat formation. Further to south, evaporation prevails over precipitation and peat formation occurs only in isolated areas. Climate change will redefine geographical distribution of climatic and vegetation zones. It is predicted that in arctic and subarctic regions the difference between precipitation and evaporation will increase and as a result these regions will remain favorable to peat accumulation. With increase of thermal resources, the rate of peat accumulation will also increase. The Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain is of a special interest because it has thousands of shallow lakes, which due to warming climate would shift from open waterbodies to peatlands through shoreline paludification and infilling. The accumulation of organic matter will likely turn open water into shore fens and bogs, and eventually to peat plateaus, as is occurring in many boreal landscapes. Expected impact on permafrost in arctic and subarctic regions will include rise of the permafrost table, thickening of the ice-rich intermediate layer with ataxitic (suspended) cryostructure, and replacement of frost boils with earth hummocks. In the contemporary continuous permafrost zone, permafrost formed as climate-driven will be transformed into climate-driven ecosystem protected

  7. Effect of climate changes in the holocene on the distribution of humic substances in the profile of forest-tundra peat mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The molecular composition of humic substances in permafrost peatlands of the forest-tundra zone in northeastern European Russia has been characterized for the first time on the basis of systematic studies. Changes in the molar x(H): x(C) ratio along the peat profiles have been revealed, which is due to the activation of cryogenic processes in the upper part of the seasonally thawing layer, the natural selection of condensed humic molecules, and the botanical composition and degree of degradation of peat, which reflect the climatic features of the area in the Holocene. Dry-peat soils of mounds are worse heated during the summer period because of the buffering effect of moss litter, which results in a lower degree of condensation of humic and fulvic acid molecules in the peat horizons down to the permafrost table. Transformation of quantitative and qualitative parameters of specific organic compounds occurs at the permafrost boundary of peatlands, which can serve as an indicator of recent climate changes in high latitudes.

  8. Regional patterns of mercury content in snowpack, sphagnum, and fish in northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.; Mower, B.; Perry, R.

    1995-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in fish from lakes throughout the northeastern US and eastern Canada, in waters with no known local mercury source. If this mercury originates from anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere, deposition should be higher near population centers or other point sources. The authors surveyed the mercury content of late-season snowpack, sphagnum moss, and fish at locations from southwestern Connecticut to northern Newfoundland to determine if such a pattern existed. Mercury in snow ranged 1.5 to 20 ng/L, and in sphagnum < 24 to 289 ng/g dry wt. Concentrations were generally highest at southwestern sitesmore » and lowest at northeastern sites with some exceptions. The highest concentrations in both media were at locations in Rhode Island and New Hampshire, and may reflect local source emissions. Excluding these sites, the range in concentration from south to north is only a factor of two or three. These values are similar to those reported in other areas and reflect the long atmospheric residence time of gaseous elemental mercury. Mercury concentration in fish ranged 0.1 to 1.0 ug/g wet wt. and showed no regional pattern. Rather, fish mercury concentration was affected by fish species and size, being highest in large predatory species such as smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and lowest in small nonpredatory species such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).« less

  9. Peatlands and green frogs: A relationship regulated by acidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of site acidification on amphibian populations have been thoroughly addressed in the last decades. However, amphibians in naturally acidic environments, such as peatlands facing pressure from the peat mining industry, have received little attention. Through two field studies and an experiment, I assessed the use of bog habitats by the green frog (Rana clamitans melanota), a species sensitive to various forestry and peat mining disturbances. First, I compared the occurrence and breeding patterns of frogs in bog and upland ponds. I then evaluated frog movements between forest and bog habitats to determine whether they corresponded to breeding or postbreeding movements. Finally, I investigated, through a field experiment, the value of bogs as rehydrating areas for amphibians by offering living Sphagnum moss and two media associated with uplands (i.e., water with pH ca 6.5 and water-saturated soil) to acutely dehydrated frogs. Green frog reproduction at bog ponds was a rare event, and no net movements occurred between forest and bog habitats. However, acutely dehydrated frogs did not avoid Sphagnum. Results show that although green frogs rarely breed in bogs and do not move en masse between forest and bog habitats, they do not avoid bog substrates for rehydrating, despite their acidity. Thus, bogs offer viable summering habitat to amphibians, which highlights the value of these threatened environments in terrestrial amphibian ecology.

  10. Exceeding peatland ecohydrological resilience through compound disturbance: the effect of wildfire and drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, J. M.; Kettridge, N.; Sherwood, J.; Thompson, D.; Morris, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands are self-regulating ecosystems dominated by negative ecohydrological feedbacks that stabilize their net carbon sink function, producing a globally significant carbon store that is often resilient to disturbances such as drainage and wildfire. However, the effects of these disturbances on peatland ecohydrological function have only been considered previously in isolation. We capitalize on a unique long-term experiment to examine the response of a peatland in boreal western Canada to the compound disturbance of drying and wildfire. We show that the compound effect of such disturbances can reduce the ecohydrological resilience of these ecosystems leaving them vulnerable to irreversible shifts in their ecological, hydrological and biogeochemical function. Peatland ecosystems have a hydrology characterized generally by a long water residence times and a high water table position. Less-dense near-surface peat acts as a hydrological buffer, regulating water-table position and near-surface moisture content. This buffer is lost through combustion and compaction, increasing the flashiness of the peatland hydrology, increasing the vulnerability of the ecosystem to drought conditions. This greatly reduces the recolonization success of keystone Sphagnum moss species. As a result the peatland followed a previously unobserved development trajectory leading to the loss of globally important ecosystem services and the development of a novel 'peat forest' ecosystem. This ecosystem shift is self-reinforcing, as the establishment of invasive species reduces available light essential for Sphagnum establishment.

  11. Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gemmata-like planctomycete from Sphagnum peat bog and the proposal of Gemmataceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Baulina, Olga I; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-02-01

    An aerobic, budding, dark pink to red-pigmented bacterium was isolated from an acidic boreal Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain SP5T. Cells of this strain were non-motile spheres that were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and fimbria, and tended to form aggregates during growth in liquid media. Strain SP5T was capable of growth between pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 (optimum at pH 5.5-6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C (optimum at 20-25 °C). The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C20 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0, and the major polar lipid was trimethylornithine. Cells contained also significant amounts of bound (ω-1)OH-C30 : 1 fatty acid. The quinone was menaquinone-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 60.7 mol%. Strain SP5T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to the phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Gemmata. It displayed 88 and 89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gemmata obscuriglobusUQM 2246T and 'Gemmata massiliana' IIL30, 89 % to Zavarzinella formosa A10T and 86 % to Telmatocola sphagniphila SP2T. However, strain SP5T differed from members of these genera by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and fatty acid composition. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel species of a new genus of planctomycetes, for which the name Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is SP5T (=LMG 29572T=VKM B-3045T). We also suggest the establishment of a novel family, Gemmataceaefam. nov., which includes the phylogenetically related genera Gemmata, Zavarzinella, Telmatocola and Fimbriiglobus.

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics and development of the Changuinola peat deposit of northwestern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.

    1987-08-01

    A peat deposit occupying over 80 square kilometers, and averaging 8 meters in thickness, was discovered on the Caribbean coast of northwestern Panama near the town of Changuinola. This deposit occurs inland (behind) the present beach-barrier shoreline. It is thickest in the center and thins toward all edges (as if domed). The surface vegetation in the central regions consists primarily of ombrotrophic plants (especially sedges, grasses, Sphagnum, Sagittaria, and various scattered shrubs). Toward the edges, the deposit has a surface cover of more minerotrophic plants (such as swamp-forest trees, ferns, and palms). Petrographic/botanical analysis of the deposit with depth revealsmore » the presence of five peat types (swamp-forest, sedge-grass-fern, Sagittaria et al., Nymphaea et al., and Rhizophora). Typically peats of the thick, central portions of the deposit are very low in ash and sulfur (less than 2% ash and 0.3% sulfur). Ash contents tend to increase abruptly at the base and more gradually toward the edges of the deposit and sulfur contents increasing gradually toward the ocean and bay. Vertical and lateral variations in botanical, chemical, and physical properties of this deposit can be related to factors that have controlled: (1) the surrounding rocks and water chemistry; (2) the source vegetation; and (3) the environments in which these source ingredients were deposited. 3 refs., 10 figs.« less

  13. Biochar can be a suitable replacement for Sphagnum peat in nursery production of Pinus ponderosa seedlings

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Juha Heiskanen; Arja Tervahauta; Katherine G. McBurney; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Karl Englund

    2018-01-01

    We replaced a control peat medium with up to 75% biochar on a volumetric basis in three different forms (powder, BC; pyrolyzed softwood pellets, PP; composite wood-biochar pellets, WP), and under two supplies of nitrogen fertilizer (20 or 80 mg N) subsequently grew seedlings with a comparable morphology to the control. Using gravimetric methods to determine irrigation...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Land Management on Organic Matter Composition in Peat Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.; Holden, J.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-05-01

    to gaseous carbon emissions data collected during fortnightly monitoring. R. Laiho (2006) Decomposition in peatlands: Reconciling seemingly contrasting results on the impacts of lowered water levels Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 2011-2024. R.K. Wieder & S.T. Starr (1998) Quantitative determination of organic fractions in highly organic, Sphagnum peat soils Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29, 847-857.

  15. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  16. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  17. Discovery of Polyesterases from Moss-Associated Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Perz, Veronika; Provasnek, Christoph; Quartinello, Felice; Guebitz, Georg M.; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growing pollution of the environment with plastic debris is a global threat which urgently requires biotechnological solutions. Enzymatic recycling not only prevents pollution but also would allow recovery of valuable building blocks. Therefore, we explored the existence of microbial polyesterases in microbial communities associated with the Sphagnum magellanicum moss, a key species within unexploited bog ecosystems. This resulted in the identification of six novel esterases, which were isolated, cloned, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The esterases were found to hydrolyze the copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT) and the oligomeric model substrate bis[4-(benzoyloxy)butyl] terephthalate (BaBTaBBa). Two promising polyesterase candidates, EstB3 and EstC7, which clustered in family VIII of bacterial lipolytic enzymes, were purified and characterized using the soluble esterase substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate (Km values of 46.5 and 3.4 μM, temperature optima of 48°C and 50°C, and pH optima of 7.0 and 8.5, respectively). In particular, EstC7 showed outstanding activity and a strong preference for hydrolysis of the aromatic ester bond in PBAT. Our study highlights the potential of plant-associated microbiomes from extreme natural ecosystems as a source for novel hydrolytic enzymes hydrolyzing polymeric compounds. IMPORTANCE In this study, we describe the discovery and analysis of new enzymes from microbial communities associated with plants (moss). The recovered enzymes show the ability to hydrolyze not only common esterase substrates but also the synthetic polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate), which is a common material employed in biodegradable plastics. The widespread use of such synthetic polyesters in industry and society requires the development of new sustainable technological solutions for their recycling. The discovered enzymes have the potential to be used as catalysts for

  18. Detecting changes in surface moisture and water table position with spectral changes in surface vegetation in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meingast, Karl M.

    Due to warmer and drier conditions, wildland fire has been increasing in extent into peatland ecosystems during recent decades. As such, there is an increasing need for broadly applicable tools to detect surface peat moisture, in order to ascertain the susceptibility of peat burning, and the vulnerability of deep peat consumption in the event of a wildfire. In this thesis, a field portable spectroradiometer was used to measure surface reflectance of two Sphagnum moss dominated peatlands. Relationships were developed correlating spectral indices to surface moisture as well as water table position. Spectral convolutions were also applied to the high resolution spectra to represent spectral sensitivity of earth observing sensors. Band ratios previously used to monitor surface moisture with these sensors were assessed. Strong relationships to surface moisture and water table position are evident for both the narrowband indices as well as broadened indices. This study also found a dependence of certain spectral relationships on changes in vegetation cover by leveraging an experimental vegetation manipulation. Results indicate broadened indices employing the 1450-1650 nm region may be less stable under changing vegetation cover than those located in the 1200 nm region.

  19. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, peat was harvested in 15 US states. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota accounted for more than 80% of the US production. Reed-sedge was the dominant variety of peat harvested in the United States. More than 56% of all peat used in the US was imported from Canada. With the growing interest in gardening, landscaping related to home construction and golf courses, peat usage is expected to remain near current levels during the next several years.

  20. Impact of Peat Mining and Restoration on Methane Turnover Potential and Methane-Cycling Microorganisms in a Northern Bog.

    PubMed

    Reumer, Max; Harnisz, Monika; Lee, Hyo Jung; Reim, Andreas; Grunert, Oliver; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Bodelier, Paul L E; Ho, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands are a recognized global carbon reservoir. Without restoration and peat regrowth, harvested peatlands are dramatically altered, impairing their carbon sink function, with consequences for methane turnover. Previous studies determined the impact of commercial mining on the physicochemical properties of peat and the effects on methane turnover. However, the response of the underlying microbial communities catalyzing methane production and oxidation have so far received little attention. We hypothesize that with the return of Sphagnum spp. postharvest, methane turnover potential and the corresponding microbial communities will converge in a natural and restored peatland. To address our hypothesis, we determined the potential methane production and oxidation rates in natural (as a reference), actively mined, abandoned, and restored peatlands over two consecutive years. In all sites, the methanogenic and methanotrophic population sizes were enumerated using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the mcrA and pmoA genes, respectively. Shifts in the community composition were determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the mcrA gene and a pmoA -based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) analysis, complemented by cloning and sequence analysis of the mmoX gene. Peat mining adversely affected methane turnover potential, but the rates recovered in the restored site. The recovery in potential activity was reflected in the methanogenic and methanotrophic abundances. However, the microbial community composition was altered, being more pronounced for the methanotrophs. Overall, we observed a lag between the recovery of the methanogenic/methanotrophic activity and the return of the corresponding microbial communities, suggesting that a longer duration (>15 years) is needed to reverse mining-induced effects on the methane-cycling microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Ombrotrophic peatlands are a crucial carbon sink, but this environment

  1. Allometry, nitrogen status, and carbon stable isotope composition of Pinus ponderosa seedlings in two growing media with contrasting nursery irrigation regimes

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert E. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Nursery irrigation regimes that recharged container capacity when target volumetric water content reached 72%, 58%, and 44% (by volume) influenced Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson growth more than either a 1:1 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - vermiculite (PV) or a 7:3 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - sawdust (PS) medium. Exponential fertilization avoided...

  2. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in a Peat Profile Are Influenced by Early Stage Diagenesis and Changes in Atmospheric CO(2) and N Deposition.

    PubMed

    Esmeijer-Liu, Alice J; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Lotter, André F; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Goslar, Tomasz

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we test whether the δ(13)C and δ(15)N in a peat profile are, respectively, linked to the recent dilution of atmospheric δ(13)CO(2) caused by increased fossil fuel combustion and changes in atmospheric δ(15)N deposition. We analysed bulk peat and Sphagnum fuscum branch C and N concentrations and bulk peat, S. fuscum branch and Andromeda polifolia leaf δ(13)C and δ(15)N from a 30-cm hummock-like peat profile from an Aapa mire in northern Finland. Statistically significant correlations were found between the dilution of atmospheric δ(13)CO(2) and bulk peat δ(13)C, as well as between historically increasing wet N deposition and bulk peat δ(15)N. However, these correlations may be affected by early stage kinetic fractionation during decomposition and possibly other processes. We conclude that bulk peat stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios may reflect the dilution of atmospheric δ(13)CO(2) and the changes in δ(15)N deposition, but probably also reflect the effects of early stage kinetic fractionation during diagenesis. This needs to be taken into account when interpreting palaeodata. There is a need for further studies of δ(15)N profiles in sufficiently old dated cores from sites with different rates of decomposition: These would facilitate more reliable separation of depositional δ(15)N from patterns caused by other processes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-011-1001-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  3. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  4. Decomposition rate of peat-forming plants in the oligotrophic peatland at the first stages of destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonova, L. G.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Terechshenko, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    The research presents quantitative estimates of the decomposition rate of plant residues at the initial stages of the decay of two plant species (Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum fuscum) in a peat deposit of the oligotrophic bog in the southern taiga subzone of Western Siberia. We also studied a change in the content of total carbon and nitrogen in plant residues and the activity of microflora in the initial stages of decomposition. At the initial stage of the transformation process of peat-forming plants the losses of mass of Sph. fuscum is 2.5 times lower then E. vaginatum. The most active mass losses, as well as a decrease in the total carbon content, is observed after four months of the experiment. The most active carbon removal is characteristic for E. vaginatum. During the decomposition of plant residues, the nitrogen content decreases, and the most intense nitrogen losses were characteristic for Sph. fuscum. The microorganisms assimilating organic and mineral nitrogen are more active in August, the oligotrophic and cellulolytic microorganisms – in July.

  5. In vitro decomposition of Sphagnum by some microfungi resembles white rot of wood.

    PubMed

    Rice, Adrianne V; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

    2006-06-01

    The abilities of some ascomycetes (Myxotrichaceae) from a Sphagnum bog in Alberta to degrade cellulose, phenolics, and Sphagnum tissue were compared with those of two basidiomycetes. Most Myxotrichaceae degraded cellulose and tannic acid, and removed cell-wall components simultaneously from Sphagnum tissues, whereas the basidiomycetes degraded cellulose and insoluble phenolics, and preferentially removed the polyphenolic matrix from Sphagnum cell walls. Mass losses from Sphagnum varied from up to 50% for some ascomycetes to a maximum of 35% for the basidiomycetes. The decomposition of Sphagnum by the Myxotrichaceae was analogous to the white rot of wood and indicates that these fungi have the potential to cause significant mineralization of carbon in bogs.

  6. The effects of fire on greenhouse gas fluxes from mosses and lichen patches in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, AK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Perez, E.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Mann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has altered patterns of temperature, emissions of greenhouse gases and increased fire frequencies, especially in the Artic. Until recently, the Arctic has been a carbon (C) sink, but have begun releasing C in recent years, likely in response to warming temperatures, permafrost thaw and resulting changes in microbial processes. In addition, increases in fire frequency and intensity are changing vegetation patterns, particularly the relative importance of mosses and lichens. These changes alter soil temperatures, nutrient availability, and moisture, consequently affecting microbial processes and the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as N2O, CO2 and CH4. The objective of this research was to understand how recent fires in the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta in southwest Alaska are affecting the emission of GHGs from peat plateau soils. We hypothesized that the presence of mosses and lichen would change soil moisture and temperature, leading to changes in GHG production after fire. We also hypothesized that fire would increase soil nutrient availability, which would increase microbial process rates and GHG emissions. To test these hypotheses, we measured N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from moss and lichen patches in three burned and unburned areas and collected soil cores for analyses of gravimetric soil moisture, carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and N mineralization rates. Soil temperatures were measured in the field with a thermocouple. Results demonstrated low but measurable CH4 emissions from all patches, suggesting peat plateaus in the YK Delta may be CH4 sources. In addition, CO2 emissions were higher in soils under lichen patches in burned areas than unburned controls. Finally, results suggest that burned areas have higher concentrations of extractable NH4 and NO3, and that increased N may be increasing soil respiration.

  7. Conceptualizing Peatlands in a Physically-Based Spatially Distributed Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Charles; Wahl, Mark

    2017-04-01

    In as part of a research effort focused on climate change effects on permafrost near Fairbanks, Alaska, it became apparent that peat soils, overlain by thick sphagnum moss, had a considerable effect on the overall hydrology. Peatlands represent a confounding mixture of vegetation, soils, and water that present challenges for conceptualizing and parametrizing hydrologic models. We employed the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Model (GSSHA) in our analysis of the Caribou Poker Creek Experimental Watershed (CPCRW). GSSHA is a physically-based, spatially distributed, watershed model developed by the U.S. Army to simulate important streamflow-generating processes (Downer and Ogden, 2004). The model enables simulation of surface water and groundwater interactions, as well as soil temperature and frozen ground effects on subsurface water movement. The test site is a 104 km2 basin located in the Yukon-Tanana Uplands of the Northern Plateaus Physiographic Province centered on 65˚10' N latitude and 147˚30' W longitude. The area lies above the Chattanika River floodplain and is characterized by rounded hilltops with gentle slopes and alluvium-floored valleys having minimal relief (Wahrhaftig, 1965) underlain by a mica shist of the Birch Creek formation (Rieger et al., 1972). The region has a cold continental climate characterized by short warm summers and long cold winters. Observed stream flows indicated significant groundwater contribution with sustained base flows even during dry periods. A site visit exposed the presence of surface water flows indicating a mixed basin that would require both surface and subsurface simulation capability to properly capture the response. Soils in the watershed are predominately silt loam underlain by shallow fractured bedrock. Throughout much of the basin, a thick layer of live sphagnum moss and fine peat covers the ground surface. A restrictive layer of permafrost is found on north facing slopes. The combination of thick

  8. Biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mix for hybrid poplar

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Catherine E. Brewer; Richard B. Hall

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus nigra L. × Populus suaveolens Fischer subsp. maximowiczii A. Henry). We compared three treatments (peat moss (control), peat moss mixed with vermiculite, and peat moss mixed with...

  9. Physico-chemical and chemical properties of some coconut coir dusts for use as a peat substitute for containerised ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, Manuel; Noguera, Patricia; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel; Noguera, Vicente

    2002-05-01

    Selected physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of 13 coconut coir dust (mesocarp pithy tissue plus short-length fibres) samples from Asia, America and Africa were evaluated as peat alternatives. All properties studied differed significantly between and within sources, and from the control Sphagnum peat. pH of coir dust was slightly acidic, whereas salinity varied dramatically between 39 and 597 mS m(-1) in the saturated media extract. The cation exchange capacity and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio ranged from 31.7 to 95.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) and from 75 to 186, respectively. Most carbon was found as lignin and cellulose. The concentrations of available nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and micro-elements were low, while those of phosphorus and potassium were remarkably high (0.28-2.81 mol m(-3) and 2.97-52.66 mol m(-3) for P and K, respectively). Saline ion concentrations, especially chloride and sodium, were also high.

  10. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne elements monitored with the moss bags technique in the Greater Thriasion Plain, Attica, Greece.

    PubMed

    Saitanis, C J; Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Palmer, M W; Ostrovnaya, T M; Gundorina, S F

    2013-01-01

    The well-known moss bags technique was applied in the heavily polluted Thriasion Plain region, Attica, Greece, in order to study the spatiotemporal distribution, in the atmosphere, of the following 32 elements: Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, Hg, Th, and U. The moss bags were constituted of Sphagnum girgensohnii materials. The bags were exposed to ambient air in a network of 12 monitoring stations scattered throughout the monitoring area. In order to explore the temporal variation of the pollutants, four sets of moss bags were exposed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Instrumental neutral activation analysis was used for the determinations of the elements. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlations, the partial redundancy analysis, and the biplot statistical methods. Some pairs of elements were highly correlated indicating a probable common source of origin. The levels of the measured pollutants were unevenly distributed throughout the area and different pollutants exhibited different spatial patterns. In general, higher loads were observed in the stations close to and within the industrial zone. Most of the measured elements (e.g., Al, Ca, Ni, I, Zn, Cr, and As) exhibited a monotonic accumulation trend over time. Some elements exhibited different dynamics. The elements Mn, Mo, and Hg showed a decreasing trend, probably due to leaching and/or volatilization processes over time. Na and Br initially showed an increasing trend during the winter and early spring periods but decreased drastically during the late warm period. The results further suggest that the moss bags technique would be considered valuable for the majority of elements but should be used with caution in the cases of elements vulnerable to leaching and/or volatilization. It also suggests that the timing and the duration of the exposure of moss materials should be considered in the interpretation of the results.

  11. Genetic structure and genealogy in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex (Sphagnaceae: Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Pokorny, L; Shaw, B; Ricca, M; Boles, S; Szövényi, P

    2008-10-01

    Allopolyploidy is probably the most extensively studied mode of plant speciation and allopolyploid species appear to be common in the mosses (Bryophyta). The Sphagnum subsecundum complex includes species known to be gametophytically haploid or diploid, and it has been proposed that the diploids (i.e., with tetraploid sporophytes) are allopolyploids. Nucleotide sequence and microsatellite variation among haploids and diploids from Newfoundland and Scandinavia indicate that (1) the diploids exhibit fixed or nearly fixed heterozygosity at the majority of loci sampled, and are clearly allopolyploids, (2) diploids originated independently in North America and Europe, (3) the European diploids appear to have the haploid species, S. subsecundum, as the maternal parent based on shared chloroplast DNA haplotypes, (4) the North American diploids do not have the chloroplast DNA of any sampled haploid, (5) both North American and European diploids share nucleotide and microsatellite similarities with S. subsecundum, (6) the diploids harbor more nucleotide and microsatellite diversity than the haploids, and (7) diploids exhibit higher levels of linkage disequilibrium among microsatellite loci. An experiment demonstrates significant artifactual recombination between interspecific DNAs coamplified by PCR, which may be a complicating factor in the interpretation of sequence-based analyses of allopolyploids.

  12. Precipitation frequency alters peatland ecosystem structure and CO2 exchange: Contrasting effects on moss, sedge, and shrub communities.

    PubMed

    Radu, Danielle D; Duval, Tim P

    2018-05-01

    Climate projections forecast a redistribution of seasonal precipitation for much of the globe into fewer, larger events spaced between longer dry periods, with negligible changes in seasonal rainfall totals. This intensification of the rainfall regime is expected to alter near-surface water availability, which will affect plant performance and carbon uptake. This could be especially important in peatland systems, where large stores of carbon are tightly coupled to water surpluses limiting decomposition. Here, we examined the role of precipitation frequency on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) balances for communities dominated by a Sphagnum moss, a sedge, and an ericaceous shrub in a cool temperate poor fen. Field plots and laboratory monoliths received one of three rainfall frequency treatments, ranging from one event every three days to one event every 14 days, while total rain delivered in a two-week cycle and the entire season to each treatment remained the same. Separating incident rain into fewer but larger events increased vascular cover in all peatland communities: vascular plant cover increased 6× in the moss-dominated plots, nearly doubled in the sedge plots, and tripled in the shrub plots in Low-Frequency relative to High-Frequency treatments. Gross ecosystem productivity was lowest in moss communities receiving low-frequency rain, but higher in sedge and shrub communities under the same conditions. Net ecosystem exchange followed this pattern: fewer events with longer dry periods increased CO 2 flux to the atmosphere from the moss while vascular plant-dominated communities became more of a sink for CO 2 . Results of this study suggest that changes to rainfall frequency already occurring and predicted to continue will lead to increased vascular plant cover in peatlands and will impact their carbon-sink function. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vascular plant-mediated controls on atmospheric carbon assimilation and peat carbon decomposition under climate change.

    PubMed

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Albrecht, Remy; Buttler, Alexandre; Dorrepaal, Ellen; Garnett, Mark H; Gogo, Sebastien; Hagedorn, Frank; Mills, Robert T E; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Bragazza, Luca

    2018-03-23

    Climate change can alter peatland plant community composition by promoting the growth of vascular plants. How such vegetation change affects peatland carbon dynamics remains, however, unclear. In order to assess the effect of vegetation change on carbon uptake and release, we performed a vascular plant-removal experiment in two Sphagnum-dominated peatlands that represent contrasting stages of natural vegetation succession along a climatic gradient. Periodic measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange revealed that vascular plants play a crucial role in assuring the potential for net carbon uptake, particularly with a warmer climate. The presence of vascular plants, however, also increased ecosystem respiration, and by using the seasonal variation of respired CO 2 radiocarbon (bomb- 14 C) signature we demonstrate an enhanced heterotrophic decomposition of peat carbon due to rhizosphere priming. The observed rhizosphere priming of peat carbon decomposition was matched by more advanced humification of dissolved organic matter, which remained apparent beyond the plant growing season. Our results underline the relevance of rhizosphere priming in peatlands, especially when assessing the future carbon sink function of peatlands undergoing a shift in vegetation community composition in association with climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  15. Effect of Pretreatment on Biomass Residue Structure and the Application of Pyrolysed and Composted Biomass Residues in Soilless Culture

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Linna; Sun, Xiangyang; Jiang, Weijie

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the structural characteristics of biomass residues during pyrolysis and composting were investigated. The biomass residues particles were prepared by pyrolysing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 400. For soilless production of the ornamental plant Anthurium andraeanum, pure sphagnum peat moss (P) has traditionally been used as the growing medium. This use of P must be reduced, however, because P is an expensive and nonrenewable resource. The current study investigated the use of biomass residues as substitutes for P in A. andraeanum production. Plants were grown for 15 months in 10 soilless media that contained different proportions of pyrolysed corn cobs (PC), composted corn cobs (C), pyrolysed garden wastes (PG), and P. Although the media altered the plant nutrient content, A. andraeanum growth, development, and yield were similar with media consisting of 50% P+50% PC, 50% P+35% PC+15% PG, and 100% P. This finding indicates that, when pyrolysed, organic wastes, which are otherwise an environmental problem, can be used to reduce the requirement for peat in the soilless culture of A. andraeanum. PMID:23704995

  16. Historical peat loss explains limited short-term response of drained blanket bogs to rewetting.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Rowe, Edwin; Reed, David; Ruffino, Lucia; Jones, Peter; Dolan, Rachel; Buckingham, Helen; Norris, David; Astbury, Shaun; Evans, Chris D

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years. Analysis of LiDAR data and the observed proximity of the water table to the peat surface led us to conclude that the subdued ecosystem responses to ditch-blocking were the result of historical peat subsidence within a 4-5 m zone either side of each ditch, which had effectively lowered the peat surface to the new, ditch-influenced water table. We estimate that this process led to the loss of around 500,000 m 3 peat within the 38 km 2 study area following drainage, due to a combination of oxidation and compaction. Assuming that 50% of the volume loss was due to oxidation, this amounts to a carbon loss of 11,000 Mg C over this area, i.e. 3 Mg C ha -1 . The apparent 'self-rewetting' of blanket bogs in the decades following drainage has implications for their restoration as it suggests that there may not be large quantities of dry peat left to rewet, and that there is a risk of inundation (potentially leading to high methane emissions) along subsided ditch lines. Many peatland processes are likely to be maintained in drained blanket bog, including support of typical peatland vegetation, but infilling of lost peat and recovery of original C stocks are likely to take longer than is

  17. Discovery of Polyesterases from Moss-Associated Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina Andrea; Perz, Veronika; Provasnek, Christoph; Quartinello, Felice; Guebitz, Georg M; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-02-15

    The growing pollution of the environment with plastic debris is a global threat which urgently requires biotechnological solutions. Enzymatic recycling not only prevents pollution but also would allow recovery of valuable building blocks. Therefore, we explored the existence of microbial polyesterases in microbial communities associated with the Sphagnum magellanicum moss, a key species within unexploited bog ecosystems. This resulted in the identification of six novel esterases, which were isolated, cloned, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli The esterases were found to hydrolyze the copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT) and the oligomeric model substrate bis[4-(benzoyloxy)butyl] terephthalate (BaBTaBBa). Two promising polyesterase candidates, EstB3 and EstC7, which clustered in family VIII of bacterial lipolytic enzymes, were purified and characterized using the soluble esterase substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate (K m values of 46.5 and 3.4 μM, temperature optima of 48°C and 50°C, and pH optima of 7.0 and 8.5, respectively). In particular, EstC7 showed outstanding activity and a strong preference for hydrolysis of the aromatic ester bond in PBAT. Our study highlights the potential of plant-associated microbiomes from extreme natural ecosystems as a source for novel hydrolytic enzymes hydrolyzing polymeric compounds. In this study, we describe the discovery and analysis of new enzymes from microbial communities associated with plants (moss). The recovered enzymes show the ability to hydrolyze not only common esterase substrates but also the synthetic polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate), which is a common material employed in biodegradable plastics. The widespread use of such synthetic polyesters in industry and society requires the development of new sustainable technological solutions for their recycling. The discovered enzymes have the potential to be used as catalysts for selective recovery of

  18. Seasonal pattern of metal bioaccumulation and their toxicity on Sphagnum squarrosum.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anuj

    2006-01-01

    Present study was undertaken as an attempt to study the effect of pollutants on biological responses of Sphagnum growing at Kainchi, Kumaon hills (Uttranchal). Sphagnum plants of almost identical size, collected from the marked sites of Kainchi in different seasons viz., monsoon, winter, summer and again in monsoon, were analysed for chlorophyll, protein, shoot length and nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities. Maximum chlorophyll, protein, shoots length and nitrate reductase activities were observed during the monsoon while minimum in summers. The abundance of Sphagnum and two other bryophytes, Marchantia and Plagiochasma was also higher in monsoon than in other seasons. The study also indicated that Sphagnum has more bioaccumulation and tolerance potential for heavy metals than Marchantia and Plagiochasma.

  19. Ecosystem structure and function in the SPRUCE chambers at fine resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, N. F.; Graham, J.; Spaete, L.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental change (SPRUCE; operated by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory) aims to assess biological and ecological responses in a peat bog to a range of increased temperatures and the presence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We are using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to monitor vegetation productivity and hummock-hollow structure at cm-scale in the SPRUCE plots to complement in-situ measurements of gross and net primary production. The hummock-hollow peatland microtopography is associated with fluctuating water levels and sphagnum mosses, and ultimately controls C and methane cycling. We estimate tree growth by calculating increases in tree height and canopy voxel volume between years with the TLS data. Microtopography is also characterized over time with TLS but by using gridded cells to classify regions into hummocks or hollows. Spectroscopy to quantify water content in the sphagnum is used to further classify these microtopographic regions. As multiple years of data collection occur, we will couple our fine-scale remote sensing measurements with in-situ measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux measures to capture species-specific productivity responses to warming and increased CO2.

  20. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  1. Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.

    PubMed Central

    Page, S E; Rieley, J O; Shotyk, W; Weiss, D

    1999-01-01

    The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region. PMID:11605630

  2. Late-Holocene Climate Change and Human Impact; Palaeoecological Evidence From Peat Deposits in Sweden and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, M.; van Geel, B.

    2006-12-01

    With the aim of investigating the effects of climate change and human impact on vegetation and carbon accumulation, we took peat cores of ca. 1 meter depth from four raised bogs situated on a North-South transect, at intervals of c. 500 km, Umeå in Sweden to Angermünde in northern Germany. A number of analyses were conducted (plant macrofossils, pollen/non-pollen microfossils, colorimetric humification, carbon/nitrogen ratios, bulk densities, loss on ignition), and 14C wiggle-match dating was applied to obtain a fine-resolution chronology. The cores from the northern and southern site encompass ca. 1000 years of vegetation history, showing evidence for the end of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the twentieth century warming. The middle Swedish and German sites are high resolution records of the last 400 years. The end of the MWP and the cooling at the start of the LIA are reflected by a decline in thermophilous tree species. Changes in the macrofossil composition may also represent changes in climate. Shifts in Sphagnum composition, the dominant peat former, reflect changes in precipitation. Evidence for wet conditions and increased carbon accumulation is found during the Little Ice Age. Human activities affected the peat bog and the surrounding vegetation. Sweden suffered many wars during the 16^{th} and 17^{th} century, which caused a decline in population density. Diseases such as the plague and famines caused by crop failures fastened the population decrease. As a consequence, agricultural land was abandoned, resulting in reforestation by Betula. Later, in the modern part of the records, land-use change and planting of trees comprised the major regional vegetation changes. In the southern site, human activities (drainage to facilitate peat cutting) affected the raised bog itself. A part of the peat archive was lost owing to secondary decomposition which resulted in very low carbon accumulation.

  3. The wettability of selected organic soils in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Hajnos, M.

    2009-04-01

    The wettability was measured in the laboratory by means of two methods: Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and Thin Column Wicking (TCW) method. WDPT is fast and simple method and was used to investigate potential water repellency of analyzed samples. TCW is an indirect method and was used to determine contact angles and surface free energy components. The measurement was performed in horizontal teflon chambers for thin-layer chromatography, adapted for tubes 10 cm long. The experiment was carried out on muck soils (samples were taken from two levels of soil profile: 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and peat soils. There were two types of peats: low-moor peats and high moor peats. Samples of low-moor peats were taken from level 25-75 cm (alder peat) and 75-125cm (sedge peat) and 25-75 cm (peloid peat). Samples of high moor peats from level 25-175 cm (sphagnum peat) and 175-225 cm (sphagnum peat with Eriophorum). There was found no variability in persistence of potential water repellency but there were differences in values of contact angles of individual soil samples. Both muck and peat samples are extremely water repellent soils. Water droplets persisted on the surface of soils for more than 24 hours. Contact angles and surface free energy components for all samples were differentiated. Ranges of water contact angles for organic soils are from 27,54o to 96,50o. The highest values of contact angles were for sphagnum peats, and the lowest for muck soil from 20-40 cm level. It means, that there are differences in wettability between these samples. Muck soil is the best wettable and sphagnum peats is the worst wettable soil. If the content of organic compounds in the soil exceeds 40% (like in peats), the tested material displays only dispersion-type interactions. Therefore for peat soils, the technique of thin column wicking could only be used to determine the dispersive component γiLW. For muck soils it was also determined electron-acceptor (Lewis acid) γ+ and

  4. How do peat type, sand addition and soil moisture influence the soil organic matter mineralization in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Don, Axel; Burkart, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. As a consequence of both drainage induced mineralization and anthropogenic sand mixing, large areas of former peatlands under agricultural use contain soil organic carbon (SOC) at the boundary between mineral and organic soils. Studies on SOC dynamics of such "low carbon organic soils" are rare as the focus of previous studies was mainly either on mineral soils or "true" peat soil. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance and therefore, we have yet to understand the reasons behind the relatively high CO2 emissions of these soils. Peat properties, soil organic matter (SOM) quality and water content are obviously influencing the rate of CO2 emissions, but a systematic evaluation of the hydrological and biogeochemical drivers for mineralization of disturbed peatlands is missing. With this incubation experiment, we aim at assessing the drivers of the high variability of CO2 emissions from strongly anthropogenically disturbed organic soil by systematically comparing strongly degraded peat with and without addition of sand under different moisture conditions and for different peat types. The selection of samples was based on results of a previous incubation study, using disturbed samples from the German Agricultural Soil Inventory. We sampled undisturbed soil columns from topsoil and subsoil (three replicates of each) of ten peatland sites all used as grassland. Peat types comprise six fens (sedge, Phragmites and wood peat) and four bogs (Sphagnum peat). All sites have an intact peat horizon that is permanently below groundwater level and a strongly disturbed topsoil horizon. Three of the fen and two of the bog sites have a topsoil horizon altered by sand-mixing. In addition the soil profile was mapped and samples for the determination of soil hydraulic properties were collected. All 64 soil columns (including four additional reference samples) will be installed

  5. Trophic Status Controls Mercury Methylation Pathways in Northern Peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, M. E.; Zhang, L.; Barkay, T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Schaefer, J.; Hu, H.; Sidelinger, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) can be produced by a variety of microbes including syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters, besides sulfate (SO42-, SRB) and iron- reducing bacteria. Many freshwater wetlands are deficient in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathways of methylation, yet they accumulate high levels of MeHg. To investigate methylation in these wetlands and to connect these pathways with vegetation and microbial communities, incubation experiments were conducted using peats from 26 sites in Alaska. The sites were clustered using multiple factor analysis based on pH, temp, CH4 and volatile fatty acids production rates, and surface vegetation composition. Three clusters were generated and corresponded to three trophic levels that were manifested by three pH levels (3.5, 4.5, and 5). Hg methylation activity in laboratory incubations was determined using the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg. In the low pH, Sphagnum-dominated cluster, methylation rates were less than 1% day-1 and likely conducted by primary fermenters. Conversely, the high pH trophic cluster dominated by Carex aquatilis and active syntrophy exhibited Hg methylation rates as high as 12% day-1. In intermediate sites, rich in Sphagnum magellanicum with less Carex, a gradient in syntrophy and Hg methylation paths was observed. Amendments with process-stimulators and inhibitors revealed no evidence of SO42- reduction, but suggested that SRB, metabolizing either syntrophically with methanogens and/or by fermentation, likely methylated Hg. While on going metatranscriptomics studies are required to verify the role of syntrophs, fermenters, and methanogens as methylators, these results revealed that Hg methylation pathways change greatly along trophic gradients with a dominance of respiratory pathways in mineral-rich sites, syntrophy dominance in intermediate sites, and fermentation dominance in nutrient-poor sites.

  6. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS..., and persons on navigable waters during the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high speed boat... and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high...

  7. Development of recent chronologies and evaluation of temporal variations in Pb fluxes and sources in lake sediment and peat cores in a remote, highly radiogenic environment, Cairngorm Mountains, Scottish Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, John G.; MacKenzie, Angus B.; Graham, Margaret C.; Macgregor, Kenneth; Kirika, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The use of stable Pb isotope analyses in conjunction with recent (210Pb and anthropogenic radionuclide) chronologies has become a well-established method for evaluating historical trends in depositional fluxes and sources of atmospherically deposited Pb using archival records in lake sediment or peat cores. Such studies rely upon (i) simple radioactive disequilibrium between unsupported 210Pb and longer-lived members of the 238U decay series and (ii) well-defined values for the isotopic composition of contaminant Pb and indigenous Pb in the study area. However, areas of high natural radioactivity can present challenging environments for such studies, with potential complications arising from more complex disequilibria in the 238U decay series and the occurrence, at local or regional level, of anomalous, ill-defined stable isotope ratios due to the presence of elevated levels of radiogenic Pb. Results are presented here for a study of a sediment core from a freshwater lake, Loch Einich, in the high natural radioactivity area of the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. 238U decay series disequilibria revealed recent diagenetic re-deposition of both U and 226Ra, the latter resulting in a requirement to use a modified calculation to derive a 210Pb chronology for the core. Confidence in the chronology was provided by good agreement with the independent 241Am chronology, but the 137Cs distribution was affected by significant post-depositional mobility in the organic-rich sediment. The systematics of variations in 230Th, 232Th and stable Pb isotope ratio distributions were used to establish the indigenous Pb characteristics of the sediment. The relatively high radiogenic content of the indigenous Pb resulted in complications in source apportionment, in particular during the 20th century, with multiple natural and anthropogenic sources precluding the use of a simple binary mixing model. Consequently, 206Pb/207Pb ratios in Scottish moss samples from an archive collection were

  8. Environmental changes, forest history and human impact in the southern part of Valdai Hills (European Russia) during the last 7000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novenko, Elena; Tsyganov, Andery; Pisarchuk, Natalia; Kozlov, Daniil

    2017-04-01

    matter content and relatively low peat accumulation rates. Peat deposits poses sign of several fire episodes. During cool and humid phases the rate of vertical and lateral peat growth increased, while degree of peat decomposition become lower. Dramatic changes in environmental conditions in the study area and changes in trends of ecosystem dynamics occurred during the last 400-350 year. The obtained results suggest evident climate warming, significant increase in surface wetness and increase fivefold of peat accumulation rates. During the last hundred years, the local wetness in the studied localities became considerably higher that promoted the growth of Sphagnum mosses and overall transformation of forest stands to Sphagnum spruce forests. Evidences of significant human impact on the area about 300-250 cal yr BP were detected by indicator species in pollen analysis and reconstructions of woodland coverage by BMA approach. The modern vegetation of the Reserve may develop from a plant cover with mosaic pattern that included not only the mature spruce forests but also secondary birch woodlands, meadows and agricultural lands. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant 16-17-10045).

  9. Spatial variation in below ground carbon cycling in a pristine peatland, driven by present and past vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gałka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Peat carbon cycling is controlled by both large scale factors, such as climate and hydrological setting, and small scale factors, such as microtopography, vegetation, litter quality, and rooting depth. These small scale factors commonly vary within peatlands, causing variation in the carbon balance at different locations within the same site. Understanding the relationship between small scale carbon cycling and vegetation helps us to assess the variation of carbon dynamics of peatlands, because vegetation composition acts as an integrator of factors such as microtopography, hydrology, and nutrient level. Variation in vegetation illustrates spatial variation of these underlying factors. Furthermore, the presence of certain plant species affects carbon cycling directly through litter quality or aeration through root tissues. In order to understand these within-site variations in terms of carbon cycling, we investigated carbon accumulation, decomposition, and biogeochemistry of pore waters along a transect of peat cores with changing vegetation and water levels in an ombrotrophic peatland in southern Patagonia. The transect ran from a Sphagnum magellanicum dominated spot with relatively high water table, to intermediately wet spots with mixed Sphagnum/shrubs vegetation, or dominated by Cyperaceae, eventually to a more elevated and drier spot dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). There were large differences in peat accumulation rates and peat densities, with faster peat growth and lower densities under Sphagnum, but overall carbon accumulation rates were quite similar in the various microenvironments. At most plots C/N ratios decreased with depth, concurrent with increasing humification index derived from FT-IR spectra. But under cushion plants this relation was opposite: more humification with depth, but also C/N ratios increases. This reflected the differing source material at depth under the cushion plants, and that the cushion plant peat layers were

  10. Pb inventory in an ombrotrophic bog decreases over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, E.; Jeremiason, J.; Sebestyen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Peat cores were collected from the S2 ombrotrophic bog at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) to determine if the Pb inventory in the bog has decreased over time. Pb concentrations in the outflow of the bog measured from 2009-2016 indicated continued mobilization and export of Pb out of the bog despite dramatic decreases in atmospheric deposition. A seminal study conducted by Urban et al. (1990) from 1981-1983 calculated a mass balance of Pb in the S2 watershed which included a Pb inventory in peat based on the approximate time frame of 1930 to 1983. We collected peat cores in 2016 to compare peat inventories of Pb over the same time range. We found that Pb inventories in the peat have decreased over time, consistent with Pb being mobilized by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and gradually flushed out of the bog. Since 1983, DOC levels may have increased leading to further Pb mobilization and transport from the bog, but this trend is unclear. In contrast to Pb concentrations in the outflow water, upland runoff and the surface sphagnum moss layer have dramatically lower Pb concentrations compared to 1980s levels indicating fast ecosystem responses to a decrease in Pb inputs in these compartments. However, the deeper peat layers near the water table are responding more slowly to the decrease in Pb inputs and historical Pb inputs continue to be mobilized and transported from the bog. Our results would be applicable to other trace metals, such as Hg, that bind strongly to DOC. For example, a dramatic decrease in Hg deposition would not result in near-term decreases in Hg out of the bog.

  11. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  12. Holocene Paleohydrological Changes in Northern Michigan: Interpretations of Biomarker Distributions and Compound Specific Stable Isotope Analysis from Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Pendall, E. G.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Sediments of ombrotrophic peatlands are excellent archives for reconstructing past changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance. Multiproxy analysis of these sediments is critical for better understanding of climatic events experienced by these highly sensitive systems, as each proxy may respond to different climate parameters. In this study, we use distributions of n-alkanes and δD of Sphagnum biomarkers to interpret paleohydrology from sediments of Irwin Smith Bog, northern Michigan. We then integrate these data with pollen data and testate amoebae-inferred water table depth. Sphagnum moss is the dominant peat former in ombrotrophic bogs, but vascular plants become abundant when water tables are drawn down. Thus, the abundance of Sphagnum relative to vascular plants is indicative of peatland hydrology. The n-alkanes produced by Sphagnum differ from vascular plants in the relative abundance of the different homologues, with the former having excess amounts of shorter chain C23 n-alkane. We use several measures (compound ratios, PCA) to show changes in then-alkane distributions in the sediments, and thus changes in the peatland plant community. Our data provide high- resolution, quantitative paleohydrological records for the study region that are consistent with other records. We also show that the relative abundance of a newly identified Sphagnum biomarker, 2-heptacosanone, can be used to reconstruct changing plant communities. Because ombrotrophic systems lose water by evaporation, drier/warmer conditions cause hydrogen isotopic enrichment of bog water and Sphagnum biomarkers. We measured the δD of C23 n-alkane and 2-heptacosanone to provide additional paleoclimate information. Our multiproxy approach allows us to better understand the climate changes during key intervals of the Holocene. For example, a sharp decrease in the abundance of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) pollen has been previously identified in records from many places throughout eastern North

  13. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated. PMID:17148384

  14. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  15. A reconstruction of vegetation and paleohydrologycal changes from peatland in Kansk forest-steppe, Yenisei Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    territory of the peatland "Pinchinskoye" there was a small lake. The birch forest with different grasses was growing along the banks of the lake. The lake level dropped significantly at the beginning of the Atlantic period around 7000 BP in a warm and dry climate. This launched the lake overgrowth and eutrophication. Birch forests and then spruce forests rich in herbs with green moss emerged in the peatland. An increase in moisture was recorded for the Sub-Boreal period (4900-2400) and, as a result, the prevalence of marsh communities with bog bean and fern. Increasing water level of rovers led to the spill and silting up of the bog surface in 2020 ± 60 BP at the beginning of the Sub-Atlantic period. After the decline of the water level, the process of peat accumulation continued and spread out throughout the whole trough flat. Sedge, cotton grass, sphagnum moss and green moss predominated in the composition of plant communities in Sub-Atlantic period, starting from 1500 BP. In the last 500 years, the peatland moved to the mesoeutrophic phase of development.

  16. Only low methane production and emission in degraded peat extraction sites after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agethen, Svenja; Waldemer, Carolin; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2015-04-01

    In Central Europe rewetting of bogs after peat extraction is a wide spread technique to halt secondary aerobic decomposition and to reestablish plant species such as Sphagnum spp. and Eriophorum spp. that initialize accumulation of organic carbon in peat. Before extraction, such sites are often used for agriculture causing the aerobic degradation of peat and mobilization of phosphorus, ammonia, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In nutrient poor ecosystems such as bogs, additional supply of P and N does not only trigger the establishment of uncharacteristic vegetation but also the formation of more labile plant litter and DOM that is readily degradable. Therefore, after rewetting and the development of anoxic conditions especially in initial stages high methane (CH4) emissions are reported for these systems compared to pristine bogs. Regarding the potential of methane production and emissions we investigated three common practices to prepare extraction fields for restoration (years since rewetting): i) Filling of drainage ditches, passive rewetting (1 site, Altendorfer Moor, Stade, NW-Germany, ca. 20 yr.), ii) Removal of upper 30 cm peat layer, removed peat used for construction of polder dikes (2 sites, Königsmoor, Leer, NW-Germany, 2 and 3 yr.), iii) Removal upper peat layer down to 50 cm grown peat, not extracted peat used as polder walls (2 sites, Benthullener Moor, Wardenburg, NW-Germany, 3 and 7 yr.). In each site two vegetated replicate mesocosms (diam. 30 cm, depth 40 cm) were sampled and placed in a greenhouse from May-October 2014 to maintain the water table at surface level. Pore water concentrations of ions, fermentation products and DOM, DOM electron acceptor capacity (EAC), soil gas concentrations of CO2, CH4 and H2, gas fluxes as well as element composition and organic matter quality of DOM and SOM were analyzed. We found out that practice i) with least efforts of nutrient removal in the peat produced the highest CH4 emissions (3.5 mmol m-2 d-1

  17. Testing the potential of bacterial branched tetraether membrane lipids as temperature proxy in peat and immature coal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijers, J. W. H.; Steinmann, P.; Hopmans, E. C.; Basiliko, N.; Finkelstein, S. A.; Johnson, K. R.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids occur ubiquitously in peat and soil. In soil, the degree of methylation and cyclisation of branched tetraethers (MBT index and CBT ratio, respectively) has shown to relate to both soil pH and annual mean air temperature (MAT). Using this relation, past annual MATs can be reconstructed by analysing brGDGTs in marine sediment records near large river outflows. More recently, the potential of this MBT/CBT proxy is also being explored in lakes. Despite being more abundant in peat than soils, however, the utility of the proxy has not yet been fully explored in peat records. Present day peat records generally extent back to the early Holocene, but if the MBT/CBT proxy were shown to be applicable in peat deposits, there is also potential to apply it to immature coal deposits like lignites, which could provide valuable snapshots of continental climate back to the early Cenozoic. Here results are presented of analyses of different peats in south eastern Canada, showing that the pH of peat along a nutrient gradient is rather well reflected by the CBT. Annual MAT reconstructions based on the MBT/CBT soil calibration, however, tend to overestimate measured MAT. This is also the case for peat analysed from the surface of Etang de la Gruère peat bog in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Along the 6m depth profile of this bog (~13ka), CBT-reconstructed pH is compared with in-situ measured pore water pH showing that the brGDGT composition does not reflect present-day in-situ conditions. Instead, it reflects a stratigraphic boundary between Carex and Sphagnum dominated peat at 4 m depth that is not present in the pore water profile, testifying to a 'fossil' nature of the brGDGTs down the peat bog. Analyses of three immature coals of the Argonne Premium Coal Series reveal that branched GDGTs are present in the most immature coal, the Beulah Zap lignite (Ro = 0.25%), and only just above detection limit in the Wyodak

  18. Examining boreal peatland vulnerability to wildfire: a cross-scale perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. K.; Waddington, J. M.; Parisien, M.; Simpson, B. N.; Morris, P. J.; Kettridge, N.

    2013-12-01

    The contemporary state of peatlands in boreal western Canada is largely a reflection of the equilibrium between peat accumulation and a natural wildfire disturbance regime. However, additional disturbances of climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts are compounding natural wildfire disturbance, leading to the potential of more severe fire and in cases complete ecosystem shifts away from peatlands altogether. Here we present a cross-scale perspective on the vulnerability of peatlands to wildfire in the context of cumulative anthropogenic impacts. At the plot scale, laboratory burning and modelling has identified the exposure of high density humified peat at the surface as being more vulnerable to deep combustion compared to low-density features such as hummock microforms. At the stand scale, studies of tree impacts on moss light availability has identified critically high tree densities where combustion-resistant Sphagnum mosses are out-competed by drier and more flammable feathermosses. Widespread resource development has created seismic lines, cutlines, and associated linear disturbances at densities approaching 1.5 km km-2 in some areas. Our modelling of wind and solar radiation across varying linear disturbance widths and canopy heights reveals increased risk of wildfire ignition and spread at specific width-height ratios. Regionally, we show that streamflow observations can offer insight into drought and seasonal wildfire risk in peatland-dominated portions of the boreal plain. Integrated wildfire management in the boreal forest can benefit from the inclusion of these cross-scale processes and feedbacks we have identified when balancing the often competing interests of ecosystem integrity, economics, and community protection.

  19. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange: Influence of mesoscale topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Ju, W.; Govind, A.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dynamics in peatlands are controlled, in large part, by their wetness as defined by water table depth and volumetric liquid soil moisture content. A common type of peatland is raised bogs that typically have a multiple-layer canopy of vascular plants over a Sphagnum moss ground cover. Their convex form restricts water supply to precipitation and water is shed toward the margins, usually by lateral subsurface flow. The hydraulic gradient for lateral subsurface flow is governed by the peat surface topography at the mesoscale (˜200 m to 5 km). To investigate the influence of mesoscale topography on wetness, evapotranspiration (ET), and gross primary productivity (GPP) in a bog during the snow-free period, we compare the outputs of a further developed version of the daily Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with observations made at the Mer Bleue peatland, located near Ottawa, Canada. Explicitly considering mesoscale topography, simulated total ET and GPP correlate well with measured ET (r = 0.91) and derived gross ecosystem productivity (GEP; r = 0.92). Both measured ET and derived GEP are simulated similarly well when mesoscale topography is neglected, but daily simulated values are systematically underestimated by about 10% and 12% on average, respectively, due to greater wetness resulting from the lack of lateral subsurface flow. Owing to the differences in moss surface conductances of water vapor and carbon dioxide with increasing moss water content, the differences in the spatial patterns of simulated total ET and GPP are controlled by the mesotopographic position of the moss ground cover.

  20. Peat soil properties and erodibility: what factors affect erosion and suspended sediment yields in peat extraction areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Tapio; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Peatland drainage and peat extraction operations change soil properties and expose bare peat to erosion forces, resulting in increased suspended sediment (SS) loads to downstream water bodies. SS yields from peat extraction areas are known to vary significantly between sites, but the contribution of peat properties and catchment characteristics to this variation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated peat erosion at 20 Finnish peat extraction sites by conducting in situ and laboratory measurements on peat erodibility and associated peat properties (degree of humification, peat type, bulk density, loss on ignition, porosity, moisture content, and shear strength), and by comparing the results with monitored long-term SS concentrations and loads at each catchment outlet. Here, we used a cohesive strength meter (CSM) to measure direct erosion thresholds for undisturbed soil cores collected from each study site. The results suggested that the degree of peat decomposition clearly affects peat erodibility and explains much of the variation in SS concentration between the study sites. According to CSM tests, critical shear stresses for particle entrainment were lowest (on average) in well-decomposed peat samples, while undecomposed, dry and fiber rich peat generally resisted erosion very well. Furthermore, the results indicated that two separate critical shear stresses often exist in moderately decomposed peat. In these cases, the well-decomposed parts of peat samples eroded first at relatively low shear stresses and remaining peat fibers prevented further erosion until a much higher shear stress was reached. In addition to peat soil properties, the study showed that the erosion of mineral subsoil may play a key role in runoff water SS concentration at peat extraction areas with drainage ditches extending into the mineral soil. The interactions between peat properties and peat erodibility found in this study as well as critical shear stress values obtained

  1. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  2. Analyses of transcriptome sequences reveal multiple ancient large-scale duplication events in the ancestor of Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Devos, Nicolas; Szövényi, Péter; Weston, David J; Rothfels, Carl J; Johnson, Matthew G; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate whether there has been a whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the ancestry of Sphagnum (peatmoss) or the class Sphagnopsida, and to determine if the timing of any such duplication(s) and patterns of paralog retention could help explain the rapid radiation and current ecological dominance of peatmosses. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data were generated for nine taxa in Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta). Analyses of frequency plots for synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks ) between paralogous gene pairs and reconciliation of 578 gene trees were conducted to assess evidence of large-scale or genome-wide duplication events in each transcriptome. Both Ks frequency plots and gene tree-based analyses indicate multiple duplication events in the history of the Sphagnopsida. The most recent WGD event predates divergence of Sphagnum from the two other genera of Sphagnopsida. Duplicate retention is highly variable across species, which might be best explained by local adaptation. Our analyses indicate that the last WGD could have been an important factor underlying the diversification of peatmosses and facilitated their rise to ecological dominance in peatlands. The timing of the duplication events and their significance in the evolutionary history of peat mosses are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  4. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  5. Modelling and mapping trace element accumulation in Sphagnum peatlands at the European scale using a geomatic model of pollutant emissions dispersion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Joly, Daniel; Gilbert, Daniel; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Franchi, Marielle; Fallot, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Nadine

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements (TEs) transported by atmospheric fluxes can negatively impact isolated ecosystems. Modelling based on moss-borne TE accumulation makes tracking TE deposition in remote areas without monitoring stations possible. Using a single moss species from ombrotrophic hummock peatlands reinforces estimate quality. This study used a validated geomatic model of particulate matter dispersion to identify the origin of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu accumulated in Sphagnum capillifolium and the distance transported from their emission sources. The residential and industrial sectors of particulate matter emissions showed the highest correlations with the TEs accumulated in S. capillifolium (0.28(Zn)-0.56(Cu)) and (0.27(Zn)-0.47(Cu), respectively). Distances of dispersion varied depending on the sector of emissions and the considered TE. The greatest transportation distances for mean emissions values were found in the industrial (10.6 km when correlating with all TEs) and roads sectors (13 km when correlating with Pb). The residential sector showed the shortest distances (3.6 km when correlating with Cu, Cd, and Zn). The model presented here is a new tool for evaluating the efficacy of air pollution abatement policies in non-monitored areas and provides high-resolution (200 × 200 m) maps of TE accumulation that make it possible to survey the potential impacts of TEs on isolated ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Late-Holocene environmental and climatic changes in central part of the Western Sayan Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenaderova, Anna; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan

    2016-04-01

    with most stable hydrological conditions. During this period, the flood waters have supplied the least amount of allochthonous contaminants on the surface of the swamp. On the peatlands, sedge and sedge-moss plant communities were developed. Main plant species which grows in the peatlands are Carex altaica (Gorodk.) V.Krecz, Carex limosa L. Tomentypnum nitens Hedw., Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr., Warnstorfia exannulata (B.S.G.) Loeske., Thelypteris palustris Schott, Baeothryon caespitosum (L.) A.Dietr. During the last 500 years an increase of allochthonous contaminants inputs to marsh sediments is observed. In our opinion, the main causes of the increase were reduction the forest area, sharper contrast of summer and winter temperatures and more rapid melting of snow in early summer. The last cause lead to increased levels of floods. Eutrophic-mesotrophic sphagnum communities (Sphagnum warnstorfii Russ., Sph.subsecundum Nees,, Sphagnum angustifolium Jensen., Sph. fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr.), which are growing at the moment, begin to develop in the peatlands since 500 years ago.

  7. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cultivation of Arabidopsis for Experimental Research Using Commercially Available Peat-Based and Peat-Free Growing Media

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tiffany; Keating, Mia; Summers, Rebecca; Yochikawa, Aline; Pitman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research involving Arabidopsis thaliana often involves the quantification of phenotypic traits during cultivation on compost or other growing media. Many commercially-available growing media contain peat, but peat extraction is not sustainable due to its very slow rate of formation. Moreover, peat extraction reduces peatland biodiversity and releases stored carbon and methane into the atmosphere. Here, we compared the experimental performance of Arabidopsis on peat-based and several types of commercially-available peat-free growing media (variously formed from coir, composted bark, wood-fibre, and domestic compost), to provide guidance for reducing peat use in plant sciences research with Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis biomass accumulation and seed yield were reduced by cultivation on several types of peat-free growing media. Arabidopsis performed extremely poorly on coir alone, presumably because this medium was completely nitrate-free. Some peat-free growing media were more susceptible to fungal contamination. We found that autoclaving of control (peat-based) growing media had no effect upon any physiological parameters that we examined, compared with non-autoclaved control growing media, under our experimental conditions. Overall, we conclude that Arabidopsis performs best when cultivated on peat-based growing media because seed yield was almost always reduced when peat-free media were used. This may be because standard laboratory protocols and growth conditions for Arabidopsis are optimized for peat-based media. However, during the vegetative growth phase several phenotypic traits were comparable between plants cultivated on peat-based and some peat-free media, suggesting that under certain circumstances peat-free media can be suitable for phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis. PMID:27088495

  9. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during Sphagnum litters decay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Shasha; Bu, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Shengzhong

    2018-04-28

    The dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation in Sphagnum litters and the decomposition of the litters were investigated. PAH concentration decreased to approximately half of the initial concentration as Sphagnum litters decayed. The initial PAH concentration was 489.2 ± 72.2 ng g -1 , and the concentration after 120 days of incubation was 233.0 ± 5.8 ng g -1 . The different PAH compositions changed concentrations at different times. The low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs started to be degraded after incubation and after 40 days of incubation, respectively. PAH concentrations in the Sphagnum litters correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) content (p < 0.05), indicating that PAHs were associated with the TOC of the Sphagnum litters and were degraded as organic matter decayed. The positive relationship between LMW PAH concentration and the soluble carbohydrate content (p < 0.05) indicated that LMW PAHs and the readily decomposed organic carbon fractions were cometabolized, or that LMW PAHs were mainly absorbed by soluble carbohydrate. The weak negative correlation between fulvic acid (FA) and PAH concentrations (p < 0.1) indicated that FA may enhance PAH degradation. Redundancy analysis suggested that the contents of both soluble carbohydrate and cellulose significantly affected the changes in PAH concentrations (p < 0.05), and that FA content and C/N ratios may also contribute to the changes in PAH concentrations (p < 0.1). However, the polyphenol that was related to microbial activities was not associated with changes in PAH concentrations. These results suggested that litter quality is more important than microbial activities in PAH degradation in Sphagnum litters.

  10. Paludiculture as a chance for peatland and climate: the greenhouse gas balance of biomass production on two rewetted peatlands does not differ from the natural state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Anke; Huth, Vytas; Jurasinski, Gerald; Albrecht, Kerstin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, rising prices for farm land make it increasingly difficult for government administrations to compete with external investors during the acquisition of land for wetland conservation. Thus, adding economic value to these, otherwise "lost", areas by combining extensive land use with nature conservation efforts could increase the amount of ground available for wetland restoration. Against this background, the concept of paludiculture aims to provide biomass for multiple purposes from peatlands with water tables high enough to conserve the peat body. However, as plants have been shown to contribute to greenhouse gas exchange in peatlands, manipulating the vegetation (by harvesting, sowing etc.) might alter the effect of the restored peatlands on climate. Here, we present greenhouse gas data from two experimental paludiculture systems on formerly drained intensive grasslands in northern Germany. In a fen that has been rewetted more than 15 years ago three species of reed plants were harvested to simulate biomass production for bioenergy and as construction material. And in a peat bog that has been converted from drained grassland to a field with a controlled water table around ground surface Sphagnum mosses were cultivated to provide an alternative growing substrate for horticulture. In both systems, we determined carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide exchange using closed chambers over two years. Additionally, water and peat chemistry and environmental parameters as recorded by a weather station were analyzed. Both restored peatlands show greenhouse gas balances comparable to those of natural ecosystems. Nitrous oxide was not emitted in either system. Fluctuations of the emissions reflect changes in weather conditions across the study years. In the fen, relative emission patterns between plant species were not constant over time. We did not find a negative short-term effect of biomass harvest or Sphagnum cultivation on net greenhouse gas balances

  11. The decomposition of vegetation and soil in marginal peat-forming landscapes: climate simulations to quantify gaseous and dissolved carbon fluxes and the effects on peat accumulation and drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, J.; Bell, M.; Clark, J. M.; Graham, N.; Templeton, M.; Brazier, R.; Verhoef, A.; Freeman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands in the UK represent a large proportion of the soil carbon store, however there is concern that some systems may be switching from sinks to sources of carbon. The accumulation of organic material in peatlands results from the slow rates of decomposition typically occurring in these regions. Climate change may lead to faster decomposition which, if not matched by an equivalent increase in net primary productivity and litter fall, may tip the balance between source and sink. Recent trends have seen a greater flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from peatlands to surface waters and a change in DOM character, presenting challenges to water treatment, for example in terms of increased production of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Peat systems border a large proportion of reservoirs in the UK so uncertainty regarding DOM quantity and quality is a concern for water utilities. This study considered five peatland vegetation types (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, peat soil and mixed litter) collected from the Exmoor National Park, UK where it is hypothesised that peat formation may be strongly affected by future changes to climate. A factorial experiment design to simulate climate was used, considering vegetation type, temperature and rainfall amount using a current baseline and predictions from the UKCP09 model. Gaseous fluxes of carbon were monitored over a two month period to quantify the effect on carbon mineralisation rates while 13C NMR analysis was employed to track which classes of compounds decayed preferentially. The DOM collected was characterised using UV and fluorescence techniques before being subject to standard drinking water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation followed by chlorination). The effect of the experimental factors on DOM amenability to removal and propensity to form DBPs was then considered, with both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN) DBP classes monitored. Initial results have shown a

  12. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating.

    PubMed

    Bao, K; Xia, W; Lu, X; Wang, G

    2010-09-01

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the (137)Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric (210)Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m(-2)y(-1), which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m(-2)y(-1) with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 microg g(-1). The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollen, vegetation, and climate relationships along the Dalton Highway, Alaska, USA: a basis for holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.K.; Andrews, J.T.; Webber, P.J.

    The Dalton Highway extends from Fairbanks, in the interior of Alaska, to Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Over this 600-km transect, July temperatures vary from 17 to 5/sup 0/C. Studies of vegetation along the Dalton Highway identified nine major zones. During the vegetation survey moss polsters were collected within the survey quadrats. Two hundred and nineteen individual moss polsters document regional variations in the modern pollen spectra along this vegetation/climate transect. Treeline is distinguished by a change from dominance by spruce and shrub (especially alder) pollen to the south to herb and shrub (especially willow) pollen dominance tomore » the north; a shift from high modern pollen concentration values to very low values is also noted. Discriminant analysis indicated that the vegetation zones are also defined by different pollen assemblages, suggesting that former changes in vegetation during the Holocene, as recorded in peat deposits, could be interpreted from pollen diagrams. Transfer functions were developed to examine the statistical association between the modern pollen rain and several climatic parameters. The correlation between pollen taxa and mean July temperature was r = 0.84. The most important taxa in the equation are Picea, Alnus, Pinus, Sphagnum, and Betula. 59 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.« less

  14. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z Nathan; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.

  15. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  16. Long-term interactive effects of N addition with P and K availability on N status of Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Leeson, Sarah R; Tang, Y Sim; Neil Cape, J

    2018-06-01

    Little information exists concerning the long-term interactive effect of nitrogen (N) addition with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on Sphagnum N status. This study was conducted as part of a long-term N manipulation on Whim bog in south Scotland to evaluate the long-term alleviation effects of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on N saturation of Sphagnum (S. capillifolium). On this ombrotrophic peatland, where ambient deposition was 8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , 56 kg N ha -1 yr -1 of either ammonium (NH 4 + , N red ) or nitrate (NO 3 - , N ox ) with and without P and K, were added over 11 years. Nutrient concentrations of Sphagnum stem and capitulum, and pore water quality of the Sphagnum layer were assessed. The N-saturated Sphagnum caused by long-term (11 years) and high doses (56 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) of reduced N was not completely ameliorated by P and K addition; N concentrations in Sphagnum capitula for N red 56 PK were comparable with those for N red 56, although N concentrations in Sphagnum stems for N red 56 PK were lower than those for N red 56. While dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in pore water for N red 56 PK were not different from N red 56, they were lower for N ox 56 PK than for N ox 56 whose stage of N saturation had not advanced compared to N red 56. These results indicate that increasing P and K availability has only a limited amelioration effect on the N assimilation of Sphagnum at an advanced stage of N saturation. This study concluded that over the long-term P and K additions will not offset the N saturation of Sphagnum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arctic mosses govern below-ground environment and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Gornall, J L; Jónsdóttir, I S; Woodin, S J; Van der Wal, R

    2007-10-01

    Mosses dominate many northern ecosystems and their presence is integral to soil thermal and hydrological regimes which, in turn, dictate important ecological processes. Drivers, such as climate change and increasing herbivore pressure, affect the moss layer thus, assessment of the functional role of mosses in determining soil characteristics is essential. Field manipulations conducted in high arctic Spitsbergen (78 degrees N), creating shallow (3 cm), intermediate (6 cm) and deep (12 cm) moss layers over the soil surface, had an immediate impact on soil temperature in terms of both average temperatures and amplitude of fluctuations. In soil under deep moss, temperature was substantially lower and organic layer thaw occurred 4 weeks later than in other treatment plots; the growing season for vascular plants was thereby reduced by 40%. Soil moisture was also reduced under deep moss, reflecting the influence of local heterogeneity in moss depth, over and above the landscape-scale topographic control of soil moisture. Data from field and laboratory experiments show that moss-mediated effects on the soil environment influenced microbial biomass and activity, resulting in warmer and wetter soil under thinner moss layers containing more plant-available nitrogen. In arctic ecosystems, which are limited by soil temperature, growing season length and nutrient availability, spatial and temporal variation in the depth of the moss layer has significant repercussions for ecosystem function. Evidence from our mesic tundra site shows that any disturbance causing reduction in the depth of the moss layer will alleviate temperature and moisture constraints and therefore profoundly influence a wide range of ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

  18. Differentiation and Tropisms in Space-Grown Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.; Kern, Volker

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.

  19. Atmospheric particulate matter intercepted by moss-bags: Relations to moss trace element uptake and land use.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Anna; Capozzi, Fiore; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Particulate matter has to be constantly monitored because it is an important atmospheric transport form of potentially harmful contaminants. The cost-effective method of the moss-bags can be employed to evaluate both loads and chemical composition of PM. PM entrapped by the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum exposed in bags in 9 European sites was characterized for number, size and chemical composition by SEM/EDX. Moreover, moss elemental uptake of 53 elements including rare earth elements was estimated by ICP-MS analysis. All above was aimed to find possible relations between PM profile and moss uptake and to find out eventual element markers of the different land use (i.e. agricultural, urban, industrial) of the selected sites. After exposure, about 12,000 particles, mostly within the inhalable fraction, were counted on P. purum leaves; their number generally increased from the agricultural sites to the urban and industrial ones. ICP analysis indicated that twenty-three elements were significantly accumulated by mosses with different element profile according to the various land uses. The PM from agricultural sites were mainly made of natural/crustal elements or derived from rural activities. Industrial-related PM covered a wider range of sources, from those linked to specific industrial activities, to those related to manufacturing processes or use of heavy-duty vehicles. This study indicates a close association between PM amount and moss element-uptake, which increases in parallel with PM amount. Precious metals and REEs may constitute novel markers of air pollution in urban and agricultural sites, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High potential of nitrogen fixation in pristine, ombrotrophic bogs in Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A.; Bahamonde Aguilar, Nelson A.; Borken, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) input in pristine peatlands occurs via natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. However, N2 fixation is to date mostly attributed to bacteria and algae associated to Sphagnum and its contribution to plant productivity and peat buildup has been often underestimated in previous studies. Based on net N storage, exceptionally low N deposition, and high abundance of vascular plants at pristine peatlands in Southern Patagonia, we hypothesized that there must be a high potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation not limited to the occurrence of Sphagnum. To this end, we chose two ombrotrophic bogs with spots that are dominated either by Sphagnum or by vascular, cushion-forming plants and sampled peat from different depths for incubation with 15N2 to determine N2 fixation potentials. Moreover, we analyzed 15N2 fixation by a nodule-forming, endemic conifer inhabiting the peatlands. Results from 15N2 uptake were compared to the conventional approach to study N2 fixation by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Using 15N2 as a tracer, high non-symbiotic N2 fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N g-1 d-1 were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from both plots either covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants. Peat N concentrations suggested a higher potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds as substrates and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth would rather reflect a potential fixation that may switch on during periods of low water levels when oxygen penetrates deeper into the peat. 15N natural abundance of live Sphagnum from 0-10 cm pointed to N uptake solely from atmospheric deposition and non-symbiotic N2 fixation. 15N signatures of peat from the cushion plant plots indicated additional N supply from N

  1. Influence of peat formation conditions on the transformation of peat deposit organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, O. V.; Strelnikova, E. B.; Preis, Yu I.; Duchko, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper studies the individual composition of n-alkanes, polycycloaromatic hydrocarbons, steroids, bi-, tri-, and pentacyclic terpenoids of two peat deposits of rich fen Kirek located in Western Siberia. Considering the individual n-alkanes concentrations, some indexes were calculated to estimate the humidity during peat formation. It was shown that the pH of peat medium primarily affects steroids, tri- and pentacyclic terpenoids transformations.

  2. Modeling hydrological controls on variations in peat water content, water table depth, and surface energy exchange of a boreal western Canadian fen peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2016-08-01

    Improved predictive capacity of hydrology and surface energy exchange is critical for conserving boreal peatland carbon sequestration under drier and warmer climates. We represented basic processes for water and O2 transport and their effects on ecosystem water, energy, carbon, and nutrient cycling in a process-based model ecosys to simulate effects of seasonal and interannual variations in hydrology on peat water content, water table depth (WTD), and surface energy exchange of a Western Canadian fen peatland. Substituting a van Genuchten model (VGM) for a modified Campbell model (MCM) in ecosys enabled a significantly better simulation of peat moisture retention as indicated by higher modeled versus measured R2 and Willmot's index (d) with VGM (R2 0.7, d 0.8) than with MCM (R2 0.25, d 0.35) for daily peat water contents from a wetter year 2004 to a drier year 2009. With the improved peat moisture simulation, ecosys modeled hourly WTD and energy fluxes reasonably well (modeled versus measured R2: WTD 0.6, net radiation 0.99, sensible heat >0.8, and latent heat >0.85). Gradually declining ratios of precipitation to evapotranspiration and of lateral recharge to discharge enabled simulation of a gradual drawdown of growing season WTD and a consequent peat drying from 2004 to 2009. When WTD fell below a threshold of 0.35 m below the hollow surface, intense drying of mosses in ecosys caused a simulated reduction in evapotranspiration and an increase in Bowen ratio during late growing season that were consistent with measurements. Hence, using appropriate water desorption curve coupled with vertical-lateral hydraulic schemes is vital to accurately simulate peatland hydrology and energy balance.

  3. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    PubMed

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. [Annual production of moss layer in dark coniferous forests of Ket-Chulym Forest District (by the example of Moss Hylocomium splendens)].

    PubMed

    Koshurnikova, N N

    2007-01-01

    The biological production of the moss layer was analyzed in dark coniferous stands in progressive succession in the southern taiga in West Siberia. The rate of organic matter production by mosses changed from 15-22.2 g/(m2 y) in 50-90-year-old fir forests to 51.6 g/(m2 y) in 170-year-old mixed Siberian pine-spruce-fir stands. In forest phytocenosis that were formed with species replacement (after cuttings with understory clearing), the annual moss production (net primary production) ranged from 2.8 to 20.6 g/(m2 y). The annual moss cover production amounted to 35-36% of the moss photosynthetic biomass irrespective of the type of native stand progressive succession and the stand age.

  5. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  6. GIRAS TO MOSS INTERFACE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiNardo, Thomas P.; Jackson, R. Alan

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of land use change for an area in Boulder County, Colorado, was conducted using digital cartographic data. The authors selected data in the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) format which is digitized from the 1:250,000-scale land use and land cover map series. The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) was used as an analytical tool for the study. The authors describe the methodology used in converting the GIRAS file into a MOSS format and the activities associated with the conversion.

  7. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to the...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to the...

  9. Stable isotope ratios in swale sequences of Lake Superior as indicators of climate and lake level fluctuations during the Late Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Shruti; Mora, G.; Johnston, J.W.; Thompson, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Beach ridges along the coastline of Lake Superior provide a long-term and detailed record of lake level fluctuations for the past 4000 cal BP. Although climate change has been invoked to explain these fluctuations, its role is still in debate. Here, we reconstruct water balance by employing peat samples collected from swale deposits present between beach ridge sequences at two locations along the coastline of Lake Superior. Carbon isotope ratios for Sphagnum remains from these peat deposits are used as a proxy for water balance because the presence or absence of water films on Sphagnum controls the overall isotope discrimination effects. Consequently, increased average water content in Sphagnum produces elevated ??13C values. Two maxima of Sphagnum ??13C values interpreted to reflect wetter conditions prevailed from 3400 to 2400 cal BP and from about 1900 to 1400 cal BP. There are two relatively short drier periods as inferred from low Sphagnum ??13C values: one is centered at about 2300 cal BP, and one begins at 1400 cal BP. A good covariance was found between Sphagnum ??13C values and reconstructed lake-levels for Lake Michigan in which elevated carbon isotope values correlate well with higher lake levels. Based on this covariance, we conclude that climate exerts a strong influence on lake levels in Lake Superior for the past 4000 cal BP. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Dependence of Peat Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on Dominant Vegetation Type in Mountain Fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, A. C.; Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The peat soil within fen wetlands provides water storage that can substantially influence the hydrology of mountain watersheds. In this study, we investigated the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and vegetation type for fens occurring in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Vegetation in RMNP fens can be dominated by woody plants and shrubs, such as willows; by mosses; or by herbaceous plants such as sedges. Fens dominated by each vegetation type were selected for study. Six fens were investigated, all of which are in the Colorado River watershed on the west side of RMNP. For each site, soil hydraulic conductivity was measured at multiple locations using a single-ring infiltrometer. As a result of the shallow water table in these fens (the water table was always within 10 cm of the surface), horizontal hydraulic gradients were produced during the field tests. The measured infiltration rates were analyzed using the numerical model HYDRUS. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity, a parameter estimation problem was solved using HYDRUS as the forward simulator. Horizontal flow was explicitly accounted for in the model. This approach produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity than would be obtained using an analytical solution that assumes strictly vertical flow. Significant differences in hydraulic properties between fens appear to result at least in part from the effects of different dominant vegetation types on peat soil formation.

  11. Peat deposits of North Carolina: Bulletin 88

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fuel-grade peat is an accumulation of partially decomposed plant material that has less than 25% non-combustible material (ash). In eastern North Carolina peat has formed in the past 10,000 years in swamps or pocosins (coastal swamps), Carolina bays, and river floodplains. Most of the peat is found at the surface with no over-burden and usually ranges in thickness from 1 to 15 ft with an average of 4-1/2 ft. The mean ash content of the fuel-grade peats is about 7.4%, but ash contents of less than 5% are common in most peat deposits. Heating values average 10,100 Btu/lb on amore » moisture-free basis. Fuel-grade peat deposits cover about 677,000 acres (1060 sq mi) in coastal North Carolina with total resources of about 500 million tons of moisture-free peat. Of this total, about 284,000 acres (444 sq mi) with 319 million tons are underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick. Peat resources are concentrated in the pocosins or coastal swamps of northeastern North Carolina with the Albemarle-Pamlico peninsula having 55% of the resources and the Dismal Swamp, 11%. The remaining coastal swamp deposits are small but significant. Although 96 Carolina bays have peat, only 46 have peat greater than 4 ft thick; and only one has more than 1 million tons of peat. None of the river floodplain peats located were very large, continuous, or of high quality. 75 refs.« less

  12. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambri, Nadhirah Mohd; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  13. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging for characterizing plant-microbe interactions using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, R. K.; Anderton, C.; Weston, D. J.; Carrell, A. A.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Veličković, D.; Tfaily, M.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere consists of a diverse community of plants, bacteria and fungi that are interacting with each other and with complex soil matrix they occupy. By studying the chemical signaling and processes that occur within this dynamic microenvironment, we will further our understanding of the symbiotic and competitive interaction within microbial communities. Field studies and bulk analyses shed light on the mechanisms by which environmental perturbations alter carbon and nitrogen cycling, but what is less clear are the intra- and interspecies molecular transformations and transactions between the different constituents within the rhizosphere. Chemical imaging by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a highly sensitive technique capable of providing both spatial and molecular information. Here, we examined the chemical interactions among a tripartite system of peat moss (Sphagnum fallax), cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorium), and fungus (Trizdiaspa). We coupled LESA source to both a 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS), for ultrahigh mass resolution and mass accuracy results, and a Thermo Velos-LTQ mass spectrometer, for tandem MS of selected molecules to increase confidence in molecular identifications. With LESA-MS approach we spatially probed the tripartite interactions and isolated cultures using a coordinate system that can be mapped back and overlaid onto the original image. Using this method, we mapped an array of metabolic distributions within the model sphagnum microbiome. For instance, we identified carbendazim, an anti-fungal agent, distributed within the interaction zone between the bacteria and fungi, while glyceropcholine and sucrose were localized within the sphagnum and fungus interaction zone. Further analysis will look into larger metabolites, lipids, and small proteins.

  14. Influence of peat on Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Huling, S G; Arnold, R G; Sierka, R A; Miller, M R

    2001-05-01

    A diagnostic probe was used to estimate the activity of Fenton-derived hydroxyl radicals (.OH), reaction kinetics, and oxidation efficiency in batch suspensions comprised of silica sand, crushed goethite (alpha-FeOOH) ore, peat, and H2O2 (0.13 mM). A simple method of kinetic analysis is presented and used to estimate the rate of .OH production (POH) and scavenging term (ks), which were used to establish the influence of organic matter (Pahokee peat) in Fenton systems. POH was greater in the peat-amended systems than in the unamended control, and ks was approximately the same. Any increase in scavenging of .OH that resulted from the addition of peat was insignificant in comparison to radical scavenging by reaction with H2O2. Also, treatment efficiency, defined as the ratio of probe conversion to H2O2 consumption over the same period was greater in the peat-amended system. Results suggest that .OH production is enhanced in the presence of peat by one or more peat-dependent mechanisms. Fe concentration and availability in the peat, reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the organic matter, and reduction of organic-complexed Fe(III) to Fe(II) are discussed in the context of the Fenton mechanism.

  15. Sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates in landfill leachate using sand, activated carbon and peat filters.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Moona, Nashita; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Björklund, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Landfill leachates are repeatedly found contaminated with organic pollutants, such as alkylphenols (APs), phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at levels exceeding water quality standards. It has been shown that these pollutants may be present in the colloidal and truly dissolved phase in contaminated water, making particle separation an inefficient removal method. The aim of this study was to investigate sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), selected APs, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and PAHs from landfill leachate using sand, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and peat moss filters. A pilot plant was installed at an inactive landfill with mixed industrial and household waste and samples were collected before and after each filter during two years. Leachate pre-treated in oil separator and sedimentation pond failed to meet water quality standards in most samples and little improvement was seen after the sand filter. These techniques are based on particle removal, whereas the analysed pollutants are found, to varying degrees, bound to colloids or dissolved. However, even highly hydrophobic compounds expected to be particle-bound, such as the PHCs and high-molecular weight PAHs, were poorly removed in the sand filter. The APs and BPA were completely removed by the GAC filter, while mass balance calculations indicate that 50-80% of the investigated phenols were removed in the peat filter. Results suggest possible AP degradation in peat filters. No evidence of phthalate degradation in the landfill, pond or the filters was found. The PHCs were completely removed in 50% and 35% of the measured occasions in the GAC and peat filters, respectively. The opposite trend was seen for removal of PAHs in GAC (50%) and peat (63%). Oxygenated PAHs with high toxicity were found in the leachates but not in the pond sediment. These compounds are likely formed in the pond water, which is alarming because sedimentation ponds are commonly used

  16. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  17. Project CLIMPEAT - Influence of global warming and drought on the carbon sequestration and biodiversity of Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, M.; Buttler, A.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Chojnicki, B.; Słowińska, S.; Słowiński, M.

    2012-04-01

    Northern peatlands represent a globally significant pool of carbon and are subject to the highest rates of climate warming, and most of these peatlands are in continental settings. However, it is unclear if how fast peatlands respond to past and present changes in temperature and surface moisture in continental vs. oceanic climate settings. The CLIMPEAT project brings together scientists from Poland and Switzerland. Our goal is to assess the past and present vulnerability to climate change of Sphagnum peatland plant and microbial communities, peat organic matter transformations and carbon sequestration using a combination of field and mesocosm experiments simulating warming and water table changes and palaeoecological studies. Warming will be achieved using ITEX-type "Open-Top Chambers". The field studies are conducted in Poland, at the limit between oceanic and continental climates, and are part of a network of projects also including field experiments in the French Jura (sub-oceanic) and in Siberia (continental). We will calibrate the response of key biological (plants, testate amoebae) and geochemical (isotopic composition of organic compounds, organic matter changes) proxies to warming and water table changes and use these proxies to reconstruct climate changes during the last 1000 years.

  18. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Ramirez, O.

    The authors compare the competitive position of peat for energy with coal, oil, and cogenerative systems in gasifiers and solid-fuel boilers. They also explore the possibility for peat use in industry. To identify the major factors, they analyze costs using a Los Alamos levelized cost code, and they study parametric costs, comparing peat production in constant dollars with interest rates and return on investment. They consider costs of processing plant construction, sizes and kinds of boilers, retrofitting, peat drying, and mining methods. They examine mining requirements for Moin, Changuinola, and El Cairo and review wet mining and dewatering methods. Peatmore » can, indeed, be competitive with other energy sources, but this depends on the ratio of fuel costs to boiler costs. This ratio is nearly constant in comparison with cogeneration in a steam-only production system. For grate boilers using Costa Rican high-ash peat, and for small nonautomatic boilers now used in Costa Rica, the authors recommend combustion tests. An appendix contains a preliminary mining plan and cost estimate for the El Cairo peat deposit. 8 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.« less

  19. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  20. The fate of experimentally deposited nitrogen in mesocosms from two Canadian peatlands.

    PubMed

    Blodau, Christian; Basiliko, Nathan; Mayer, Bernhard; Moore, Tim R

    2006-07-01

    In large regions of Europe and North America, peatlands have been exposed to elevated rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. We investigated the fate of experimentally added N (NH(4)(15)NO3) at two different N loads (1.2 and 4.7 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and water tables (1 and 32 cm) in intact cores from two peatlands, located in Central and Eastern Canada. The sites receive an estimated total N load of 0.6 g m(-2) a(-1) and 1.5 g m(-2) yr(-1), excluding nitrogen fixation. In all treatments, experimentally added nitrate (NO(3-)) was fully (96-99%) and ammonium (NH(4+)) mostly (81-97%) retained by the plant cover, mainly consisting of Sphagnum mosses, or in the unsaturated zone below. However, on average only 48% of the (15)N were recovered from the plant cover, and substantial amounts were found in depth layers of 2-6 cm (21-46%) and 8-12 cm (1.4-10.8%) below the moss surface. The amount of (15)N retained also significantly decreased with a lower water table from 56+/-9% to 40+/-10%. These findings document a substantial mobility of N, particularly during water table drawdown. Analysis of (15)N by a sequential diffusion procedure revealed a transfer of (15)N from NO(3-) into NH(4+) and dissolved organic N (DON), but the contents of (15)N in these pools accounted for less than 1% of the total N, natural background subtracted. The mass flux of dissolved (15)N into the peat was small compared to the total mass flux of (15)N. The accumulation of (15)N in the bulk peat must have been caused by a mechanism that was not investigated, possibly by transport of particulate organic N.

  1. Exploding a myth: the capsule dehiscence mechanism and the function of pseudostomata in Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Jeffrey G; Pressel, Silvia; P'ng, Ken M Y; Renzaglia, Karen S

    2009-01-01

    The nineteenth century air-gun explanation for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum has never been tested experimentally. Similarly, the function of the numerous stomata ubiquitous in the capsule walls has never been investigated. Both intact and pricked Sphagnum capsules, that were allowed to dry out, all dehisced over an 8-12 h period during which time the stomatal guard cells gradually collapsed and their potassium content, measured by X-ray microanalysis in a cryoscanning electron microscope, gradually increased. By contrast, guard cell potassium fell in water-stressed Arabidopsis. The pricking experiments demonstrate that the air-gun notion for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum is inaccurate; differential shrinkage of the capsule walls causes popping off the rigid operculum. The absence of evidence for a potassium-regulating mechanism in the stomatal guard cells and their gradual collapse before spore discharge indicates that their sole role is facilitation of sporophyte desiccation that ultimately leads to capsule dehiscence. Our novel functional data on Sphagnum, when considered in relation to bryophyte phylogeny, suggest the possibility that stomata first appeared in land plants as structures that facilitated sporophyte drying out before spore discharge and only subsequently acquired their role in the regulation of gaseous exchange.

  2. Plant, Microbiome, and Biogeochemistry: Quantifying moss-associated N fixation in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J.; Mack, M. C.; Holland Moritz, H.; Fierer, N.; McDaniels, S.; Lewis, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future carbon (C) sequestration potential of the Arctic and boreal zones, currently the largest terrestrial C sink globally, is linked to nitrogen (N) cycling and N availability vis-a-vis C accumulation and plant species composition. Pristine environments in Alaska have low anthropogenic N deposition (<1 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and the main source of new N to these ecosystems is through previously overlooked N-fixation from microbial communities on mosses. Despite the importance of moss associated N-fixation, the relationship between moss species, microbial communities, and fixation rates remains ambiguous. In the summer of 2016, the fixation rates of 20 moss species from sites around both Fairbanks and Toolik Lake were quantified using 15N2 incubations. Subsequently, the microbial community and moss genome of the samples were also analyzed by collaborators. The most striking result is that all sampled moss genera fixed N, including well-studied feather mosses such as Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi as well as less common but ecologically relevant mosses such as Aulacomnium spp., Dicranum spp., Ptilium crista-castrensis, and Tomentypnum nitens. Across all samples, preliminary fixation rates ranged from 0.004-19.994 µg N g-1 moss d-1. Depending upon percent cover, moss-associated N fixation is the largest input of new N to the ecosystem. Given this, linking variation in N-fixation rates to microbial and moss community structures can be helpful in predicting future trends of C and N cycling in northern latitudes. Vegetation changes, alterations in downstream biogeochemical N processes, and anthropogenic N deposition could all interact with or alter moss associated N-fixation, thereby changing ecosystem N inputs. Further elucidation of the species level signal in N-fixation rates and microbial community will augment our knowledge of N cycling in northern latitudes, both current and future.

  3. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of the bacteria diversity in surface and subsurface peat layers of a northern wetland, with focus on poorly studied phyla and candidate divisions.

    PubMed

    Serkebaeva, Yulia M; Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands play a key role in the global carbon and water budget, but the bacterial diversity in these ecosystems remains poorly described. Here, we compared the bacterial community composition in the surface (0-5 cm depth) and subsurface (45-50 cm) peat layers of an acidic (pH 4.0) Sphagnum-dominated wetland, using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The denoised sequences (37,229 reads, average length ∼430 bp) were affiliated with 27 bacterial phyla and corresponded to 1,269 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined at 97% sequence identity. Abundant OTUs were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (35.5±2.4% and 39.2±1.2% of all classified sequences in surface and subsurface peat, respectively), Alphaproteobacteria (15.9±1.7% and 25.8±1.4%), Actinobacteria (9.5±2.0% and 10.7±0.5%), Verrucomicrobia (8.5±1.4% and 0.6±0.2%), Planctomycetes (5.8±0.4% and 9.7±0.6%), Deltaproteobacteria (7.1±0.4% and 4.4%±0.3%), and Gammaproteobacteria (6.6±0.4% and 2.1±0.1%). The taxonomic patterns of the abundant OTUs were uniform across all the subsamples taken from each peat layer. In contrast, the taxonomic patterns of rare OTUs were different from those of the abundant OTUs and varied greatly among subsamples, in both surface and subsurface peat. In addition to the bacterial taxa listed above, rare OTUs represented the following groups: Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydia, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Spirochaetes, AD3, WS1, WS4, WS5, WYO, OD1, OP3, BRC1, TM6, TM7, WPS-2, and FCPU426. OTU richness was notably higher in the surface layer (882 OTUs) than in the anoxic subsurface peat (483 OTUs), with only 96 OTUs common to both data sets. Most members of poorly studied phyla, such as the Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes and the candidate division TM6, showed a clear preference for growth in either oxic or anoxic conditions. Apparently, the bacterial communities in surface and

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of fibrous peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutejo, Yulindasari; Saggaff, Anis; Rahayu, Wiwik; Hanafiah

    2017-11-01

    Banyuasin is one of the regency in South Sumatera which has an area of 200.000 Ha of peat land. Peat soil are characterized by high compressibility parameters and low initial shear strength. Block sampling method was used to obtain undisturbed sample. The results of this paper describe the characteristics of peat soil from physical and chemical testing. The physical and chemical characteristics of peat include water content (ω), specific gravity (Gs), Acidity (pH), unit weight (γ), and ignition loss tests. SEM and EDS test was done to determine the differences in fiber content and to analyze chemical elements of the specimen. The average results ω, Gs, and pH are 263.538 %, 1.847, and 3.353. Peat is classified in H4 (by Von Post). The results of organic content (OC), ash content (AC), and fiber content (FC) are found 78.693 %, 21.310 %, and 73.703 %. From the results of physical and chemical tests, the peat in Banyuasin is classified as fibrous peat. All the results of the characteristics and classification of fibrous peat compared with published data were close.

  5. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-­-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  6. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  7. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  8. In Place Soil Treatments for Prevention of Explosives Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    gallon plastic drums. Treatment Layer Preparation The PMSO mixture was prepared in a ratio of peat moss and crude soybean oil of 1:1 (w:w). The...PMSO was prepared in batches using a small tow-behind plastic drum gas cement mixer (9 cu. ft capacity). Peat moss bags were weighed, and then emptied...wrap (or other applicable shipping materials) and shipped in plastic coolers by a commercial carrier priority overnight in ice. Holding Times

  9. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Raymore » Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).« less

  10. Wetland succession in a permafrost collapse: Interactions between fire and thermokarst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers-Smith, I. H.; Harden, J.W.; Wilmking, M.; Fuller, C.C.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the influence of fire and thermokarst in a boreal landscape, we investigated peat cores within and adjacent to a permafrost collapse feature on the Tanana River Floodplain of Interior Alaska. Radioisotope dating, diatom assemblages, plant macrofossils, charcoal fragments, and carbon and nitrogen content of the peat profile indicate ???600 years of vegetation succession with a transition from a terrestrial forest to a sedge-dominated wetland over 100 years ago, and to a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in approximately 1970. The shift from sedge to Sphagnum, and a decrease in the detrended tree-ring width index of black spruce trees adjacent to the collapse coincided with an increase in the growing season temperature record from Fairbanks. This concurrent wetland succession and reduced growth of black spruce trees indicates a step-wise ecosystem-level response to a change in regional climate. In 2001, fire was observed coincident with permafrost collapse and resulted in lateral expansion of the peatland. These observations and the peat profile suggest that future warming and/or increased fire disturbance could promote permafrost degradation, peatland expansion, and increase carbon storage across this landscape; however, the development of drought conditions could reduce the success of both black spruce and Sphagnum, and potentially decrease the long-term ecosystem carbon storage.

  11. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  12. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The United States continued as a significant producer and consumer of peat for horticultural, agricultural and industrial applications in 1997. Several operations in the Great Lakes and the Southeast regions dominated US production. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota were the largest producing states.

  13. Ebullition, Plant-Mediated Transport, and Subsurface Horizontal Water Flow Dominate Methane Transport in an Arctic Sphagnum Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R. A.; McCalley, C. K.; Logan, T. A.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.; Rich, V. I.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas methane from wetlands is of prime concern in the prediction of climate change - especially emission associated with thawing permafrost, which may drive a positive feedback loop of emission and warming. In addition to the biochemistry of methane production and consumption, wetland methane emission depends critically on the transport mechanisms by which methane moves through and out of the ecosystem. We therefore developed a model of methane biochemistry and transport for a sphagnum bog representing an intermediate permafrost thaw stage in Stordalen Mire, Sweden. In order to simultaneously reproduce measured profiles of both the concentrations and isotopic compositions of both methane and carbon dioxide in the peat pore water (Fig. 1) - as well as the surface methane emission - it was necessary for the model to include ebullition, plant-mediated transport via aerenchyma, and subsurface horizontal water flow. Diffusion of gas through the pore water was relatively unimportant. As a result, 90% of the produced methane escaped the wetland rather than being consumed by methanotrophic organisms in the near-surface pore water. Our model provides a comprehensive picture of methane emission from this bog site by quantifying the vertical profiles of: acetoclastic methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, methane oxidation, aerobic respiration, ebullition, plant-mediated transport, subsurface horizontal water flow, and diffusion.

  14. Peatlands in a eutrophic world - assessing the state of a poor fen-bog transition in southern Ontario, Canada, after long term nutrient input and altered hydrological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Sina; Gebauer, Gerhard; Blodau, Christian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2017-04-01

    drier areas (further away from the reservoir), both over a healthy Sphagnum carpet, as well as altered fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O indicate a transformation of the once ombrotrophic bog into a poor fen. Very much to our surprise the peatland did not seem to decay after long-term excessive nutrient load, instead it tremendously accelerated peat accumulation which led to maximum growth rates of up to 500 g C m-2 y-1. Peatland functioning in terms of carbon storage appeared to be maintained. Our study, which combines a great variety of methods and which provides detailed insights into various processes along peat profiles and vegetation cover, therefore contradicts numerous previous studies in which it was stated that long-term excessive supply of nutrients to peatlands would cause dying of Sphagnum mosses and hence, a decay and increased peat loss of the affected site already after one decade.

  15. The peats of Costa Rica (in English; Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identifiedmore » as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.« less

  16. Physiological and molecular diversity of feather moss associative N2-fixing cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Francesco; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Zackrisson, Olle; DeLuca, Thomas H; Sellstedt, Anita

    2005-12-01

    Cyanobacteria colonizing the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi were isolated from moss samples collected in northern Sweden and subjected to physiological and molecular characterization. Morphological studies of isolated and moss-associated cyanobacteria were carried out by light microscopy. Molecular tools were used for cyanobacteria identification, and a reconstitution experiment of the association between non-associative mosses and cyanobacteria was conducted. The influence of temperature on N2 fixation in the different cyanobacterial isolates and the influence of light and temperature on N2-fixation rates in the moss were studied using the acetylene reduction assay. Two different cyanobacteria were effectively isolated from P. schreberi: Nostoc sp. and Calothrix sp. A third genus, Stigonema sp. was identified by microscopy, but could not be isolated. The Nostoc sp. was found to fix N2 at lower temperatures than Calothrix sp. Nostoc sp. and Stigonema sp. were the predominant cyanobacteria colonizing the moss. The attempt to reconstitute the association between the moss and cyanobacteria was successful. The two isolated genera of cyanobacteria in feather moss samples collected in northern Sweden differ in their temperature optima, which may have important ecological implications.

  17. Gaseous mercury fluxes in peatlands and the potential influence of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Kristine M.; Kane, Evan S.; Potvin, Lynette; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Kolka, Randall K.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has the potential to significantly impact the stability of large stocks of mercury (Hg) stored in peatland systems due to increasing temperatures, altered water table regimes and subsequent shifts in vascular plant communities. However, the Hg exchange dynamics between the atmosphere and peatlands are not well understood. At the PEATcosm Mesocosm Facility in Houghton, Michigan, total gaseous Hg (TGM) fluxes were monitored in a subset of 1-m3 peat monoliths with altered water table positions (high and low) and vascular plant functional groups (sedge only, Ericaceae only or unmanipulated control) above the Sphagnum moss layer. At the SPRUCE bog in north-central Minnesota, TGM fluxes were measured from plots subjected to deep peat soil warming (up to +9 °C above ambient at a depth of 2 m). At PEATcosm, the strongest depositional trend was observed with the Low WT - sedge only treatment mesocosms with a mean TGM flux of -73.7 ± 6.3 ng m-2 d-1, likely due to shuttling of Hg to the peat at depth by aerenchymous tissues. The highest total leaf surface and tissue Hg concentrations were observed with the Ericaceae shrubs. A negative correlation between TGM flux and Ericaceae total leaf surface area suggests an influence of shrubs in controlling Hg exchange through stomatal uptake, surface sorption and potentially, peat shading. Surface peat total Hg concentrations are highest in treatments with greatest deposition suggesting deposition controls Hg accumulation in surface peat. Fluxes in the SPRUCE plots ranged from -45.9 ± 93.8 ng m-2 d-1 prior to the implementation of the deep warming treatments to -1.41 ± 27.1 ng m-2 d-1 once warming targets were achieved at depth and +10.2 ± 44.6 ng m-2 d-1 following prolonged deep soil warming. While these intervals did not differ significantly, a significant positive increase in the slope of the regression between flux and surface temperature was observed across the pre-treatment and warming periods. Shifts in

  18. Herbivore impacts to the moss layer determine tundra ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Van der Wal, Rene

    2009-10-01

    Herbivory and climate are key environmental drivers, shaping ecosystems at high latitudes. Here, we focus on how these two drivers act in concert, influencing the high arctic tundra. We aim to investigate mechanisms through which herbivory by geese influences vegetation and soil processes in tundra ecosystems under ambient and warmed conditions. To achieve this, two grazing treatments, clipping plus faecal additions and moss removal, were implemented in conjunction with passive warming. Our key finding was that, in many cases, the tundra ecosystem response was determined by treatment impacts on the moss layer. Moss removal reduced the remaining moss layer depth by 30% and increased peak grass biomass by 27%. These impacts were probably due to observed higher soil temperatures and decomposition rates associated with moss removal. The positive impact of moss removal on grass biomass was even greater with warming, further supporting this conclusion. In contrast, moss removal reduced dwarf shrub biomass possibly resulting from increased exposure to desiccating winds. An intact moss layer buffered the soil to increased air temperature and as a result there was no response of vascular plant productivity to warming over the course of this study. In fact, moss removal impacts on soil temperature were nearly double those of warming, suggesting that the moss layer is a key component in controlling soil conditions. The moss layer also absorbed nutrients from faeces, promoting moss growth. We conclude that both herbivory and warming influence this high arctic ecosystem but that herbivory is the stronger driver of the two. Disturbance to the moss layer resulted in a shift towards a more grass-dominated system with less abundant mosses and shrubs, a trend that was further enhanced by warming. Thus herbivore impacts to the moss layer are key to understanding arctic ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

  19. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136 Section 80.1136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136 Section 80.1136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136 Section 80.1136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  2. Investigation of smoldering combustion propagation of dried peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamba, Pither; Ramadhan, M. L.; Imran, F. A.; Kosasih, E. A.; Nugroho, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Smoldering is a form of combustion characterised by flameless burning of porous materials. Smoldering combustion of porous and organic soil such as peat, is considered as a major contributor to haze problem during wildland fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. With almost half of tropical peatland worldwide, and vast area that resulted in its rich agricultural diversity, Indonesia possessed many variants of peat throughout the region. Thus, further highlighting the importance of characterizing the thermal properties of different varieties of peats for further analysis. An experimental test method was built to analyse the differences of varying peats from different parts of Indonesia, regarding its smoldering combustion propagation. In this case, peat from Papua and South Sumatera were analysed. A cylindrical wire meshed container of 190 cm3 in volume, was filled with dried peat. The temperature data and mass loss during the smoldering combustion was gathered using thermocouples and a DAQ system. After the experimental apparatus was set, a smoldering combustion of the dried peats was initiated at the top of the container using an electric heater. The results of the experiment showed a smoldering temperature of about 600°C and with a smoldering propagation rate of about 4.50 to 4.75 cm/h for both peat samples.

  3. Peat resources of Maine. Volume 2. Penobscot County

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.C.; Mullen, M.K.; Lepage, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    In July 1979, the Maine Office of Energy Resources, in conjunction with the Maine Geological Survey, began the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program. The Program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was undertaken to determine the amount and location of fuel-grade peat in Maine. Two hundred thirty-three areas containing peat deposits were evaluated under the Program. A total of 47 deposits covering 21,666 acres and containing 40,923,000 short tons (dry weight) of peat in Penobscot County have been evaluated under the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program. These deposits range in size from 35 to 3301 acresmore » and in estimated resources from 45,000 to 6,994,000 short tons. Maps of individual deposits showing the distribution and depth of peat, core sites, and the surficial geology of the area adjacent to the deposits are shown in Figures 4 to 46. Cores showing the vertical distribution of peat and sediment as well as sample locations, and the results of laboratory analyses are also included. 22 references, 46 figures, 3 tables.« less

  4. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host–microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function

    DOE PAGES

    Weston, David J.; Timm, Collin M.; Walker, Anthony P.; ...

    2014-12-07

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO 2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this paper, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon andmore » nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant–microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO 2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. Finally, we highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics.« less

  6. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host–microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David J.; Timm, Collin M.; Walker, Anthony P.

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO 2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this paper, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon andmore » nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant–microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO 2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. Finally, we highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics.« less

  7. Deformation behaviors of peat with influence of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Liu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Peat is a kind of special material rich in organic matter. Because of the high content of organic matter, it shows different deformation behaviors from conventional geotechnical materials. Peat grain has a non-negligible compressibility due to the presence of organic matter. Biogas can generate from peat and can be trapped in form of gas bubbles. Considering the natural properties of peat, a special three-phase composition of peat is described which indicates the existence of organic matter and gas bubbles in peat. A stress-strain-time model is proposed for the compression of organic matter, and the surface tension effect is considered in the compression model of gas bubbles. Finally, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the deformation behavior of peat considering the compressibility of organic matter and entrapped gas bubbles. The deformation process is the coupling of volume variation of organic matter, gas bubbles and water drainage. The proposed model is used to simulate a series of peat laboratory oedometer tests, and the model can well capture the test results with reasonable model parameters. Effects of model parameters on deformation of peat are also analyzed.

  8. Mosses and the struggle for light in a nitrogen-polluted world.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Pearce, Imogen S K; Brooker, Rob W

    2005-01-01

    The impact of reduced light conditions as an indirect effect of nitrogen (N) deposition was determined on three mosses in a montane ecosystem, where sedge and grass cover increase due to N enrichment. Additionally, in the greenhouse we established the importance of low light to moss growth as an indirect N deposition effect relative to the direct toxic effects of N. The amount of light reaching the moss layer was strongly and negatively related to graminoid abundance. Mosses showed differing sensitivities to reduced light in the field. Racomitrium lanuginosum biomass was found to be highest under high-light conditions, Polytrichum alpinum at intermediate light levels, whilst that of Dicranum fuscescens was unrelated to light availability. Moreover, Racomitrium biomass decreased with increasing amounts of graminoid litter, whereas the other species were little affected. All three mosses responded differently to the combination of elevated N (20 vs 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) and reduced light (60 and 80% reduction) in the greenhouse. Racomitrium growth was strongly influenced by both light reduction and elevated N, in combination reducing shoot biomass up to 76%. There was a tendency for Dicranum growth to be modestly reduced by elevated N when shaded, causing up to 19% growth reduction. Polytrichum growth was not influenced by elevated N but was reduced up to 40% by shading. We conclude that competition for light, induced by vascular plants, can strongly influence moss performance even in unproductive low biomass ecosystems. The effects of reduced light arising from N pollution can be as important to mosses as direct toxicity from N deposition. Yet, different sensitivities of mosses to both toxic and shading effects of elevated N prevent generalisation and can lead to competitive species replacement within moss communities. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding moss-vascular plant interactions to allow interpretation and prediction of ecosystem

  9. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencingmore » decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.« less

  10. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  11. Assessing environmental attributes and effects of climate change on Sphagnum peatland distributions in North America using single- and multi-species models.

    PubMed

    Oke, Tobi A; Hager, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    The fate of Northern peatlands under climate change is important because of their contribution to global carbon (C) storage. Peatlands are maintained via greater plant productivity (especially of Sphagnum species) than decomposition, and the processes involved are strongly mediated by climate. Although some studies predict that warming will relax constraints on decomposition, leading to decreased C sequestration, others predict increases in productivity and thus increases in C sequestration. We explored the lack of congruence between these predictions using single-species and integrated species distribution models as proxies for understanding the environmental correlates of North American Sphagnum peatland occurrence and how projected changes to the environment might influence these peatlands under climate change. Using Maximum entropy and BIOMOD modelling platforms, we generated single and integrated species distribution models for four common Sphagnum species in North America under current climate and a 2050 climate scenario projected by three general circulation models. We evaluated the environmental correlates of the models and explored the disparities in niche breadth, niche overlap, and climate suitability among current and future models. The models consistently show that Sphagnum peatland distribution is influenced by the balance between soil moisture deficit and temperature of the driest quarter-year. The models identify the east and west coasts of North America as the core climate space for Sphagnum peatland distribution. The models show that, at least in the immediate future, the area of suitable climate for Sphagnum peatland could expand. This result suggests that projected warming would be balanced effectively by the anticipated increase in precipitation, which would increase Sphagnum productivity.

  12. Assessing environmental attributes and effects of climate change on Sphagnum peatland distributions in North America using single- and multi-species models

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Tobi A.; Hager, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    The fate of Northern peatlands under climate change is important because of their contribution to global carbon (C) storage. Peatlands are maintained via greater plant productivity (especially of Sphagnum species) than decomposition, and the processes involved are strongly mediated by climate. Although some studies predict that warming will relax constraints on decomposition, leading to decreased C sequestration, others predict increases in productivity and thus increases in C sequestration. We explored the lack of congruence between these predictions using single-species and integrated species distribution models as proxies for understanding the environmental correlates of North American Sphagnum peatland occurrence and how projected changes to the environment might influence these peatlands under climate change. Using Maximum entropy and BIOMOD modelling platforms, we generated single and integrated species distribution models for four common Sphagnum species in North America under current climate and a 2050 climate scenario projected by three general circulation models. We evaluated the environmental correlates of the models and explored the disparities in niche breadth, niche overlap, and climate suitability among current and future models. The models consistently show that Sphagnum peatland distribution is influenced by the balance between soil moisture deficit and temperature of the driest quarter-year. The models identify the east and west coasts of North America as the core climate space for Sphagnum peatland distribution. The models show that, at least in the immediate future, the area of suitable climate for Sphagnum peatland could expand. This result suggests that projected warming would be balanced effectively by the anticipated increase in precipitation, which would increase Sphagnum productivity. PMID:28426754

  13. How do patch quality and spatial context affect invertebrate communities in a natural moss microlandscape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trekels, Hendrik; Driesen, Mario; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram

    2017-11-01

    Globally, moss associated invertebrates remain poorly studied and it is largely unknown to what extent their diversity is driven by local environmental conditions or the landscape context. Here, we investigated small scale drivers of invertebrate communities in a moss landscape in a temperate forest in Western Europe. By comparing replicate quadrats of 5 different moss species in a continuous moss landscape, we found that mosses differed in invertebrate density and community composition. Although, in general, richness was similar among moss species, some invertebrate taxa were significantly linked to certain moss species. Only moss biomass and not relative moisture content could explain differences in invertebrate densities among moss species. Second, we focused on invertebrate communities associated with the locally common moss species Kindbergia praelonga in isolated moss patches on dead tree trunks to look at effects of patch size, quality, heterogeneity and connectivity on invertebrate communities. Invertebrate richness was higher in patches under closed canopies than under more open canopies, presumably due to the higher input of leaf litter and/or lower evaporation. In addition, increased numbers of other moss species in the same patch seemed to promote invertebrate richness in K. praelonga, possibly due to mass effects. Since invertebrate richness was unaffected by patch size and isolation, dispersal was probably not limiting in this system with patches separated by tens of meters, or stochastic extinctions may be uncommon. Overall, we conclude that invertebrate composition in moss patches may not only depend on local patch conditions, in a particular moss species, but also on the presence of other moss species in the direct vicinity.

  14. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  15. The role of mosses in ecosystem succession and function in Alaska's boreal forest

    Treesearch

    Merritt R. Turetsky; Michelle C. Mack; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Jennifer W. Harden

    2010-01-01

    Shifts in moss communities may affect the resilience of boreal ecosystems to a changing climate because of the role of moss species in regulating soil climate and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we use long-term data analysis and literature synthesis to examine the role of moss in ecosystem succession, productivity, and decomposition. In Alaskan forests, moss abundance...

  16. Bioaccumulation and glutathione-mediated detoxification of copper and cadmium in Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anuj; Saxena, Anjali

    2012-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical responses, metal bioaccumulation and tolerance potential of Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml. to Cu and Cd were studied to determine its bioindication and bioremediation potential. Results suggest that glutathione treatment increases the metal accumulation potential and plays a definite role in heavy metal scavenging. High abundance of Sphagnum in metal-rich sites strongly suggests its high metal tolerance capabilities. This experiment demonstrates that S. squarrosum is able to accumulate and tolerate a high amount of metals and feasibility of its application as bioindicator and remediator test species of metal-contaminated environment.

  17. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  18. Effect of Different Peat Size and Pre-Consolidation Pressure of Reconstituted Peat on Effective Undrained Shear Strength Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, ATS; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Ezree, AM; Nizam, ZM

    2017-08-01

    Shear strength of the soil is one of the most important parameters in engineering design, especially during the pre- or post-construction periods, since it is mainly used to measure and evaluate the foundation or slope stability of soil. Peat normally known as a soil that has a very low value of shear strength, and in order to determine and understand the shear strength of the peat, it is a difficult task in geotechnical engineering due to several factors such as types of fabrics, the origin of the soil, water content, organic matter and the degree of humification. The aim of this study is to determine the effective undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat of different sizes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed the opening sieve of 0.425 mm (peat peat peat peat peat

  19. Colloid-facilitated metal transport in peat filters.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rauch, Sebastien; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Morrison, Greg; Stolpe, Björn; Hasselliöv, Martin

    2010-06-01

    The effect of colloids on metal retention in peat columns was studied, with the focus on colloids from two sources-organic matter leached from peat, and introduced organic and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) colloids. A significant fraction of metals was found to be associated with peat-produced organic colloids; however the concentrations of organic colloids leached are low (trace concentrations) and temporal and have a limited effect on the efficiency of peat filters. In contrast, the presence of organic and HFO colloids in the input water causes a significant decrease in the performance of peat filters. Organic colloids were identified as the main vector of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, while lead is transported by both organic and HFO colloids. The colloidal distribution of metals obtained in this study has important implications for the mobility of trace metals in porous media. The occurrence of colloids in the input waters and their characteristics must be considered when designing water treatment facilities.

  20. Dependency of Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog on Peat Temperature and Water Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Lafleur, P.; Roulet, N.; Frolking, S.

    2003-12-01

    We measured ecosystem respiration (ER) from nighttime net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide determined from an eddy covariance tower located in a large ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Canada. Measurements were made from May to October over 5 years, 1998 to 2002. Ecosystem respiration ranged from <0.05 mg CO2/m2/s in spring (May) and late fall (late October) to 0.10-0.15 mg CO2/m2/s during the summer (July-August). As anticipated, there was a strong relationship between ER and peat temperatures, such as at a depth of 5 cm (r2 = 0.63). Q10 over 5° to 15° C varied from 2.2 to 4.2 depending upon the choice of temperature level and location within a hummock or hollow. Unexpected for a wetland ecosystem, there was only a weak relationship between ER and water table position (r2 = 0.11). Comparison of ER in early and late summer, 2002 with similar surface temperature revealed no significant difference in ER. A laboratory incubation of peat cores at different moisture contents showed that CO2 production was reduced by drying in the surface samples, but there was little decrease in samples from below a depth of 30 cm. We believe that the lack of correlation between ER and water table position in this ecosystem results from an increase in CO2 production at depth compensating a decrease in production of CO2 by heterotrophic respiration in the near surface layers and autotrophic respiration in the moss community.

  1. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Weston, David J; Timm, Collin M; Walker, Anthony P; Gu, Lianhong; Muchero, Wellington; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shaw, A Jonathan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Warren, Jeffrey M; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  3. Development of new index for forest fire risk using satellite images in Indonesia through the direct spectral measurements of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Akita, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the smoke caused by the forest fires in Indonesia has become a serious problem. Most of the land in Indonesia is covered with peat moss, which occurs the expanding of fires due to the burning itself. Thus, the surface soil water, reflecting the amount of precipitation in the area, can become the indication of the risk of fires. This study aims to develop a new index reflecting the risk of forest fires in Indonesia using satellite remote sensing through the direct spectral measurements of peat moss soil.We have prepared the peat moss in 7 steps of soil water content measured at an accuracy of ±15 percent (Field pro, WD-3). We obtained spectra between 400nm and 1050nm (Source: halogen lamp, spectroscope: self-made space time, spectral analysis kit) from the peat moss.The obtained spectra show the difference from the previous spectral measurement for the soil in various water content. There are the features, especially, in the wavelength range of ultraviolet (400-450nm) and infrared (530-800nm) as shown in the figure; the more the soil water increases, the lower the reflectance becomes. We have developed a new index using the New deep blue band (433 453nm and NIR band 845 885nm of Landsat 8. The resulting satellite images calculated by our original index appears to reflect the risk of forest fires rather than well-known indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized difference Soil Index.In conclusion, we have created a new index that highly reflects to the degree of soil water of a peat soil in Indonesia.

  4. Detoxification of Dissolved SO2 (Bisulfite) by Terricolous Mosses

    PubMed Central

    BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated. • Methods The capacities of the two mosses to accelerate loss of bisulfite from aqueous solutions of NaHSO3 were studied using DTNB [5, 5-dithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] to assay bisulfite, and HPLC to assay sulfate in the incubation solutions. Incubations were performed for different durations, in the presence and absence of light, at a range of solution pH values, in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and with altered moss apoplastic Ca2+ and Fe3+ levels. • Key Results Bisulfite disappearance was markedly stimulated in the light and twice as great for R. triquetrus as for P. schreberi. DCMU, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron chain transport, significantly reduced bisufite loss. • Conclusions Bisulfite (SO2) tolerance in these terricolous mosses involves extracellular oxidation using metabolic (photo-oxidative) energy, passive oxidation by adsorbed Fe3+ (only available to the calcifuge) and probably also internal metabolic detoxification. PMID:16319108

  5. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous to desert ecosystems, play an array of ecological roles, and display a strong sensitivity to environmental changes. Crust mosses are particularly responsive to changes in precipitation and exhibit rapid declines in biomass and mortality following the addition of small rainfall events. Further, loss of the moss component in biocrusts leads to declines in crust structure and function. In this study, we sought to understand the physiological responses of the widespread and often dominant biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to alterations in rainfall. Moss samples were collected during all four seasons and exposed to two rainfall event sizes and three desiccation period (DP) lengths. A carbon balance approach based on single precipitation events was used to define the carbon gain or loss during a particular hydration period. Rainfall event size was the strongest predictor of carbon balance, and the largest carbon gains were associated with the largest precipitation events. In contrast, small precipitation events resulted in carbon deficits for S. caninervis. Increasing the length of the DP prior to an event resulted in reductions in carbon balance, probably because of the increased energetic cost of hydration following more intense bouts of desiccation. The season of collection (i.e., physiological status of the moss) modulated these responses, and the effects of DP and rainfall on carbon balance were different in magnitude (and often in sign) for different seasons. In particular, S. caninervis displayed higher carbon balances in the winter than in the summer, even for events of identical size. Overall, our results

  6. Passive warming reduces stress and shifts reproductive effort in the Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum

    PubMed Central

    Shortlidge, Erin E.; Eppley, Sarah M.; Kohler, Hans; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Zúñiga, Gustavo E.; Casanova-Katny, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The Western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and many biotic communities inhabiting this dynamic region are responding to these well-documented climatic shifts. Yet some of the most prevalent organisms of terrestrial Antarctica, the mosses, and their responses to warming have been relatively overlooked and understudied. In this research, the impacts of 6 years of passive warming were investigated using open top chambers (OTCs), on moss communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Methods The effects of experimental passive warming on the morphology, sexual reproductive effort and stress physiology of a common dioicous Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum, were tested, gaining the first species-specific mechanistic insight into moss responses to warming in the Antarctic. Additionally community analyses were conducted examining the impact of warming on overall moss percentage cover and sporophyte production in intact Antarctic moss communities. Key Results Our results show a generally greater percentage moss cover under warming conditions as well as increased gametangia production in P. alpinum. Distinct morphological and physiological shifts in P. alpinum were found under passive warming compared with those without warming: warmed mosses reduced investment in cellular stress defences, but invested more towards primary productivity and gametangia development. Conclusions Taken together, results from this study of mosses under passive warming imply that in ice-free moss-dominated regions, continued climate warming will probably have profound impacts on moss biology and colonization along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Such findings highlight the fundamental role that mosses will play in influencing the terrestrialization of a warming Antarctica. PMID:27794516

  7. Image analysis supported moss cell disruption in photo-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Lucumi, A; Posten, C; Pons, M-N

    2005-05-01

    Diverse methods for the disruption of cell entanglements and pellets of the moss Physcomitrella patens were tested in order to improve the homogeneity of suspension cultures. The morphological characterization of the moss was carried out by means of image analysis. Selected morphological parameters were defined and compared to the reduction of the carbon dioxide fixation, and the release