CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY DUE TO TURBULENT CONVECTION IN SPHERICAL WEDGE GEOMETRY
Kaepylae, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel
2012-08-10
We report on simulations of turbulent, rotating, stratified, magnetohydrodynamic convection in spherical wedge geometry. An initially small-scale, random, weak-amplitude magnetic field is amplified by several orders of magnitude in the course of the simulation to form oscillatory large-scale fields in the saturated state of the dynamo. The differential rotation is solar-like (fast equator), but neither coherent meridional poleward circulation nor near-surface shear layer develop in these runs. In addition to a poleward branch of magnetic activity beyond 50 Degree-Sign latitude, we find for the first time a pronounced equatorward branch at around 20 Degree-Sign latitude, reminiscent of the solar cycle.
Tectonic wedges: geometry and kinematic interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Torres, L. M.; Ramon-Lluch, R.; Eguiluz, L.
1994-10-01
The geometry of several tectonic wedge combinations was studied in an outcrop in the Basque Basin, Western Pyrenees. Three types of tectonic wedges were distinguished: simple, double and triple wedge. On the surface the geometry of the observed tectonic wedges is always highly elemental: emergent thrust, horse or klippe. The final stage in the evolution of a tectonic wedge is its delamination. This can occur by the spreading of the thrusts which conform the wedge, or by the development of back thrusts associated to them. The relative age of the back thrust with respect to the thrust indicates whether the original structure was a simple thrust or a tectonic wedge. If this criterion is applied to the Pyrenean Orogen, this range corresponds to a tectonic wedge.
Acoustic field of a wedge-shaped section of a spherical cap transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketterling, Jeffrey A.
2003-12-01
The acoustic pressure field at an arbitrary point in space is derived for a wedge-shaped section of a spherical cap transducer using the spatial impulse response (SIR) method. For a spherical surface centered at the origin, a wedge shape is created by taking cuts in the X-Y and X-Z planes and removing the smallest surface component. Analytic expressions are derived for the SIR based on spatial location. The expressions utilize the SIR solutions for a spherical cap transducer [Arditi et al., Ultrason. Imaging 3, 37-61 (1981)] with additional terms added to account for the reduced surface area of the wedge. Results from the numerical model are compared to experimental measurements from a wedge transducer with an 8-cm outer diameter and 9-cm geometric focus. The experimental and theoretical -3-dB beamwidths agreed to within 10%+/-5%. The SIR model for a wedge-shaped transducer is easily extended to other spherically curved transducer geometries that consist of combinations of wedge sections and spherical caps.
Geometry and kinematics of extensional structural wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Zhang, Yongsheng; Sun, Yanpeng; Huang, Jingyi; Zhang, Wenjun
2017-03-01
Structural wedges in the compressive environment have been recognized and studied in different locations. However, extension structural wedges are less well-understood. Based on the normal fault-bend folding theory and inclined shear model, this paper quantitatively analyses deformations related to extensional structural wedges and builds a series of geometric models for them. An extensional structural wedge is a fault-block held by two or more normal faults, the action of which would fold its overlying strata. Extensional structural wedges of different shapes will lead to different deformation results for the overlying strata, and this paper illustrates both the triangular and quadrangular wedges and their related deformations. This paper also discusses differences between the extensional structural wedges and the normal fault-bend-folding. By analysing two seismic sections from Langfang-Gu'an Sag, East China, this paper provides two natural examples of the triangular and quadrangular extensional structural wedges, where the models can reasonably explain the overlying distinct highs and lows without obvious faults. The establishment of a geometric model of extensional structural wedges can provide reference and theoretical bases for future quantitative analysis of deformations in the extensional environment.
Characterizing student mathematics teachers' levels of understanding in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan
2010-12-01
This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, task-based interviews were held with eight student mathematics teachers at particular times through the course to determine the spherical geometry learning levels. After identifying the properties of spherical geometry levels, we developed Understandings in Spherical Geometry Test to test whether or not the levels form hierarchy, and 58 student mathematics teachers took the test. The outcomes seemed to support our theoretical perspective that there are some understanding levels in spherical geometry that progress through a hierarchical order as van Hiele levels in Euclidean geometry.
Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan
2010-01-01
This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student…
Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan
2010-01-01
This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student…
Scroll waves in spherical shell geometries.
Chavez, Francisco; Kapral, Raymond; Rousseau, Guillaume; Glass, Leon
2001-12-01
The evolution of scroll waves in excitable media with spherical shell geometries is studied as a function of shell thickness and outer radius. The motion of scroll wave filaments that are the locii of phaseless points in the medium and organize the wave pattern is investigated. When the inner radius is sufficiently large the filaments remain attached to both the inner and outer surfaces. The minimum size of the sphere that supports spiral waves and the maximum number of spiral waves that can be sustained on a sphere of given size are determined for both regular and random initial distributions. When the inner radius is too small to support spiral waves the filaments detach from the inner surface and form a curved filament connecting the two spiral tips in the surface. In certain parameter domains the filament is an arc of a circle that shrinks with constant shape. For parameter values close to the meandering border, the filament grows and collisions with the sphere walls lead to turbulent filament dynamics. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
The effect of wedge position and inlet geometry on shock wave reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, R. E.; da Silva, N. P.; Skews, B. W.; Paton, R. T.
2017-02-01
Experiments were conducted in a shock tube to determine the effect of planar wedge inlet geometry on the shock wave reflection pattern that occurred on a wedge. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to visualize the experiments conducted in air with a nominal incident shock strength of Mach 1.31. The experimental test pieces consisted of a wedge mounted above the floor of the shock tube where the underside wedge angle was varied. The upper wedge angle was fixed at 30°, resulting in a Mach reflection. The underside wedge angle was either 30° or 90°, corresponding to a conventional and blunt wedge respectively. For the cases presented here, the reflected shock from the initial interaction reflects off of the shock tube floor and diffracts around the wedge apex. A density gradient is formed at the wedge apex due to this process and results in a vortex being shed for the 90° wedge. It was shown by simple measurements that the diffracted wave could reach the triple point of the upper Mach reflection if the wedge were of sufficient length.
Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan
2009-01-01
Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…
Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan
2009-01-01
Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…
Disruption and Disclosure: Learning To Model Spherical Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevenson, Ian
2001-01-01
Discusses some aspects of learning to read the process of the variation in congruence and relate it to the original geometry of the sphere since it touches on more general questions about how models are appropriated and used. Presents a learning episode that implemented projective models for both spherical and hyperbolic geometry in Object Logo.…
Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.
Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.
Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.
2016-07-01
Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster (F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.
Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.
2017-05-01
Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster ( F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.
The effect of décollement dip on geometry and kinematics of model accretionary wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyi, Hemin A.; Vendeville, Bruno C.
2003-09-01
We conducted a series of sand-box models shortened asymmetrically above a frictional-plastic décollement to study the influence of amount and sense of the décollement dip on the geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedges. Model results illustrate that the amount and direction of décollement dip strongly influence the geometry and mode of deformation of the resulting wedge. In general, for models having similar décollement frictional parameters, the resulting wedge is steeper, grows higher and is shorter when shortened above a décollement that dips toward the hinterland. At 42% bulk shortening, the length/height ratio of wedges formed above a 5°-dipping décollement was equal to 2.4 whereas this ratio was equal to 3 for wedges shortened above a horizontal décollement. Moreover, models with a hinterland dipping décollement undergo larger amounts of layer parallel compaction (LPC) and area loss than models shortened above a non-dipping décollement. The effect of décollement dip on wedge deformation is most pronounced when basal friction is relatively high (μ b=0.55), whereas its effect is less significant in models where the basal décollement has a lower friction (μ b=0.37). Model results also show that increasing basal slope has a similar effect to that of increasing basal friction; the wedge grows taller and its critical taper steepens.
Electromagnetic Casimir Effect in Wedge Geometry and the Energy-Momentum Tensor in Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brevik, I.; Ellingsen, S. Å.; Milton, K. A.
2010-04-01
The wedge geometry closed by a circular-cylindrical arc is a nontrivial generalization of the cylinder, which may have various applications. If the radial boundaries are not perfect conductors, the angular eigenvalues are only implicitly determined. When the speed of light is the same on both sides of the wedge, the Casimir energy is finite, unlike the case of a perfect conductor, where there is a divergence associated with the corners where the radial planes meet the circular arc. We advance the study of this system by reporting results on the temperature dependence for the conducting situation. We also discuss the appropriate choice of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.
Electromagnetic Casimir Effect in Wedge Geometry and the Energy-Momentum Tensor in Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brevik, I.; Ellingsen, S. Å.; Milton, K. A.
The wedge geometry closed by a circular-cylindrical arc is a nontrivial generalization of the cylinder, which may have various applications. If the radial boundaries are not perfect conductors, the angular eigenvalues are only implicitly determined. When the speed of light is the same on both sides of the wedge, the Casimir energy is finite, unlike the case of a perfect conductor, where there is a divergence associated with the corners where the radial planes meet the circular arc. We advance the study of this system by reporting results on the temperature dependence for the conducting situation. We also discuss the appropriate choice of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.
Geometry of the transition criterion of shock wave reflection over a wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, T.; Jiao, X.; Yu, D.
2015-01-01
The hysteresis phenomena of shock wave reflection observed during recent numerical and experimental investigations are analyzed in this paper using dynamical system theory. It is found through the analysis that the geometry of the transition criterion of shock wave reflection over a wedge has the shape of a butterfly. Knowledge of the geometry can provide important information on the hysteresis behavior of shock wave reflection. The geometry of the transition criterion can be used not only for the explanation of already known hysteresis behavior of shock wave reflection, but also for the prediction of novel hysteresis phenomena.
Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry
Mikaelian, Karnig O.
2016-02-08
We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.
Weakly nonlinear incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Guo, H. Y.; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.
2017-06-01
In this research, a weakly nonlinear (WN) model for the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in cylindrical geometry [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042708 (2013)] is generalized to spherical geometry. The evolution of the interface with an initial small-amplitude single-mode perturbation in the form of Legendre mode (Pn) is analysed with the third-order WN solutions. The transition of the small-amplitude perturbed spherical interface to the bubble-and-spike structure can be observed by our model. For single-mode perturbation Pn, besides the generation of P 2 n and P 3 n , which are similar to the second and third harmonics in planar and cylindrical geometries, many other modes in the range of P0- P 3 n are generated by mode-coupling effects up to the third order. With the same initial amplitude, the bubbles at the pole grow faster than those at the equator in the WN regime. Furthermore, it is found that the behavior of the bubbles at the pole is similar to that of three-dimensional axisymmetric bubbles, while the behavior of the bubbles at the equator is similar to that of two-dimensional bubbles.
Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikaelian, Karnig O.
2016-02-01
We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].
Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry.
Mikaelian, Karnig O
2016-02-01
We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015)].
The AGCE related studies of baroclinic flows in spherical geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyun, J. M.
1983-01-01
Steady state, axisymmetric motions of a Boussineaq fluid continued in rotating spherical anmulus are considered. The motions are driven by latitudinally varying temperature gradient at the shells. Linearized formulations for a narrow gap are derived and the flow field is divided into the Ekman layers and the geostrophic interior. The Ekman layer flows are consistent with the known results for cylindrical geometries. Within the framework of rather restrictive assumptions, the interior flows are solved by a series of associated Legendre polynomials. The solutions show qualitative features valid at midlatitudes.
Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction Mechanism on a Double Wedge Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celik, Bayram; Barada, Mohammad Adel El Hajj Ali; Durna, Ahmet Selim
2015-11-01
A hypersonic test series by Swantek & Austin report complex shock wave boundary layer interaction mechanisms and unsteady surface heat flux from a double wedge geometry in a low enthalpy Mach 7 flow. In order to understand the physics of the flow and the heat transfer, we study the flow computationally and compare the results for the double wedge geometries, whose second angle is higher and lower than the maximum deflection angle at Mach 7. Apart from the numbers of comprehensive computational studies on the subject available in open literature, our study aims to describe the flow physics by taking the influence of both boundary layers that are formed on the two walls of the wedge into account. In addition to describing the flow and heat transfer mechanisms, we investigate the time for the flows to reach steady state. We evaluate the interaction mechanisms in term of instant and time average surface heat flux distributions. We perform all computations using a finite volume based compressible Navier-Stokes solver, rhoCentralFoam, which is one of the several compressible flow solvers of an open source software, openFOAM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Saha, Puspendu; Sarkar, Shamik; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina
2014-10-01
We performed a series of sandbox experiments to investigate the initiation of thrust ramping in tectonic wedges on a mechanically continuous basal decollement. The experiments show that the decollement slope (β) is the key factor in controlling the location of thrust initiation with respect to the backstop (i.e. tectonic suture line). For β = 0, the ramping begins right at the backstop, followed by sequential thrusting in the frontal direction, leading to a typical mono-vergent wedge. In contrast, the ramp initiates away from the backstop as β > 0. Under this boundary condition an event of sequential back thrusting takes place prior to the onset of frontal thrust progression. These two-coupled processes eventually give rise to a bi-vergent geometry of the thrust wedge. Using the Drucker-Prager failure criterion in finite element (FE) models, we show the location of stress intensification to render a mechanical basis for the thrust initiation away from the backstop if β > 0. Our physical and FE model results explain why the Main Central Thrust (MCT) is located far away from the Indo-Tibetan plate contact (ITSZ) in the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belts.
The effects of spherical geometry on baroclinic instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moura, A. D.; Stone, P. H.
1976-01-01
A baroclinic stability analysis is performed for a simple family of zonal shear profiles over a sphere, using a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic model. The stability properties and the structure of the most unstable waves are qualitatively similar to those on a beta-plane. However, the spherical geometry plays a major role in locating some of the important features of the most unstable waves. In particular, the locations of the maximum wave amplitude, maximum eddy heat fluxes, and maximum convergence of the eddy angular momentum flux are all well correlated with the location of the maximum excess of the vertical shear over the minimum value necessary for local instability on a sphere. Consequently the eddy momentum flux tends to generate a mid-latitude jet even if there is no preexisting mid-latitude jet in the basic state zonal flow. These findings suggest some of the elements needed for parameterizing the meridional variations of baroclinic eddy fluxes accurately.
The effects of spherical geometry on baroclinic instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moura, A. D.; Stone, P. H.
1976-01-01
A baroclinic stability analysis is performed for a simple family of zonal shear profiles over a sphere, using a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic model. The stability properties and the structure of the most unstable waves are qualitatively similar to those on a beta-plane. However, the spherical geometry plays a major role in locating some of the important features of the most unstable waves. In particular, the locations of the maximum wave amplitude, maximum eddy heat fluxes, and maximum convergence of the eddy angular momentum flux are all well correlated with the location of the maximum excess of the vertical shear over the minimum value necessary for local instability on a sphere. Consequently the eddy momentum flux tends to generate a mid-latitude jet even if there is no preexisting mid-latitude jet in the basic state zonal flow. These findings suggest some of the elements needed for parameterizing the meridional variations of baroclinic eddy fluxes accurately.
Technology in Spherical Geometry Investigations: Reflections on Spontaneous Use and Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinclair, Margaret
2010-01-01
Students in a graduate geometry class used items such as paper, ribbon, plastic spheres, cardboard tubes, and markers to carry out investigations in spherical geometry. The hands-on activities helped students develop a new appreciation of geometry as a study of shape and space; however, the difficulty of subduing wayward elastics and drawing lines…
Technology in Spherical Geometry Investigations: Reflections on Spontaneous Use and Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinclair, Margaret
2010-01-01
Students in a graduate geometry class used items such as paper, ribbon, plastic spheres, cardboard tubes, and markers to carry out investigations in spherical geometry. The hands-on activities helped students develop a new appreciation of geometry as a study of shape and space; however, the difficulty of subduing wayward elastics and drawing lines…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, M. M.
2017-06-01
It is well known that static spherically symmetric spacetimes can admit foliations by flat spacelike hypersurfaces, which are best described in terms of the Painlevè-Gullstrand coordinates. The uniqueness and existence of such foliations were addressed earlier. In this paper, we prove, purely geometrically, that any possible foliation of a static spherically symmetric spacetime by an arbitrary codimension-one spherical spacelike geometry, up to time translation and rotation, is unique, and we find the algebraic condition under which it exists. This leads us to what can be considered as the most natural generalization of the Painlevè-Gullstrand coordinate system for static spherically symmetric metrics, which, in turn, makes it easy to derive generic conclusions on foliation and to study specific cases as well as to easily reproduce previously obtained generalizations as special cases. In particular, we note that the existence of foliation by flat hypersurfaces guarantees the existence of foliation by hypersurfaces whose Ricci curvature tensor is everywhere non-positive (constant negative curvature is a special case). The study of uniqueness and the existence concurrently solves the question of embeddability of a spherical spacelike geometry in one-dimensional higher static spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this produces known and new results geometrically, without having to go through the momentum and Hamiltonian constraints.
The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture
Favorite, Jeffrey A.
2016-01-13
It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Z. M.; Myong, R. S.; Yang, Y. R.; Cho, T. H.
2010-12-01
Shock polar analysis as well as 2-D numerical computation technique are used to illustrate a diverse flow topology induced by shock/shock interaction in a M ∞ = 9 hypersonic flow. New flow features associated with inviscid shock wave interaction on double-wedge-like geometries are reported in this study. Transition of shock interaction, unsteady oscillation, and hysteresis phenomena in the RR ↔ MR transition, and the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena are numerically studied and analyzed.
Electron Dose Attenuation Kernels for Slab and Spherical Geometries
1981-11-01
geometries. Sectoring methods used for satellites and space vehicles are discussed and several mathematical relation- ships are summarized. Dose attenuation...angle sectoring methods are commonly used for complex geometry calculations. The selection of kernels appropriate to sectoring calculations is... methods described iv Reference 1. Histories were generated for 1. Jordan, T.’., An Adjoint Charged Particle Transport Method , EMP.L7f.072, July 1976. 6
Stationary premixed flames in spherical and cylindrical geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ronney, P. D.; Whaling, K. N.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Gatto, J. L.; Pisowiscz, V. L.
1994-01-01
Stationary source-free spherical flames ('flame balls') in premixed combustible gases were studied by employing low-gravity (micro-g) environments in a drop tower and an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories to diminish the impact of buoyancy-induced convective flow. Flame balls were found in all mixture families tested when: (1) the Lewis number Le of the deficient reactant was sufficiently low; and (2) the compositions were sufficiently close to the flammability limits. Probably as a consequence of the reduction in buoyant convection, the flammability limits at micro-g were significantly more dilute than those at Earth gravity; for example, 3.35% H2 vs 4.0% H2 in lean H2-air mixtures. By comparison with analytical and computational models, it is inferred that the phenomenon is probably related to diffusive-thermal effects in low-Le mixtures in conjunction with flame-front curvature and radiative heat losses from the combustion products. The chemical reaction mechanism appears to play no qualitative role. In the aircraft experiments, the gravity levels (approximately equal 10(exp -2)g(sub 0)) were found to cause noticeable motion of flame balls due to buoyancy, which in turn influenced the behavior of flame balls. At these g levels, a new type of transient, nearly cylindrical flame structure, termed 'flame strings,' was observed.
Kim, Edward Y.; Briley, Nicole E.; Tyndall, Erin R.; Xu, Jie; Li, Conggang; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.; Flanagan, John M.; Tian, Fang
2015-01-01
Many essential cellular processes including endocytosis and vesicle trafficking require alteration of membrane geometry. These changes are usually mediated by proteins that can sense and/or induce membrane curvature. Using spherical nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (SSLBs), we characterize how SpoVM, a bacterial development factor, interacts with differently curved membranes by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR. Our results demonstrate that SSLBs are an effective system for structural and topological studies of membrane geometry-sensitive molecules. PMID:26488086
Ablation Front Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Experiments in Spherically Convergent Geometry
Glendinning, S.G.; Cherfils, C.; Colvin, J.; Divol, L.; Galmiche, D.; Haan, S.; Marinak, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Richard, A.L.; Wallace, R.
1999-11-03
Experiments were performed on the Nova laser, using indirectly driven capsules mounted in cylindrical gold hohlraums, to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor growth at the ablation front by time-resolved radiography. Modulations were preformed on the surface of Ge-doped plastic capsules. With initial modulations of 4 {micro}m, growth factors of about 6 in optical depth were seen, in agreement with simulations using the radiation hydrocode FCI2. With initial modulations of 1 {micro}m, growth factors of about 100-150 in optical depth were seen. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at the ablation front in an inertial confinement fusion capsule has been the subject of considerable investigation. Much of this research has been concentrated on planar experiments, in which RT growth is inferred from radiography. The evolution is somewhat different in a converging geometry; the spatial wavelength decreases (affecting the onset of nonlinear saturation), and the shell thickens and compresses rather than decompressing as in a planar geometry. In a cylindrically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius, while in spherically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius squared. Experiments were performed on the Nova and Omega lasers in cylindrical geometry (using both direct and indirect drive) and have been performed in spherical geometry using direct drive.
TOA Lightning Location Retrieval on Spherical and Oblate Spheroidal Earth Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A simple linear algebraic solution is introduced for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning ground strikes on a spherical Earth from a network of four or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors. Since the solution accounts for Earth curvature, it represents an extension to earlier planar model results described by Koshak et al. A test of the retrieval method is provided using computer-simulated data sets. The method is easy to comprehend and completely avoids reference to the mathematics of spherical hyperbolas such as discussed by Lewis. A quasi-analytic extension to the spherical Earth solution is provided for an oblate spheroidal Earth geometry, and the importance/relevance of oblate effects are discussed. Future application of these methods in support of the North American National Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) described by Cummins et al. is desirable, but additional theoretical investigations are required to incorporate magnetic bearing information into the present solution process.
TOA Lightning Location Retrieval on Spherical and Oblate Spheroidal Earth Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A simple linear algebraic solution is introduced for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning ground strikes on a spherical Earth from a network of four or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors. Since the solution accounts for Earth curvature, it represents an extension to earlier planar model results described by Koshak et al. A test of the retrieval method is provided using computer-simulated data sets. The method is easy to comprehend and completely avoids reference to the mathematics of spherical hyperbolas such as discussed by Lewis. A quasi-analytic extension to the spherical Earth solution is provided for an oblate spheroidal Earth geometry, and the importance/relevance of oblate effects are discussed. Future application of these methods in support of the North American National Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) described by Cummins et al. is desirable, but additional theoretical investigations are required to incorporate magnetic bearing information into the present solution process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degheidy, A. R.; Madkour, M. A.
1993-05-01
The maximum-entropy technique is used to solving three problems in radiative transfer and reactor physics involving spherical geometry. These problems are: (1) luminosity or the total energy emitted by a sphere, (2) neutron capture probability, and (3) the albedo problem. Numerical calculations are done and compared with the exact values as well as with Pade's approximant results. The comparisons show that the maximum-entropy results are very good and converge to the exact results.
A spectral solution of the magneto-convection equations in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollerbach, Rainer
2000-04-01
A fully three-dimensional solution of the magneto-convection equations - the nonlinearly coupled momentum, induction and temperature equations - is presented in spherical geometry. Two very different methods for solving the momentum equation are presented, corresponding to the limits of slow and rapid rotation, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The possibility of including a freely rotating, finitely conducting inner core in the solution of the momentum and induction equations is also discussed. Copyright
Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry
Volkov, Victor
2014-10-07
The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.
Ion-acoustic solitons do not exist in cylindrical and spherical geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheridan, T. E.
2017-09-01
We investigate the time evolution of one-dimensional, compressive, ion acoustic solitary waves for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries in a plasma of cold fluid ions and Boltzmann electrons. For cylindrical and spherical geometries, we show that inward (outward) going solitary waves cannot be localized (i.e., always have a tail) since the effect of a unipolar velocity perturbation is to shift ions inward (outward) to smaller (larger) radii, thereby increasing (decreasing) the local ion density. That is, there are no quasi-particle soliton states in the cylindrical and spherical cases. These results are confirmed and expanded using a plasma simulation for the cylindrical case. We initialize the system with an inward propagating planar soliton. We find supersonic solitary waves which increase in speed as they near the origin, while the wave amplitude increases as r-1/2. All solitary waves develop the predicted tail, but for larger amplitudes, the tail is unstable and evolves into an acoustic wave train.
Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, Victor
2014-10-01
The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Peter
2016-03-01
A new directional decomposition of the acoustic 3D wave equation is derived for spherically symmetric geometries, where the wave fields do not need to possess such a symmetry. This provides an alternative basis for various applications of techniques like invariant embedding and time domain Green functions in spherically symmetric geometries. Contrary to previous results on spherical wave splittings, the new decomposition is given in a very explicit form. The wave equation considered incorporates effects from radially varying compressibility and density, but also from anisotropic density, a property of certain so called metafluids. By applying the new spherical wave splitting, we show that all spherically symmetric acoustic metafluid cloaks are diffeomorphic images of a homogeneous and isotropic spherical ball of perfect fluid.
The synchrotron-self-Compton process in spherical geometries. I - Theoretical framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.
1985-01-01
Both spatial and spectral accuracies are stressed in the present method for the calculation of the synchrotron-self-Compton model in spherical geometries, especially in the partially opaque regime of the synchrotron spectrum of inhomogeneous sources that can span a few frequency decades and contribute a significant portion of the scattered flux. A formalism is developed that permits accurate calculation of incident photon density throughout an optically thin sphere. An approximation to the Klein-Nishina cross section is used to model the effects of variable electron and incident photon cutoffs, as well as the decrease in the cross section at high energies. General results are derived for the case of inhomogeneous sources with power law profiles in both electron density and magnetic field.
Finite-frequency Sensitivity Kernels in Spherical Geometry for Time-Distance Helioseismology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Krishnendu; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Halder, Samrat; Hanasoge, Shravan M.
2017-06-01
The inference of internal properties of the Sun from surface measurements of wave travel times is the goal of time-distance helioseismology. A critical step toward the accurate interpretation of shifts in travel time is the computation of sensitivity functions linking seismic measurements to internal structure. Here we calculate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels in spherical geometry for two-point measurements of travel time. We numerically build Green’s function by solving for it at each frequency and each degree of spherical harmonic and summing over all these pieces. These computations are performed in parallel (“embarrassingly”), thereby achieving significant speedup in wall-clock time. Kernels are calculated by invoking the first-order Born approximation connecting deviations in the wave field to perturbations in the operator. Validated flow kernels are shown to produce travel times within 0.47% of the true value for uniform flows up to 750 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1. We find that travel time can be obtained with errors of 1 ms or less for flows having magnitudes similar to meridional circulation. Alongside flows, we also compute and validate a sensitivity kernel for perturbations in sound speed. These accurate sensitivity kernels might improve the current inferences of subsurface flows significantly.
Sensitivity Kernels for Flows in Time-Distance Helioseismology: Extension to Spherical Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böning, Vincent G. A.; Roth, Markus; Zima, Wolfgang; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent
2016-06-01
We extend an existing Born approximation method for calculating the linear sensitivity of helioseismic travel times to flows from Cartesian to spherical geometry. This development is necessary for using the Born approximation for inferring large-scale flows in the deep solar interior. As first sanity check, we compare two f-mode kernels from our spherical method and from an existing Cartesian method. The horizontal and total integrals agree to within 0.3%. As a second consistency test, we consider a uniformly rotating Sun and a travel distance of 42°. The analytical travel-time difference agrees with the forward-modeled travel-time difference to within 2%. In addition, we evaluate the impact of different choices of filter functions on the kernels for a meridional travel distance of 42°. For all filters, the sensitivity is found to be distributed over a large fraction of the convection zone. We show that the kernels depend on the filter function employed in the data analysis process. If modes of higher harmonic degree (90 ≲ l ≲ 170) are permitted, a noisy pattern of a spatial scale corresponding to l ≈ 260 appears near the surface. When mainly low-degree modes are used (l ≲ 70), the sensitivity is concentrated in the deepest regions and it visually resembles a ray-path-like structure. Among the different low-degree filters used, we find the kernel for phase-speed-filtered measurements to be best localized in depth.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Brune, Peter
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present an exact, infinite-series solution to Lorentz nonlocal continuum electrostatics for an arbitrary charge distribution in a spherical solute. Our approach relies on two key steps: (1) re-formulating the PDE problem using boundary-integral equations, and (2) diagonalizing the boundary-integral operators using the fact that their eigenfunctions are the surface spherical harmonics. To introduce this uncommon approach for calculations in separable geometries, we first re-derive Kirkwood’s classic results for a protein surrounded concentrically by a pure-water ion-exclusion (Stern) layer and then a dilute electrolyte, which is modeled with the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. The eigenfunction-expansion approach provides a computationally efficient way to test some implications of nonlocal models, including estimating the reasonable range of the nonlocal length-scale parameter λ. Our results suggest that nonlocal solvent response may help to reduce the need for very high dielectric constants in calculating pH-dependent protein behavior, though more sophisticated nonlocal models are needed to resolve this question in full. An open-source MATLAB implementation of our approach is freely available online. PMID:26273581
Williamson, D.L.; Hack, J.J.; Jakob, R.; Swarztrauber, P.N. ); Drake, J.B. )
1991-08-01
A suite of seven test cases is proposed for the evaluation of numerical methods intended for the solution of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. The shallow water equations exhibit the major difficulties associated with the horizontal dynamical aspects of atmospheric modeling on the spherical earth. These cases are designed for use in the evaluation of numerical methods proposed for climate modeling and to identify the potential trade-offs which must always be made in numerical modeling. Before a proposed scheme is applied to a full baroclinic atmospheric model it must perform well on these problems in comparison with other currently accepted numerical methods. The cases are presented in order of complexity. They consist of advection across the poles, steady state geostrophically balanced flow of both global and local scales, forced nonlinear advection of an isolated low, zonal flow impinging on an isolated mountain, Rossby-Haurwitz waves and observed atmospheric states. One of the cases is also identified as a computer performance/algorithm efficiency benchmark for assessing the performance of algorithms adapted to massively parallel computers. 31 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Ulrich; Maas, Christian
2017-04-01
About 4.5 billion years ago the early Earth experienced several giant impacts that lead to one or more deep terrestrial magma oceans of global extent. The crystallization of these vigorously convecting magma oceans is of key importance for the chemical structure of the Earth, the subsequent mantle evolution as well as for the initial conditions for the onset of plate tectonics. Due to the fast planetary rotation of the early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotation probably had a profound effect on early differentiation processes and could for example influence the presence and distribution of chemical heterogeneities in the Earth's mantle [e.g. Matyska et al., 1994, Garnero and McNamara, 2008]. Previous work in Cartesian geometry revealed a strong influence of rotation as well as of latitude on the crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean [Maas and Hansen, 2015]. Based on the preceding study we developed a spherical shell model that allows to study crystal settling in-between pole and equator as well as the migration of crystals between these regions. Further we included centrifugal forces on the crystals, which significantly affect the lateral and radial distribution of the crystals. Depending on the strength of rotation the particles accumulate at mid-latitude or at the equator. At high rotation rates the dynamics of fluid and particles are dominated by jet-like motions in longitudinal direction that have different directions on northern and southern hemisphere. All in all the first numerical experiments in spherical geometry agree with Maas and Hansen [2015] that the crystal distribution crucially depends on latitude, rotational strength and crystal density. References E. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle. Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008. C. Maas and U. Hansen. Eff ects of earth's rotation on the early di erentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120
Ziegler, Andy; Köhler, Thomas; Nielsen, Tim; Proksa, Roland
2006-12-01
In cone-beam transmission tomography the measurements are performed with a divergent beam of x-rays. The reconstruction with iterative methods is an approach that offers the possibility to reconstruct the corresponding images directly from these measurements. Another approach based on spherically symmetric basis functions (blobs) has been reported with results demonstrating a better image quality for iterative reconstruction algorithms. When combining the two approaches (i.e., using blobs in iterative cone-beam reconstruction of divergent rays) the problem of blob sampling without introducing aliasing must be addressed. One solution to this problem is to select a blob size large enough to ensure a sufficient sampling, but this prevents a high resolution reconstruction, which is not desired. Another solution is a heuristic low-pass filtering, which removes this aliasing, but neglects the different contributions of blobs to the absorption depending on the spatial position in the volume and, therefore, cannot achieve the best image quality. This article presents a model of sampling the blobs which is motivated by the beam geometry. It can be used for high resolution reconstruction and can be implementedefficiently.
Temperature and heat flux scalings for isoviscous thermal convection in spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deschamps, Frédéric; Tackley, Paul J.; Nakagawa, Takashi
2010-07-01
Parametrized convection, which has long been used to reconstruct the thermal history of planetary mantles, is based on scaling relationships between observables (including heat flux) and controlling parameters (the most important being the Rayleigh number, Ra). To explore the influence of spherical geometry on heat transfer, we have conducted two series of numerical experiments of thermal convection (one with bottom heating and the other with mixed heating) in an isoviscous spherical shell with various curvatures. Using these calculations and a generalized non-linear inversion, we then derive scaling laws for the average temperature and for the surface heat flux. In the case of bottom heating, we found that the non-dimensional average temperature is given by θm = f2/(1 + f2), where f is the ratio between the core and total radii. The non-dimensional surface heat flux is fitted well by Nutop = 0.36f0.32 Ra(0.273+0.05f) θ0.6m. This scaling indicates that the available heating power decreases with increasing curvature (decreasing f). There exist strong trade-offs between the inverted parameters, that is, different sets of parameters explain our calculations well within error bars. For mixed heating, the non-dimensional average temperature and surface heat flux are well explained by θH = θm + (1.68 - 0.8f)[(1 + f + f2)/3]0.79 h0.79/Ra0.234, where h is the non-dimensional rate of internal heating, and Nutop = 0.59f0.05 Ra(0.300-0.003f) θ1.23H. Due to a competition between the radiogenic and convective powers, and for given values of h and Ra, there is a curvature for which the Urey ratio reaches a minimum. Applied to the Earth's mantle, the mixed heating scaling predicts a Urey ratio between 0.4 and 0.6, depending on the Rayleigh number. Additional parameters, including the thermal viscosity ratio, phase transitions, the presence of dense material in the deep mantle, and variability of the flow pattern in time, may enter an appropriate modelling of the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, Kurt; Müller, M.; Milchev, A.; Landau, D. P.
2005-07-01
Two-phase coexistence in systems with free surfaces is enforced by boundary fields requiring the presence of an interface. Varying the temperature or the surface field, one can observe new types of phase transitions where the interface essentially disappears (it becomes bound to a wall or a wedge or a corner of the system). These transitions are simulated with Monte Carlo for Ising ferromagnets and polymer blends, applying finite size scaling analysis. Anisotropic critical fluctuations may occur, and in the limit where the system becomes macroscopically large in all three directions the order parameter vanishes discontinuously (either because its exponent β=0, or its critical amplitude diverges). Since interfacial fluctuations are slow and large systems are needed (e.g., lattices up to 80×80×442 sites in the double wedge case), significant computer resources are necessary for a meaningful accuracy.
Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil
Rothe, R.E.
1997-05-01
Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Rebecca; Orme, Haydn; Lenette, Kathryn; Jackson, Christopher; Fitch, Peter; Phillips, Thomas; Moore, Gregory
2017-04-01
Intra-wedge thrust faults represent important conduits for fluid flow in accretionary prisms, modulating pore fluid pressure, effective stress and, ultimately, the seismic hazard potential of convergent plate boundaries. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust networks in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images. To address this we here present observations from two subduction zones, the Nankai and Lesser Antilles margins, where 3D seismic and borehole data allow us to constrain the geometry and kinematics of intra-wedge fault networks and to thus shed light on the mechanisms responsible for their structural style variability. At the Muroto transect, Nankai margin we find that the style of protothrust zone deformation varies markedly along-strike over distances of only a few km. Using structural restoration and quantitative fault analysis, we reveal that in the northern part of the study area deformation occurred by buckle folding followed by faulting. Further south, intra-wedge faults nucleate above the décollement and propagate radially with no folding, resulting in variable connectivity between faults and the décollement. The seismic facies character of sediments immediately above the décollement varies along strike, with borehole data revealing that, in the north, where buckle folding dominates un-cemented Lower Shikoku Basin sediments overlie the décollement. In contrast, further south, Opal CT-cemented, and thus rigid Upper Shikoku Basin sediments overlie the décollement. We suggest these along-strike variations in diagenesis and thus rheology control the observed structural style variability. Near Barbados, at the Lesser Antilles margin, rough subducting plate relief is blanketed by up to 700 m of sediment. 3D seismic data reveal that basement relief is defined by linear normal fault blocks and volcanic ridges, and sub
Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael
2016-04-01
Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core–mantle boundaries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohrab, Siavash H.
1999-01-01
Counterflow premixed flames play a significant role in the modeling of laminar flames. This is in part motivated by the fact that stretched premixed flames simulate local flamelet dynamics within turbulent premixed flames. In the present study, the modified form of the Navier-Stokes equation for reactive fields introduced earlier is employed to investigate the hydrodynamics of spherical flows embedded within counterflows. The geometry of premixed flames near the stagnation point is also determined. The predictions are in favorable agreement with the experimental observations and prior numerical studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egan, Michael P.; Leung, Chun Ming; Spagna, George F., Jr.
1988-01-01
The program solves the radiation transport problem in a dusty medium with one-dimensional planar, spherical or cylindrical geometry. It determines self-consistently the effects of multiple scattering, absorption, and re-emission of photons on the temperature of dust grains and the characteristics of the internal radiation field. The program can treat radiation field anisotropy, linear anisotropic scattering, and multi-grain components. The program output consists of the dust-temperature distribution, flux spectrum, surface brightness at each frequency and the observed intensities (involving a convolution with a telescope beam pattern).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arciniaga, Michael; Peterson, Michael R.
2016-07-01
We derive the single-particle eigenenergies and eigenfunctions for massless Dirac fermions confined to the surface of a sphere in the presence of a magnetic monopole, i.e., we solve the Landau level problem for electrons in graphene on the Haldane sphere. With the single-particle eigenfunctions and eigenenergies we calculate the Haldane pseudopotentials for the Coulomb interaction in the second Landau level and calculate the effective pseudopotentials characterizing an effective Landau level mixing Hamiltonian entirely in the spherical geometry to be used in theoretical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Our treatment is analogous to the formalism in the planar geometry and reduces to the planar results in the thermodynamic limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanadian, Mostafa; Faghih, Ali; Grasemann, Bernhard; Fard, Iraj Abdollahie; Maleki, Mehrdad
2017-03-01
The presence of evaporate and incompetent formations (i.e., decollement horizons) within the sedimentary sequence of fold-thrust belts can control their structural style and deformation evolution. In the present study, the influence of the decollement layers (e.g., basal and internal decollement layers) on the deformation style of several segments of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt (ZFTB), SW Iran (e.g., Fars Arc, Dezful Embayment, and Izeh Zone) was investigated using a series of analogue models of accretionary wedges. The study of seismic profiles to understand the structural evolution of these segments of the belt, where several decollement intervals acted as basal and internal decollements, is complemented by the analogue model results. The experimental results reveal that the thickness of the internal decollement layers influences the creation of fold-dominated or thrust-dominated deformations, respectively. Experimental models and seismic data highlight that incompetent layers act as barrier units against fault propagation (in-sequence and/or out-of-sequence faults) into overlying strata towards southwest by fore-deformation and control the rate of deformation propagation in the ZFTB. The presence of both the basal and internal decollement layers located at different stratigraphic levels is required to form disharmonic decollement folds in the foreland of the ZFTB. In addition, the geometry, spacing, activity, and propagation of faults as well as the topographic height of the critical wedges are directly controlled by low-frictional decollements (Geophys J Int, 165(1):336-356 2006; Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 14:1131-1155 2013). The seismic profiles of the ZFTB showed that in addition to lithological contrasts, the existence and activity of deep-seated and basement faults had a big impact on the structural styles of the region.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piva, M.
2009-01-01
In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piva, M.
2009-01-01
In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, K.; Jenko, F.; Forest, C. B.; Bayliss, R. A.
2008-08-01
A parallel implementation of a nonlinear pseudo-spectral MHD code for the simulation of turbulent dynamos in spherical geometry is reported. It employs a dual domain decomposition technique in both real and spectral space. It is shown that this method shows nearly ideal scaling going up to 128 CPUs on Beowulf-type clusters with fast interconnect. Furthermore, the potential of exploiting single precision arithmetic on standard x86 processors is examined. It is pointed out that the MHD code thereby achieves a maximum speedup of 1.7, whereas the validity of the computations is still granted. The combination of both measures will allow for the direct numerical simulation of highly turbulent cases ( 1500
Thermal compatibility of dental ceramic systems using cylindrical and spherical geometries
DeHoff, Paul H.; Barrett, Allyson A.; Lee, Robert B.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.
2009-01-01
Objective To test the hypothesis that bilayer ceramic cylinders and spheres can provide valid confirmation of thermal incompatibility stresses predicted by finite element analyses. Methods A commercial core ceramic and an experimental core ceramic were used to fabricate open-ended cylinders and core ceramic spheres. The core cylinders and spheres were veneered with one of four commercial dental ceramics representing four thermally compatible groups and four thermally incompatible groups. Axisymmetric thermal and viscoelastic elements in the ANSYS finite element program were used to calculate temperatures and stresses for each geometry and ceramic combination. This process required a transient heat transfer analysis for each combination to determine input temperatures for the structural model. Results After fabrication, each specimen was examined visually using fiberoptic transillumination for evidence of cracking. There were 100% failures of the thermally incompatible cylinders while none of the thermally compatible combinations failed. Among the spheres, 100% of the thermally incompatible systems failed, 16% of one of the thermally compatible systems failed, and none of the remaining compatible combinations failed. The calculated stress values were in general agreement with the experimental observations, i.e., low residual stresses for the specimens that did not fail and high residual stresses for the specimens that did fail. Significance Simple screening geometries can be used to identify highly incompatible ceramic combinations, but they do not identify marginally incompatible systems. PMID:17949805
Thermal compatibility of dental ceramic systems using cylindrical and spherical geometries.
DeHoff, Paul H; Barrett, Allyson A; Lee, Robert B; Anusavice, Kenneth J
2008-06-01
To test the hypothesis that bilayer ceramic cylinders and spheres can provide valid confirmation of thermal incompatibility stresses predicted by finite element analyses. A commercial core ceramic and an experimental core ceramic were used to fabricate open-ended cylinders and core ceramic spheres. The core cylinders and spheres were veneered with one of four commercial dental ceramics representing four thermally compatible groups and four thermally incompatible groups. Axisymmetric thermal and viscoelastic elements in the ANSYS finite element program were used to calculate temperatures and stresses for each geometry and ceramic combination. This process required a transient heat transfer analysis for each combination to determine input temperatures for the structural model. After fabrication, each specimen was examined visually using fiberoptic transillumination for evidence of cracking. There were 100% failures of the thermally incompatible cylinders while none of the thermally compatible combinations failed. Among the spheres, 100% of the thermally incompatible systems failed, 16% of one of the thermally compatible systems failed, and none of the remaining compatible combinations failed. The calculated stress values were in general agreement with the experimental observations, i.e., low residual stresses for the specimens that did not fail and high residual stresses for the specimens that did fail. Simple screening geometries can be used to identify highly incompatible ceramic combinations, but they do not identify marginally incompatible systems.
Gravity, Topography, Magnetics: Geoscience Data Analysis in Spherical and Planar Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.
2015-12-01
Data in the Earth and planetary sciences (as well as in astronomy and cosmology, medical imaging, auditory signal processing, and computer vision) often inherently have a sphere (or an ellipsoid) as their domain. However, frequently our goal is to study phenomena in a specific region of the globe. We might either have data that only cover parts of the sphere (e.g. ocean altimetry, Shuttle radar topography), or we may seek to extract a local signal from a global data set (e.g. the continental fraction of the lithospheric magnetic field, or the portion of the time-varying geopotential that is due to ice mass changes). Spectral content is always finite: all sampled data are band-limited. When the region under study is not the whole sphere, but not small enough to justify two-dimensional projection either, the question arises how to best represent the data to perform our analysis, whatever our field of interest. We present SLEPIAN, a software suite with a multitude of numerical and computational tools, and several plotting routines, to accomplish ``spatiospectral'' spherical analysis in the geosciences and beyond.
Simple model for linear and nonlinear mixing at unstable fluid interfaces in spherical geometry
Ramshaw, J.D.
1999-08-01
A simple model was recently described for predicting linear and nonlinear mixing at an unstable planar fluid interface subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent variable acceleration history [J. D. Ramshaw, Phys. Rev. E {bold 58}, 5834 (1998)]. Here we present an analogous model for describing the mixing of two adjacent spherical fluid shells of different density resulting from an arbitrary time-dependent mean interface radius R(t). As in the planar case, the model is based on a heuristic expression for the kinetic energy of the system. This expression is based on that for the kinetic energy of a linearly perturbed interface, but with a dynamically renormalized effective wavelength which becomes proportional to the half-width a(t) of the mixing layer in the nonlinear regime. An equation of motion for s=R{sup 2}a is then derived from Lagrange{close_quote}s equations. This evolution equation properly reduces to Plesset{close_quote}s equation for small perturbations, and to the previous planar model in the limit of very large R. The conservation properties of the model are established, and a suitable numerical scheme which preserves these properties is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, C.; Hansen, U.
2016-12-01
During a later stage of the accretion about 4.5 billion years ago the early Earth experienced several giant impacts that lead to one or more deep terrestrial magma oceans of global extent. The crystallization of these vigorously convecting magma oceans is of key importance for the chemical structure of the Earth, the subsequent mantle evolution as well as for the initial conditions for the onset of plate tectonics. Due to the fast planetary rotation of the early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotation probably had a profound effect on early differentiation processes of the mantle and could for example influence the presence and distribution of chemical heterogeneities in the Earth mantle [e.g. Matyska et al., 1994, Garnero and McNamara, 2008].Our previous work in Cartesian geometry studied crystal settling in the polar and equatorial regions separately from each other and revealed a strong influence of rotation as well as of latitude on the crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean [Maas and Hansen, 2015]. Based on the preceding study we recently developed a spherical shell model that allows for new insights into the crystal settling in-between the pole and the equator as well as the migration of crystals between these regions. Further the spherical model allows us to include the centrifugal force on the crystals, which significantly affects the lateral and radial distribution of crystals. All in all the first numerical experiments in spherical geometry agree with the results of Maas and Hansen [2015] and show that the crystal distribution crucially depends on latitude, rotational strength and crystal density. ReferencesE. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle. Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008.C. Maas and U. Hansen. Eff ects of earth's rotation on the early di erentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120(11):7508-7525, 2015.C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The
Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Macrander, A. T.; Yan, H.; Kang, H. C.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.
2008-05-01
A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.
Schulze, Ralf; Bruellmann, Dan Dominik; Roeder, Felix; D'Hoedt, Bernd
2004-10-01
A method is introduced, inferring the three-dimensional (3-D) location from the 2-D radiographic shadow of an opaque spherical reference body of known radius by considering its elliptical distortion, the 2-D shadow location and a known source-to-receptor distance. Three noncollinear spheres fixed to a rigid object constitute all possible degrees of freedom, i.e., the entire 3-D imaging geometry. The method may be used (a) to determine the 3-D imaging geometry from a single 2-D view and (b) to correct for foreshortening of object distances coplanar with the plane defined by the sphere triplet. Apart from the mathematical background the article describes a small feasibility experiment, performed with four different sphere diameters and a commercial dental ccd-receptor system (pixel length: 0.0195 mm). The mouse-cursor based image evaluation revealed an average underestimation of the critical depth- (x-) coordinate decreasing with increasing radius (-30.3% for r=0.5 mm to 2.8% for r=2.5 mm). Intraobserver reliability (the standard deviation between three single cursor-based assessments) ranged between 0% and 8% of the actual true depth. The main source of the input error is associated with the assessment of the amount of elliptical distortion, where subpixel accuracy is demanded. Consequently, software-based automated image evaluation is required using available methods for pattern recognition and point-spread correction. Provided sufficient accuracy, the method provides an important tool for foreshortening correction, depth assessment, motion analysis, and 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D views.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksel, Yusuf
2017-03-01
By using Monte Carlo simulations for classical Heisenberg spins, we study the critical phenomena and ferrimagnetic properties of spherical nanoparticles with core-shell geometry. The particle core is composed of ferromagnetic spins, and it is coated by a ferromagnetic shell. Total size of the particle is fixed but the thickness of the shell is varied in such a way that the shell layer is grown at the expense of the core. Effects of the shell thickness, as well as dynamic magnetic field parameters such as oscillation period and field amplitude on the magnetization profiles, dynamic hysteresis loops and phase diagrams have been investigated for the present system. It has been found that as the shell thickness varies then the easy axis magnetization of the overall system may exhibit Q-, P-, L- and N- type behaviors based on the Neél terminology. We also found that three distinct anomalies originate in the thermal variation of specific heat with increasing field period. Dynamic hysteresis loops corresponding to off-axial magnetization components exhibit unconventional behavior such as double rings with symmetric shapes around the vertical axis over the h (t) = 0 line which may originate due to the stochastic resonance behavior of these components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.
1981-01-01
Exact solutions for diffusion in single phase binary alloy systems with constant diffusion coefficient and zero-flux boundary condition have been evaluated to establish the optimum zone size of applicability. Planar, cylindrical and spherical interface geometry, and finite, singly infinite, and doubly infinite systems are treated. Two solutions are presented for each geometry, one well suited to short diffusion times, and one to long times. The effect of zone-size on the convergence of these solutions is discussed. A generalized form of the diffusion solution for doubly infinite systems is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaudelle, F.; Askoura, M.; L'Huillier, J. P.
2015-07-01
The non-invasive research of information inside biological tissues can be made by means of setups using continuous, time-dependent or frequency modulated light sources, which emit in the visible or near-infrared range. Moreover, the biological structures such as brain, breast or fruits, can be regarded as closer to a spherical shape than a slab. This paper focus on the retrieval of tissue optical parameters in a spherical geometry using fittings with analytical solutions adapted for semi-infinite geometry. The data were generated using three different optical spectroscopy methods: frequency-resolved, spatially-resolved, and time-resolved modes. Simulations based on a Monte Carlo code were performed on homogeneous spheres, with 18 spaced detectors located on their boundary. First, data are examined in the frequency domain. Second, they are treated with optimization algorithms to assess the optical coefficients. The computations show that the spatially-resolved measurements are often more robust than those related to the frequency-resolved mode. In the temporal domain, errors on the estimates are also exhibited with the fitting by the Fourier transform of a solution based on the semi-infinite geometry. Furthermore, when the analytical solution is modified by taking into account the spherical shape, the retrieval of the coefficients is improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Steven J.; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Hoffert, Martin I.
2013-03-01
Abstract Stabilizing CO2 emissions at current levels for fifty years is not consistent with either an atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm or global temperature increases below 2 °C. Accepting these targets, solving the climate problem requires that emissions peak and decline in the next few decades, and ultimately fall to near zero. Phasing out emissions over 50 years could be achieved by deploying on the order of 19 'wedges', each of which ramps up linearly over a period of 50 years to ultimately avoid 1 GtC y-1 of CO2 emissions. But this level of mitigation will require affordable carbon-free energy systems to be deployed at the scale of tens of terawatts. Any hope for such fundamental and disruptive transformation of the global energy system depends upon coordinated efforts to innovate, plan, and deploy new transportation and energy systems that can provide affordable energy at this scale without emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. 1. Introduction In 2004, Pacala and Socolow published a study in Science arguing that '[h]umanity can solve the carbon and climate problem in the first half of this century simply by scaling up what we already know how to do' [1]. Specifically, they presented 15 options for 'stabilization wedges' that would grow linearly from zero to 1 Gt of carbon emissions avoided per year (GtC y-1 1 Gt = 1012 kg) over 50 years. The solution to the carbon and climate problem, they asserted, was 'to deploy the technologies and/or lifestyle changes necessary to fill all seven wedges of the stabilization triangle'. They claimed this would offset the growth of emissions and put us on a trajectory to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at 500 ppm if emissions decreased sharply in the second half of the 21st century. The wedge concept has proven popular as an analytical tool for considering the potential of different technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. In the years since the paper was published, it has been cited more than 400 times, and
1993-08-03
F -A276 232 GE F Formpproved P-W-=nQb,3;t- OBM No. 0704 -0188 foI rll it 1 Ilthisl buridllenli 1i to :iudrrg th ftirnu reviwing Wwtru"t.Of S.aching...geometries. (2) Numerical " solutions" are still proliferating, but are too messy and remoxed from the physics to offer any important insight into the wave...mathematical solution of the impedance boundary wedge. III. PHYSICAL IMPEDANCE BOUNDARY CONDITION The coupled difference equations (14), (17), and (18) on page
Smith, Karl H.
2002-01-01
A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.
Shendeleva, Margarita L; Molloy, John A
2006-09-20
We report on the development of Monte Carlo software that can model media with spatially varying scattering coefficient, absorption, and refractive index. The varying refractive index is implemented by calculating curved photon paths in the medium. The results of the numerical simulations are compared with analytical solutions obtained using the diffusion approximation. The model under investigation is a scattering medium that contains a spherically symmetrical inclusion (inhomogeneity) created by variation in optical properties and having no sharp boundaries. The following steady-state cases are considered: (a) a nonabsorbing medium with a spherically symmetrical varying refractive index, (b) an inclusion with varying absorption and scattering coefficients and constant refractive index, and (c) an inclusion with varying absorption, scattering, and refractive index. In the latter case it is shown that the interplay between the absorption coefficient and the refractive index may create the effect of a hidden inclusion.
Two critical tapers in a single wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smit, J.; Burg, J.-P.; Brun, J.-P.
2009-04-01
Thrust involving a ductile décollement (e.g. salt, over-pressured shales) like Zagros, Jura, Pakistan Salt Ranges, Cascades and Makran have in common a small cross-sectional taper, attributed to large thrust spacing and fast frontward propagation above the ductile décollement. Such a low cross-sectional taper has been analytically explained by approximating the ductile layer as a horizon with negligible shear strength. We tested the development of thrust wedges involving a ductile basal décollement of uniform shear strength by means of laboratory experiments. The model consists of a sand layer with initial wedge geometry and a basal ductile décollement of constant thickness and shear strength made of silicone putty. 30% of bulk shortening is applied to the wedge at constant velocity. Thrusting starts in the middle of the wedge, followed by in-sequence frontward propagation. The back part of the wedge, between backstop and the closest thrust, remains undeformed; it passively advances over the base without internal deformation. It appears that both domains have different critical tapers. The inner domain is in a critical state from the onset of shortening (i.e. the initial wedge is already critical), while the frontal domain steadily acquires a state of critical taper by thrusting. This result is at variance with the classical assumption that shortening of a wedge made of homogeneous layers creates a single critical taper. The experimental thrust wedges do show other features characteristic for weak décollement wedges like narrow cross-sectional taper, large thrust spacing and variety in thrust geometries. Application of the results to natural thrust wedges like the Jura Mountains could shed new light on their development and geometry at depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, J. A.; Riousset, J. A.
2016-12-01
In order to determine the most effective geometry of a lightning rod, one must first understand the physical difference between their current designs. Benjamin Franklin's original theory of sharp tipped rods suggests an increase of local electric field, while Moore et al.'s (2000) studies of rounded tips evince an increased probability of strike (Moore et al., 2000; Gibson et al., 2009).In this analysis, the plasma discharge is produced between two electrodes with a high potential difference, resulting in ionization of the neutral gas particle. This process, when done at low current and low temperature can create a corona discharges, which can be observed as a luminescent emission. The Cartesian geometry known as Paschen, or Townsend, theory is particularly well suited to model experimental laboratory scenario, however, it is limited in its applicability to lightning rods. Franklin's sharp tip and Moore et al.'s (2000) rounded tip fundamentally differ in the radius of curvature of the upper end of the rod. As a first approximation, the rod can be modelled as an equipotential conducting sphere above the ground. Hence, we expand the classic Cartesian geometry into spherical and cylindrical geometries. In this work we explore the effects of shifting from the classical parallel plate analysis to spherical and cylindrical geometries more adapted for studies of lightning rods or power lines. Utilizing Townsend's equation for corona discharge, we estimate a critical radius and minimum breakdown voltage that allows ionization of the air around an electrode. Additionally, we explore the influence of the gas in which the discharge develops. We use BOLSIG+, a numerical solver for the Boltzmann equation, to calculate Townsend coefficients for CO2-rich atmospheric conditions. This allows us to expand the scope of this study to other planetary bodies such as Mars (Hagelaar, 2005). We solve the problem both numerically and analytically to present simplified formulas per each
Bendert, J C; Blodgett, M E; Kelton, K F
2013-03-01
Expressions for absorption and the secondary scattering intensity ratio are presented for a small beam impinging off-center of a spherical amorphous sample. Large gradients in the absorption correction are observed from small offsets from the central axis. Additionally, the secondary scattering intensity ratio causes an intensity asymmetry in the detector image. The secondary scattering intensity ratio is presented in integral form and must be computed numerically. An analytic, small-angle, asymptotic series solution for the integral form of the absorption correction is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores-McLaughlin, John
2017-08-01
Planetary bodies and spacecraft are predominantly exposed to isotropic radiation environments that are subject to transport and interaction in various material compositions and geometries. Specifically, the Martian surface radiation environment is composed of galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced by their interaction with the Martian atmosphere, albedo particles from the Martian regolith and occasional solar particle events. Despite this complex physical environment with potentially significant locational and geometric dependencies, computational resources often limit radiation environment calculations to a one-dimensional or slab geometry specification. To better account for Martian geometry, spherical volumes with respective Martian material densities are adopted in this model. This physical description is modeled with the PHITS radiation transport code and compared to a portion of measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory. Particle spectra measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and PHITS model results calculated for this time period are compared. Results indicate good agreement between simulated dose rates, proton, neutron and gamma spectra. This work was originally presented at the 1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in 2016 in Boulder, CO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fokas, A. S.; Hauk, O.; Michel, V.
2012-03-01
The basic inverse problems for the functional imaging techniques of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) consist in estimating the neuronal current in the brain from the measurement of the electric potential on the scalp and of the magnetic field outside the head. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the relevant formulae for a three-shell spherical model in the case of independent as well as simultaneous MEG and EEG measurements. Furthermore, we introduce an explicit and stable technique for the numerical implementation of these formulae via splines. Numerical examples are presented using the locations and the normal unit vectors of the real 102 magnetometers and 70 electrodes of the Elekta Neuromag (R) system. These results may have useful implications for the interpretation of the reconstructions obtained via the existing approaches.
Wedge wetting by electrolyte solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mußotter, Maximilian; Bier, Markus
2017-09-01
The wetting of a charged wedgelike wall by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory. As in other studies on wedge wetting, this geometry is considered as the most simple deviation from a planar substrate, and it serves as a first step toward more complex confinements of fluids. By focusing on fluids containing ions and surface charges, features of real systems are covered that are not accessible within the vast majority of previous theoretical studies concentrating on simple fluids in contact with uncharged wedges. In particular, the filling transition of charged wedges is necessarily of first order, because wetting transitions of charged substrates are of first order and the barrier in the effective interface potential persists below the wetting transition of a planar wall; hence, critical filling transitions are not expected to occur for ionic systems. The dependence of the critical opening angle on the surface charge, as well as the dependence of the filling height, of the wedge adsorption, and of the line tension on the opening angle and on the surface charge are analyzed in detail.
Thermally actuated wedge block
Queen, Jr., Charles C.
1980-01-01
This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggs, Edwin J.; Majid, Shahn
2017-04-01
We study noncommutative bundles and Riemannian geometry at the semiclassical level of first order in a deformation parameter λ, using a functorial approach. This leads us to field equations of 'Poisson-Riemannian geometry' between the classical metric, the Poisson bracket and a certain Poisson-compatible connection needed as initial data for the quantisation of the differential structure. We use such data to define a functor Q to O(λ2) from the monoidal category of all classical vector bundles equipped with connections to the monoidal category of bimodules equipped with bimodule connections over the quantised algebra. This is used to 'semiquantise' the wedge product of the exterior algebra and in the Riemannian case, the metric and the Levi-Civita connection in the sense of constructing a noncommutative geometry to O(λ2) . We solve our field equations for the Schwarzschild black-hole metric under the assumption of spherical symmetry and classical dimension, finding a unique solution and the necessity of nonassociativity at order λ2, which is similar to previous results for quantum groups. The paper also includes a nonassociative hyperboloid, nonassociative fuzzy sphere and our previously algebraic bicrossproduct model.
Long polymers near wedges and cones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov
2015-12-01
We perform a Monte Carlo study of N -step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d =2 ), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d =3 , of sizes ranging up to N =106 steps. We find that the critical exponent γα, which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α , is in good agreement with the theory for d =2 . We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γα, as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions.
Three Dimensional FEM Simulation of Wedge — Rolls Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pater, Zbigniew
2004-06-01
In this work the new method of cross — wedge rolling is shown. It is based on the rolling of the axisymmetrical products using one flat wedge and two rolls ( profile or smooth). In this article, the results of the numerical simulation of the described method are also provided. On the basis of the calculations, the possibility of producing stepped shafts with cylindrical, spherical and conical surfaces was assumed.
1997-08-27
This image of the rock "Wedge" was taken from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera on Sol 37. The position of the rover relative to Wedge is seen in MRPS 83349. The segmented rod visible in the middle of the frame is the deployment arm for the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). The APXS, the bright, cylindrical object at the end of the arm, is positioned against Wedge and is designed to measure the rock's chemical composition. This was done successfully on the night of Sol 37. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00906
Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor
Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.
1998-11-04
A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.
Wedges for ultrasonic inspection
Gavin, Donald A.
1982-01-01
An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.
Taper Angle Evolution in Taiwan Accretionary Wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, L.; Chi, W.; Liu, C.
2011-12-01
Liwen Chena,b, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan The critical taper model, originally developed using onland Taiwan as an example, is governed by force balance of a horizontal compressional wedge. This model has been successfully applied to many mountainous regions around the world. Among them, Taiwan is located in an oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and the Chinese Passive margin. Previous critical taper angle studies of Taiwan are mainly focusing on utilizing land data. In this study we want to extend these studies to offshore region from the subduction zone to collision zone. Here we study the varying taper angles of the double-vergent wedge derived from 1,000 km of reflection seismic profiles in both the pro-wedge and retro-wedge locations. These profiles were collected in the last two decades. For the retro-wedge, the topography slope angle changes from 2 to 8.8 degrees; some of the steep slope suggests that some part of the retrowedge is currently in a super-critical angle state. Such dramatic changes in taper angle probably strongly affect regional sedimentary processes, including slumping, in addition to structural deformation. These complex processes might even help develop a mélange or re-open a closed basin. We are currently working on studying the taper angle evolution of the pro-wedge from subduction to arc-continent collision zone in the offshore region. Though further works are needed, our preliminary results show that the evolution of wedge angles and the geometry of the wedge are closely linked and inseparable. The structures of the subducting plate might have strong influence on the deformation style of the over-riding plate. It would be interesting to combine the angle variation with the structure interpretation of the accretionary wedge
Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.
2007-01-01
A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.
Mechanics of injection wedges in collision orogens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, A. B.; Schulmann, K.
2003-04-01
Instantaneously juxtaposed lithospheric sections, marked by different geothermal gradient and lithological make-up, are examined to identify zones of highly contrasting strength in adjacent transposed crust and lithospheric mantle. Three types of geotherms and four reference lithospheric segments: thin crust/hot geotherm (rift), thin crust/mean geotherm (relaxed rift), standard crust/hot geotherm (arc), standard crust/mean geotherm (normal crust), are compared with variable permutations of cratonic, standard and rifted lithosphere thicknesses. This permits identification of strong brittle-elastic or plastic mantle, lower and upper crust juxtaposed against plastic rocks of a weak adjacent lithosphere. Vertical positions of shallow dipping detachment zones thus delineate possible areas of hot or cold injection wedges which include: (i) Single shallow wedge (or Flake), (ii) Double shallow and deep wedge, (iii) Deep lithospheric crocodile, (iv) Crustal thickening due to shallow strength differences, (v) Mantle Lithosphere thickening, or wedging, due to deep mantle strength differences and (vii) Exchange tectonics as an extreme wedging process, in which horizontal mass exchange is approximately equal. Rheological calculations are compared to a database of seismic profiles in which the geometry of detachment zones and proposed thermal conditions and lithological make-ups have been presented.
Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoban, Ryan
2013-01-01
Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…
Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoban, Ryan
2013-01-01
Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…
Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J.; Guerrero, G.; Brandenburg, A.; Chatterjee, P.
2011-07-01
Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and enthalpy or heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Their dependence on latitude and depth has been determined in the past from convection simulations in Cartesian or spherical simulations. Here we perform a systematic comparison between the two geometries as a function of the rotation rate. Aims: Here we want to extend the earlier studies by using spherical wedges to obtain turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. In particular, we want to clarify whether the sharp equatorial profile of the horizontal Reynolds stress found in earlier Cartesian models is also reproduced in spherical geometry. Methods: We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs, and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results: For slow rotation we find that the radial and latitudinal turbulent angular momentum fluxes are directed inward and equatorward, respectively. In the rapid rotation regime the radial flux changes sign in accordance with earlier numerical results, but in contradiction with theory. The latitudinal flux remains mostly equatorward and develops a maximum close to the equator. In Cartesian simulations this peak can be explained by the strong "banana cells". Their effect in the
Substorm Current Wedge Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepko, L.; McPherron, R. L.; Amm, O.; Apatenkov, S.; Baumjohann, W.; Birn, J.; Lester, M.; Nakamura, R.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Sergeev, V.
2015-07-01
Almost 40 years ago the concept of the substorm current wedge was developed to explain the magnetic signatures observed on the ground and in geosynchronous orbit during substorm expansion. In the ensuing decades new observations, including radar and low-altitude spacecraft, MHD simulations, and theoretical considerations have tremendously advanced our understanding of this system. The AMPTE/IRM, THEMIS and Cluster missions have added considerable observational knowledge, especially on the important role of fast flows in producing the stresses that generate the substorm current wedge. Recent detailed, multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument observations both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere have brought a wealth of new information about the details of the temporal evolution and structure of the current system. While the large-scale picture remains valid, the new details call for revision and an update of the original view. In this paper we briefly review the historical development of the substorm current wedge, review recent in situ and ground-based observations and theoretical work, and discuss the current active research areas. We conclude with a revised, time-dependent picture of the substorm current wedge that follows its evolution from the initial substorm flows through substorm expansion and recovery.
Wedge Waveguides and Resonators for Quantum Plasmonics
2015-01-01
Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light–matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 μm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (∼90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ∼0.004λvac3 in an exposed single-mode waveguide–resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light–matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon–matter coupling. PMID:26284499
Wedge Waveguides and Resonators for Quantum Plasmonics.
Kress, Stephan J P; Antolinez, Felipe V; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Kim, David K; Prins, Ferry; Riedinger, Andreas; Fischer, Maximilian P C; Meyer, Stefan; McPeak, Kevin M; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J
2015-09-09
Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light-matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 μm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (~90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ~0.004λvac(3) in an exposed single-mode waveguide-resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light-matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon-matter coupling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.
In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.
North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.
In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.
North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.
Shock detachment from curved wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-03-01
Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.
Shock detachment from curved wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mölder, S.
2017-09-01
Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.
An Improvement on SSA Congruence for Geometry and Trigonometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeshurun, Shraga; Kay, David C.
1983-01-01
Three ideas are explored: (1) an improvement of the SSA congruence theorem for trigonometry; (2) a discussion of the failure of SSA in spherical geometry; and (3) an extension of SSA to spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry. (MNS)
An Improvement on SSA Congruence for Geometry and Trigonometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeshurun, Shraga; Kay, David C.
1983-01-01
Three ideas are explored: (1) an improvement of the SSA congruence theorem for trigonometry; (2) a discussion of the failure of SSA in spherical geometry; and (3) an extension of SSA to spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry. (MNS)
Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher
2016-11-01
We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the stable wedge test, showing negligible internal deformation and maintaining the initial surface slope upon horizontal translation over a frictional interface. Eight codes participated in the unstable wedge test that examines the evolution of a wedge by thrust formation from a subcritical state to the critical taper geometry. The critical taper is recovered, but the models show two deformation modes characterised by either mainly forward dipping thrusts or a series of thrust pop-ups. We speculate that the two modes are caused by differences in effective basal boundary friction related to different algorithms for modelling boundary friction. The third experiment examines stacking of forward thrusts that are translated upward along a backward thrust. The results of the seven codes that run this experiment show variability in deformation style, number of thrusts, thrust dip angles and surface slope. Overall, our experiments show that numerical models run with different numerical techniques can successfully simulate laboratory brittle thrust wedge models at the cm-scale. In more detail, however, we find that it is challenging to reproduce sandbox-type setups numerically, because of frictional boundary conditions and velocity discontinuities. We recommend that future numerical-analogue comparisons use simple boundary conditions and that the numerical Earth Science community defines a plasticity test to resolve the variability in model shear zones.
Casimir effect for a semitransparent wedge and an annular piston
Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jef; Kirsten, Klaus
2009-12-15
We consider the Casimir energy due to a massless scalar field in a geometry of an infinite wedge closed by a Dirichlet circular cylinder, where the wedge is formed by {delta}-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. A finite expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc and the presence of both semitransparent potentials is obtained, from which the torque on the sidewalls can be derived. The most interesting part of the calculation is the nontrivial nature of the angular mode functions. Numerical results are obtained which are closely analogous to those recently found for a magnetodielectric wedge, with the same speed of light on both sides of the wedge boundaries. Alternative methods are developed for annular regions with radial semitransparent potentials, based on reduced Green's functions for the angular dependence, which allows calculations using the multiple-scattering formalism. Numerical results corresponding to the torque on the radial plates are likewise computed, which generalize those for the wedge geometry. Generally useful formulas for calculating Casimir energies in separable geometries are derived.
Covariance for Cone and Wedge Complete Filling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rascón, C.; Parry, A. O.
2005-03-01
Interfacial phenomena associated with fluid adsorption in two dimensional systems have recently been shown to exhibit hidden symmetries, or covariances, which precisely relate local adsorption properties in different confining geometries. We show that covariance also occurs in three-dimensional systems and is likely to be verifiable experimentally and in Ising model simulations studies. Specifically, we study complete wetting in wedge (W) and cone (C) geometries as bulk coexistence is approached and show that the equilibrium midpoint heights satisfy lc(h,α)=lw(h/2,α), where h measures the partial pressure and α is the tilt angle. This covariance is valid for both short-ranged and long-ranged intermolecular forces and identifies both leading and next-to-leading-order critical exponents and amplitudes in the confining geometries.
A Potential Field Model for Spherical Sub-domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, George H.; Bercik, David; Welsch, Brian; Kazachenko, Maria D.; CGEM Team
2016-05-01
Potential field models are used widely in Solar Physics to estimate coronal magnetic field geometry and connectivity, to provide lower limits on magnetic energies, and to provide initial configurations for time-dependent models of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. Potential field models in a spherical geometry can be global, covering the entire Sun, or confined to localized sub-volumes of the sphere. Here, we focus on the latter case.We describe an efficient potential field model for localized spherical sub-volumes (wedges consisting of upper and lower limits of radius, co-latitude, and longitude), employing a finite-difference approach for the solution. The solution is derived in terms of a "poloidal" potential, which can then be used to find either the scalar potential or the vector potential for the magnetic field (if desired), as well as all three magnetic field components. The magnetic field components are computed on the faces of spherical voxels, and the finite difference grid is consistent with the well-known "Yee" grid. The inner spherical boundary is defined by radial magnetic field measurements, and at the outer radius a source-surface boundary condition is imposed.Potential field solutions on active region scales, at full HMI resolution, and with the source surface located a solar radius above the photosphere, can be obtained on a laptop computer in just a few minutes. The three-dimensional finite difference equations are solved using NCAR's FISHPACK elliptic equation solver.The potential field model was developed by the Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM) project, funded by the NASA and NSF Strategic Capabilities program. The potential field model described here was motivated by CGEM's need for such a model. The model will be released as open-source code when the model details are published.
Bouncing and bursting in a wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyssat, Etienne; Cohen, Caroline; Quere, David
2015-11-01
Placed into an inhomogeneous confined medium, non-wetting drops tend to be expelled from the tightest regions, where their contact with the walls would be maximized. They preferentially explore more open areas which are favorable from the point of view of capillary energy. Following this principle, one may thus use the geometry of confined environments to control fluid droplets in various ways : displacing, filtering, fragmenting... In this communication, we present experimental results on the dynamics of Leidenfrost drops launched into a wedge formed by two quasi-horizontal glass plates. Influenced by the gradient of confinement, these non-wetting liquid pucks approach the apex of the wedge to a minimal distance where they bounce back. At higher impact velocity, we observe that drops tend to penetrate deeper into the wedge but often burst into a large number of small fragments. We also discuss ways to control the deviation of droplets from their initial trajectory. We propose scaling law analyses to explain the characteristics of the observed bouncing and bursting phenomena.
Contact and crack problems for an elastic wedge. [stress concentration in elastic half spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.
1974-01-01
The contact and the crack problems for an elastic wedge of arbitrary angle are considered. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation which, in the general case, may have a generalized Cauchy kernel. The singularities under the stamp as well as at the wedge apex were studied, and the relevant stress intensity factors are defined. The problem was solved for various wedge geometries and loading conditions. The results may be applicable to certain foundation problems and to crack problems in symmetrically loaded wedges in which cracks initiate from the apex.
Erosional Growth of Critical Coulomb Wedges Applied to the Aconcagua Fold and Thrust Belt, Argentina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilley, G. E.; Strecker, M. R.; Ramos, V. A.
2002-12-01
The development of topography within and erosional removal of material from an orogen apparently exerts a primary control on its structure. We develop a semi-analytic model that investigates the temporal development of a frontally-accreting, critically growing Coulomb wedge that is subject to erosional removal of material. The wedge 1) is required to be in its critical state during growth, 2) grows by addition of material to the wedge from the foreland, and 3) is eroded primarily by bedrock fluvial incision. Our coupled models allow exploration of different bedrock power-law exponents when investigating the relationship between the development of topography and deformation. We present general results for arbitrary initial critical wedge geometries, and investigate the temporal development of a critical wedge with no initial topography. Increasing rock erodibility and/or precipitation, decreasing mass flux accreting to the wedge front, increasing wedge sole-out depth, decreasing wedge and basal decollement overpressure, and increasing basal decollement friction lead to narrow wedges. As bedrock power-law exponent values increase, wedge geometry quickly reaches a condition in which all material accreted to the front of the wedge is removed by erosion and the wedge geometry is relatively independent of all erosional and wedge properties except the fault basal friction. We apply our model to the Aconcagua fold and thrust belt in the central Andes where wedge development over time is well-constrained. The model predicts the measured propagation rate history and current wedge width when bedrock power-law exponents of m=1/3,n=2/3 are used. Power-law exponents of m=0.46, n=1 greatly underestimate the propagation rate during the final increment of wedge growth; however, adjusting the poorly known rock erodibility may provide satisfactory agreement between field-measured values and model predictions. Power-law exponents greater than m=0.46, n=1 produce poor correspondence
Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul
2015-04-07
A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.
Glass Microbeads in Analog Models of Thrust Wedges.
D'Angelo, Taynara; Gomes, Caroline J S
2017-01-01
Glass microbeads are frequently used in analog physical modeling to simulate weak detachment zones but have been neglected in models of thrust wedges. Microbeads differ from quartz sand in grain shape and in low angle of internal friction. In this study, we compared the structural characteristics of microbeads and sand wedges. To obtain a better picture of their mechanical behavior, we determined the physical and frictional properties of microbeads using polarizing and scanning electron microscopy and ring-shear tests, respectively. We built shortening experiments with different basal frictions and measured the thickness, slope and length of the wedges and also the fault spacings. All the microbeads experiments revealed wedge geometries that were consistent with previous studies that have been performed with sand. However, the deformation features in the microbeads shortened over low to intermediate basal frictions were slightly different. Microbeads produced different fault geometries than sand as well as a different grain flow. In addition, they produced slip on minor faults, which was associated with distributed deformation and gave the microbeads wedges the appearance of disharmonic folds. We concluded that the glass microbeads may be used to simulate relatively competent rocks, like carbonates, which may be characterized by small-scale deformation features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
This Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) image taken near the end of daytime operations on Sol 50 shows the Sojourner rover between the rocks 'Wedge' (foreground) and 'Shark' (behind rover). The rover successfully deployed its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer on Shark on Sol 52.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, Luther; Suppe, John
2014-05-01
Critical-taper wedge mechanics (e.g. Davis, et al. 1983, Dahlen 1990) provides fundamental relationships between the observed tapered geometries of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges and their detachment and wedge strengths. This theory has given diverse insight into kinematics, roles of erosion and sedimentation, and the morphology of compressive mountain belts, much of which has been aided by extensive analog and numerical modeling. The field has grown large, with several thousand papers addressing real-world, analog, and numerical wedges (cf. Buiter 2012). The majority of the insight has been qualitative, but nevertheless quite influential in our current understanding of mountain belts and submarine wedges. In contrast, quantitative applications of wedge theory, either to nature or models, has been rather limited because of the complexity of most wedge equations. It it is easy to become "lost in parameter space" with many strength parameters that are difficult to constrain or have ambiguous meaning, given real-world data and observations. Recently wedge theory has been recast into a very simple form (Suppe 2007; Yeh and Suppe 2014) that provides an unambiguous relationship between the observed covariation of surface slope α with detachment dip β and the wedge W and fault F strengths with few assumptions. In the real world we have limited knowledge of strengths, forces, fluid pressures and earthquake history, or the relationship between strength heterogeneity and structural style, or to what extent the strength of a wedge is an evolving macroscopic property (e.g. folding, imbrications and strain localization) or a material property. The well-defined relationship between wedge taper and global strength makes numerical wedges an ideal tool for the study of compressive mountain belts. In this work: [1] We successfully test this simpler quantitative wedge theory over a very wide range of wedge strengths and structural styles using distinct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santimano, Tasca; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno
2013-04-01
In an orogenic belt, fault planes are important first order structures along which deformation occurs and subsequently affects the initial geometry of an orogenic wedge. Moreover, wedge growth and fault activity are related to the principles of the Critical Taper Theory (Davis et al, 1983). The Critical Taper Theory states that a sand wedge evolves towards a critical state characterized by a stable geometry and no internal deformation. In a sub- or supra-critical state, the wedges have an unstable geometry and internal deformation occurs in order to adjusts its geometry accordingly to reach the critical taper. This adjustment to reach criticality is made by creating new faults especially if new material is added to the wedge, or reactivating old faults, in order to change the length or height of the wedge respectively. Fault reactivation seems to allow the wedge to adjust its geometry more sporadically. To observe the temporal evolution of the faults, a series of simple analogue experiments were performed where sand wedges are created. In the experiments one parameter-basal frictional coefficient is varied from <0.4 to >0.6. The growth of the sand wedge and formation of the fault planes is recorded using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Analysis of the PIV data consists of quantifying the fault spacing and lifetime of a fault i.e. first order deformation and reactivation of older faults i.e. second order deformation. Our experiments show that the magnitude of fault spacing follows a periodic pattern over time and fault dip is consistent for all the faults. Second order deformation or fault reactivation is only observed in wedges with the lowest basal friction and presumably controlled by fault weakness (faults planes filled with low friction material from the basal detachment) and favorable stress conditions (shallow dipping maximum principal stress axis). Moreover, only in wedges with a weak base reverse faults remain steep and therefore are more effective in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Martin; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.
2017-06-01
Billiards are simple systems used to investigate Hamiltonian dynamics in physics. When real billiards are examined experimentally, the energy dissipated in each collision must be replaced by an external stimulus to maintain the dynamics. We focus on a specific system of a driven billiard using a wedge shaped boundary to examine nonlinear and chaotic behavior. Mathematical models such as the logistic map are simple low dimensional systems that exhibit nonlinear and chaotic behavior as a single parameter is varied. This logistic map can then be used to identify a very specific mathematical parameter known as the Lyapunov exponent, which helps in identifying chaos more clearly. In the current experiment, the dynamics of a particle free to move near a horizontally shaken vertical boundary will be examined for the presence of chaos. The goal of the research is to extract a Lyapunov exponent between any two trajectories in the system. In addition, the manner in which the dynamics evolve freely through dissipative collisions provides a testbed for measurements of the velocity dependent coefficients of restitution for the billiard. A better description of hard sphere coefficients of restitution would be beneficial to a host of experiments and numerical simulations in granular physics.
Muhammad, Wazir; Maqbool, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Hussain, Amjad; Tahir, Sajjad; Matiullah; Rooh, Gul; Ahmad, Tanveer; Lee, Sang Hoon
2011-07-01
Wedge filters are commonly used in external beam radiotherapy to achieve a uniform dose distribution within the target volume. The main objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the beam modifier algorithm of Theraplan plus (TPP version 3.8) treatment planning system and to confirm that either the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and wedged cross-sectional data or not. In this regard the effect of beam hardening and beam softening was studied with physical wedges for 6 MV photons. The Normalized Wedge Factors (NWFs) were measured experimentally as well as calculated with the Theraplan plus, as a function of depth and field size in a water phantom for 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° wedge filters. The beam hardening and softening was determined experimentally by deriving the required coefficients for all wedge angles. The TPP version 3.8 requires wedge transmission factor at single depth and multiple field sizes. Without incorporating the hardening and softening coefficients the percent difference between measured and calculated NFWs was as high as 7%. After the introduction of these parameters into the algorithm, the agreement between measured and TPP (V 3.8) calculated NWFs were improved to within 2 percent for various depths. Similar improvement was observed in TPP version 3.8 while calculating NWFs for various field sizes when the required coefficients were adjusted. In conclusion, the dose calculation algorithm of TPP version 3.8 showed good accuracy for a 6 MV photon beam provided beam hardening and softening parameters are taken into account. From the results, it is also concluded that, the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and
Portal dosimetry in wedged beams.
Spreeuw, Hanno; Rozendaal, Roel; Camargo, Priscilla; Mans, Anton; Wendling, Markus; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben
2015-05-08
Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the situation without wedge is used. A possible solution would be to consider a wedged beam as another photon beam quality requiring separate beam modeling of the dose calculation algorithm. The aim of this study was to investigate a more practical solution: to make aSi EPID-based dosimetry models also applicable for wedged beams without an extra commissioning effort of the parameters of the model. For this purpose two energy-dependent wedge multiplication factors have been introduced to be applied for portal images taken with and without a patient/phantom in the beam. These wedge multiplication factors were derived from EPID and ionization chamber measurements at the EPID level for wedged and nonwedged beams, both with and without a polystyrene slab phantom in the beam. This method was verified for an EPID dosimetry model used for wedged beams at three photon beam energies (6, 10, and 18 MV) by comparing dose values reconstructed in a phantom with data provided by a treatment planning system (TPS), as a function of field size, depth, and off-axis distance. Generally good agreement, within 2%, was observed for depths between dose maximum and 15 cm. Applying the new model to EPID dose measurements performed during ten breast cancer patient treatments with wedged 6 MV photon beams showed that the average isocenter underdosage of 5.3% was reduced to 0.4%. Gamma-evaluation (global 3%/3 mm) of these in vivo data showed an increase in percentage of points with γ ≤ 1 from 60.2% to 87.4%, while γmean reduced from 1.01 to 0.55. It can be concluded that, for wedged beams, the multiplication of EPID pixel values with an energy-dependent correction factor provides good agreement
Experimental and numerical investigations on melamine wedges.
Schneider, S
2008-09-01
Melamine wedges are often used as acoustic lining material for anechoic chambers. It was proposed here to study the effects of the mounting conditions on the acoustic properties of the melamine wedges used in the large anechoic chamber at the LMA. The results of the impedance tube measurements carried out show that the mounting conditions must be taken into account when assessing the quality of an acoustic lining. As it can be difficult to simulate these mounting conditions in impedance tube experiments, a numerical method was developed, which can be used to complete the experiments or for parametric studies. By combining the finite and the boundary element method, it is possible to investigate acoustic linings with almost no restrictions as to the geometry, material behavior, or mounting conditions. The numerical method presented here was used to study the acoustic properties of the acoustic lining installed in the anechoic chamber at the LMA. Further experiments showed that the behavior of the melamine foam is anisotropic. Numerical simulations showed that this anisotropy can be used to advantage when designing an acoustic lining.
Mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges Cohesive Coulomb theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlen, F. A.; Suppe, J.; Davis, D.
1984-01-01
A self-consistent theory for the mechanics of thin-skinned accretionary Coulomb wedges is developed and applied to the active fold-and-thrust belt of western Taiwan. The state of stress everywhere within a critical wedge is determined by solving the static equilibrium equations subject to the appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of wedge cohesion, which gives rise to a concave curvature of the critical topographic surface and affects the orientation of the principal stresses and Coulomb fracture within the wedge, is considered. The shape of the topographic surface and the angles at which thrust faults step up from the basal decollement in the Taiwanese belt is analyzed taking into account the extensive structural and fluid-pressure data available there. It is concluded that the gross geometry and structure of the Taiwan wedge are consistent with normal laboratory frictional and fracture strengths of sedimentary rocks.
Some Tactical Algorithms for Spherical Geometry
1986-03-01
YwF’IY (POSI(1), P081(2). PON1 (3) P082 (1).P082 (2). P0820)) 1610 ZuF=0Z8PO(1(), POOL(2), POOS1(3), P082 (1). P082 (2), P092(M)) 162 A12YIIAtNP(X...POS1 (1), PON1 (2), P081(3), CT2C1(1), CVwl(2), CVZE(3)) 1850 VCM(3)uFNCZ(POSI(l),POSi(2),POSI(3).CVECI(i),CVIUC(2),CVKCI(3)) 1860 RETURN 2000 CLS:PUINT
Hollow spherical shell manufacture
O'Holleran, Thomas P.
1991-01-01
A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.
Hollow spherical shell manufacture
O'Holleran, T.P.
1991-11-26
A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.
Optimized dynamic rotation with wedges.
Rosen, I I; Morrill, S M; Lane, R G
1992-01-01
Dynamic rotation is a computer-controlled therapy technique utilizing an automated multileaf collimator in which the radiation beam shape changes dynamically as the treatment machine rotates about the patient so that at each instant the beam shape matches the projected shape of the target volume. In simple dynamic rotation, the dose rate remains constant during rotation. For optimized dynamic rotation, the dose rate is varied as a function of gantry angle. Optimum dose rate at each gantry angle is computed by linear programming. Wedges can be included in the optimized dynamic rotation therapy by using additional rotations. Simple and optimized dynamic rotation treatment plans, with and without wedges, for a pancreatic tumor have been compared using optimization cost function values, normal tissue complication probabilities, and positive difference statistic values. For planning purposes, a continuous rotation is approximated by static beams at a number of gantry angles equally spaced about the patient. In theory, the quality of optimized treatment planning solutions should improve as the number of static beams increases. The addition of wedges should further improve dose distributions. For the case studied, no significant improvements were seen for more than 36 beam angles. Open and wedged optimized dynamic rotations were better than simple dynamic rotation, but wedged optimized dynamic rotation showed no definitive improvement over open beam optimized dynamic rotation.
Ultrasonic fluid densitometer having liquid/wedge and gas/wedge interfaces
Greenwood, Margaret S.
2000-01-01
The present invention is an ultrasonic liquid densitometer that uses a material wedge having two sections, one with a liquid/wedge interface and another with a gas/wedge interface. It is preferred that the wedge have an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the liquid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the liquid. Ultrasonic signals are internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a liquid is determined by immersing the wedge into the liquid and measuring reflections of ultrasound at the liquid/wedge interface and at the gas/wedge interface.
A Module in Spherical Trigonometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congleton, C. A.; Broome, L. E.
1980-01-01
This module, designed for use at the high school level as a four- to eight-hour topic, includes: the geometry of a sphere, the coordinate system used to describe points on the earth's surface, parallel and meridian sailing, and the solution of right spherical triangles. (Author/MK)
Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eliason, John C., Jr.
1989-01-01
Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)
Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eliason, John C., Jr.
1989-01-01
Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)
A Module in Spherical Trigonometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congleton, C. A.; Broome, L. E.
1980-01-01
This module, designed for use at the high school level as a four- to eight-hour topic, includes: the geometry of a sphere, the coordinate system used to describe points on the earth's surface, parallel and meridian sailing, and the solution of right spherical triangles. (Author/MK)
The Role of Rheology and Basal Décollement Properties on Accretionary Wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, C. J.; Montesi, L. G.
2005-12-01
We present here recent results from finite-element models of accretionary wedges using the commercial code ABAQUS. These models were constructed in order to better understand the role rheology and basal décollement properties play in the surface expression of the wedge and in the formation of the internal fault network of the wedge. To accomplish this, we imposed a priori the basal décollement slope and frictional coefficient, as well as the internal rheology of the wedge. For all of our models we used either an elastic or elastic-plastic rheology with strain dependent weakening and/or hardening. Some models included hardening rheologies in order to simulate the possibility that as a wedge deforms and develops faults, new fluid pathways may be created, thereby increasing the escape rate of fluids and decreasing the pore-fluid pressure in the shear zone. We varied the rheology between wedges of similar geometry and décollement properties, while we varied the décollement properties both within models and among models of similar rheologies. In this way we isolated the effect each has on the behavior of the wedge. The wedge rheology had a large effect on the formation and propagation of internal faults, and only certain rheologies produced fault structures similar to those found empirically in wedges around the world today. These rheologies suggest that pore-fluids play an important role in the formation of faults within the wedge. Additionally, changes in décollement properties produced results that agreed well with critical wedge theory, first developed in Davis et. al. [1983].
Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge
Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.
1992-12-01
A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.
Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge
Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark
1992-01-01
A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.
Calibration of the Wedge Prism
Charles B. Briscoe
1957-01-01
Since the introduction of plotless cruising in this country by Grosenbaugh and the later suggestion of using a wedge prism as an angle gauge by Bruce this method of determining basal area has been widely adopted in the South. One of the factors contributing to the occasionally unsatisfactory results obtained is failure to calibrate the prism used. As noted by Bruce the...
Electrodynamic Casimir effect in a medium-filled wedge.
Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A; Milton, Kimball A
2009-04-01
We re-examine the electrodynamic Casimir effect in a wedge defined by two perfect conductors making dihedral angle alpha=pi/p. This system is analogous to the system defined by a cosmic string. We consider the wedge region as filled with an azimuthally symmetric material, with permittivity and permeability epsilon1, micro1 for distance from the axis ra. The results are closely related to those for a circular-cylindrical geometry, but with noninteger azimuthal quantum number mp. Apart from a zero-mode divergence, which may be removed by choosing periodic boundary conditions on the wedge, and may be made finite if dispersion is included, we obtain finite results for the free energy corresponding to changes in a for the case when the speed of light is the same inside and outside the radius a , and for weak coupling, |epsilon1-epsilon2|<1, for purely dielectric media. We also consider the radiation produced by the sudden appearance of an infinite cosmic string, situated along the cusp line of the pre-existing wedge.
Transport of barrel and spherical shaped colloids in unsaturated porous media.
Knappenberger, Thorsten; Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus
2015-09-01
Model colloids are usually spherical, but natural colloids have irregular geometries. Transport experiments of spherical colloids may not reflect the transport characteristics of natural colloids in porous media. We investigated saturated and unsaturated transport of colloids with spherical and angular shapes under steady-state, flow conditions. A pulse of negatively-charged colloids was introduced into a silica sand column at three different effective water saturations (Se = 0.31, 0.45, and 1.0). Colloids were introduced under high ionic strength of [106]mM to cause attachment to the secondary energy minimum and later released by changing the pore water to low ionic strength. After the experiment, sand was sampled from different depths (0, -4, and -11 cm) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and colloid extraction. Water saturation affected colloid transport with more retention under low than under high saturation. Colloids were retained and released from a secondary energy minimum with more angular-shaped colloids being retained and released. Colloids extracted from the sand revealed highest colloid deposition in the top layer and decreasing deposition with depth. Pore straining and grain-grain wedging dominated colloid retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transport of barrel and spherical shaped colloids in unsaturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knappenberger, Thorsten; Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus
2015-09-01
Model colloids are usually spherical, but natural colloids have irregular geometries. Transport experiments of spherical colloids may not reflect the transport characteristics of natural colloids in porous media. We investigated saturated and unsaturated transport of colloids with spherical and angular shapes under steady-state, flow conditions. A pulse of negatively-charged colloids was introduced into a silica sand column at three different effective water saturations (Se = 0.31, 0.45, and 1.0). Colloids were introduced under high ionic strength of [106]mM to cause attachment to the secondary energy minimum and later released by changing the pore water to low ionic strength. After the experiment, sand was sampled from different depths (0, -4, and -11 cm) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and colloid extraction. Water saturation affected colloid transport with more retention under low than under high saturation. Colloids were retained and released from a secondary energy minimum with more angular-shaped colloids being retained and released. Colloids extracted from the sand revealed highest colloid deposition in the top layer and decreasing deposition with depth. Pore straining and grain-grain wedging dominated colloid retention.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; Marquez, Ricardo
2015-05-01
The spherical harmonics (PN) method is a radiative transfer equation solver, which approximates the radiative intensity as a truncated series of spherical harmonics. For general 3-D configurations, N(N + 1) / 2 intensity coefficients must be solved from a system of coupled second-order elliptic PDEs. In 2-D axisymmetric applications, the number of equations and intensity coefficients reduces to (N + 1) 2 / 4 if the geometric relations of the intensity coefficients are taken into account. This paper presents the mathematical details for the transformation and its implementation on the OpenFOAM finite volume based CFD software platform. The transformation and implementation are applicable to any arbitrary axisymmetric geometry, but the examples to test the new formulation are based on a wedge grid, which is the most common axisymmetric geometry in CFD simulations, because OpenFOAM and most other platforms do not have true axisymmetric solvers. Two example problems for the new axisymmetric PN formulation are presented, and the results are verified with that of the general 3-D PN solver, a Photon Monte Carlo solver and exact solutions.
Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dreyfus, M. G.
1965-01-01
Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.
Minimum work analysis on the critical taper accretionary wedges- insights from analogue modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santimano, Tasca; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno
2014-05-01
The Critical taper theory (CTT) is a fundamental concept for the understanding of mountain building processes. Based on force balance it predicts the preferred steady state geometry of an accretionary wedge system and its tectonic regime (extensive, compressive, stable). However, it does not specify which structures are formed and reactivated to reach the preferred state. The latter can be predicted by the minimum work concept. Here we test both concepts and their interplay by analysing two simple sand wedge models which differ only in the thickness of the basal detachment (a layer of glass beads). While the steady state critical taper is controlled by internal and basal friction coefficients and therefore the same in all experiments, different processes can minimise work by 1. reducing gravitational work e.g. by lowering the amount of uplift or volume uplifted, or 2. reducing frictional work e.g. by lowering the load or due to low friction coefficient along thrusts. Since a thick detachment allows entrainment of low friction material and therefore lowering of the friction along active thrusts, we speculate that the style of wedge growth will differ between the two models. We observe that the wedge with a thin basal detachment localizes strain at the toe of the wedge periodically and reactivate older faults to reach the critical topography. On the contrary, in the wedge with the thicker detachment layer, friction along thrusts is lowered due to the entrainment of low friction material from the detachment zone, subsequently increasing the lifetime of a thrust. Long thrust episodes are always followed by a fault of shorter lifetime, with the aim of reaching the critical taper. From the two experiments, we analyze the time-series evolution of the wedge to infer the work done by the two styles of deformation and predict the trend over time to differ but the maximum work to be similar Our observations show that the critical taper theory determines the geometry of the
Critical taper wedge strength varies with structural style: results from distinct-element models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, L. M.; Suppe, J.
2015-12-01
Critical-taper theory has given diverse insight into kinematics, roles of erosion and sedimentation, and the morphology of compressive mountain belts. We have made progress by recasting the parameter-rich mathematics into a simpler form that describes a linear, co-varying relationship between surface slope and detachment dip (α, β), and internal- and basal-sliding strengths (W, F). Using distinct-element models, we tested this simpler theory over a range of wedge strengths and structural styles. We also obtained W & F from observations of surface slope α and detachment dip β in active natural systems, all of which including the numerical models, show wedges are strong but detachments are weak, with F/W=0.1 or less. Model-derived W & F vary about a mean that matches geometry-derived values. Time- and spatially-averaged dynamical F & W are observed to be equal to wedge-derived results. Critical taper reflects the dynamical strengths during wedge growth and is controlled dynamically as base friction varies between an assigned quasi-static value and lower values during slip events. In the wedge, W varies more than F, which may also be true for natural systems. Detachments have frictional stick/slip behavior on a basal wall, but the wedge has more going on within it. Tandem faulting & folding serve to simultaneously weaken and strengthen the wedge, and may occur anywhere: structural style appears to be important to wedge strength evolution. The dynamics of deformation within the wedge and slip upon the base control the finite wedge geometry: static strengths drop to dynamic levels during seismicity, resulting in materials and faults that are weaker than prescribed in models or determined by testing. Relationships between α and W & F are complex. All sudden, stepwise changes in α, W & F with time coincide with seismicity spikes in the models. Large events trigger or are triggered by large changes in F and W. We examine the complex details of dynamically driven
Spherical colloidal photonic crystals.
Zhao, Yuanjin; Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Zhongze
2014-12-16
generated by evaporation-induced nanoparticle crystallization or polymerization of ordered nanoparticle crystallization arrays. In particular, because microfluidics was used for the generation of the droplet templates, the development of spherical colloidal PhCs has progressed significantly. These new strategies not only ensure monodispersity, but also increase the structural and functional diversity of the PhC beads, paving the way for the development of advanced optoelectronic devices. In this Account, we present the research progress on spherical colloidal PhCs, including their design, preparation, and potential applications. We outline various types of spherical colloidal PhCs, such as close-packed, non-close-packed, inverse opal, biphasic or multiphasic Janus structured, and core-shell structured geometries. Based on their unique optical properties, applications of the spherical colloidal PhCs for displays, sensors, barcodes, and cell culture microcarriers are presented. Future developments of the spherical colloidal PhC materials are also envisioned.
Dual Double-Wedge Pseudo-Depolarizer with Anamorphic PSF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Peter; Thompson, Patrick
2012-01-01
A polarized scene, which may occur at oblique illumination angles, creates a radiometric signal that varies as a function of viewing angle. One common optical component that is used to minimize such an effect is a polarization scrambler or depolarizer. As part of the CLARREO mission, the SOLARIS instrument project at Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a new class of polarization scramblers using a dual double-wedge pseudo-depolarizer that produces an anamorphic point spread function (PSF). The SOLARIS instrument uses two Wollaston type scramblers in series, each with a distinct wedge angle, to image a pseudo-depolarized scene that is free of eigenstates. Since each wedge is distinct, the scrambler is able to produce an anamorphic PSF that maintains high spatial resolution in one dimension by sacrificing the spatial resolution in the other dimension. This scrambler geometry is ideal for 1-D imagers, such as pushbroom slit spectrometers, which require high spectral resolution, high spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to polarized light. Moreover, the geometry is applicable to a wide range of scientific instruments that require both high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and low sensitivity to polarized scenes
High-energy rate forgings of wedges. Characterization of processing conditions
Reynolds, Thomas Bither; Everhart, Wesley; Switzner, Nathan T; Balch, Dorian K.; San Marchi, Christopher W.
2014-05-01
The wedge geometry is a simple geometry for establishing a relatively constant gradient of strain in a forged part. The geometry is used to establish gradients in microstructure and strength as a function of strain, forging temperature, and quenching time after forging. This geometry has previously been used to benchmark predictions of strength and recrystallization using Sandias materials model for type 304L austenitic stainless steel. In this report, the processing conditions, in particular the times to forge and quench the forged parts, are summarized based on information recorded during forging on June 18, 2013 of the so-called wedge geometry from type 316L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn austenitic stainless steels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Developed largely through a Small Business Innovation Research contract through Langley Research Center, Interactive Picture Corporation's IPIX technology provides spherical photography, a panoramic 360-degrees. NASA found the technology appropriate for use in guiding space robots, in the space shuttle and space station programs, as well as research in cryogenic wind tunnels and for remote docking of spacecraft. Images of any location are captured in their entirety in a 360-degree immersive digital representation. The viewer can navigate to any desired direction within the image. Several car manufacturers already use IPIX to give viewers a look at their latest line-up of automobiles. Another application is for non-invasive surgeries. By using OmniScope, surgeons can look more closely at various parts of an organ with medical viewing instruments now in use. Potential applications of IPIX technology include viewing of homes for sale, hotel accommodations, museum sites, news events, and sports stadiums.
Super-Cavitating Flow Around Two-Dimensional Conical, Spherical, Disc and Stepped Disc Cavitators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sooraj, S.; Chandrasekharan, Vaishakh; Robson, Rony S.; Bhanu Prakash, S.
2017-08-01
A super-cavitating object is a high speed submerged object that is designed to initiate a cavitation bubble at the nose which extends past the aft end of the object, substantially reducing the skin friction drag that would be present if the sides of the object were in contact with the liquid in which the object is submerged. By reducing the drag force the thermal energy consumption to move faster can also be minimised. The super-cavitation behavioural changes with respect to Cavitators of various geometries have been studied by varying the inlet velocity. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis has been carried out by applying k-ε turbulence model. The variation of drag coefficient, cavity length with respect to cavitation number and inlet velocity are analyzed. Results showed conical Cavitator with wedge angle of 30° has lesser drag coefficient and cavity length when compared to conical Cavitators with wedge angles 45° and 60°, spherical, disc and stepped disc Cavitators. Conical cavitator 60° and disc cavitator have the maximum cavity length but with higher drag coefficient. Also there is significant variation of supercavitation effect observed between inlet velocities of 32 m/s to 40 m/s.
A Study in Wedge Waves with Applications in Acoustic Delay- line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, Po-Hsien; Wang, Wen-Chi; Yang, Che-Hua
The acoustic delay line is usually used to supply protection from dangerous environment, to enhance signal intensity by fit geometry of analyte, or to achieve specific angle/focusing by Snell's law, but rarely to avoid noise from coupling agent and to raise spatial resolution by reducing contact area. This study is focused on wedge waves with applications in delay-line to solve the knot of traditionally transducer measurement. Wedge waves are guided acoustic waves propagating along the tip of a wedge. The advantages of wedge being used in acoustic delay line are wedge waves has large motion amplitude of anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) mode, low energy attenuation and the velocity of ASF more is regular weather frequency varied or not. According the characteristic of wedge wave and vibration direction of particle, the acoustical wedge delay line with high signal- noise-ratio, approximate point-like contact area, without coupling agent and in/out vibration measurement by specific experimental setup is developed.
What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?
Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; ...
2017-01-24
Here, in order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the fullmore » torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ|, and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.« less
What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.
2017-01-01
In order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the full torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ| , and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.
The Substorm Current Wedge Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepko, Larry; McPherron, Robert; Apatenkov, Sergey; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Birn, Joachim; Lester, Mark; Nakamura, Rumi; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Sergeev, Victor
2015-04-01
Almost 40 years ago the concept of the substorm current wedge was developed to explain the magnetic signatures observed on the ground and in geosynchronous orbit during substorm expansion. In the ensuing decades new observations, including radar and low-altitude spacecraft, MHD simulations, and theoretical considerations have tremendously advanced our understanding of this system. The AMPTE/IRM, THEMIS and Cluster missions have added considerable observational knowledge, especially on the important role of fast flows in producing the stresses that generate the substorm current wedge. Recent detailed, multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument observations both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere have brought a wealth of new information about the details of the temporal evolution and structure of the current system. In this paper, we briefly review recent in situ and ground-based observations and theoretical work that have demonstrated a need for an update of the original picture. We present a revised, time-dependent picture of the substorm current wedge that follows its evolution from the initial substorm flows through substorm expansion and recovery, and conclude by identifying open questions.
Spherical solitons in Earth’S mesosphere plasma
Annou, K.; Annou, R.
2016-01-15
Soliton formation in Earth’s mesosphere plasma is described. Nonlinear acoustic waves in plasmas with two-temperature ions and a variable dust charge where transverse perturbation is dealt with are studied in bounded spherical geometry. Using the perturbation method, a spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation that describes dust acoustic waves is derived. It is found that the parameters taken into account have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves in spherical geometry.
BIPOLAR MAGNETIC SPOTS FROM DYNAMOS IN STRATIFIED SPHERICAL SHELL TURBULENCE
Jabbari, Sarah; Brandenburg, Axel; Kleeorin, Nathan; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor
2015-06-01
Recent work by Mitra et al. (2014) has shown that in strongly stratified forced two-layer turbulence with helicity and corresponding large-scale dynamo action in the lower layer, and nonhelical turbulence in the upper, a magnetic field occurs in the upper layer in the form of sharply bounded bipolar magnetic spots. Here we extend this model to spherical wedge geometry covering the northern hemisphere up to 75° latitude and an azimuthal extent of 180°. The kinetic helicity and therefore also the large-scale magnetic field are strongest at low latitudes. For moderately strong stratification, several bipolar spots form that eventually fill the full longitudinal extent. At early times, the polarity of spots reflects the orientation of the underlying azimuthal field, as expected from Parker’s Ω-shaped flux loops. At late times their tilt changes such that there is a radial field of opposite orientation at different latitudes separated by about 10°. Our model demonstrates the spontaneous formation of spots of sizes much larger than the pressure scale height. Their tendency to produce filling factors close to unity is argued to be reminiscent of highly active stars. We confirm that strong stratification and strong scale separation are essential ingredients behind magnetic spot formation, which appears to be associated with downflows at larger depths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesch, A.; Oncken, O.
1999-08-01
The kinematic evolution of the Rhenohercynian fold-and-thrust belt of, the Central-European Variscides can be reconstructed from incremental strain and palaeostress data, synkinematic metamorphism, geochronology, synorogenic sediments, and the geometry of shortening. This data set allows to infer the mechanical development with respect to the Mohr-Coloumb theory of critically tapered orogenic wedges. Growth of the Rhenohercynian orogenic wedge was kinematically partitioned into a broad orogen-normal moving and a narrow obliquely moving domain. The ratio of the final widths of these domains varies from 1.6 to 2.3. This low ratio indicates strong basal coupling. Growth averages are 14 km/Ma of shortening and a strain rate of 6×10 -16 s -1. The mode of mass transfer from lower to upper plate, which controlled the accretion geometry and the particle paths, evolved in the long term from dominantly basal to frontal accretion. This evolution was accompanied by a decrease in taper from precollisional 18°-28° to final 5°-8°. 4-6 accretionary subsystems assemble the wedge. Each is characterised by a sequence of basal to frontal accretion, both rooting in a common detachment. The development of the subsystems is supported by the observation of stepwise migration of a foreland-bulge ponding flysch subbasins. These features imply shorter termed (ca. 2 Ma) cyclic mass transfer above a high friction detachment with episodes of basal accretion followed by episodes of a quickly forward-propagating thrust front. Transfer of the basal detachment from ductile mid-crustal to brittle conditions via a crustal ramp and particle flow across the ramp provoked large-scale adjustment of wedge geometry. Internal wedge thickening is spatially and chronologically related to the formation of the ramp and was supported by surficial erosion of ca. 3 kbar for keeping a critical taper. Three growth stages of the wedge can be reconstructed. The high taper of the precollisional stage plots in the
Han, Jae Hwi; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Bhandare, Nikhl N; Suh, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seong; Chang, Yong Suk; Yeom, Ji Woong; Nha, Kyung Wook
2016-08-01
Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has become increasingly popular as an alternative to lateral closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis with varus deformity. The present systematic review was conducted to provide an objective analysis of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes following previous knee osteotomy (medial opening wedge vs. lateral closing wedge). A literature search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library database) was made, in addition to manual search of major orthopaedic journals. The methodological quality of each of the studies was assessed on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Effective Practice and Organization of Care. A total of ten studies were included in the review. There were eight studies with Level IV and two studies with Level III evidence. Eight studies reported clinical and radiologic scores. Comparative studies between TKA following medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO did not demonstrate statistically significant clinical and radiologic differences. The revision rates were similar. However, more technical issues during TKA surgery after lateral closing wedge HTO were mentioned than the medial open wedge group. The quadriceps snip, tibial tubercle osteotomy, and lateral soft tissue release were more frequently needed in the lateral closing wedge HTO group. In addition, because of loss of proximal tibia bone geometry in the lateral closing wedge HTO group, concerns such as tibia stem impingement in the lateral tibial cortex was noted. The present systematic review suggests that TKA after medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO showed similar performance. Clinical and radiologic outcome including revision rates did not statistically differ from included studies. However, there are more surgical technical concerns in TKA conversion from lateral closing wedge HTO than from the medial opening wedge HTO group. IV.
Wedge scattering by the method of iteration
Holliday, D.; DeRaad, L.L. Jr.; St-Cyr, G.J.
1993-07-01
We have investigated scattering from the classic wedge and have shown that the method of iteration of the surface current integral equation predicts currents and backscattered fields that are good approximations to the Sommerfeld solution. The method of iteration has also been applied to truncated wedges on flat surfaces with the result that the scattering from this wedge is been to be very much different from the Sommerfeld solution. These results and their implications for ocean backscatter are reported herein.
Wedge locality and asymptotic commutativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soloviev, M. A.
2014-05-01
In this paper, we study twist deformed quantum field theories obtained by combining the Wightman axiomatic approach with the idea of spacetime noncommutativity. We prove that the deformed fields with deformation parameters of opposite sign satisfy the condition of mutual asymptotic commutativity, which was used earlier in nonlocal quantum field theory as a substitute for relative locality. We also present an improved proof of the wedge localization property discovered for the deformed fields by Grosse and Lechner, and we show that the deformation leaves the asymptotic behavior of the vacuum expectation values in spacelike directions substantially unchanged.
Role of subduction obliquity in controlling mantle wedge flow and subduction zone processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, I.; He, J.; Jilek, E.
2016-12-01
In this study, we investigate the role of subduction obliquity and its along-arc variation in controlling the 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern and subduction zone processes, using 3-D coupled kinematic-dynamic models that are developed for regions with oblique subduction, including southern Cascadia, Northeast Japan, Hikurangi, and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. In subduction zones, the motion of the subducting slab drives the overlying mantle to flow away from the mantle wedge corner. The dynamic pressure gradient induced by the mantle outflow then drives the mantle in the back-arc region to flow in towards the wedge corner, resulting in mantle wedge flow. 3-D subduction models with realistic slab geometries indicate that the obliquity of the subduction direction relative to the local strike of the subducting slab is a critical factor that contributes to along-arc dynamic pressure gradients in the mantle wedge, inducing a 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern. In general, oblique subduction causes the streamlines of mantle inflow and outflow to be approximately symmetric about the axis normal to the strike of the slab, and the angle between the two streamlines increases with subduction obliquity. In regions with large subduction obliquity, such as southern Hikurangi and northern Mariana, the angle can locally become so large that mantle flow appears nearly arc-parallel. Along-arc variation in the slab geometry adds further complexity to the 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern via changes in the strike of the slab and thus subduction obliquity. Mantle wedge flow patterns affect a number of important processes in subduction zones, such as the transport of heat and volatiles, development of crystal and shape preferred orientations, mantle wedge hydration, and slab dehydration. We test the modeled-predicted mantle wedge flow patterns for the aforementioned subduction zones against available geophysical observations, including seismic velocity and attenuation structures, mantle wedge
Application of slip-line analysis to the mechanical model of active accretionary wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, I.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.
2012-04-01
shows that the solution for the simple geometry of accretionary wedge is equivalent to the critical taper solution given by Davis et al. (1983). If a sedimentary formation covers the critical wedge, the stress underneath the formation is reduced to maintain the equilibrium with the basal friction strength. Thus the formation of sediment basin on top of the active accretionary wedge leads to the stress relaxation in the region below the basin. The topography of seafloor plays a crucial role in changing the basal friction along the base fault so that the geometry of the fault might be changed. Our numerical analysis also reveals that the pore pressure within the wedge and the décollement fault has no effect on the accretionary wedge angle.
Enhanced heterogeneous ice nucleation by special surface geometry
Bi, Yuanfei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Tianshu
2017-01-01
The freezing of water typically proceeds through impurity-mediated heterogeneous nucleation. Although non-planar geometry generically exists on the surfaces of ice nucleation centres, its role in nucleation remains poorly understood. Here we show that an atomically sharp, concave wedge can further promote ice nucleation with special wedge geometries. Our molecular analysis shows that significant enhancements of ice nucleation can emerge both when the geometry of a wedge matches the ice lattice and when such lattice match does not exist. In particular, a 45° wedge is found to greatly enhance ice nucleation by facilitating the formation of special topological defects that consequently catalyse the growth of regular ice. Our study not only highlights the active role of defects in nucleation but also suggests that the traditional concept of lattice match between a nucleation centre and crystalline lattice should be extended to include a broader match with metastable, non-crystalline structural motifs. PMID:28513603
Enhanced heterogeneous ice nucleation by special surface geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Yuanfei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Tianshu
2017-05-01
The freezing of water typically proceeds through impurity-mediated heterogeneous nucleation. Although non-planar geometry generically exists on the surfaces of ice nucleation centres, its role in nucleation remains poorly understood. Here we show that an atomically sharp, concave wedge can further promote ice nucleation with special wedge geometries. Our molecular analysis shows that significant enhancements of ice nucleation can emerge both when the geometry of a wedge matches the ice lattice and when such lattice match does not exist. In particular, a 45° wedge is found to greatly enhance ice nucleation by facilitating the formation of special topological defects that consequently catalyse the growth of regular ice. Our study not only highlights the active role of defects in nucleation but also suggests that the traditional concept of lattice match between a nucleation centre and crystalline lattice should be extended to include a broader match with metastable, non-crystalline structural motifs.
Application of the critical Coulomb wedge theory to hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nirrengarten, M.; Manatschal, G.; Yuan, X. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Maillot, B.
2016-05-01
The Critical Coulomb Wedge Theory (CCWT) has been extensively used in compressional tectonics to resolve the shape of orogenic or accretionary prisms, while it is less applied to extensional and gravitational wedges despite the fact that it can be described by the same equation. In particular, the hyper-extended domain at magma-poor rifted margins, forming the oceanward termination of extended continental crust, satisfies the three main requirements of the CCWT: 1) it presents a wedge shape, 2) the rocks forming the wedge are completely brittle (frictional), and 3) the base of the wedge corresponds to a low friction décollement. However hyper-extended margins present a fully frictional behaviour only for a very thin crust; therefore this study is limited to the termination of hyper-extended continental crust which deforms in the latest stage of continental rifting. In this paper we define a method to measure the surface slope and the basal deep of this wedge that we apply to 17 hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins in order to compare the results to the values predicted by the CCWT. Because conjugate pairs of hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins are commonly asymmetric, due to detachment faulting, the wedges in the upper and lower plate margins corresponding respectively to the hanging wall and footwall of the detachment system are different. While the stress field in the upper plate wedge corresponds to a tectonic extensional wedge, the one in the lower plate matches that of a gravity extensional wedge. Using typical frictional properties of phyllosilicates (e.g. clays and serpentine), the shape of the hyper-extended wedges can be resolved by the CCWT using consistent fluid overpressures. Our results show that all lower plate margins are gravitationally stable and therefore have a close to critical shape whereas the tectonic extensional wedges at upper plate margins are critical, sub or sup critical due to the detachment initial angle and the duration of
Split-wedge antennas with sub-5 nm gaps for plasmonic nanofocusing
Chen, Xiaoshu; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Klemme, Daniel J.; ...
2016-11-22
Here, we present a novel plasmonic antenna structure, a split-wedge antenna, created by splitting an ultrasharp metallic wedge with a nanogap perpendicular to its apex. The nanogap can tightly confine gap plasmons and boost the local optical field intensity in and around these opposing metallic wedge tips. This three-dimensional split-wedge antenna integrates the key features of nanogaps and sharp tips, i.e., tight field confinement and three-dimensional nanofocusing, respectively, into a single platform. We fabricate split-wedge antennas with gaps that are as small as 1 nm in width at the wafer scale by combining silicon V-grooves with template stripping and atomicmore » layer lithography. Computer simulations show that the field enhancement and confinement are stronger at the tip–gap interface compared to what standalone tips or nanogaps produce, with electric field amplitude enhancement factors exceeding 50 when near-infrared light is focused on the tip–gap geometry. The resulting nanometric hotspot volume is on the order of λ3/106. Experimentally, Raman enhancement factors exceeding 107 are observed from a 2 nm gap split-wedge antenna, demonstrating its potential for sensing and spectroscopy applications.« less
Split-Wedge Antennas with Sub-5 nm Gaps for Plasmonic Nanofocusing.
Chen, Xiaoshu; Lindquist, Nathan C; Klemme, Daniel J; Nagpal, Prashant; Norris, David J; Oh, Sang-Hyun
2016-12-14
We present a novel plasmonic antenna structure, a split-wedge antenna, created by splitting an ultrasharp metallic wedge with a nanogap perpendicular to its apex. The nanogap can tightly confine gap plasmons and boost the local optical field intensity in and around these opposing metallic wedge tips. This three-dimensional split-wedge antenna integrates the key features of nanogaps and sharp tips, i.e., tight field confinement and three-dimensional nanofocusing, respectively, into a single platform. We fabricate split-wedge antennas with gaps that are as small as 1 nm in width at the wafer scale by combining silicon V-grooves with template stripping and atomic layer lithography. Computer simulations show that the field enhancement and confinement are stronger at the tip-gap interface compared to what standalone tips or nanogaps produce, with electric field amplitude enhancement factors exceeding 50 when near-infrared light is focused on the tip-gap geometry. The resulting nanometric hotspot volume is on the order of λ(3)/10(6). Experimentally, Raman enhancement factors exceeding 10(7) are observed from a 2 nm gap split-wedge antenna, demonstrating its potential for sensing and spectroscopy applications.
Split-Wedge Antennas with Sub-5 nm Gaps for Plasmonic Nanofocusing
2016-01-01
We present a novel plasmonic antenna structure, a split-wedge antenna, created by splitting an ultrasharp metallic wedge with a nanogap perpendicular to its apex. The nanogap can tightly confine gap plasmons and boost the local optical field intensity in and around these opposing metallic wedge tips. This three-dimensional split-wedge antenna integrates the key features of nanogaps and sharp tips, i.e., tight field confinement and three-dimensional nanofocusing, respectively, into a single platform. We fabricate split-wedge antennas with gaps that are as small as 1 nm in width at the wafer scale by combining silicon V-grooves with template stripping and atomic layer lithography. Computer simulations show that the field enhancement and confinement are stronger at the tip–gap interface compared to what standalone tips or nanogaps produce, with electric field amplitude enhancement factors exceeding 50 when near-infrared light is focused on the tip–gap geometry. The resulting nanometric hotspot volume is on the order of λ3/106. Experimentally, Raman enhancement factors exceeding 107 are observed from a 2 nm gap split-wedge antenna, demonstrating its potential for sensing and spectroscopy applications. PMID:27960527
Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Iyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.
2014-01-01
This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.
Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Lyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.
2014-01-01
This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0, 30, 45, and 60. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.
Thermal Evolution of Diapirs with Complex Mantle Wedge Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sylvia, R. T.; Kincaid, C.
2016-12-01
Subduction of oceanic lithosphere drives heat and mass exchange between Earth's interior and surface. One proposed transport mechanism for thermally and chemically distinct material through the wedge is the diapir model. The dominant driver of flow in the upper mantle is a mode of forced convection responding to motion of a tabular slab. A set of 4D laboratory experiments was conducted exploring the relationship between buoyancy flux and subduction parameters and subsequent effects on diapir transport. Variable subduction styles tested include downdip and rollback motion, slab gaps, slab steepening and backarc extension. The mantle is modeled using viscous glucose syrup with an Arrhenius type temperature dependent viscosity. Diapirs representing homogeneous mechanically mixed melange layer are introduced as buoyant fluid injected at multiple point sources situated along the surface of the sinking slab. Laboratory data is collected using high definition time-lapse photography and quantified using image velocimetry techniques. Here we present results from numerical simulation of the thermal evolution of spherical mantle wedge diapirs using 2D axisymmetric advection-diffusion model with internal diapir flow described by an analytic potential flow solution. A suite of wedge temperature profiles are used as thermal forcing on diapirs traversing the wedge along experimentally observed 4D ascent pathways. Scaling arguments suggest that for systems with Péclet number on the order of 15 advective heat transport is expected to dominate over diffusive heat transport, but the range of observed P-T-t paths and vigorous internal flow complicate this assumption. Interactions between modes of free (diapiric) and forced (wedge) convection lead to complex spatio-temporal variability in slab-to-arc connectivity patterns. Rollback induced toroidal flow, along trench changes in dip, convergence rate and backarc extension all produce a significant ( 500 km) trench-parallel transport
The effect of a dynamic wedge in the medial tangential field upon the contralateral breast dose
McParland, B.J. )
1990-12-01
The elevated incidence of breast cancer following irradiation of breast tissue has led to concern over the magnitude of the scattered radiation received by the uninvolved contralateral breast during radiation therapy for a primary breast lesion and the risk of an induced contralateral breast cancer. Some linear accelerators use a single dynamic (or universal) wedge that is mounted within the treatment head at an extended distance from the patient. Because of the combined effects of distance and shielding, the contralateral breast dose due to a medial tangent containing a dynamic wedge is expected to be less than that containing a conventional wedge. This paper presents contralateral breast dose (CBD) measurements performed on an anthropomorphic phantom with breast prostheses irradiated with 6 MV X rays from a linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic wedge. Doses were measured at 15 points within the contralateral breast prosthesis with thermoluminescent dosimeters. It was found that the contralateral breast dose per unit target breast dose decreases with the perpendicular distance from the posterior edge of the medial tangent to the dose measurement point and increases with effective wedge angle by factors ranging up to 2.8, in agreement with data presented earlier for a water phantom geometry. This dose elevation showed no statistically significant dependence (p less than 0.05) upon the perpendicular distance from the beam edge. Comparisons with data in the literature show that the contralateral breast dose increase by a dynamic wedge is typically only about half of that reported for a conventional wedge for the same wedge angle and distance from the beam.
Tumor Targeting, Trifunctional Dendritic Wedge
2015-01-01
We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602
Milchev, Andrey; Müller, M; Binder, K; Landau, D P
2003-09-01
Theoretical predictions by Parry et al. for wetting phenomena in a wedge geometry are tested by Monte Carlo simulations. Simple cubic LxLxL(y) Ising lattices with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange and four free LxL(y) surfaces, at which antisymmetric surface fields +/-H(s) act, are studied for a wide range of linear dimensions (4wedge filling transition in this "double-wedge" geometry. Interpreting the Ising model as a lattice gas, the problem is equivalent to a liquid-gas transition in a pore with quadratic cross section, where two walls favor the liquid and the other two walls favor the gas. For temperatures T below the bulk critical temperature T(c) this boundary condition (where periodic boundary conditions are used in the y direction along the wedges) leads to the formation of two domains with oppositely oriented magnetization and separated by an interface. For L,L(y)--> infinity and T larger than the filling transition temperature T(f)(H(s)), this interface runs from the one wedge where the surface planes with a different sign of the surface field meet (on average) straight to the opposite wedge, so that the average magnetization of the system is zero. For T
Extended wedge covariance for wetting and filling transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parry, A. O.; Rascón, C.; Morgan, L.
2005-12-01
Fluid adsorption on nonplanar and heterogeneous substrates is studied using a simple interfacial model. For systems with short-ranged forces, we find that, by tuning the local strength of the substrate potential, it is possible to find the exact equilibrium interfacial profile as a functional of the wall shape ψ(x ). The tuning of the local substrate potential takes the form of a gauge condition θ˙(x)=±ψ̈(x), where θ(x ) can be interpreted as a local effective contact angle. For wedgelike geometries with asymptotic tilt angle α, the midpoint interfacial height and roughness satisfy the same covariance relations previously found for simple linear wedges. For troughlike geometries satisfying the gauge condition, covariance is also found for the two-point correlation function. Predictions for more microscopic Landau and Ising models are also discussed.
Enhancement of ultrasonic surface waves at wedge tips and angled defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, R. S.; Dutton, B.; Clough, A. R.; Rosli, M. H.
2011-08-01
The behaviour of sound waves interacting with wedges has attracted interest from researchers in geophysics and non-destructive testing. We consider here the near-field behaviour of Rayleigh waves incident on wedges and surface-breaking defects which propagate at an angle to the surface, such as rolling contact fatigue on rails. It has been shown that, for a detection point on the edge of the crack tip, a very large signal enhancement is observed for shallow angles. We explain this behaviour through considering the effect of the defect geometry, with changes in the frequency.thickness product leading to mode-conversion of the incident Rayleigh wave.
Capillarity driven motion of solid film wedges
Wong, H.; Miksis, M.J.; Voorhees, P.W.; Davis, S.H.
1997-06-01
A solid film freshly deposited on a substrate may form a non-equilibrium contact angle with the substrate, and will evolve. This morphological evolution near the contact line is investigated by studying the motion of a solid wedge on a substrate. The contact angle of the wedge changes at time t = 0 from the wedge angle {alpha} to the equilibrium contact angle {beta}, and its effects spread into the wedge via capillarity-driven surface diffusion. The film profiles at different times are found to be self-similar, with the length scale increasing as t{sup 1 4}. The self-similar film profile is determined numerically by a shooting method for {alpha} and {beta} between 0 and 180. In general, the authors find that the film remains a wedge when {alpha} = {beta}. For {alpha} < {beta}, the film retracts, whereas for {alpha} > {beta}, the film extends. For {alpha} = 90{degree}, the results describe the growth of grain-boundary grooves for arbitrary dihedral angles. For {beta} = 90{degree}, the solution also applies to a free-standing wedge, and the thin-wedge profiles agree qualitatively with those observed in transmission electron microscope specimens.
Pressure Distributions About Finite Wedges in Bounded and Unbounded Subsonic Streams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoughe, Patrick L; Prasse, Ernst I
1953-01-01
An analytical investigation of incompressible flow about wedges was made to determine effects of tunnel-wedge ratio and wedge angle on the wedge pressure distributions. The region of applicability of infinite wedge-type velocity distribution was examined for finite wedges. Theoretical and experimental pressure coefficients for various tunnel-wedge ratios, wedge angles, and subsonic Mach numbers were compared.
Ultrasonic transducer with laminated coupling wedge
Karplus, Henry H. B.
1976-08-03
An ultrasonic transducer capable of use in a high-temperature environment incorporates a laminated metal coupling wedge including a reflecting edge shaped as a double sloping roof and a transducer crystal backed by a laminated metal sound absorber disposed so as to direct sound waves through the coupling wedge and into a work piece, reflections from the interface between the coupling wedge and the work piece passing to the reflecting edge. Preferably the angle of inclination of the two halves of the reflecting edge are different.
Penetrating eye injury from a metal wedge.
Kozielec, G F; To, K
1999-01-01
The authors describe a patient with a penetrating ocular injury from a metal wedge, a common hand tool used by road service technicians for the purpose of opening a locked car door. The patient had a penetrating eye injury from a metal wedge when its sharp end released from a car door lock and retracted upward, striking the right eye. No report exists of ocular injury using a metal wedge for its intended purpose of opening a car door lock. The use of polycarbonate lenses might afford some protection.
Seismic rupture propagation beneath potential landslide wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, A.; Kawamura, K.
2011-12-01
During 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0), much larger slip and tsunami occurred than expectation at outer-wedge (toe of the trench landward slope) of Japan trench (eg. Ide et al., 2011). Similarly, outer-wedge deformation was pointed out in northern segment of 1986 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake (Ms 7.2), and it was discussed that earthquake-related landslide induced large tsunami (eg. Kanamori, 1972; Tanioka and Satake, 1996). Many landslides and normal faults, potential tsunami genesis, are developed at outer-wedge of Japan trench (Henry et al., 1989). Some steep normal-faults turn to horizon at deep portion, and land sliding may be prevented by basal friction. If seismic rupture propagates to basal fault of the outer-wedge, triggered gravity collapse will enlarge deformation of the outer-wedge to cause large tsunamis. It was considered that seismogenic fault locks at deep portion under inner-wedge of the plate subduction zone, and outer-wedge was classified into aseismic zone classically. Seismic rupture propagation to outer-wedge is still uncertain. Seismic slip at the outer-wedge was found from the drilled core during IODP Nankai trough seismogenic zone drilling project (NanTroSEIZE) in Nankai trough, southwest Japan. Samples were obtained from the frontal thrust (438 mbsf), which connects the deep plate boundary to the seafloor at the toe of the accretionary wedge, and from a megasplay fault (271 mbsf) that branches from the plate boundary décollement. Higher vitrinite reflectance of 0.57 % and 0.37 % than the host rock of 0.24 % were found at splay and plate boundary faults zones respectively. These correspond with 300-400 °C and > 20°C of host rock. Local high temperature zone less than several cm thick may be caused by frictional shear heat at fault zone (Sakaguchi, et al., 2011). Shear velocity and durations can be estimated from thermal property of the sediment and distribution of the vitrinite anomaly (Hamada et al., 2011). This result shows that seismic
Monolithic integration of high-Q wedge resonators with vertically coupled waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Prtljaga, Nikola; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pucker, Georg; Ghulinyan, Mher
2013-05-01
Typical UHQ resonators, microspheres and microtoroids, lack the possibility of integration into lightwave circuits due to their planarity constrains. In this context, CMOS-compatible alternatives in the form of wedge resonators have been proposed. However, the mode retraction from the wedge cavity inhibits the possibility to side couple with integrated waveguides and therefore, halts the full integration within a planar lightwave circuit. In this work, we propose and demonstrate experimentally the complete integration of wedge resonators with vertically coupled dielectric bus waveguides. This coupling scheme permits to use arbitrary gaps, geometries and materials, enables simplified and precise control of the light injection into the cavity and opens the door to an industrial mass-fabrication of UHQ resonators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, L.; Suppe, J.
2012-12-01
It is increasingly clear that many major faults are weak relative to quasistatic friction because of dynamical effects involving the microprocesses of high-velocity friction and the energetics of large-scale fault rupture. Even at the toes of accretionary wedges where velocity strengthening is expected, large displacements can occur dynamically. We seek to better understand the relationship between the large-scale strength of such faults and of the crust containing them over a timescale much greater than seismic cycles. Critical-taper theory provides straightforward quantitative relationships between accretionary wedge geometry and absolute basal fault and wedge strengths with minimal assumptions. Wedge tapers constrain the far-field stresses under which detachments slip and wedges grow during wedge-growing events, whether they are dynamical or quasistatic. To date most applications of wedge mechanics to accretionary wedges involve analog and numerical modeling with largely conceptual insight, for example illuminating the role of geological heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate that recent theoretical advances that are successful in extracting absolute wedge and detachment strengths from the geometry of active wedges can also be applied to extract large-scale strengths in distinct element numerical models in both mechanically homogeneous and heterogeneous wedges. The distinct element method (DEM) is an ideal tool for the study and modeling of critical taper wedges: model wedges can be initially cohesive (bonded) or cohesionless. Faults and folds form naturally as the result of progressive bond breakage during shortening and wedge growth. Heterogeneity can be introduced by creating layered groups of particles of differing mechanical properties. The DEM suffers to some extent in that macro material properties cannot be directly prescribed but rather must be defined by a modest number of micro-properties and the process in necessarily iterative and developing a wide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milchev, Andrey; Müller, M.; Binder, K.; Landau, D. P.
2003-09-01
Theoretical predictions by Parry et al. for wetting phenomena in a wedge geometry are tested by Monte Carlo simulations. Simple cubic L×L×Ly Ising lattices with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange and four free L×Ly surfaces, at which antisymmetric surface fields ±Hs act, are studied for a wide range of linear dimensions (4⩽L⩽320, 30⩽Ly⩽1000), in an attempt to clarify finite size effects on the wedge filling transition in this “double-wedge” geometry. Interpreting the Ising model as a lattice gas, the problem is equivalent to a liquid-gas transition in a pore with quadratic cross section, where two walls favor the liquid and the other two walls favor the gas. For temperatures T below the bulk critical temperature Tc this boundary condition (where periodic boundary conditions are used in the y direction along the wedges) leads to the formation of two domains with oppositely oriented magnetization and separated by an interface. For L,Ly→∞ and T larger than the filling transition temperature Tf(Hs), this interface runs from the one wedge where the surface planes with a different sign of the surface field meet (on average) straight to the opposite wedge, so that the average magnetization of the system is zero. For T
Begon, Mickaël; Scherrer, Sophie-Anne; Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul
2015-03-01
Scoliosis is a three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the spine and the pelvis. Although the relation between the pelvic asymmetries and scoliosis progression was proposed by several authors, it has not been documented over time in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective was to determine whether vertebral wedging and pelvic asymmetries progress in the early stages of AIS before any orthopedic treatment. The study design included an observational cohort study. Nineteen AIS girls participated in this study. The outcome measures were pelvic and spine geometries from simultaneous biplanar radiographs. At the diagnosis, the girls (12.6±1.3 years) had a Cobb angle of 13.9°±6.0°. At the end of their observation period (11 months on average), the scoliosis progressed to 20.5°±5.5°. Bone 3D geometry was reconstructed from biplanar radiographs. Sagittal and frontal wedgings were calculated for five vertebral levels, namely, at the apex and at the two vertebral bodies above and below it. The pelvic geometry was described using five 3D homologous right-left lengths to estimate pelvic asymmetries. Paired t tests were performed on vertebral wedging and pelvic asymmetries to assess their progression between the two evaluations. Principal component (PC) analyses were applied to determine whether vertebral wedging or pelvic asymmetries were predominant at each evaluation. Vertebral wedging was present at the diagnosis (1.76°-5.92°) and generally did not progress until brace prescription. The mean difference between the right and left pelvic normalized lengths was 1.4% and 2.4% for the initial and final evaluations, respectively. Results revealed the width of the right pelvis to be superior by 3%, and this asymmetry progressed to 4.0%. Principal component analysis revealed that initial vertebral wedging was present in seven out of eight parameters of the first three PCs, whereas at the final examination, vertebral wedging and pelvic asymmetries were evenly
Radiative transfer in spherical atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalkofen, W.; Wehrse, R.
A method for defining spherical model atmospheres in radiative/convective and hydrostatic equilibrium is presented. A finite difference form is found for the transfer equation and a matrix operator is developed as the discrete space analog (in curvilinear coordinates) of a formal integral in plane geometry. Pressure is treated as a function of temperature. Flux conservation is maintained within the energy equation, although the correct luminosity transport must be assigned for any given level of the atmosphere. A perturbed integral operator is used in a complete linearization of the transfer and constraint equations. Finally, techniques for generating stable solutions in economical computer time are discussed.
Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian
2015-01-01
We present a novel design of wedge hybrid plasmonic terahertz (THz) waveguide consisting of a silicon (Si) nanowire cylinder above a triangular gold wedge with surrounded high-density polyethylene as cladding. It features long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode confinement. The mode properties of wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide are comprehensively characterized in terms of propagation length (L), normalized mode area (Aeff /A0), figure of merit (FoM), and chromatic dispersion (D). The designed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide enables an ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area which is more than one-order of magnitude smaller compared to previous rectangular one. When choosing the diameter of Si nanowire cylinder, a smaller diameter (e.g. 10 μm) is preferred to achieve longer L and higher FoM, while a larger diameter (e.g. 60 μm) is favorable to obtain smaller Aeff /A0 and higher FoM. We further study the impacts of possible practical fabrication errors on the mode properties. The simulated results of propagation length and normalized mode area show that the proposed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide is tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, variation of wedge tip angle, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:26155782
A specially curved wedge for eliminating wedge angle effect in unsteady shock reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, He; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng; Yang, Jiming; Lu, Xiyun
2017-08-01
A curved wedge with a specific shape is designed and manufactured to guarantee the wedge angle unvaried during the cylindrically converging shock moving along the wedge. Thus the variation of the wedge angle caused by the wedge will be eliminated in unsteady shock reflection. Different initial wedge angles are considered to observe regular reflection and Mach reflection. When Mach reflection occurs, it is found that direct Mach reflection is persisted over the wedge without wave pattern transitions, which differs from our previous work with varied wedge angles [Zhang et al. "Reflection of cylindrical converging shock wave over a plane wedge," Phys. Fluids 28, 086101 (2016)]. Moreover, the Mach stem is nearly straight when the wedge angle is relatively large, and the trajectory of triple point can be well predicted by three-shock theory. It is believed that the straight Mach stem results from the coupling effect of the converging shock and the convexly curved wedge, which exert opposite effects on the Mach stem curvature. As the wedge angle reduces, the three-shock theory prediction deviates from the present results owing to the curved Mach stem. Stronger vortices are produced near the wall, which are caused by the interaction of two shear layers, and whether the stronger vortices will be generated near the wall depends on the reflection number of the shock wave over the tube wall and wedge. The length of disturbed shock front in the Mach reflection is found to increase nonlinearly due to the unsteady feature of the flow. The growth rate of length reduces as the shock converges because of the geometrical contraction effect. Further the lengths of the Mach stem and the disturbed shock front are compared, and the results show that although the difference exists between them, both of them show a similar variation tendency. Compared with our previous work with varied wedge angles, the variation of the wedge angle has great effects on the Mach stem length and wave
Numerical simulation of vortex-wedge interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jin-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo
1994-06-01
Interactions between vortical flows and a solid surface cause one of the primary sources of noise and unsteady loading. The mechanism of the interaction is studied numerically for a single Rankine vortex impinging upon a wedge. An Euler-Lagrangian method is employed to calculate the unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows in two dimensions. A random vortex method is used to describe the vorticity dominant field. A fast vortex method is used to reduce the computational time in the calculation of the convection velocity of each vortex particle. A Schwarz-Christoffel transformation is used to map the numerical domain onto the physical domain. Vortex partical plots, velocity vectors, and streamlines are presented at selected times for both inviscid and viscous interactions. It is observed that the incident rankine vortex distorts and is split by the wedge as it nears and passes the wedge, and the vortices generated from the leading edge toward the underside of the wedge form into a single vortex. The vorticity orientation of the shed vortex is opposite to that of the incident vortex. It is found that the convection velocity of the shed vortex is changed wheen it comes off the leading edge of the wedge, and the strength of the shed vortex varies with the time during the vortex-wedge interaction. This strength variation is presumed to influence the shed vortex convection velocity. The overall features for the interaction agree well with the experimental results of Ziada and Rockwell.
Aerodynamic Analysis Over Double Wedge Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, U. S.; Ajay, V. S.; Rajat, R. H.; Samanyu, S.
2017-05-01
Aeronautical studies are being focused more towards supersonic flights and methods to attain a better and safer flight with highest possible performance. Aerodynamic analysis is part of the whole procedure, which includes focusing on airfoil shapes which will permit sustained flight of aircraft at these speeds. Airfoil shapes differ based on the applications, hence the airfoil shapes considered for supersonic speeds are different from the ones considered for Subsonic. The present work is based on the effects of change in physical parameter for the Double wedge airfoil. Mach number range taken is for transonic and supersonic. Physical parameters considered for the Double wedge case with wedge angle (ranging from 5 degree to 15 degree. Available Computational tools are utilized for analysis. Double wedge airfoil is analysed at different Angles of attack (AOA) based on the wedge angle. Analysis is carried out using fluent at standard conditions with specific heat ratio taken as 1.4. Manual calculations for oblique shock properties are calculated with the help of Microsoft excel. MATLAB is used to form a code for obtaining shock angle with Mach number and wedge angle at the given parameters. Results obtained from manual calculations and fluent analysis are cross checked.
Modeling linear Rayleigh wave sound fields generated by angle beam wedge transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Jeong, Hyunjo; Hu, Hongwei
2017-01-01
In this study, the reciprocity theorem for elastodynamics is transformed into integral representations, and the fundamental solutions of wave motion equations are obtained using Green's function method that yields the integral expressions of sound beams of both bulk and Rayleigh waves. In addition to this, a novel surface integral expression for propagating Rayleigh waves generated by angle beam wedge transducers along the surface is developed. Simulation results show that the magnitudes of Rayleigh wave displacements predicted by this model are not dependent on the frequencies and sizes of transducers. Moreover, they are more numerically stable than those obtained by the 3-D Rayleigh wave model. This model is also applicable to calculation of Rayleigh wave beams under the wedge when sound sources are assumed to radiate waves in the forward direction. Because the proposed model takes into account the actual calculated sound sources under the wedge, it can be applied to Rayleigh wave transducers with different wedge geometries. This work provides an effective and general tool to calculate linear Rayleigh sound fields generated by angle beam wedge transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M.; Milchev, A.; Binder, K.; Landau, D. P.
2008-08-01
The interplay between surface and interface effects on binary AB mixtures that are confined in unconventional geometries is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations and phenomenological considerations. Both double-wedge and bi-pyramid confinements are considered and competing surface fields are applied at the two opposing halves of the system. Below the bulk critical temperature, domains of opposite order parameter are stabilized at the corresponding corners and an interface runs across the middle of the bi-partite geometry. Upon decreasing the temperature further one encounters a phase transition at which the AB symmetry is broken. The interface is localized in one of the two wedges or pyramids, respectively, and the order parameter is finite. In both cases, the transition becomes discontinuous in the thermodynamic limit but it is not a first-order phase transition. In an antisymmetric double wedge geometry the transition is closely related to the wedge-filling transition. Choosing the ratio of the cross-section L × L of the wedge and its length L y according to L y / L 3 = const., simulations and phenomenological consideration show that the new type of phase transition is characterized by critical exponents α = 3/4, β = 0, and γ = 5/4 for the specific heat, order parameter, and susceptibility, respectively. In an antisymmetric bi-pyramid the transition occurs at the cone-filling transition of a single pyramid. The important critical fluctuations are associated with the uniform translation of the interface and they can be described by a Landau-type free energy. Monte Carlo results provide evidence that the coefficients of this Landau-type free energy exhibit a system-size dependence, which gives rise to critical amplitudes that diverge with system size and result in a transition that becomes discontinuous in the thermodynamic limit.
Rock Wedge Stability Analysis Using System Reliability Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Rodriguez, R.; Sitar, N.
2007-08-01
We present a system reliability approach to rock wedge stability analysis. Different failure modes are considered, and a disjoint cut-set formulation is employed - with each cut-set corresponding to a different failure mode - to explore the system aspects of the problem, so that the reliability of the system is assessed by computing the probability of failure of the slope under each failure mode. An example case is used to demonstrate different approaches to compute the reliability of the slope design. Our results show that an approximation to the “exact” probability of failure - given by Monte Carlo simulation results - may be obtained using a first order approximation to the failure domain, and that linear programming techniques may be used to obtain bounds of the probability of failure. Furthermore, we identify the most likely failure mode, and we explore the sensitivity of the computed probabilities to changes in the random variables considered. The results indicate that the reliability results are quite sensitive to the geometry of the wedge. Changes in water conditions are also found to have a significant impact on the computed probabilities, while changes in unit weight of the rock have a considerably smaller effect on the reliability.
Evaluating the dose to the contralateral breast when using a dynamic wedge versus a regular wedge.
Weides, C D; Mok, E C; Chang, W C; Findley, D O; Shostak, C A
1995-01-01
The incidence of secondary cancers in the contralateral breast after primary breast irradiation is several times higher than the incidence of first time breast cancer. Studies have shown that the scatter radiation to the contralateral breast may play a large part in the induction of secondary breast cancers. Factors that may contribute to the contralateral breast dose may include the use of blocks, the orientation of the field, and wedges. Reports have shown that the use of regular wedges, particularly for the medial tangential field, gives a significantly higher dose to the contralateral breast compared to an open field. This paper compares the peripheral dose outside the field using a regular wedge, a dynamic wedge, and an open field technique. The data collected consisted of measurements taken with patients, solid water and a Rando phantom using a Varian 2300CD linear accelerator. Ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), diodes, and films were the primary means for collecting the data. The measurements show that the peripheral dose outside the field using a dynamic wedge is close to that of open fields, and significantly lower than that of regular wedges. This information indicates that when using a medial wedge, a dynamic wedge should be used.
How to predict deformation for geometrically and mechanically non-uniform accretionary wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souloumiac, Pauline; Cubas, Nadaya; Caër, Typhaine
2017-04-01
The mechanical understanding of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary prisms strongly relies on the critical taper theory (CTT). The latter considers their mechanics as analogous to sand pushed by a moving bulldozer along a frictional décollement. The wedge evolves into a critical geometry, corresponding to a point of internal state of stress for which the whole wedge including the basal décollement is on the verge of Coulomb failure. If the décollement is planar and material properties are homogeneous and cohesionless, the critical wedge is triangular. The force of the CCT relies on the fact that conditions for stress equilibrium, Coulomb yielding of the wedge and basal frictional sliding have an analytical solution. However, this theory suffers from several limits. As stated above, the analytical solution applies for perfectly triangular wedges. However, the critical taper is shaped by internal thrusts that lead to a non-uniform topographic slope. What is then the scale of topographic variability for which the CCT will stand? The second limit is that CCT applies for homogeneous frictional properties in the wedge and as well as along the décollement. We can also wonder if there is a scaling parameter for which variations of properties along the decollement would impact the topography. We here show how the limit analysis, an efficient semi-analytical approach, can help us to overcome these limits. We aim to provide simple analytical solutions to structural geologists to evaluate the critical state of their field study cases. We first show that the effect of topographic slope variability relies on a competition between the surface of potential hanging-walls and the surface of theoretical critical hanging-walls. Dips of thrust and backthrust are controlled by the frictional parameters. Along a wedge with a non-regular topography, an out-of-sequence system will appear if there is a position along the wedge for which the hanging-wall will have a lower surface than
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
The formation of grounding zone wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowal, Katarzyna; Worster, Grae
2016-11-01
Ice sheets are generally lubricated by a layer of sub-glacial sediment, or till, which plays a central role in determining their large-scale dynamics. Sub-glacial till has been found to accumulate into distinctive sedimentary wedges at ice-sheet grounding zones, separating floating ice shelves from grounded ice sheets. These grounding-zone wedges have important implications for stabilizing ice sheets against grounding-zone retreat in response to rising sea levels. We develop a theoretical model of wedge formation in which we treat both ice and till as viscous fluids spreading under gravity into an inviscid ocean and present a fluid-mechanical explanation of the formation of these wedges in terms of the jump in hydrostatic loading and unloading of till across the grounding zone. We also conduct a series of fluid-mechanical experiments in a confined setting in which we find that the underlying layer of less viscous fluid accumulates spontaneously in a similar wedge-shaped region at the experimental grounding line. We also extend our theory to more natural, unconfined settings in two dynamical regimes in which the overlying ice is resisted dominantly either by vertical shear or by extensional stresses and compare our findings with available geophysical data. Currently at Northwestern University.
Quench propagation delay due to copper wedges
Kuchnir, M.; McInturff, A.D.; Hanft, R.W.; Mazur, P.O.
1986-01-01
The superconducting magnet design style selected for the SSC dipoles is 16.6 m long and incorporates copper wedges in the windings in order to achieve the required magnetic field uniformity. Recent studies of quench propagation in a 4 m model, SLN-012 at BNL, have been carried out in order to prove the feasibility of self-protection for these magnets in the event of a quench. This feature would dispense with an active protection system like the one used in the Fermilab Energy Saver. These studies, however, require the knowledge of how the copper wedges affect the transverse spreading of normal zones needed in the self-protecting scheme. It is not clear that such information can be obtained with the short (1 m long) prototypes about to be tested since the time for the normal zone to cross over a wedge might be of the order of or longer than the time it takes for it to reach the other side of the wedge by propagation along the cable. Well instrumented long prototype magnets are months away from availability. Calculations that take into account the effect of the Kapton insulation, helium in the interstices and other significant details do not exist or have not been tested. Therefore we have measured the delay that the copper wedges introduce in the transverse (azimuthal) propagation of the normal zone in an experimental simulation of these magnets.
The onset of flat subduction in Central Mexico controlled by a low viscosity wedge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manea, V. C.; Gurnis, M.
2007-05-01
It is generally accepted that dehydration of subducting lithosphere transport fluids into the mantle wedge, causing a decrease in the viscosity. Such decreasing in viscosity can form a well-defined low viscosity wedge (LVW) or a low viscosity channel (LVC) on top of the subducting slab. Using numerical models we study the effect of low viscosity and channels on time-dependent geodynamic models. The results show a dramatic effect of low viscosity on the slab dip evolution through time. A reduction of the wedge viscosity with an order of magnitude produces the slab dip to increase from an initial 30° to 50° after 10 Ma of convergence. Also, the slab overthickening observed in previous published dynamic models due to slab attachment to the overriding plate, is eliminated by introducing a LVW or LVC for models with or without trench rollback. Our study shows two end member models, depending on the maximum depth extent of the LVW. Models with a LVW extending down to 400 km depth show a steep slab geometry (dip > 50°), whereas shallow LVW produces flat slabs, including perfectly flat slabs (dips = 0°). Assuming that slab and sediments dehydration are responsible for lowering the mantle viscosity, the maximum depth extent of the LVW is controlled by the age of the incoming plate and the convergence rate. Thus, significant variations in LVW geometry and viscosity have significant impact on the slab geometry and volcanic arc evolution through time.
Spatial symmetry breaking in rapidly rotating convective spherical shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
1995-01-01
Many problems in geophysical and astrophysical convection systems are characterized by fast rotation and spherical shell geometry. The combined effects of Coriolis forces and spherical shell geometry produce a unique spatial symmetry for the convection pattern in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. In this paper, we first discuss the general spatial symmetries for rotating spherical shell convection. A special model, a spherical shell heated from below, is then used to illustrate how and when the spatial symmetries are broken. Symmetry breaking occurs via a sequence of spatial transitions from the primary conducting state to the complex multiple-layered columnar structure. It is argued that, because of the dominant effects of rotation, the sequence of spatial transitions identified from this particular model is likely to be generally valid. Applications of the spatial symmetry breaking to planetary convection problems are also discussed.
Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation
Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.
2015-10-15
The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.
A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan
2014-11-01
Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.
The spherical birdcage resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harpen, Michael D.
A description of the operation of a spherical resonator capable of producing a uniform magnetic induction throughout a spherical volume is presented. Simple closed-form expressions for the spectrum of resonant frequencies are derived for both the low-pass and the high-pass configuration of the resonator and are shown to compare favorably with observation in an experimental coil system. It is shown that the spherical resonator produces a uniform spherical field of view when used as a magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency coil.
Two-dimensional meniscus in a wedge
Kagan, M.; Pinczewski, W.V.; Oren, P.E.
1995-03-15
This paper presents a closed-form analytical solution of the augmented Young-Laplace equation for the meniscus profile in a two-dimensional wedge-shaped capillary. The solution is valid for monotonic forms of disjoining pressure which are repulsive in nature. In the limit of negligible disjoining pressure, it is shown to reduce to the classical solution of constant curvature. The character of the solution is examined and examples of practical interest which demonstrate the application of the solution to the computation of the meniscus profile in a wedge-shaped capillary are discussed.
The Siwaliks of western Nepal. II. Mechanics of the thrust wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mugnier, J. L.; Leturmy, P.; Huyghe, P.; Chalaron, E.
1999-12-01
Comparison between numerical models and structural data is used for a better understanding of the evolution of the Siwalik thrust belt of western Nepal. The numerical model involves discontinuities within a critical wedge model, a kinematic forward model of serial cross sections, and a linear diffusion algorithm to simulate erosion and sedimentation. In western Nepal, large Piggy-back basins (Duns) are located above thick thrust sheets that involve more than 5500 m of the Neogene Siwalik Group, whereas Piggy-back basin sedimentation is less developed above thinner thrust sheets (4300 m thick). Numerical model results suggest that thrust sheet thickness and extension of wedge-top basins are both related to an increase of the basal décollement dip beneath the duns. The West Dang Transfer zone (WDTZ) is a N-NE trending tectonic lineament that limits the westward extent of the large Piggy-back basins of mid-western Nepal and is linked to a thickening of the Himalayan wedge eastward. The WDTZ also affects the seismotectonics pattern, the geometry of the thrust front, the lateral extent of Lesser Himalayan thrust sheets, and the subsidence of the foreland basin during middle Siwalik sedimentation. Numerical models suggest that the individualisation of the Piggy-back basins at the transition between the middle Siwalik and upper Siwaliks followed the deposition of the middle Siwaliks that induced a geometry of the foreland basin close to the critical taper. As WDTZ induces an E-W thickning of the Himalayan wedge, it could also induce a northward shift of the leading edge of the ductile deformation above the basal detachment in Greater Himalayas of far-western Nepal. Field data locally suggest episodic out-off-sequence thrusting in the frontal thrust belt of western Nepal, whereas numerical results suggests that episodic out-off sequence reactivation could be a general characteristic of the Himalayan wedge evolution often hidden by erosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, En-Chao; Suppe, John
2014-05-01
Some classic accretionary wedges such as Nankai trough and Barbados are mechanically heterogeneous based on their spatial variation in taper, showing inward decrease in surface slope α without covariation in detachment dip β. Possible sources of regional heterogeniety include variation in fluid pressure, density, cohesion and fault strength, which can be constrained by the seismic or borehole observable parameter, fluid-retention depth Z_FRD, below which compaction is strongly diminished. In particular the Hubbert-Rubey fluid-pressure weakening can be addressed as (1-lambda)~0.6Z_FRD/Z. We recast the heterogeneous critical-taper wedge theory of Dahlen (1990) in terms of the observable Z_FRD/H, where H is the detachment depth, which allows for real world applications. For example, seismic velocity and borehole data from the Barbados shows that the fluid-retention depth Z_FRD is approximately constant and Z_FRD/H decreases inward. This leads to a factor of four inward decreases in wedge strength, dominated by fluid pressure, with only a second-order role for density and cohesion. An inward decrease in wedge strength should by itself produce an increase in taper, therefore the observed decreasing taper must be dominated by decreasing fault strength mu_b* from 0.03 to 0.01. Static fluid-pressures along the detachment in equilibrium with the overlying wedge predict the observed wedge geometry well, given a constant intrinsic friction coefficient mu_b=0.15.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellahi, R.; Hassan, M.; Zeeshan, A.; Khan, Ambreen A.
2016-06-01
The flow of mixed convection nanofluid over wedge under the effects of porous medium is investigated. The HFE-7100 Engineered Fluid having Nimonic 80a metal nanoparticles of spherical and non-spherical shapes with different sizes is used. The particle shape effects on Bejan number and entropy generation are taken into account. The system of partial differential equations is first written in terms of ordinary differential equations using adequate similarity transformations and then solved analytically. Analytical solutions of the resulting equations are obtained for the velocity and temperature profiles. Simultaneous effects of porous medium, particle volume friction, mixed convection parameter, and angle of wedge in the presence of different shapes nanoparticles are demonstrated graphically. Effects of particle concentrations, sizes on wall stress, heat transfer coefficient of Skin friction, and Nusselt are discussed in the form of tables.
38. INTERIOR VIEW, DENISON MULTIPRESS FOR INSERTION OF WEDGES ONTO ...
38. INTERIOR VIEW, DENISON MULTI-PRESS FOR INSERTION OF WEDGES ONTO HANDLES AND CUTTING OFF SCRAP END OF HANDLE FOLLOWING WEDGE INSERTION, BRIAN KIMBLE, OPERATOR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV
49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and wedges...
49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and wedges...
Leung, Ka-Ngo
2006-11-21
A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleem, Zain Hamid
In this thesis we study a special class of black hole geometries called subtracted geometries. Subtracted geometry black holes are obtained when one omits certain terms from the warp factor of the metric of general charged rotating black holes. The omission of these terms allows one to write the wave equation of the black hole in a completely separable way and one can explicitly see that the wave equation of a massless scalar field in this slightly altered background of a general multi-charged rotating black hole acquires an SL(2, R) x SL(2, R) x SO(3) symmetry. The "subtracted limit" is considered an appropriate limit for studying the internal structure of the non-subtracted black holes because new 'subtracted' black holes have the same horizon area and periodicity of the angular and time coordinates in the near horizon regions as the original black hole geometry it was constructed from. The new geometry is asymptotically conical and is physically similar to that of a black hole in an asymptotically confining box. We use the different nice properties of these geometries to understand various classically and quantum mechanically important features of general charged rotating black holes.
Johnstone's "Wedge" and Theory of Rhetoric.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnold, Carroll C.
1987-01-01
Presents the views of a scholar in speech communication on Henry Johnstone's ideas about rhetoric. Concludes that rhetoric that "appeals" wedges apart percipient and objects of perception, or that it forces a person to examine what he or she knows or is, as well as examining the proffered rhetoric. (NKA)
Sharp Thermal Transition in the Forearc Mantle Wedge as a Consequence of Nonlinear Mantle Wedge Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, I.; Wang, K.; Jiangheng, H.
2009-12-01
A sharp landward increase in seismic attenuation over a few tens of kilometres distance in the forearc mantle wedge has been reported for a number of subduction zones, including Alaska, Costa Rica, central Andes, Hikurangi, and NE Japan. The low attenuation in the wedge nose is commonly interpreted as to indicate a cold state, and the high attenuation further landward to indicate high temperature and/or partial melting. Beneath the arc, the high temperature at shallow depths may be caused by transient melt migration, but at larger depths the mantle wedge must be hot enough to generate melt. Thus, the landward change in the thermal state of the forearc mantle wedge is large and sharp. We use a two-dimensional steady-state thermal model and the subduction-interface weakening approach of Wada et al. (2008) to investigate how slab-driven mantle wedge flow controls the thermal transition. We observe that the sharpness of the transition increases with the increasing nonlinearity of the flow system. In an isoviscous mantle wedge with a uniform interface strength, there is no spontaneous transition in the flow and thermal fields. In a diffusion-creep mantle wedge, even with a uniform interface strength, the strong temperature dependence of the mantle rheology always results in full slab-mantle decoupling along the weakened part of the interface and hence complete stagnation of the overlying mantle, giving rise to a cold wedge nose that does not participate in the wedge flow. On the other hand, the interface immediately downdip of the zone of decoupling is fully coupled, and the overlying mantle is driven to flow at a rate compatible with the subduction rate. The flow system thus shows a bimodal behaviour. In a dislocation-creep mantle wedge, its stress-dependence results in an additional feedback effect, making the bimodal behaviour more pronounced than in the diffusion-creep mantle wedge, with an abrupt change from decoupling to coupling along the subduction interface
Thomas, S J; Foster, K R
1995-09-01
If the jaws of a linear accelerator are moved under computer control during irradiation, dose distributions similar to those with wedge filters can be produced. Varian linear accelerators utilize this effect to give a 'dynamic wedge', using segmented treatment tables (STTs). An algorithm is described to generate the dose per monitor unit at any point in a beam, using the STT values. Dynamically wedged beams are modelled as the superposition of static asymmetric beams, using an algorithm based on beam data measured for symmetric beams. Predictions of wedge factors, depth doses and profiles generated using the algorithm are compared with measurements. Good agreement is found between predictions and measurements. The calculation time is typically 5 ms/dose point on a PC with a 486DX processor.
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
Murakami, M.; Sanz, J.; Iwamoto, Y.
2015-07-15
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Faraday instability of a spherical drop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebo Adou, A.; Tuckerman, Laurette; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir
2014-11-01
A liquid drop subjected to an oscillatory radial force comprises a spherical version of the Faraday instability, with a subharmonic response which is half of the forcing frequency. The time-dependent shape of the drop and the velocity field in and around it are calculated using BLUE, a code based on a hybrid Front Tracking/Level-set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. We compare this shape with the spherical harmonic selected at onset, calculated by adapting the Floquet stability analysis of Kumar and Tuckerman to a spherical geometry. We interpret the shape in light of theoretical results by Busse, Matthews and others concerning pattern formation in the presence of O(3) symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buddensiek, M.-L.; Sheng, J.; Crosby, T.; Schuster, G. T.; Bruhn, R. L.; He, R.
2008-02-01
Four high-resolution seismic surveys were conducted across the Wasatch Fault Zone near Mapleton, Utah. The objective was twofold: (1) To use velocity tomograms and reflection images to delineate fault structures and colluvial wedges to more than twice the depth of the Mapleton Megatrench excavated by URS personnel, (2) to assess the strengths and limitations of traveltime and waveform tomography by synthetic studies and comparison of the tomogram to the ground truth seen in the Megatrench log. Four out of the five faults within the trench area are accurately identified in the migrated image and in the tomograms, and the main fault's dip angle is estimated to be between 71 and 80°. Two additional faults are interpreted outside the trench. The faults can be delineated down to 30 m below the surface, which is 20 m deeper than the excavated trench. Five out of six colluvial wedges found in the trench log were seen as low-velocity zones (LVZs) in the tomogram, however the biggest colluvial wedge could not be identified by either tomography method. Waveform tomography prevailed over ray-based traveltime tomography by more clearly recovering the faults and LVZs. A newly discovered LVZ at a depth of 18-21 m below the surface possibly represents a colluvial wedge and is estimated to be less than 21000 years old. If this LVZ is a colluvial wedge, the earthquake history obtained by trenching can be extended from 13500 to 21000 yr with seismic tomography. Our results further demonstrate the capability of tomography in identifying faults, and show that waveform tomography more accurately resolves colluvial wedges compared to traveltime tomography. However, despite the successful recovery of most faults and some, but not all, colluvial wedges, both tomography methods show many more LVZs besides the wedges, so that an unambiguous interpretation cannot be made. A major part of the ambiguity in the tomograms is due to the many major faults, which result in an uneven raypath
Simulation on the aggregation process of spherical particle confined in a spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.; Xu, J. J.; Zhang, L.
2016-04-01
The aggregation process of spherical particles confined in a spherical shell was studied by using a diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) model. The influence of geometrical confinement and wetting-like properties of the spherical shell walls on the particle concentration profile, aggregate structure and aggregation kinetics had been explored. The results show that there will be either depletion or absorption particles near the shell walls depending on the wall properties. It is observed that there are four different types of density distribution which can be realized by modifying the property of the inner or outer spherical shell wall. In addition, the aggregate structure will become more compact in the confined spherical shell comparing to bulk system with the same particle volume fraction. The analysis on the aggregation kinetics indicates that geometrical confinement will promote the aggregation process by reducing the invalid movement of the small aggregates and by constraining the movement of those large aggregates. Due to the concave geometrical characteristic of the outer wall of the spherical shell, its effects on the aggregating kinetics and the structure of the formed aggregates are more evident than those of the inner wall. This study will provide some instructive information of controlling the density distribution of low-density porous polymer hollow spherical shells and helps to predict gel structures developed in confined geometries.
21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge provides mechanical support to the perianal region during the labor and delivery...
49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...
49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...
49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...
49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...
49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...
Noncommutative spherically symmetric spacetimes at semiclassical order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, Christopher; Majid, Shahn
2017-07-01
Working within the recent formalism of Poisson-Riemannian geometry, we completely solve the case of generic spherically symmetric metric and spherically symmetric Poisson-bracket to find a unique answer for the quantum differential calculus, quantum metric and quantum Levi-Civita connection at semiclassical order O(λ) . Here λ is the deformation parameter, plausibly the Planck scale. We find that r, t, d r, d t are all forced to be central, i.e. undeformed at order λ, while for each value of r, t we are forced to have a fuzzy sphere of radius r with a unique differential calculus which is necessarily nonassociative at order λ2 . We give the spherically symmetric quantisation of the FLRW cosmology in detail and also recover a previous analysis for the Schwarzschild black hole, now showing that the quantum Ricci tensor for the latter vanishes at order λ. The quantum Laplace-Beltrami operator for spherically symmetric models turns out to be undeformed at order λ while more generally in Poisson-Riemannian geometry we show that it deforms to □f+λ2ωαβ(Ricγα-Sγα)(∇^βdf)γ+O(λ2) in terms of the classical Levi-Civita connection \\widehat\
Wide scanning spherical antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.
Denudational rate control on orogenic wedge growth - a scaled sandbox approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoth, S.; Adam, J.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.
2003-04-01
pro-wedge or retro-wedge slope. In the non-linear denudation mode (gdo) the maximum of material removed was at the middle of either the pro- or the retro-wedge slope and decreased to zero at the top and toe of the respective wedge slope. The assumption made here is that in an fdo the entire orogen is exposed to fluvial erosion, whereas in an gdo glacial erosion is spatially focussed at the equilibrium line altitude. Our results are: Denudation has the potential to change the rate and modify the geometry of the tectonic mass-transfer by at least one order of magnitude, as well as modifying the tectonic mass-transfer pattern. Compared to the reference experiment without denudation, retro-wedge denudation changes only the rate of the tectonic mass-transfer. The latter is higher in the non-linear than in the linear denudation mode. In contrast, pro-wedge denudation modifies the rate as well as the direction of the tectonic mass-transfer, whereas the linear denudation mode is more effective at exhuming material than the non-linear one. This is because during the former the applied denudation mode leads to a steady increase of the area denuded, ie. the catchment area is enlarged and the drainage divide shifts towards the retro-wedge. Furthermore, retro-wedge denudation leads to higher and wider, whereas pro-wedge denudation leads to lower and narrower sand orogens, with respect to the reference experiment. This is because retro-wedge denudation enhances an existing tectonic displacement field, which is a consequence of the convergence geometry, whereas pro-wedge denudation works against it. The frontal accretion rate is highest in the linear pro-wedge denudation mode. This demonstrates how denudation promotes the vertical and horizontal divergence of particle paths, and thus enhances the juxtaposition of formerly spatially-separated rock units. We conclude: (1) Denudation controls magnitude and direction of the tectonic mass-transfer in bivergent orogenic wedges. (2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xu; Qu, Shuting; Xiao, Jinbiao; Sun, Xiaohan
2006-10-01
Planar lightwave circuit (PLC) chips based on III-V semiconductor MQW rib waveguide promise to be not only a solution to information access, but also direct the issues of bandwidth, pin count, reliability and complexity. Nanopositioning and precision alignment addresses vital importance in high-efficient connectivity between PLC chips and fiber arrays. Refractive-index mismatching between fused silica and III-V compound is one of the most serious problem which remains unsolved on one hand as well as mode field mismatching which can be mitigated in other hand through gradient geometry structure such as tapered spot size converter (SSC) and specialty fibers such as wedge-shaped fiber (WSF). Spherical gradient refractive-index (SGRIN) media intervened between WSF and MQW rib waveguide is put forward. The GRIN media virtually eliminates the reflection losses associated with the fused silica-air interface and III-V semiconductor-air interface. The beam spot emitted from WSF are observed by digital camera and the fundamental mode of MQW rib waveguide was calculated out. Lightwave propagation and mode field evolution in the WSF-SGRIN-PLC system is simulated by FDTD method with the coupling loss of 8.54dB at a wavelength of 1.55μm. An LED signal is injected into WSF, transmitted along GRIN media and PLC waveguide and output through single mode fiber (SMF). Optical power meter-based measurement verifies the whole system coupling loss to be consistent with the numeric estimation. The approach provides an experimental prototype for coupling and packaging technique of integrated photonic devices, hence supplying foundation for photonic network.
Large displacement spherical joint
Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.
2002-01-01
A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.
The Precessing Spherical Pendulum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olsson, M. G.
1978-01-01
Explains how the spherical pendulum could be used to observe nonreentrant orbits, and shows, using theoretical analysis, that for small displacements the elliptical orbit will precess at a rate proportional to its area. (GA)
Transition induced by fixed and freely convecting spherical particles in laminar boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrie, H. L.; Morris, P. J.; Bajwa, A. R.; Vincent, D. C.
1993-08-01
An experimental and analytical study of aspects of transition induced by disturbances from spherical particles in laminar boundary layers is discussed. The generation of turbulent wedges by fixed spherical particles in a laminar boundary layer on or near the surface of a flat plate is considered experimentally using flow visualization with fluorescent dye and laser Doppler velocimetry. Turbulent spots generated by freely convecting spherical particles that are released in the freestream to fall into a flat plate laminar boundary layer and impact the plate are also discussed. A combination of dye flow visualization and a video based particle tracking technique was used to study the convecting particle problem. Although the Reynolds number at the critical condition for turbulent wedge generation by fixed particles and turbulent spot generation by convecting particles are similar, transition in these two situations appears to be fundamentally different. The development of a turbulent wedge near the critical condition is a relatively gradual process. In contrast, turbulent spots form relatively quickly after the convecting particles enter the boundary layer and impact the plate. Turbulent wedge formation downstream of a fixed particle results from the destabilization of the near wall flow by the vortical structures shed into particle wake. This shedding process is dominated by periodically shed loop shaped hairpin vortices. Observation of subharmonic oscillations at 1/2 and 1/4 of this shedding frequency suggest that a chaotic route to turbulence by a series of period doubling bifurcations is possible.
Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research
Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert
2014-01-01
The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.
Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities.
Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G
2012-04-01
The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. .
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Desseyn, H. O.; And Others
1985-01-01
Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Desseyn, H. O.; And Others
1985-01-01
Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…
Starting of generic inlet with blunted wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovoy, V.; Mosharov, V.; Radchenko, V.; Skuratov, A.; Struminskaya, I.
2017-06-01
Bluntness e¨ect of gas-compressing wedges on starting and §ow structure in an air inlet was investigated experimentally. The inlet was of internal compression type with §at walls and rectangular cross section. The experiments were carried out in the wind tunnel UT-1M at Mach numbers M = 5 and 8 and Reynolds numbers Re∞L from 2.8 · 106 to 23 · 106. The §ow characteristics were measured by panoramic optical methods. Data demonstrating in§uence of wedge bluntness radius on the inlet starting were obtained at di¨erent Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as at di¨erent contraction ratios. Ambiguity of the §ow regime in the inlet under certain conditions was found.
Electromagnetic scattering by pyramidal and wedge absorber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dewitt, Brian T.; Burnside, Walter D.
1988-01-01
Electromagnetic scattering from pyramidal and wedge absorbers used to line the walls of modern anechoic chambers is measured and compared with theoretically predicted values. The theoretical performance for various angles of incidence is studied. It is shown that a pyramidal absorber scatters electromagnetic energy more as a random rough surface does. The apparent reflection coefficient from an absorber wall illuminated by a plane wave can be much less than the normal absorber specifications quoted by the manufacturer. For angles near grazing incidence, pyramidal absorbers give a large backscattered field from the pyramid side-faces or edges. The wedge absorber was found to give small backscattered fields for near-grazing incidence. Based on this study, some new guidelines for the design of anechoic chambers are advocated because the specular scattering models used at present do not appear valid for pyramids that are large compared to the wavelength.
Resonant wedge-plasmon modes in single-crystalline gold nanoplatelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Lin; Sigle, Wilfried; Koch, Christoph T.; Ögüt, Burcu; van Aken, Peter A.; Talebi, Nahid; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Mu, Jianlin; Wen, Xiaogang; Mao, Jian
2011-05-01
Using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy we measured surface-plasmon resonances of gold nanoplatelets with different shapes and edge lengths at high spatial resolution. We find equidistant maxima of the energy-loss probability along the platelet edges. The plasmon dispersion of the different geometries is very similar, i.e., hardly dependent on specimen shape. The experimental results are verified by means of finite-difference time-domain calculations which reveal the presence of wedge-plasmon polaritons propagating along the platelet edges. At platelet corners, apart from radiative losses, wedge-plasmon polaritons are partially reflected or transmitted to neighboring edges. The interference of all these contributions leads to the observed plasmon resonance modes. This is an essential step towards a thorough understanding of plasmon eigenmodes in prismatic nanoplatelets.
On the shape of a droplet in a wedge: new insight from electrowetting.
Baratian, D; Cavalli, A; van den Ende, D; Mugele, F
2015-10-21
The equilibrium morphology of liquid drops exposed to geometric constraints can be rather complex. Even for simple geometries, analytical solutions are scarce. Here, we investigate the equilibrium shape and position of liquid drops confined in the wedge between two solid surfaces at an angle α. Using electrowetting, we control the contact angle and thereby manipulate the shape and the equilibrium position of aqueous drops in ambient oil. In the absence of contact angle hysteresis and buoyancy, we find that the equilibrium shape is given by a truncated sphere, at a position that is determined by the drop volume and the contact angle. At this position, the net normal force between drop and the surfaces vanishes. The effect of buoyancy gives rise to substantial deviations from this equilibrium configuration which we discuss here as well. We eventually show how the geometric constraint and electrowetting can be used to position droplets inside a wedge in a controlled way, without mechanical actuation.
Wightman function and scalar Casimir densities for a wedge with two cylindrical boundaries
Saharian, A.A. Tarloyan, A.S.
2008-07-15
Wightman function, the vacuum expectation values of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor are investigated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter inside a wedge with two coaxial cylindrical boundaries. It is assumed that the field obeys Dirichlet boundary condition on bounding surfaces. The application of a variant of the generalized Abel-Plana formula enables to extract from the expectation values the contribution corresponding to the geometry of a wedge with a single shell and to present the interference part in terms of exponentially convergent integrals. The local properties of the vacuum are investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. The vacuum forces acting on the boundaries are presented as the sum of self-action and interaction terms. It is shown that the interaction forces between the separate parts of the boundary are always attractive. The generalization to the case of a scalar field with Neumann boundary condition is discussed.
Instability of a vortex sheet leaving a right-angled wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llewellyn Smith, Stefan; Davis, Anthony
2016-11-01
We examine the dynamics of a semi-infinite vortex sheet attached not to a semi-infinite plate but instead to a rigid right-angled wedge, with the sheet aligned along one of its edges. The resulting linearised unsteady potential flow is forced by an oscillatory dipole in the uniform stream passing along the top of the wedge, while there is stagnant fluid in the remaining quadrant. The essentially quadrant-type geometry replaces the usual Wiener-Hopf technique by the Mellin transform. The core difficulty is that a first-order difference equation of period 4 requires a solution of period unity. As a result the complex fourth roots (+/- 1 +/- i) of - 4 appear in the complementary function. The Helmholtz instability wave is excited and requires careful handling to obtain explicit results for the amplitude of the instability wave.
Complex interactions between diapirs and 4-D subduction driven mantle wedge circulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sylvia, R. T.; Kincaid, C. R.
2015-12-01
Analogue laboratory experiments generate 4-D flow of mantle wedge fluid and capture the evolution of buoyant mesoscale diapirs. The mantle is modeled with viscous glucose syrup with an Arrhenius type temperature dependent viscosity. To characterize diapir evolution we experiment with a variety of fluids injected from multiple point sources. Diapirs interact with kinematically induced flow fields forced by subducting plate motions replicating a range of styles observed in dynamic subduction models (e.g., rollback, steepening, gaps). Data is collected using high definition timelapse photography and quantified using image velocimetry techniques. While many studies assume direct vertical connections between the volcanic arc and the deeper mantle source region, our experiments demonstrate the difficulty of creating near vertical conduits. Results highlight extreme curvature of diapir rise paths. Trench-normal deflection occurs as diapirs are advected downward away from the trench before ascending into wedge apex directed return flow. Trench parallel deflections up to 75% of trench length are seen in all cases, exacerbated by complex geometry and rollback motion. Interdiapir interaction is also important; upwellings with similar trajectory coalesce and rapidly accelerate. Moreover, we observe a new mode of interaction whereby recycled diapir material is drawn down along the slab surface and then initiates rapid fluid migration updip along the slab-wedge interface. Variability in trajectory and residence time leads to complex petrologic inferences. Material from disparate source regions can surface at the same location, mix in the wedge, or become fully entrained in creeping flow adding heterogeneity to the mantle. Active diapirism or any other vertical fluid flux mechanism employing rheological weakening lowers viscosity in the recycling mantle wedge affecting both solid and fluid flow characteristics. Many interesting and insightful results have been presented based
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Xiangning; Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Pu, Zuyin; Weygand, James J.; Khurana, Krishan; Connors, Martin; Kissinger, Jennifer; Zhang, Hui; Amm, Olaf
2014-03-01
The classic substorm current wedge model represents ground and space magnetic perturbations measured during substorms. We have developed an inversion technique to calculate parameters determining the intensity and geometry of the current system using magnetic field data at midlatitudes. The current wedge consists of four segments: a sheet-like field-aligned current downward to the ionosphere postmidnight, a westward current across the auroral bulge, an upward sheet-like current from the westward surge premidnight, and an eastward current in the equatorial plane. The model has five parameters including the current strength, the locations, and breadths of the two field-aligned current sheets. Simultaneous changes in the ring current are represented by the superposition of a symmetric ring current and a partial ring current characterized by three additional parameters. Parameters of the model are determined as a function of time based on midlatitude ground magnetometers, using realistic field lines and accounting for Earth's induction. The model is validated by a variety of techniques. First, the model predicts more than 80% of the variance in the observations. Second, the intensity of the current wedge and the ring current follows the same trends of the westward electrojet and the ring current indices. Third, the intensity of the westward electrojet agrees extremely well with the intensity of the current wedge. Finally, spacecraft observations of the aurora correspond with the evolution deduced from the model. This model of the substorm current wedge provides a valuable tool for the study of substorm development and its relation to phenomena in space.
Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing
Baggett, Franklin E.; Cage, W. Franklin
1991-01-01
A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.
Interior impedance wedge diffraction with surface waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy
1988-01-01
The exact impedance wedge solution is evaluated asymptotically using the method of steepest descents for plane wave illumination at normal incidence. Uniform but different impedances on each face are considered for both soft and hard polarizations. The asymptotic solution isolates the incident, singly reflected, multiply reflected, diffracted, and surface wave fields. Multiply reflected fields of any order are permitted. The multiply reflected fields from the exact solution are written as ratios of auxiliary Maliuzhinets functions, whereas a geometrical analysis gives the reflected fields as products of reflection coefficients. These two representations are shown to be identical in magnitude, phase and the angular range over which they exist. The diffracted field includes four Fresnel transition functions as in the perfect conductor case, and the expressions for the appropriate discontinuities at the shadow boundaries are presented. The surface wave exists over a finite angular range and only for certain surface impedances. A surface wave transition field is included to retain continuity. Computations are presented for interior wedge diffractions although the formulation is valid for both exterior and interior wedges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoth, Silvan; Kukowski, Nina; Oncken, Onno
2008-08-01
Timeseries derived from two-dimensional sandbox simulations involving surface erosion are taken for the first time to be implemented into flexure calculations of foreland basins. Based on our results we highlight that orogenic systems are a four component system, consisting of a pro-foreland basin, a pro-wedge, a retro-wedge, and a retro-foreland basin. These four components are mechanically coupled via the load dependence of tectonic faulting [Mandl, G., 1988. Mechanics of tectonic faulting, 1st Edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam.] and the finite flexural rigidity of lithospheric plates [Beaumont, C., 1981. Foreland basins. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 5 (2), 291-329.]. We further demonstrate that the impact of pro-wedge erosion is most pronounced within the pro-wedge but also modifies the shape and size of the retro-wedge, which in turn changes the geometry and propagation velocity of the retro-foreland basin and vice versa. This suggests that one out of the four components of an orogenic system cannot be fully understood without recognition of the other three components. Thus, spatial separation between processes or observations does not necessarily imply their physical independence. This conceptual model is applied in a case study to the Pyrenean orogenic wedge and its Ebro and Aquitaine foreland basins. Our analysis suggests that the Pyrenean pro- and retro-wedge are mechanically coupled and that this coupling manifests itself in the migration of depocentres in both foreland basins. We finally explore implications for the formation of Mississippi Valley Type deposits.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity beyond spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moschella, U.; Novello, M.
2017-04-01
We construct several exact solutions for a recently proposed geometric scalar theory of gravity. We focus on a class of axisymmetric geometries and a big-bang-like geometry and discuss their Lorentzian character. The axisymmetric solutions are parametrized by an integer angular momentum l . The l =0 (spherical) case gives rise to the Schwarzschild geometry. The other solutions have naked singular surfaces. While not a priori obvious, all the solutions that we present here are globally Lorentzian. The Lorentzian signature appears to be a robust property of the disformal geometries solving the vacuum geometric scalar theory of gravity equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peeples, Steven
2015-01-01
A three degree of freedom (DOF) spherical actuator is proposed that will replace functions requiring three single DOF actuators in robotic manipulators providing space and weight savings while reducing the overall failure rate. Exploration satellites, Space Station payload manipulators, and rovers requiring pan, tilt, and rotate movements need an actuator for each function. Not only does each actuator introduce additional failure modes and require bulky mechanical gimbals, each contains many moving parts, decreasing mean time to failure. A conventional robotic manipulator is shown in figure 1. Spherical motors perform all three actuation functions, i.e., three DOF, with only one moving part. Given a standard three actuator system whose actuators have a given failure rate compared to a spherical motor with an equal failure rate, the three actuator system is three times as likely to fail over the latter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory reliability studies of NASA robotic spacecraft have shown that mechanical hardware/mechanism failures are more frequent and more likely to significantly affect mission success than are electronic failures. Unfortunately, previously designed spherical motors have been unable to provide the performance needed by space missions. This inadequacy is also why they are unavailable commercially. An improved patentable spherically actuated motor (SAM) is proposed to provide the performance and versatility required by NASA missions.
Impulse Response of a Density Contrast Wedge Using Normal Coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Dezhang
The exact impulse solutions of a point source for a penetrable wedge (rhonerho ', upsilon = upsilon ') and a shallow water wedge using normal coordinates are presented. This is the extension of Biot and Tolstoy's exact solution in normal coordinates for a rigid wedge. Our solutions reduce to known solutions for rigid (rho'toinfty ), free (rho'to 0), and homogeneous (rho' = rho) wedges. The direct, reflected, transmitted and diffracted waves are well separated in time domain. The reflected (transmitted) part can be described by the direct waves traveling from the images around the image circle to the receiver, the amplitude depends on the number of times that the actual wave is reflected from the wedge walls. The diffracted part of the solution is not the solution for an ideal wedge (rigid or free) multiplied by an impedance factor. Transmission of acoustic wave in a wedge shaped waveguide (shallow water wedge) can also be solved in a normal mode formulation. An array of sources can excite single mode transmission in the waveguide. Alternatively, a combination of the wedge solution for a set of source positions can also be chosen to excite a single mode. The normal mode technique and wedge solution using normal coordinates give the same signal amplitudes. We compare our wedge solutions with the laboratory experimental measurements given by Tindle et al. The good agreements of the theoretical predictions with their experimental data suggests that the exact solution of an isovelocity wedge can be applied for a more general penetrable wedge by incorporating the total reflections if the velocity contrast is as close enough to 1.0.
Pohl, Margaret; Nicol, Richard O
2003-01-01
Ten patients (13 feet) aged 4 to 11 years with idiopathic clubfeet underwent bony correction for resistant supination and adduction deformities. A closing wedge cuboid osteotomy and medial cuneiform opening wedge and transcuneiform osteotomy were performed in all cases. The average improvement in anteroposterior talo-first metatarsal angle of 22 degrees, calcaneo-fifth metatarsal angle of 13 degrees, and lateral calcaneo-first metatarsal of 9 degrees confirmed the clinically satisfactory correction in all feet. However, one foot required repeat surgery 2 years after the index procedure.
Spherical geodesic mesh generation
Fung, Jimmy; Kenamond, Mark Andrew; Burton, Donald E.; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich
2015-02-27
In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.
Optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge.
Walker, C P; Richmond, N D; Lambert, G D
2003-01-01
Installation of a modern high-energy Siemens Primus linear accelerator at the Northern Centre for Cancer Treatment (NCCT) provided the opportunity to investigate the optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge filter. Previously published work has concentrated on the production of virtual wedge angles at 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees as replacements for the Siemens hard wedges of the same nominal angles. However, treatment plan optimization of the dose distribution can be achieved with the Primus, as its control software permits the selection of any virtual wedge angle from 15 degrees to 60 degrees in increments of 1 degrees. The same result can also be produced from a combination of open and 60 degrees wedged fields. Helax-TMS models both of these modes of virtual wedge delivery by the wedge angle and the wedge fraction methods respectively. This paper describes results of timing studies in the planning of optimized patient dose distributions by both methods and in the subsequent treatment delivery procedures. Employment of the wedge fraction method results in the delivery of small numbers of monitor units to the beam's central axis; therefore, wedge profile stability and delivered dose with low numbers of monitor units were also investigated. The wedge fraction was proven to be the most efficient method when the time taken for both planning and treatment delivery were taken into consideration, and is now used exclusively for virtual wedge treatment delivery in Newcastle. It has also been shown that there are no unfavorable dosimetric consequences from its practical implementation.
Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.
Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J
2013-07-01
Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.
Plastic deformation of a wedge by a sliding punch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepershin, R. I.
2016-11-01
We present a self-similar solution of the problem of deformation of an ideally plastic wedge by a sliding punch with regard to contact friction; such a solution generalizes the well-known solutions of the problem of wedge penetration into a plastic half-space and of compression of an ideally plastic wedge by a plane punch. The problem is of interest for modeling the processes of plastic deformation of rough surfaces of metal pieces by a rigid tool.
Characterizing human retinotopic mapping with conformal geometry: a preliminary study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ta, Duyan; Shi, Jie; Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Yalin
2014-03-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to measure the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex in the human brain. Previous studies have identified multiple visual field maps (VFMs) based on statistical analysis of fMRI signals, but the resulting geometry has not been fully characterized with mathematical models. Here we test whether VFMs V1 and V2 obey the least restrictive of all geometric mappings; that is, whether they are anglepreserving and therefore maintain conformal mapping. We measured retinotopic organization in individual subjects using standard traveling-wave fMRI methods. Visual stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising rotating wedges and expanding rings to measure the cortical representations of polar angle and eccentricity, respectively. These representations were then projected onto a 3D cortical mesh of each hemisphere. By generating a mapped unit disk that is conformal of the VFMs using spherical stereographic projection and computing the parameterized coordinates of the eccentricity and polar angle gradients, we computed Beltrami coefficients to check whether the mapping from the visual field to the V1 and V2 cortical representations is conformal. We find that V1 and V2 exhibit local conformality. Our analysis of the Beltrami coefficient shows that selected regions of V1 and V2 that contain reasonably smooth eccentricity and polar angle gradients do show significant local conformality, warranting further investigation of this approach for analysis of early and higher visual cortex. These results suggest that such a mathematical model can be used to characterize the early VFMs in human visual cortex.
Vibration frequencies of a constrained cantilever wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.; Lu, Yangshan
1989-05-01
This paper presents the solution for the natural frequencies of a beam tapered in one direction, or a wedge, with both a rotational and a translational constraint at a position along the length of the beam. The eigenfrequencies were determined using an incremental search and bisection method, accurate to the fourth decimal place. The taper ratio was varied from 1.4 to 5.0 and the dimensionless spring constants were varied from 0 to 1000. Graphs are provided to illustrate some results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.
Spot size effects in miniaturized moving-optical-wedge interferometer.
Al-Saeed, Tarek A; Khalil, Diaa A
2011-06-10
In this paper we study the effect of diffraction on the performance of a miniaturized moving-optical-wedge interferometer. By using the Gaussian model, we calculate the degradation of the interferometer visibility due to diffraction effects. We use this model to optimize the detector size required to obtain maximum visibility and study its effect on resolution of Fourier transform spectrometers based on a moving-optical-wedge interferometer. A comparison between these effects in Michelson and wedge interferometers is also presented showing the advantage of the moving-optical-wedge interferometer in suppressing the diffraction effects with respect to the Michelson interferometer.
Impingement of water droplets on wedges and double-wedge airfoils at supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serafini, John S
1954-01-01
An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees r, free stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semiapex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.
Applications of Differential Geometry to Cartography
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benitez, Julio; Thome, Nestor
2004-01-01
This work introduces an application of differential geometry to cartography. The mathematical aspects of some geographical projections of Earth surface are revealed together with some of its more important properties. An important problem since the discovery of the 'spherical' form of the Earth is how to compose a reliable map of the surface of…
Applications of Differential Geometry to Cartography
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benitez, Julio; Thome, Nestor
2004-01-01
This work introduces an application of differential geometry to cartography. The mathematical aspects of some geographical projections of Earth surface are revealed together with some of its more important properties. An important problem since the discovery of the 'spherical' form of the Earth is how to compose a reliable map of the surface of…
Central Mexican Subduction zone evolution controlled by a low viscosity mantle wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manea, V. C.; Gurnis, M.
2006-12-01
It is generally accepted that dehydration of subducting lithosphere transport fluids into the mantle wedge. Such dehydration of the slab may ultimately cause a decrease in the mantle wedge viscosity. Such decreasing in viscosity can form a well-defined low viscosity wedge (LVW) on top of the subducting slab. Using numerical models, we study the effect of a LVW on time-dependent subduction. The modeling results show a substantial influence on slab evolution. For example, an order of magnitude reduction of wedge viscosity leads on an increase in slab dip from an initial 30° to 50° after 10 Myr of convergence. Also, the slab overthickening observed in previously published dynamic models due to slab attachment to the overriding plate, is eliminated by introducing a LVW for models with or without trench rollback. Our study shows two end member states, depending on the maximum depth extent of the LVW (for a viscosity reduction factor of 10). Models with a LVW extending down to 400 km depth show a steep slab geometry (dip > 50°), whereas a shallow LVW produces flat slabs, including perfectly flat slabs (dips = 0°). Assuming that slab and sediment dehydration are responsible for lowering the mantle viscosity, the maximum depth extent of the LVW is mainly controlled by the age of the incoming plate and convergence rate. Thus, large variations in LVW geometry and viscosity have significant impact on the slab geometry and volcanic arc evolution through time. We apply these results to the Central Mexican subduction zone, an unusually shallow (~40-45 km depth) and nearly perfectly flat slab associated with a distant volcanic arc. According to geochronological data, the onset of the flat slab took place ~15-20 Ma, after the Farallon plate broke into the smaller Cocos plate (~24 Ma). The much younger Cocos plate could have shifted the bulk of slab dehydration to shallower depths. A dynamic model incorporating a shrinking LVW through time and space, with a viscosity at least
Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko
2016-01-01
Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper
Close packing of rods on spherical surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut
2016-04-01
We study the optimal packing of short, hard spherocylinders confined to lie tangential to a spherical surface, using simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulations. For clusters of up to twelve particles, we map out the changes in the geometry of the closest-packed configuration as a function of the aspect ratio L/D, where L is the cylinder length and D the diameter of the rods. We find a rich variety of cluster structures. For larger clusters, we find that the best-packed configurations up to around 100 particles are highly dependent on the exact number of particles and aspect ratio. For even larger clusters, we find largely disordered clusters for very short rods (L/D = 0.25), while slightly longer rods (L/D = 0.5 or 1) prefer a global baseball-like geometry of smectic-like domains, similar to the behavior of large-scale nematic shells. Intriguingly, we observe that when compared to their optimal flat-plane packing, short rods adapt to the spherical geometry more efficiently than both spheres and longer rods. Our results provide predictions for experimentally realizable systems of colloidal rods trapped at the interface of emulsion droplets.
Colloidal cholesteric liquid crystal in spherical confinement
Li, Yunfeng; Jun-Yan Suen, Jeffrey; Prince, Elisabeth; Larin, Egor M.; Klinkova, Anna; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Zhu, Shoujun; Yang, Bai; Helmy, Amr S.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Kumacheva, Eugenia
2016-01-01
The organization of nanoparticles in constrained geometries is an area of fundamental and practical importance. Spherical confinement of nanocolloids leads to new modes of packing, self-assembly, phase separation and relaxation of colloidal liquids; however, it remains an unexplored area of research for colloidal liquid crystals. Here we report the organization of cholesteric liquid crystal formed by nanorods in spherical droplets. For cholesteric suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals, with progressive confinement, we observe phase separation into a micrometer-size isotropic droplet core and a cholesteric shell formed by concentric nanocrystal layers. Further confinement results in a transition to a bipolar planar cholesteric morphology. The distribution of polymer, metal, carbon or metal oxide nanoparticles in the droplets is governed by the nanoparticle size and yields cholesteric droplets exhibiting fluorescence, plasmonic properties and magnetic actuation. This work advances our understanding of how the interplay of order, confinement and topological defects affects the morphology of soft matter. PMID:27561545
Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, F.
1976-01-01
Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.
Colloidal cholesteric liquid crystal in spherical confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yunfeng; Jun-Yan Suen, Jeffrey; Prince, Elisabeth; Larin, Egor M.; Klinkova, Anna; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Zhu, Shoujun; Yang, Bai; Helmy, Amr S.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Kumacheva, Eugenia
2016-08-01
The organization of nanoparticles in constrained geometries is an area of fundamental and practical importance. Spherical confinement of nanocolloids leads to new modes of packing, self-assembly, phase separation and relaxation of colloidal liquids; however, it remains an unexplored area of research for colloidal liquid crystals. Here we report the organization of cholesteric liquid crystal formed by nanorods in spherical droplets. For cholesteric suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals, with progressive confinement, we observe phase separation into a micrometer-size isotropic droplet core and a cholesteric shell formed by concentric nanocrystal layers. Further confinement results in a transition to a bipolar planar cholesteric morphology. The distribution of polymer, metal, carbon or metal oxide nanoparticles in the droplets is governed by the nanoparticle size and yields cholesteric droplets exhibiting fluorescence, plasmonic properties and magnetic actuation. This work advances our understanding of how the interplay of order, confinement and topological defects affects the morphology of soft matter.
Base pressure associated with incompressible flow past wedges at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warpinski, N. R.; Chow, W. L.
1979-01-01
A model is suggested to study the viscid-inviscid interaction associated with steady incompressible flow past wedges of arbitrary angles. It is shown from this analysis that the determination of the nearly constant pressure (base pressure) prevailing within the near wake is really the heart of the problem and this pressure can only be determined from these interactive considerations. The basic free streamline flow field is established through two discrete parameters which should adequately describe the inviscid flow around the body and the wake. The viscous flow processes such as boundary-layer buildup along the wedge surface, jet mixing, recompression, and reattachment which occurs along the region attached to the inviscid flow in the sense of the boundary-layer concept, serve to determine the aforementioned parameters needed for the establishment of the inviscid flow. It is found that the point of reattachment behaves as a saddle point singularity for the system of equations describing the viscous recompression process. Detailed results such as the base pressure, pressure distributions on the wedge surface, and the wake geometry as well as the influence of the characteristic Reynolds number are obtained. Discussion of these results and their comparison with the experimental data are reported.
Viscid-inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges at high Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warpinski, N. R.; Chow, W. L.
1977-01-01
An analytical method is suggested for the study of the viscid inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges with arbitrary angles. It is shown that the determination of the nearly constant pressure (base pressure) prevailing within the near wake is really the heart of the problem, and the pressure can only be established from these interactive considerations. The basic free streamline flow field is established through two discrete parameters which adequately describe the inviscid flow around the body and the wake. The viscous flow processes such as the boundary layer buildup, turbulent jet mixing, and recompression are individually analyzed and attached to the inviscid flow in the sense of the boundary layer concept. The interaction between the viscous and inviscid streams is properly displayed by the fact that the aforementioned discrete parameters needed for the inviscid flow are determined by the viscous flow condition at the point of reattachment. It is found that the reattachment point behaves as a saddle point singularity for the system of equations describing the recompressive viscous flow processes, and this behavior is exploited for the establishment of the overall flow field. Detailed results such as the base pressure, pressure distributions on the wedge, and the geometry of the wake are determined as functions of the wedge angle.
Parry, Andrew O; Rascón, Carlos
2011-01-12
We argue that whenever an interface, separating bulk fluid phases, adopts a non-planar configuration (induced by a confining geometry or thermal fluctuations, say), the energy cost of it will contain a non-local self-interaction term. For systems with short-ranged forces and Ising symmetry, we determine the self-interaction by integrating out bulk-like degrees of freedom from a more microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. The self-interaction can be written in a simple diagrammatic form involving integrals over effective two-body forces acting at the interface and consistently accounts for a number of known features of the microscopic model, including the wavevector dependence of the surface tension describing the fluctuations of a near planar interface. When applied to wedge filling transitions, the self-interaction describes the attraction between the wetting films on either side of the wedge. We show that, for sufficiently acute wedges, this can alter the order of the filling phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parry, Andrew O.; Rascón, Carlos
2011-01-01
We argue that whenever an interface, separating bulk fluid phases, adopts a non-planar configuration (induced by a confining geometry or thermal fluctuations, say), the energy cost of it will contain a non-local self-interaction term. For systems with short-ranged forces and Ising symmetry, we determine the self-interaction by integrating out bulk-like degrees of freedom from a more microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. The self-interaction can be written in a simple diagrammatic form involving integrals over effective two-body forces acting at the interface and consistently accounts for a number of known features of the microscopic model, including the wavevector dependence of the surface tension describing the fluctuations of a near planar interface. When applied to wedge filling transitions, the self-interaction describes the attraction between the wetting films on either side of the wedge. We show that, for sufficiently acute wedges, this can alter the order of the filling phase transition.
Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by serpentine deformation in the hydrated mantle wedge.
Katayama, Ikuo; Hirauchi, Ken-ichi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ando, Jun-ichi
2009-10-22
Seismic anisotropy is a powerful tool for detecting the geometry and style of deformation in the Earth's interior, as it primarily reflects the deformation-induced preferred orientation of anisotropic crystals. Although seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle is generally attributed to the crystal-preferred orientation of olivine, the strong trench-parallel anisotropy (delay time of one to two seconds) observed in several subduction systems is difficult to explain in terms of olivine anisotropy, even if the entire mantle wedge were to act as an anisotropic source. Here we show that the crystal-preferred orientation of serpentine, the main hydrous mineral in the upper mantle, can produce the strong trench-parallel seismic anisotropy observed in subduction systems. High-pressure deformation experiments reveal that the serpentine c-axis tends to rotate to an orientation normal to the shear plane during deformation; consequently, seismic velocity propagating normal to the shear plane (plate interface) is much slower than that in other directions. The seismic anisotropy estimated for deformed serpentine aggregates is an order of magnitude greater than that for olivine, and therefore the alignment of serpentine in the hydrated mantle wedge results in a strong trench-parallel seismic anisotropy in the case of a steeply subducting slab. This hypothesis is also consistent with the presence of a hydrous phase in the mantle wedge, as inferred from anomalously low seismic-wave velocities.
Molecular Depth Profiling by Wedged Crater Beveling
Mao, Dan; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas; Wucher, Andreas
2011-01-01
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by a 40keV C60+ cluster ion beam on an organic film of Irganox 1010 doped with Irganox 3114 delta layers. From an examination of the resulting surface, the information about depth resolution, topography and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth for every depth in a single experiment. It is shown that when measurements are performed at liquid nitrogen temperature, a constant erosion rate and reduced bombardment induced surface roughness is observed. At room temperature, however, the erosion rate drops by ~1/3 during the removal of the 400 nm Irganox film and the roughness gradually increased to from 1 nm ~4 nm. From SIMS lateral images of the beveled crater and AFM topography results, depth resolution was further improved by employing glancing angles of incidence and lower primary ion beam energy. Sub-10 nm depth resolution was observed under the optimized conditions on a routine basis. In general, we show that the wedge-crater beveling is an important tool for elucidating the factors that are important for molecular depth profiling experiments. PMID:21744861
Kinematic dynamos in spheroidal geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivers, D. J.
2017-10-01
The kinematic dynamo problem is solved numerically for a spheroidal conducting fluid of possibly large aspect ratio with an insulating exterior. The solution method uses solenoidal representations of the magnetic field and the velocity by spheroidal toroidal and poloidal fields in a non-orthogonal coordinate system. Scaling of coordinates and fields to a spherical geometry leads to a modified form of the kinematic dynamo problem with a geometric anisotropic diffusion and an anisotropic current-free condition in the exterior, which is solved explicitly. The scaling allows the use of well-developed spherical harmonic techniques in angle. Dynamo solutions are found for three axisymmetric flows in oblate spheroids with semi-axis ratios 1≤a/c≤25. For larger aspect ratios strong magnetic fields may occur in any region of the spheroid, depending on the flow, but the external fields for all three flows are weak and concentrated near the axis or periphery of the spheroid.
Formation of metamorphic core complex in inherited wedges: A thermomechanical modelling study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Burov, E. B.; Jolivet, L.
2011-09-01
Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) form when a thickened domain with a low-strength lower crust is submitted to extension. These structures are characteristic of post-orogenic extension, and field observations suggest that several MCCs rework a crustal nappe-stack emplaced before extension begins. These MCCs therefore develop within heterogeneous crusts that contain pre-existing dipping heterogeneities, such as thrust faults and dipping nappes in a crustal wedge. Although very common, this first order structural inheritance has never been considered in studies modelling MCCs. Our contribution therefore investigates the effect of an inherited crustal wedge structure on the dynamics and kinematics of formation of the MCCs, using fully coupled thermomechanical modelling. The wealth of petrological, structural and time informations available in the Cycladic MCCs (Aegean domain) allows setting up more realistic initial conditions for the experiments than usual flat-lying setups. It also allows the results of the numerical computation to be directly validated with final geometries, P-T paths and exhumation rates. The experiments using dipping heterogeneities are characterised by a much more complex evolution and final structure than their flat-lying layered equivalents. Dipping heterogeneities drive lateral strength contrasts and help to re-localise the deformation on successive detachments. The dip of the inherited wedge structures imposes kinematic constraints on the flow, which provides a model that explains the regional scale asymmetry of the Cycladic MCCs. The P-T paths, the exhumation rates and the final crustal structure that come out of an initial shallow-dipping wedge model provide a much more realistic comparison with their natural counter-parts than common flat-lying models. Other parameters, like crustal-scale density inversion, thermal structure and creep law parameters are of second order when compared to the initial wedge structure. Being little dependent
Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.
2016-11-01
How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.
Spherical coordinate descriptions of cylindrical and spherical Bessel beams.
Poletti, M A
2017-03-01
This paper derives a generalized spherical harmonic description of Bessel beams. The spherical harmonic description of the well-known cylindrical Bessel beams is reviewed and a family of spherical Bessel beams are introduced which can provide a number of azimuthal phase variations for a single beam radial amplitude. The results are verified by numerical simulations.
ul Haq, Muhammad Noaman; Saeed, R.; Shah, Asif
2010-08-15
The propagation of ion acoustic shock waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries has been investigated. The plasma system consists of cold ions, Boltzmannian electrons and positrons. Spherical, cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equations have been derived by reductive perturbation technique and their shock behavior is studied by employing finite difference method. Our main emphasis is on the behavior of shock as it moves toward and away from center of spherical and cylindrical geometries. It is noticed, that the shock wave strength and steepness accrues with time as it moves toward the center and shock enervates as it moves away from center. The strength of shock in spherical geometry is found to dominate over shock strength in cylindrical geometry. Positron concentration, kinematic viscosity are also found to have significant effect on the shock structure and propagation. The results may have relevance in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas.
Geometric Monte Carlo and black Janus geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Kim, Chanju; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Min, Hyunsoo; Song, Jeong-Pil
2017-04-01
We describe an application of the Monte Carlo method to the Janus deformation of the black brane background. We present numerical results for three and five dimensional black Janus geometries with planar and spherical interfaces. In particular, we argue that the 5D geometry with a spherical interface has an application in understanding the finite temperature bag-like QCD model via the AdS/CFT correspondence. The accuracy and convergence of the algorithm are evaluated with respect to the grid spacing. The systematic errors of the method are determined using an exact solution of 3D black Janus. This numerical approach for solving linear problems is unaffected initial guess of a trial solution and can handle an arbitrary geometry under various boundary conditions in the presence of source fields.
Chemical waves on spherical surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselko, Jerzy; Showalter, Kenneth
1989-06-01
THE concentric-circular and spiral patterns exhibited by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in thin films of solution are representative of spatiotemporal behaviour in a two-dimensional, planar excitable medium1-6. Here we report BZ chemical waves propagating on the two-dimensional surface of a sphere. A wave on the surface of a single cation-exchange bead, loaded with ferroin and bathed in BZ reaction mixture containing no catalyst, develops to form a rotating spiral. Unlike spiral waves in thin films of solution, which typically wind out to connect with a twin rotating in the opposite direction, these waves rotate from pole to pole in a single direction. The spiral winds outward from a meandering source at one pole, crosses the equator, and undergoes self-annihilation as it winds into itself at the other pole. This behaviour, which is not possible in a two-dimensional planar configuration, arises from qualitative (negative to positive) and quantitative changes in wavefront curvature as the wave traverses the spherical surface. These observations of a single spiral wave contrast with theoretical predictions7,8 of counter-rotating spirals in this geometry.
Spherical torus fusion reactor
Peng, Yueng-Kay M.
1989-01-01
A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.
Spherical torus fusion reactor
Peng, Yueng-Kay M.
1989-04-04
A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.
1986-01-01
Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.
Noncommuting spherical coordinates
Bander, Myron
2004-10-15
Restricting the states of a charged particle to the lowest Landau level introduces a noncommutativity between Cartesian coordinate operators. This idea is extended to the motion of a charged particle on a sphere in the presence of a magnetic monopole. Restricting the dynamics to the lowest energy level results in noncommutativity for angular variables and to a definition of a noncommuting spherical product. The values of the commutators of various angular variables are not arbitrary but are restricted by the discrete magnitude of the magnetic monopole charge. An algebra, isomorphic to angular momentum, appears. This algebra is used to define a spherical star product. Solutions are obtained for dynamics in the presence of additional angular dependent potentials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.
1986-01-01
Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.
Spherical nitroguanidine process
Sanchez, John A.; Roemer, Edward L.; Stretz, Lawrence A.
1990-01-01
A process of preparing spherical high bulk density nitroguanidine by dissing low bulk density nitroguanidine in N-methyl pyrrolidone at elevated temperatures and then cooling the solution to lower temperatures as a liquid characterized as a nonsolvent for the nitroguanidine is provided. The process is enhanced by inclusion in the solution of from about 1 ppm up to about 250 ppm of a metal salt such as nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate or chromium nitrate, preferably from about 20 to about 50 ppm.
Recent progress on spherical torus research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert
2015-04-01
The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ˜ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ˜ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.
Recent progress on spherical torus research
Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert
2015-04-15
The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.
Enrichment Activities for Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usiskin, Zalman
1983-01-01
Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)
21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention.... External mechanical support of the perianal region is intended to help prevent the occurrence of external...
49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...
49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...
49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...
21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention... hemorrhoids associated with vaginal childbirth. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special...
28. REPRESENTATIVE CENTER WEDGE. BALANCE WHEELS ON TRACK, WITH RACK ...
28. REPRESENTATIVE CENTER WEDGE. BALANCE WHEELS ON TRACK, WITH RACK TO OUTSIDE, SHOWN TO RIGHT OF THE WEDGE. PHOTO TAKEN AT SOUTH SWING SPAN. - George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, Spanning York River at U.S. Route 17, Yorktown, York County, VA
Stability of thick spherical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, I.-Shih
1995-06-01
The pressure-radius relation of spherical rubber balloons has been derived and its stability behavior investigated before. In this work, we show that similar results remain valid for thick spherical shells of Mooney-Rivlin materials. In addition, we show that eversion of a spherical shell is possible for any incompressible isotropic materials if the shell is not too thick.
Ground penetrating radar estimates of permafrost ice wedge depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsekian, A.; Slater, L. D.; Nolan, J. T.; Grosse, G.; Walter Anthony, K. M.
2013-12-01
Vertical ground ice wedges associated with polygonal patterning in permafrost environments form due to frost cracking of soils under harsh winter conditions and subsequent infilling of cracks with snow melt water. Ice wedge polygon patterns have implications for lowland geomorphology, hydrology, and vulnerability of permafrost to thaw. Ice wedge dimensions may exceed two meters width at the surface and several meters depth, however few studies have addressed the question of ice wedge depth due to challenges related to measuring the vertical dimension below the ground. Vertical exposures where ice wedges maybe observed are limited to rapidly retreating lake, river, and coastal bluffs. Coring though the ice wedges to determine vertical extent is possible, however that approach is time consuming and labor intensive. Many geophysical investigations have noted signal anomalies related to the presence of ice wedges, but no reliable method for extracting wedge dimensions from geophysical data has been yet proposed. Here we present new evidence that ground penetrating radar (GPR) may be a viable method for estimating ice wedge depth. We present three new perspectives on processing GPR data collected over ice wedges that show considerable promise for use as a fast, cost effective method for evaluating ice wedge depth. Our novel approaches include 1) a simple frequency-domain analysis, 2) an S-transform frequency domain analysis and 3) an analysis of the returned signal power as a radar cross section (RCS) treating subsurface ice wedges as dihedral corner retro-reflectors. Our methods are demonstrated and validated using finite-difference time domain FDTD) GPR forward models of synthetic idealized ice wedges and field data from permafrost sites in Alaska. Our results indicate that frequency domain and signal power data provide information that is easier to extract from raw GPR data than similar information in the time domain. We also show that we can simplify the problem by
Drumhead model of 2D wetting, filling and wedge covariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abraham, D. B.; Parry, A. O.; Wood, A. J.
2002-10-01
Recent work has demonstrated novel fluid interfacial behaviour occurring at filling or wedge-wetting transitions in two- and three-dimensional systems. In particular, in two dimensions (2D) studies of filling in shallow wedges, for both pure and impure systems, reveal simple covariance relations which relate criticality at filling to strong-fluctuation regime wetting and restrict the allowed critical singularities. Here we introduce a drumhead interfacial model of filling in acute wedges which can be adapted to include an orientation-dependent surface tension. We calculate the excess wedge free energy and scaling form of the mid-point height probability distribution function (PDF) and demonstrate that the covariance relations are the same as found in the shallow wedge approximation. Connections with exact Ising model results and a bubble model interpretation of the interfacial height PDF at wetting are made.
Configuration and Generation of Substorm Current Wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Xiangning
The substorm current wedge (SCW), a core element of substorm dynamics coupling the magnetotail to the ionosphere, is crucial in understanding substorms. It has been suggested that the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the SCW are caused by either pressure gradients or flow vortices, or both. Our understanding of FAC generations is based predominately on numerical simulations, because it has not been possible to organize spacecraft observations in a coordinate system determined by the SCW. This dissertation develops an empirical inversion model of the current wedge and inverts midlatitude magnetometer data to obtain the parameters of the current wedge for three solar cycles. This database enables statistical data analysis of spacecraft plasma and magnetic field observations relative to the SCW coordinate. In chapter 2, a new midlatitude positive bay (MPB) index is developed and calculated for three solar cycles of data. The MPB index is processed to determine the substorm onset time, which is shown to correspond to the auroral breakup onset with at most 1-2 minutes difference. Substorm occurrence rate is found to depend on solar wind speed while substorm duration is rather constant, suggesting that substorm process has an intrinsic pattern independent of external driving. In chapter 3, an SCW inversion technique is developed to determine the strength and locations of the FACs in an SCW. The inversion parameters for FAC strength and location, and ring current strength are validated by comparison with other measurements. In chapter 4, the connection between earthward flows and auroral poleward expansion is examined using improved mapping, obtained from a newly-developed dynamic magnetospheric model by superimposing a standard magnetospheric field model with substorm current wedge obtained from the inversion technique. It is shown that the ionospheric projection of flows observed at a fixed point in the equatorial plane map to the bright aurora as it expands poleward
Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.
Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.
Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses
Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; ...
2015-01-01
We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack.more » This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.« less
Substorm Current Wedge at Earth and Mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepko, L.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Slavin, J. A.; Sundberg, T.
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews magnetospheric substorms and dipolarizations observed at both Earth and Mercury. It briefly discusses new insights into the physics of the substorm current wedge (SCW) that have been revealed the past few years. The formation and evolution of the SCW are closely tied to the braking of flows convecting flux away from the reconnection site and the resultant near-planet flux pileup that creates the dipolarization. At Earth, the SCW plays a critical role in substorms, coupling magnetospheric to ionospheric motions, deflecting incoming plasma flows, and regulating the dissipation of pressure built up in the near-Earth magnetosphere during dipolarization. The lack of a conducting boundary at Mercury provides a natural experiment to examine the role of an ionosphere on regulating magnetospheric convection. Energetic particles may play a much greater role within substorms at Mercury than at Earth, providing another opportunity for comparative studies.
Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses
Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.
2015-01-01
We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack. This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.
Tin clusters adopt prolate geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Jarrold, Martin F.
1999-08-01
We have characterized the structures of Snn cations up to n=68 using ion mobility measurements. Up to n~35, tin clusters track the prolate growth pattern previously found for Sin and Gen. However, the detailed size-dependent variations start deviating from those observed for Sin above n=14 and Gen above n=21. Over the n~35-65 size range, tin clusters gradually rearrange towards near-spherical geometries, passing through several intermediate structural families. Two or three isomers are resolved for some sizes in the n=18-49 range. The observed geometries are independent of the He buffer gas temperature between 78 and 378 K and are not affected by collisional annealing.
The effect of a compliant accretionary wedge on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotto, Gabriel; Jeppson, Tamara; Dunham, Eric; Tobin, Harold
2016-04-01
The 11 March 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured through the shallowest part of the subduction zone boundary, resulting in tens of meters of displacement at the seafloor. This extreme shallow slip generated a devastating tsunami. The elastic properties of off-fault materials have an important role in determining slip along a fault. Laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed on samples of rock obtained from the area surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone during the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) have shown that shallow off-fault materials are extremely compliant - P-wave velocities of 2.0-2.4 km/s, S-wave velocities of 0.7-1.0 km/s, and shear moduli ranging from 1.0-2.2 GPa. Seismic imaging around the JFAST drill site corroborates the presence of a compliant, low-velocity frontal prism at the toe of the hanging wall. This compliant wedge is likely a fairly robust feature across the horizontal extent of the Japan Trench and may have contributed to the large amount of displacement recorded. In order to investigate the impact of compliant off fault materials on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis, we employ a 2-D finite difference method that models the full seismic and tsunami wavefield associated with dynamic rupture on a dipping fault in a heterogeneous medium. Our numerical method rigorously couples the elastodynamic response of the solid Earth to that of a compressible ocean in the presence of gravity. Idealized models of subduction zone earthquakes show that the presence of a compliant wedge leads to increased slip, greater seafloor displacement, and a larger tsunami. However, preliminary results for a representative Tohoku geometry were not so simple; the compliant wedge enhanced slip and seafloor deformation but only in a localized zone, and tsunami height was not significantly affected. This surprising result indicates that the details of geometry and material structure we observe in real subduction zones are
Seamount subduction underneath an accretionary wedge: modelling mass wasting and wedge collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael
2017-04-01
Seamounts (h >1 km) and knolls (h = 500 m-1000 m) cover about one-fifth of the total ocean floor area. These topographical highs of the ocean floor eventually get subducted. Subduction of these topographical features leads to severe deformation of the overriding plate and can cause extensive tectonic erosion and mass wasting of the frontal prism, which can ultimately cause a forearc wedge collapse. Large submarine landslides and the corresponding wedge collapse have previously been reported, for instance, in the northern part of the Hikurangi margin where the landslide is known as the giant Ruatoria debris avalanche, and have also been frequently reported in several seismic sections along the Costa Rica margin. Size and frequency relation of landslides suggest that the average size of submarine landslides in margins with rough subducting plates tends to be larger. However, this observation has not yet been tested or explained by physical models. In numerical subduction models, landslides take place, if at all, on a much larger timescale (in the order of 104-105 years, depending on the time steps of the model) than in natural cases. On the other hand, numerical models simulating mass wasting events such as avalanches and submarine landslides, typically model single events at a much smaller spatio-temporal domain, and do not consider long-term occurrence patterns of freely forming landslides. In this contribution, we present a multi-scale nested numerical approach to emulate short-term landslides within long-term progressive subduction. The numerical approach dynamically produces instantaneous submarine landslides and the resulting debris flow in the spatially and temporally refined inner model. Then we apply these convoluted changes in topography (e.g. due to the submarine landslide etc.) back to an outer larger-scale model instance that addresses wedge evolution. We use this approach to study the evolution of the accretionary wedge during seamount subduction.
Lavallé, F; Pascal-Mousselard, H; Rouvillain, J L; Ribeyre, D; Delattre, O; Catonné, Y
2004-10-01
The aim of this radiological study was to evaluate the use of a biphasic ceramic wedge combined with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws for open wedge tibial osteotomy. Twenty-six consecutive patients (27 knees) underwent surgery between December 1999 and March 2002 to establish a normal lower-limb axis. The series included 6 women and 20 men, mean age 50 years (16 right knees and 11 left knees). Partial weight-bearing with crutches was allowed on day 1. A standard radiological assessment was performed on day 1, 90, and 360 (plain AP and lateral stance films of the knee). A pangonogram was performed before surgery and at day 360. Presence of a lateral metaphyseal space, development of peripheral cortical bridges, and osteointegration of the bone substitute-bone interface were evaluated used to assess bone healing. The medial tibial angle between the line tangent to the tibial plateau and the anatomic axis of the tibia (beta) was evaluated to assess preservation of postoperative correction. The HKA angle was determined. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 23 patients (24 knees) were retained for analysis. At last follow-up, presence of peripheral cortical bridges and complete filling of the lateral metaphyseal space demonstrated bone healing in all patients. Good quality osteointegration was achieved since 21 knees did not present an interface between the bone substitute and native bone (homogeneous transition zone). The beta angle was unchanged for 23 knees. A normal axis was observed in patients (16 knees) postoperatively. Use of a biphasic ceramic wedge in combination with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws is a reliable option for open wedge tibial osteotomy. The bone substitute fills the gap well. Tolerance and integration are optimal. Bone healing is achieved. Plate fixation with protected weight bearing appears to be a solid assembly, maintaining these corrections.
An experimental investigation of supersonic flow past a wedge-cylinder configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnette, D. W.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation of supersonic flow past double-wedge configurations was conducted. Over the range of geometries tested, it was found that, while theoretical solutions both for a Type V pattern and for a Type VI pattern could be generated for a particular flow condition (as defined by the geometry and the free-stream conditions), the weaker, Type VI pattern was observed experimentally. More rigorous flow-field solutions were developed for the flow along the wing leading-edge. Solutions were developed for the three-dimensional flow in the plane of symmetry of a swept cylinder (which represented the wing leading-edge) which was mounted on a wedge (which generated the "bow" shock wave). A numerical code was developed using integral techniques to calculate the flow in the shock layer upstream of the interaction region (i.e., near the wing root). Heat transfer rates were calculated for various free stream conditions. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of crossflow on the resultant flow-field and to verify the flow model used in theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, Julia K.
2015-05-01
Particle-based numerical simulations of cohesive contractional wedges can yield important perspectives on the formation and evolution of fold and thrust belts, offering particular insights into the mechanical evolution of the systems. Results of several discrete element method simulations are presented here, demonstrating the stress and strain evolution of systems with different initial cohesive strengths. Particle assemblages consolidated under gravity, and bonded to impart cohesion, are pushed from the left at a constant velocity above a weak, unbonded décollement surface. Internal thrusting causes horizontal shortening and vertical thickening, forming wedge geometries. The mean wedge taper is similar for all simulations, consistent with their similar residual and basal sliding friction values. In all examples presented here, both forethrusts and back thrusts occur, but forethrusts accommodate most of the shortening. Fault spacing and offset increase with increasing cohesion. Significant tectonic volume strain also occurs, with the greatest incremental volume strain occurring just outboard of the deformation front. This diffuse shortening serves to strengthen the unfaulted domain in front of the deformed wedge, preconditioning these materials for brittle (dilative) failure. The reach of this volumetric strain and extent of décollement slip increase with cohesive strength, defining the extent of stress transmission. Stress paths for elements tracked through the simulations demonstrate systematic variations in shear stress in response to episodes of both décollement slip and thrust fault activity, providing a direct explanation for stress fluctuations during convergence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Nadler, Walter; Grassberger, Peter
2005-06-01
Lattice animals are one of the few critical models in statistical mechanics violating conformal invariance. We present here simulations of two-dimensional site animals on square and triangular lattices in nontrivial geometries. The simulations are done with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) algorithm, which gives very precise estimates of the partition sum, yielding precise values for the entropic exponent θ (ZN˜μNN-θ) . In particular, we studied animals grafted to the tips of wedges with a wide range of angles α , to the tips of cones (wedges with the sides glued together), and to branching points of Riemann surfaces. The latter can either have k sheets and no boundary, generalizing in this way cones to angles α>360° , or can have boundaries, generalizing wedges. We find conformal invariance behavior, θ˜1/α , only for small angles (α≪2π) , while θ≈const-α/2π for α≫2π . These scalings hold both for wedges and cones. A heuristic (nonconformal) argument for the behavior at large α is given, and comparison is made with critical percolation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stover, E.; Berger, G.; Wendel, M.; Petter, J.
2015-10-01
A method for non-contact 3D form testing of aspheric surfaces including determination of decenter and wedge errors and lens thickness is presented. The principle is based on the absolute measurement capability of multi-wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The approach produces high density 3D shape information and geometric parameters at high accuracy in short measurement times. The system allows inspection of aspheres without restrictions in terms of spherical departures, of segmented and discontinuous optics. The optics can be polished or ground and made of opaque or transparent materials.
Growing an actin gel on spherical surfaces.
Noireaux, V; Golsteyn, R M; Friederich, E; Prost, J; Antony, C; Louvard, D; Sykes, C
2000-01-01
Inspired by the motility of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, we have experimentally studied the growth of an actin gel around spherical beads grafted with ActA, a protein known to be the promoter of bacteria movement. On ActA-grafted beads F-actin is formed in a spherical manner, whereas on the bacteria a "comet-like" tail of F-actin is produced. We show experimentally that the stationary thickness of the gel depends on the radius of the beads. Moreover, the actin gel is not formed if the ActA surface density is too low. To interpret our results, we propose a theoretical model to explain how the mechanical stress (due to spherical geometry) limits the growth of the actin gel. Our model also takes into account treadmilling of actin. We deduce from our work that the force exerted by the actin gel on the bacteria is of the order of 10 pN. Finally, we estimate from our theoretical model possible conditions for developing actin comet tails. PMID:10692348
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
1988-01-01
Discusses the use of computer graphics in the teaching of geometry. Describes five types of geometry: Euclidean geometry, transformation geometry, coordinate geometry, three-dimensional geometry, and geometry of convex sets. (YP)
Wedge Dynamics, Forearc Basins, and Seismogenic Zone of Cascadia Megathrust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K.; Hu, Y.
2005-12-01
A dynamic critical wedge theory has been developed to describe stress changes in submarine wedges in great earthquake cycles. For most subduction zones, the theory postulates that the actively deforming outer wedge overlies the updip velocity-strengthening part of the subduction fault, and the less deformed inner wedge overlies the megathrust seismogenic zone. Coseismic shear-stress increase in the velocity-strengthening zone drives the outer wedge into the critical state, causing episodic fold-and-thrust deformation, but the inner wedge stays in the stable regime throughout earthquake cycles, maintaining a stable environment for the development of forearc sedimentary basins. This is consistent with the globally observed correlation of the location of forearc basins with rupture zones of subduction earthquakes [Wells et al., JGR, 2003]. However, northern/central Cascadia is complicated by recent, exceedingly rapid growth of the accretionary prism. Until mid-Pleistocene, the megathrust seismogenic zone was probably mostly beneath the forearc basins, in agreement with the modern global observations. Rapid wedge growth and consequent megathrust warming over the past Ma have caused the seismogenic zone to move seaward by tens of km, to a position consistent with inferences based on contemporary geodetic observations. With much of the seismogenic zone located seaward of the forearc basins and beneath the upper continental slope, the dynamic taper theory predicts that coseismic deformation should cause extensional structures on the upper slope but accretion and thrusting on the lower slope, consistent with structural observations [McNeill et al., JGR, 1998].
Nha, Kyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee
2016-11-01
It is unclear whether open- or closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in significant changes in posterior tibial slope, with no consensus on the magnitude of such changes. Furthermore, methods of measuring posterior tibial slope differ among studies. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to evaluate whether posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge HTO and decreases after closed-wedge HTO and to quantify the magnitudes of the slope changes after open- and closed-wedge HTO using various methods of measuring posterior tibial slope. Posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge and decreases after closed-wedge HTO. The magnitude of change is similar for the 2 methods, and the value obtained for posterior tibial slope change is affected by the method of measurement. Meta-analysis. Multiple comprehensive databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched for studies that evaluated the posterior slope of the proximal tibia in patients who had undergone open- and/or closed-wedge HTO. Studies were included that compared pre- and postoperative posterior tibial slopes, regardless of measurement method, including anterior and posterior tibial cortex or tibial shaft axis as a reference line, in patients who underwent open- or closed-wedge HTO. The quality of each included study was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data, which included subgroups of 3 methods, showed that posterior tibial slope increased 2.02° (95% CI, 2.66° to 1.38°; P = .005) after open-wedge HTO and decreased 2.35° (95% CI, 1.38° to 3.32°; P < .001) after closed-wedge HTO. This meta-analysis confirmed that posterior tibial slope increased after open-wedge HTO and decreased after closed-wedge HTO when the results of a variety of measurement methods were pooled. The magnitude of change after open- and closed-wedge HTO was similar and small (approximately 2°), suggesting
Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K.; Hu, Y.
2004-12-01
The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133.
Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.
Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P
2017-06-01
The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into
Herman, B M; Caudill, T R; Flittner, D E; Thome, K J; Ben-David, A
1995-07-20
Calculations that use the Gauss-Seidel method are presented of the diffusely scattered light in a spherical atmosphere with polarization fully included. Comparisons are made between this method and the Monte Carlo calculations of other researchers for spherical geometry in a pure Rayleigh atmosphere. Comparisons with plane-parallel atmospheres are also presented. Single-scatter intensity comparisons with spherical geometry show excellent agreement. When all orders of scattering are included, comparisons of polarization parameters I, Q and U as well as the plane of polarization show good agreement when allowances are made for the statistical variability inherent in the Monte Carlo method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herman, B. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Caudill, T. R.; Thome, K. J.; Ben-David, A.
1995-07-01
Calculations that use the Gauss-Seidel method are presented of the diffusely scattered light in a spherical atmosphere with polarization fully included. Comparisons are made between this method and the Monte Carlo calculations of other researchers for spherical geometry in a pure Rayleigh atmosphere. Comparisons with plane-parallel atmospheres are also presented. Single-scatter intensity comparisons with spherical geometry show excellent agreement. When all orders of scattering are included, comparisons of polarization parameters I, Q and U as well as the plane of polarization show good agreement when allowances are made for the statistical variability inherent in the Monte Carlo method.
Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petri, Michael
The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.
Automated semi-spherical irradiance meter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cabello-Ruiz, R.; Varona, J.
2011-09-01
In this semi-spherical meter, a single detector is used to realize all measurements, which is located on the extreme of a rectangular ring (assumed as joined two mobile branches in order to compensate the weights), describing half-meridians from 0° up to 170°. The illumination source under test is located at the center of the mobile support, which can rotate 360° horizontally. The two combined movements allow us to obtain a semi-spherical geometry. The number of measurement points is determined by the two step-motors located under the mobile support of the luminary and on one of the two fixed arms, which support the mobile rectangular ring, respectively. The mechanical arrangement has the enough rigidity to support the precision required for the acquisition stage, based on a dsPIC. The main advantages of this arrange are: Its low costs (using recyclable materials only such as "electronic waste"), a reliable detection based on a single photo-detector, with an integrated amplification stage, and the mechanical design. The received power by the detector is useful to obtain the irradiance profile of the lighting sources under test. The semi-spherical geometry of the meter makes it useful for the analysis of directive and non directive sources, in accordance with the angle described by the mobile ring. In this work, special attention is given to LED lamps due to its impact in several sceneries of the daily life. A comparison between the irradiance patterns of two LED lamps is also given.
Fracture and contact problems for an elastic wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, F.; Arin, K.
1976-01-01
The paper deals with the plane elastostatic contact problem for an infinite elastic wedge of arbitrary angle. The medium is loaded through a frictionless rigid wedge of a given symmetric profile. Using the Mellin transform formulation the mixed boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation with the contact stress as the unknown function. With the application of the results to the fracture of the medium in mind, the main emphasis in the study has been on the investigation of the singular nature of the stress state around the apex of the wedge and on the determination of the contact pressure.
Fracture and contact problems for an elastic wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, F.; Arin, K.
1974-01-01
The plane elastostatic contact problem for an infinite elastic wedge of arbitrary angle is discussed. The medium is loaded through a frictionless rigid wedge of a given symmetric profile. Using the Mellin transform formulation the mixed boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation with the contact stress as the unknown function. With the application of the results to the fracture of the medium in mind, the main emphasis in the study has been on the investigation of the singular nature of the stress state around the apex of the wedge and on the determination of the contact pressure.
Refined numerical solution of the transonic flow past a wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, S.-M.; Fung, K.-Y.
1985-01-01
A numerical procedure combining the ideas of solving a modified difference equation and of adaptive mesh refinement is introduced. The numerical solution on a fixed grid is improved by using better approximations of the truncation error computed from local subdomain grid refinements. This technique is used to obtain refined solutions of steady, inviscid, transonic flow past a wedge. The effects of truncation error on the pressure distribution, wave drag, sonic line, and shock position are investigated. By comparing the pressure drag on the wedge and wave drag due to the shocks, a supersonic-to-supersonic shock originating from the wedge shoulder is confirmed.
Ancient Yedoma carbon loss: primed by ice wedge thaw?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowdy, K. L.; Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Zimov, N.; Bulygina, E. B.; Davydova, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Holmes, R. M.
2012-12-01
Northeast Siberian permafrost is dominated by frozen Yedoma deposits containing ca. 500 Gt of carbon, nearly a quarter of northern permafrost organic carbon (OC). Yedoma deposits are Pleistocene-age alluvial and/or aeolian accumulations characterized by high ice wedge content (~50%), making them particularly vulnerable to a warming climate and to surface collapse upon thaw. Dissolved OC in streams originating primarily from Yedoma has been shown to be highly biolabile, relative to waters containing more modern OC. The cause of this biolability, however, remains speculative. Here we investigate the influence of ice wedge input upon the bioavailability of Yedoma within streams from as a potential cause of Yedoma carbon biolability upon release into the Kolyma River from the thaw-eroding river exposures of Duvannyi Yar, NE Siberia. We measured biolability on (1) ice wedge, Kolyma, and Yedoma leachate controls; (2) ice wedge and Kolyma plus Yedoma OC (8 g/L); and (3) varying ratios of ice wedge water to Kolyma river water. Biolability assays were conducted using both 5-day BOD (biological oxygen demand) and 11-day BDOC (biodegradable dissolved organic carbon) incubations. We found that ancient DOC in Yedoma soil leachate alone was highly biolabile with losses of 52±0.1% C over a 5-day BOD incubation. Similarly, DOC contained in pure ice wedge water was found to be biolabile, losing 21±0% C during a 5-day BOD incubation. Increased ice wedge contributions led to higher overall C losses in identical Yedoma soil leachates, with 8.9±0.6% losses of Yedoma C with 100% ice wedge water, 7.1±1% (50% ice wedge/ 50% Kolyma) and 5±0.3% with 100% Kolyma River water. We discuss potential mechanisms for the increased loss of ancient C using associated measurements of nutrient availability, carbon quality (CDOM/FDOM) and extracellular enzyme activity rates. Our initial results indicate that ice wedge meltwater forming Yedoma streams makes Yedoma OC more bioavailable than it would
Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes
Hall, Jerome P.; Sawvel, Robert M.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.
1994-01-01
A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.
Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes
Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.
1994-06-28
A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.
The challenges of numerically simulating analogue brittle thrust wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan
2017-04-01
Fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges form when sedimentary and crustal rocks are compressed into thrusts and folds in the foreland of an orogen or at a subduction trench. For over a century, analogue models have been used to investigate the deformation characteristics of such brittle wedges. These models predict wedge shapes that agree with analytical critical taper theory and internal deformation structures that well resemble natural observations. In a series of comparison experiments for thrust wedges, called the GeoMod2004 (1,2) and GeoMod2008 (3,4) experiments, it was shown that different numerical solution methods successfully reproduce sandbox thrust wedges. However, the GeoMod2008 benchmark also pointed to the difficulties of representing frictional boundary conditions and sharp velocity discontinuities with continuum numerical methods, in addition to the well-known challenges of numerical plasticity. Here we show how details in the numerical implementation of boundary conditions can substantially impact numerical wedge deformation. We consider experiment 1 of the GeoMod2008 brittle thrust wedge benchmarks. This experiment examines a triangular thrust wedge in the stable field of critical taper theory that should remain stable, that is, without internal deformation, when sliding over a basal frictional surface. The thrust wedge is translated by lateral displacement of a rigid mobile wall. The corner between the mobile wall and the subsurface is a velocity discontinuity. Using our finite-element code SULEC, we show how different approaches to implementing boundary friction (boundary layer or contact elements) and the velocity discontinuity (various smoothing schemes) can cause the wedge to indeed translate in a stable manner or to undergo internal deformation (which is a fail). We recommend that numerical studies of sandbox setups not only report the details of their implementation of boundary conditions, but also document the modelling attempts that
The hydrodynamics analysis for the underwater robot with a spherical hull
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Xiaojuan; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan
2009-05-01
The underwater spherical robot has a spherical pressure hull which contains power modules, sensors, and so on. It lacks robot arms or end effectors but is highly maneuverable, for the simplest symmetrical geometry is the sphere. This paper analyzes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic model with CFD software, concludes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic characteristics, and compares these characteristics with the hydrodynamic model of another underwater robot which has a streamlined hull. The effect of sphere hydraulic resistance on the control of the robot is analyzed with some examples.
A Spherical Earth Solution for TOA Lightning Location Retrieval
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.
1999-01-01
The problem of retrieving ligntning, ground-strike location on a spherical Earth surface using a network of 4 or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors is considered, It is shown that this problem has an analytic solution and therefore does not require the use of nonlinear estimation theory (e.g., minimization). The mathematical robustness of the analytic solution is tested using computer-generated lightning sources and simulated TOA measurement errors. A summary of a quasi-analytic extension of the spherical Earth solution to an oblate spheroid Earth geometry is also provided.
Strongly Localized Image States of Spherical Graphitic Particles
Gumbs, Godfrey
2014-01-01
We investigate the localization of charged particles by the image potential of spherical shells, such as fullerene buckyballs. These spherical image states exist within surface potentials formed by the competition between the attractive image potential and the repulsive centripetal force arising from the angular motion. The image potential has a power law rather than a logarithmic behavior. This leads to fundamental differences in the nature of the effective potential for the two geometries. Our calculations have shown that the captured charge is more strongly localized closest to the surface for fullerenes than for cylindrical nanotube. PMID:24587747
Spherical harmonic expansion of the Levitus Sea surface topography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelis, Theodossios
1987-01-01
Prior information for the stationary sea surface topography (SST) may be needed in altimetric solutions that intend to simultaneously improve the gravity field and determine the SST. For this purpose the oceanographically derived SST estimates are represented by a spherical harmonic expansion. The spherical harmonic coefficients are computed from a least squares adjustment of the data covering the majority of the oceanic regions of the world. Several tests are made to determine the optimum maximum degree of solution and the best configuration of the geometry of the data in order to obtain a solution that fits the data and also provides a good spectral representation of the SST.
Spherical artifacts on ferrograms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, W. R., Jr.
1976-01-01
In the past, hollow spheres detected on ferrograms have been interpreted as being due to fretting, abrasion, cavitation erosion, and fatigue-related processes. Here it is reported that such spheres were found to result from the fact that a routine grinding operation on a steel plate was carried out about 20 feet away from the ferrograph. A similar grinding operation was performed on a piece of low carbon steel a few feet from the ferrograph, and after a few minutes of grinding, the resulting ferrogram contained thousands of particles of which more than 90% were spherical. Because of the widespread occurrence of ordinary grinding operations, it seems prudent that those utilizing the ferrograph be cognizant of this type of artifact.
Spherical grating spectrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher
2014-07-01
We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.
Ghost story. I. Wedge states in the oscillator formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonora, Loriano; Maccaferri, Carlo; Scherer Santos, Ricardo J.; Tolla, Driba D.
2007-09-01
This paper is primarily devoted to the ghost wedge states in string field theory formulated with the oscillator formalism. Our aim is to prove, using such formalism, that the wedge states can be expressed as |nrangle = exp{[(2-n)/2](Script L0+Script L0†)}|0rangle, separately in the matter and ghost sector. This relation is crucial for instance in the proof of Schnabl's solution. We start from the exponentials in the rhs and wish to prove that they take precisely the form of wedge states. As a guideline we first re-demonstrate this relation for the matter part. Then we turn to the ghosts. On the way we face the problem of `diagonalizing' infinite rectangular matrices. We manage to give a meaning to such an operation and to prove that the eigenvalues we obtain satisfy the recursion relations of the wedge states.
Wedge Heat-Flux Indicators for Flash Thermography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshti, Ajay M.
2003-01-01
Wedge indicators have been proposed for measuring thermal radiation that impinges on specimens illuminated by flash lamps for thermographic inspection. Heat fluxes measured by use of these indicators would be used, along with known thermal, radiative, and geometric properties of the specimens, to estimate peak flash temperatures on the specimen surfaces. These indicators would be inexpensive alternatives to high-speed infrared pyrometers, which would otherwise be needed for measuring peak flash surface temperatures. The wedge is made from any suitable homogenous material such as plastic. The choice of material is governed by the equation given. One side of the wedge is covered by a temperature sensitive compound that decomposes irreversibly when its temperature exceeds a rated temperature (T-rated). The uncoated side would be positioned alongside or in place of the specimen and exposed to the flash, then the wedge thickness at the boundary between the white and blackened portions measured.
DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...
DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING EAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA
DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...
DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTHWEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA
VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...
VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING SOUTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA
VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...
VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzen, R.; Morgan, J. K.
2014-12-01
Critical Coulomb wedge theory established that orogenic and accretionary wedges should develop self-similarly and maintain a critical taper that reflects the balance of strength of the wedge material and a basal décollement. However, a variety of geological processes can perturb that balance, forcing readjustment of the wedge. For example, glacial erosion and landsliding can concentrate erosion on a localized portion of the wedge slope, leaving that portion of the wedge with an out-of-equilibrium slope that would need to re-develop for the wedge to resume self-similar growth. We use the discrete element method to analyze how growing bivergent wedges with different cohesive strengths respond structurally and mechanically to erosional events localized along upper, middle, and lower segments of the pro-wedge. Mechanically, pro-wedge erosion results in a sudden decrease followed by a quick recovery of the mean stress and maximum shear stress throughout the pro-wedge. However, when erosion is localized in the mid- to lower portions of the pro-wedge, a zone of increased mean stress develops where the wedge is concentrating deformation to recover its taper. In contrast, when erosion is localized in the upper axial zone, there is almost no recovery of the wedge taper, reflecting the fact that the material at the top of the wedge is being carried passively in a transition zone between the pro-wedge and retro-wedge. Structurally, wedges composed of lower cohesion material recover their critical taper almost immediately through distributed deformation, while wedges of higher-cohesion material recover more slowly, and incompletely, by concentrating deformation along existing fault surfaces. As a result, localized erosional episodes can have a lasting effect on the wedge morphology when the wedge is composed of higher cohesion material.
Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Distribution and Shape of Ice Wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, T.; Matsuoka, N.; Ikeda, A.
2006-12-01
Recent development of applied geophysical methods has shown detailed structure in various periglacial features. However, these methods have been rarely applied to studies in ice wedges. Thus, we attempted to display distribution and shape of ice wedges using a ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a direct current (DC) resistivity meter. The surveys were performed at a comprehensive monitoring site of ice-wedging in Adventdalen, Svalbard, where troughs and small cracks form polygonal patterns on the ground. Unknown structure below such new cracks is also focused in this study. We obtained 37 GPR profiles using 250 MHz signal. 2-D resistivity surveys were also performed along 14 GPR profiles. The electrodes were placed at 1 m intervals and their combination followed the Wenner array. In addition, shallow boreholes were dug across 5 troughs/cracks to estimate the width of ice wedge. The analyzed results show parabolic patterns formed by the multiple radar waveforms and largely increasing gradients of DC resistivity below the troughs and small cracks. The strong reflections of the radar signals and the starting zones of the increasing resistivity lay about 1 m deep, which corresponded to the top of ice wedges (0.7-0.9 m deep) revealed by the drilling. In the GPR profiles, a relatively flat pattern of the reflection was sandwiched by a pair of parabolic patterns below each well-developed trough, whereas a sharp parabolic pattern was detected below each small crack. These results mean that the presence of narrow ice wedges is detectable by the GPR method and the top of a parabolic pattern roughly corresponds to one edge of an ice wedge table. In the DC resistivity profiles, a high resistivity core exists below each trough and crack. The high resistivity probably resulted from ice having lower unfrozen water content than the surrounding silt materials. The heights of the cores indicate that the ice wedges were formed at least between 1 m and 3 m deep. The cores are, however
Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kos, Konstantine; Siahmakoun, Azad Z.
1996-02-01
A holographic method for finding the orientation of the optic axis of uniaxial photorefractive crystals is proposed. A theoretical procedure for determining the wedge angle of such crystals has also been developed. Two BaTiO 3 crystals grown by the same vender are examined and the resulting measurements lead to the values of wedge angle with an accuracy of about ±0.1°.
Stereoscopic Display on Computer Monitor Using a Single Wedge Prism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Tae-Soo; Park, Chan-Young; Lee, Han-Bae; Park, Seung-Han
2002-02-01
We propose a novel stereoscopic display technique which uses only a single wedge prism. It can provide good depth perception from a stereoscopic pair image displayed on a computer monitor. One element of the stereoscopic pair image is inversely distorted to correct the deformation induced by the wedge prism. The computer simulation and experimental demonstration show that this technique can be successfully applied to the Internet environment.
Finite Element Analysis of Cross-Wedge Rolling Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai, Dinh Van; Ngung, Dao Minh; Giang, Nguyen Trong
2010-06-01
In this study, a non-isothermal simulation model for flat-wedged cross-wedge rolling (CWR) to fabricate a bullet was presented by using three-dimensional thermo-rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM). Both deformation behavior and heat transfer of the process were taken into account. Based on the simulation results, the distributions of temperature, stress, strain areas were analyzed. These results could provide theoretical guidance for net shape and reasonable design of tools.
Studying 3D Spherical Shell Convection using ASPECT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Euen, G.; King, S. D.; Liu, S.
2016-12-01
Modeling convection in spherical geometries is crucial to gain an understanding of planet-scale mantle processes. However, modeling 3D spherical shells is computationally challenging. Few studies have been done using full 3D spherical shells. Here I present test cases for modeling 3D spherical shells using ASPECT. These cases are based on previous work using CitcomS done by Zhong et al., 2008. The cases were run on the BlueRidge and NewRiver clusters at ARC at Virginia Tech. Cases were run using varying numbers of processors and 2-5 global mesh refinements. Each added refinement increases the number of cells by a factor of 8. Two global refinements corresponds to 6,144 cells, three refinements have 49,152 cells, four refinements have 393,216 cells, and five refinements have 3,145,728 cells. To make these results comparable to Zhong et al., 2008 all adaptive mesh refinement was turned off. Cases ran very sporadically at first, with three major error types emerging. However, after ASPECT version 1.5.0 was released and the latest version was cloned from Github and built July 10 th -15 th , 2016, the cases ran with no errors. It should be noted that 2D spherical cases ran with no errors throughout the testing. ASPECT results matched well with the Zhong et al., 2008 results. We will present results varying the refinement and number of processors to demonstrate scaling and efficiency of the code for spherical problems.
Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge.
Tavassoly, M Taghi; Saber, Ahad
2010-11-01
A method that utilizes the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step formed by a transparent wedge is introduced for measuring the refractive indices of transparent solids, liquids, and solutions. It is shown that, as a transparent wedge of small apex angle is illuminated perpendicular to its surface by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, the Fresnel fringes, caused by abrupt change in refractive index at the wedge lateral boundary, are formed on a screen held perpendicular to the beam propagation direction. The visibility of the fringes varies periodically between zero and 1 in the direction normal to the wedge apex. For a known or measured apex angle, the wedge refractive index is obtained by measuring the period length by a CCD. To measure the refractive index of a transparent liquid or solution, the wedge is installed in a transparent rectangle cell containing the sample. Then, the cell is illuminated perpendicularly and the visibility period is measured. By using modest optics, one can measure the refractive index at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-5). There is no limitation on the refractive index range. The method can be applied easily with no mechanical manipulation. The measuring apparatus can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Bonilla, A.; Torvela, T.; Balanyá, J. C.; Expósito, I.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.
2016-12-01
Thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs) have been extensively studied through both field examples and modeling. The overall dynamics of FTBs are, therefore, well understood. One less understood aspect is the combined influence of across-strike changes in the detachment properties and the basement topography on the behavior of an orogenic wedge. In this paper, we use field data together with reflection seismic interpretation from the external zones of the central Betics FTB, southern Spain, to identify a significant increase in the wedge basal dip (a basement "threshold") coinciding with the pinch-out of a weak substrate. This induced both changes to the wedge geometry and to the basal friction, which in turn influenced the wedge dynamics. The changing dynamics led to a transient "stagnation" of the FTB propagation, topographic buildup, and subsequent collapse of the FTB front. This in turn fed an important Langhian depocenter made up of mass transport deposits. Coevally with the FTB propagation, extension took place both parallel and perpendicular to the orogenic trend. This case study illustrates how across-strike changes in wedge basal properties can control the detailed behavior of a developing FTB front, but questions remain regarding the time-space interaction and relative importance of the basal parameters.
Effective geometries in self-gravitating polytropes
Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.
2008-09-15
Perturbations of a perfect barotropic and irrotational Newtonian self-gravitating fluid are studied using a generalization of the so-called 'effective geometry' formalism. The case of polytropic spherical stars, as described by the Lane-Emden equation, is studied in detail in the known cases of existing explicit solutions. The present formulation gives a natural scenario in which the acoustic analogy has relevance for both stellar and galactic dynamics.
Geometry of Discrete-Time Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier
2016-10-01
Classical Hamiltonian spin systems are continuous dynamical systems on the symplectic phase space (S^2)^n. In this paper, we investigate the underlying geometry of a time discretization scheme for classical Hamiltonian spin systems called the spherical midpoint method. As it turns out, this method displays a range of interesting geometrical features that yield insights and sets out general strategies for geometric time discretizations of Hamiltonian systems on non-canonical symplectic manifolds. In particular, our study provides two new, completely geometric proofs that the discrete-time spin systems obtained by the spherical midpoint method preserve symplecticity. The study follows two paths. First, we introduce an extended version of the Hopf fibration to show that the spherical midpoint method can be seen as originating from the classical midpoint method on T^*{R}^{2n} for a collective Hamiltonian. Symplecticity is then a direct, geometric consequence. Second, we propose a new discretization scheme on Riemannian manifolds called the Riemannian midpoint method. We determine its properties with respect to isometries and Riemannian submersions, and, as a special case, we show that the spherical midpoint method is of this type for a non-Euclidean metric. In combination with Kähler geometry, this provides another geometric proof of symplecticity.
Kraal, T; Mullender, M; de Bruine, J H D; Reinhard, R; de Gast, A; Kuik, D J; van Royen, B J
2008-06-01
The open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) is a well accepted treatment modality for patients with osteoarthritis of the medial compartment associated with genu varum. To fill in the osteotomy gap 30% macroporosity rigid beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) is frequently used as a stable resorbable bone substitute. However, the resorbability of these beta-TCP wedges is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate this. Twenty-one OWHTO procedures in seventeen patients were performed with the use of 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges. The osteotomies were fixed using an angle-stable locking plate. Conventional AP and lateral radiographs were examined in order to assess the resorbability of the 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges as a function of time. A radiological classification system consisting of five phases was used to monitor the resorption of the 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges. The mean duration of follow-up was 62 months (+/-23 range of 28-99). In all 21 cases, remnants of the 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges were still present at maximum follow-up. Although the boundaries between 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges and bone remained slightly visible, all osteotomies were completely consolidated and full osseointegration took place. In 16 out of 21 knees the fixation system was removed after a mean duration of 32 months (+/-19 range of 6-62). In six out of 21 knees a conversion to a knee arthroplasty was performed after a mean duration of 56 months (+/-18 range of 37-82). The OWHTO did not interfere with the placement of knee prostheses. Complete resorption of 30% macroporosity rigid beta-TCP wedges did not take place up to 8 years after operation.
Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro
2016-11-01
We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing
Double slotted socket spherical joint
Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.
2001-05-22
A new class of spherical joints is disclosed. These spherical joints are capable of extremely large angular displacements (full cone angles in excess of 270.degree.), while exhibiting no singularities or dead spots in their range of motion. These joints can improve or simplify a wide range of mechanical devices.
Features of spherical torus plasmas
Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.
1985-12-01
The spherical torus is a very small aspect ratio (A < 2) confinement concept obtained by retaining only the indispensable components inboard to the plasma torus. MHD equilibrium calculations show that spherical torus plasmas with safety factor q > 2 are characterized by high toroidal beta (..beta../sub t/ > 0.2), low poloidal beta (..beta../sub p/ < 0.3), naturally large elongation (kappa greater than or equal to 2), large plasma current with I/sub p//(aB/sub t0/) up to about 7 MA/mT, strong paramagnetism (B/sub t//B/sub t0/ > 1.5), and strong plasma helicity (F comparable to THETA). A large near-omnigeneous region is seen at the large-major-radius, bad-curvature region of the plasma in comparison with the conventional tokamaks. These features combine to engender the spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost. Because of its strong paramagnetism and helicity, the spherical torus plasma shares some of the desirable features of spheromak and reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas, but with tokamak-like confinement and safety factor q. The general class of spherical tori, which includes the spherical tokamak (q > 1), the spherical pinch (1 > q > O), and the spherical RFP (q < O), have magnetic field configurations unique in comparison with conventional tokamaks and RFPs. 22 refs., 12 figs.
SPHERICAL SHOCK WAVES IN SOLIDS
Contents: Introduction-Reasons for Studying Spherical Shock Waves, Physics of Cavity Expansion due to Explosive Impact, General Nature of Shock Waves...Governing Differential Equation of Self-Similar Motion; Application of the Theory of Self-Similar Motion to the Problem of Expansion of a Spherical
Predicting orogenic wedge styles as a function of analogue erosion law and material softening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mary, Baptiste C. L.; Maillot, Bertrand; Leroy, Yves M.
2013-10-01
The evolution of a compressive frictional wedge on a weak, frictional and planar décollement, subjected to frontal accretion, is predicted with a two step method called sequential limit analysis. The first step consists in finding, with the kinematic approach of limit analysis, the length of the active décollement and the dips of the emerging ramp and of the conjugate shear plane composing the emerging thrust fold. The second step leads to a modification of the geometry, first, because of the thrust fold development due to compression and, second, because of erosion. Erosion consists in removing periodically any material above a fictitious line at a selected slope, as done in analogue experiments. This application of sequential limit analysis generalizes the critical Coulomb wedge theory since it follows the internal deformation development. With constant frictional properties, the deformation is mostly diffuse, a succession of thrust folds being activated so that the topographic slope reaches exactly the theoretical, critical value. Frictional weakening on the ramps results in a deformation style composed of thrust sheets and horses. Applying an erosion slope at the critical topographic value leads to exhumation in the frontal, central, or rear region of the wedge depending on the erosion period and the weakening. Erosion at slopes slightly above or below the critical value results in exhumation toward the foreland or the hinterland, respectively, regardless of the erosion period. Exhumation is associated with duplexes, imbricate fans, antiformal stacks, and major backthrusting. Comparisons with sandbox experiments confirm that the thickness, dips, vergence, and exhumation of thrust sheets can be reproduced with friction and erosion parameters within realistic ranges of values.
Jadoon, I.A.K.; Frisch, W.
1997-03-01
The Riwat thrust, with a surface trace of over 50 km, is one of the major faults in the footwall of the main boundary thrust in the Himalayan foreland of Pakistan. Surface geology shows that the Riwat thrust is a foreland-vergent thrust along which lower to middle Siwalik molasse strata are thrust southward over upper Siwalik strata. Seismic reflection interpretation shows that the Riwat thrust developed as a roof thrust of a hinterland-vergent tectonic wedge (triangle zone) underlain by evaporites. The Riwat thrust propagates upsection from depth of about 4 km at the base of the Siwalik Group. At this depth, it merges into a hinterland-vergent blind thrust that propagates upsection as a ramp from Eocambrian evaporites covering the basement at a depth of about 6 km. Bounded between this set of conjugate faults, a tectonic wedge of Eocambrian (evaporites) to Neogene strata is thrust toward the hinterland to form a triangle zone. The roof thrusts of triangles zones have been widely mapped as backthrusts in deformed mountain fronts. Hinterland motion of tectonic wedges as in the Riwat thrust triangle zone may be a feature of the fold-and-thrust belts underlain by evaporites acting as an extremely weak decollement layer. Their recognition, with a trap-forming geometry below a thrust, is important for interpreting particular fold belts and for hydrocarbon exploration. These structures could be predicted by the surface geology data where hinterland vergence of a fold below a thrust is apparent; however, seismic reflection data appear to be critical in recognizing these structures.
Using cyclic steps on drift wedges to amend established models of carbonate platform slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betzler, Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Eberli, Gregor; Reijmer, John; Lüdmann, Thomas
2015-04-01
Hydroacoustic and sedimentological data of the western flank of Great Bahama Bank and Cay Sal Bank document how the interplay of offbank sediment export, along-slope transport, and erosion together shape facies and thickness distribution of slope deposits. The integrated data set depicts the combined product of these processes and allows formulating a comprehensive model of a periplatform drift that significantly amends established models of carbonate platform slope facies distribution and geometry. The basinward thinning wedge of the periplatform drift at the foot of the escarpment of Great Bahama Bank displays along- and down-slope variations in sedimentary architecture. Sediments consist of periplatform ooze, i.e. carbonate mud and muddy carbonate sand, coarsening basinward. In zones of lower contour current speed, depth related facies belts develop. In the upper part of the periplatform drift wedge in a water depth of 180 to 300 m and slope angles of 6° - 9° the seafloor displays a smooth surface. Parasound data indicate that this facies is characterized by a parallel layering. Basinward, the slope shows a distinct break at which the seafloor inclination diminishes to 1° to 2°. Downslope of this break, the drift wedge has a 3 - 4 km wide pervasive cover of bedforms down to a water depth of around 500 m. The steep flanks and internal stratification of the wavy bedforms face upslope, indicating upstream migration; the bedforms therefore share all the characteristics of cyclic step sedimentation. This is the first description of cyclic step sedimentation patterns in carbonate slope depositional systems. This new slope sedimentation model aids in understanding the complexity of carbonate slope sedimentation models with facies belts perpendicular and parallel to the platform margin. The new model sharply contrasts with existing slope facies models in which facies belts are solely positioned parallel to the platform margin.
Du, Jun; Zheng, Guang-Ying; Wen, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Zhu, Yu
2016-01-01
AIM To evaluate the clinical value of wedge resection at corneal limbus in patients with traumatic corneal scarring and high irregular astigmatism. METHODS Patients with traumatic corneal astigmatism received wedge resection at least 6mo after suture removal from corneal wound. The uncorrected distance visual acuities (UCVA) and best corrected distance visual acuities (BCVA), pre- and post-operation astigmatism, spherical equivalent (SE), safety and complications were evaluated. RESULTS Ten eyes (10 patients) were enrolled in this study. Mean follow-up time after wedge resection was 37.8±15.4mo (range, 20-61mo). The mean UCVA improved from +1.07±0.55 logMAR to +0.43±0.22 logMAR (P=0.000) and the mean BCVA from +0.50±0.30 logMAR to +0.15±0.17 logMAR (P=0.000). The mean astigmatism power measured by retinoscopy was -2.03±2.27 D postoperatively and -2.83±4.52 D preoperatively (P=0.310). The mean SE was -0.74±1.61 D postoperatively and -0.64±1.89 D preoperatively (P=0.601). Two cases developed mild pannus near the sutures. No corneal perforation, infectious keratitis or wound gape occurred. CONCLUSION Corneal-scleral limbal wedge resection with compression suture is a safe, effective treatment for poor patients with high irregular corneal astigmatism after corneal-scleral penetrating injury. Retinoscopy can prove particularly useful for high irregular corneal astigmatism when other measurements are not amenable. PMID:27366685
Liu, H H; McCullough, E C; Mackie, T R
1998-01-01
A convolution/superposition based method was developed to calculate dose distributions and wedge factors in photon treatment fields generated by dynamic wedges. This algorithm used a dual source photon beam model that accounted for both primary photons from the target and secondary photons scattered from the machine head. The segmented treatment tables (STT) were used to calculate realistic photon fluence distributions in the wedged fields. The inclusion of the extra-focal photons resulted in more accurate dose calculation in high dose gradient regions, particularly in the beam penumbra. The wedge factors calculated using the convolution method were also compared to the measured data and showed good agreement within 0.5%. The wedge factor varied significantly with the field width along the moving jaw direction, but not along the static jaw or the depth direction. This variation was found to be determined by the ending position of the moving jaw, or the STT of the dynamic wedge. In conclusion, the convolution method proposed in this work can be used to accurately compute dose for a dynamic or an intensity modulated treatment based on the fluence modulation in the treatment field.
Optimal mollifiers for spherical deconvolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hielscher, Ralf; Quellmalz, Michael
2015-08-01
This paper deals with the inversion of the spherical Funk-Radon transform, and, more generally, with the inversion of spherical convolution operators from the point of view of statistical inverse problems. This means we consider discrete data perturbed by white noise and aim at estimators with optimal mean square error for functions out of a Sobolev ball. To this end we analyze a specific class of estimators built upon the spherical hyperinterpolation operator, spherical designs and the mollifier approach. Eventually, we determine optimal mollifier functions with respect to the noise level, the number of data points and the smoothness of the original function. We complete this paper by providing a fast algorithm for the numerical computation of the estimator, which is based on the fast spherical Fourier transform, and by illustrating our theoretical results with numerical experiments.
Electrodynamics and spacetime geometry: Astrophysical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-07-01
After a brief review of the foundations of (pre-metric) electromagnetism, we explore some physical consequences of electrodynamics in curved spacetime. In general, new electromagnetic couplings and related phenomena are induced by the spacetime curvature. The applications of astrophysical interest considered here correspond essentially to the following geometries: the Schwarzschild spacetime and the spacetime around a rotating spherical mass in the weak field and slow rotation regime. In the latter, we use the Parameterised Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We also explore the hypothesis that the electric and magnetic properties of vacuum reflect the spacetime isometries. Therefore, the permittivity and permeability tensors should not be considered homogeneous and isotropic a priori. For spherical geometries we consider the effect of relaxing the homogeneity assumption in the constitutive relations between the fields and excitations. This affects the generalized Gauss and Maxwell-Ampère laws, where the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in vacuum depend on the radial coordinate in accordance with the local isometries of space. For the axially symmetric geometries we relax both the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy. We explore simple solutions and discuss the physical implications related to different phenomena, such as the decay of electromagnetic fields in the presence of gravity, magnetic terms in Gauss law due to the gravitomagnetism of the spacetime around rotating objects, a frame-dragging effect on electric fields and the possibility of a spatial (radial) variability of the velocity of light in vacuum around spherical astrophysical objects for strong gravitational fields.
Ice wedges as climate archives - opportunities and limitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Dereviagin, Alexander; Wetterich, Sebastian; Schirrmeister, Lutz
2014-05-01
Permafrost regions are assumed to play a major role for Global Climate Change as they are susceptible to recent warming in particular with regard to the potential release of stored fossil carbon. Permafrost serves as archive of past environmental and climate conditions (such as sedimentation processes, temperature and precipitation regimes as well as landscape and ecosystem development) over tens of thousands of years that can be traced by the study of the frozen deposits, paleontological content and ground ice. Ground ice comprises all types of ice contained in frozen ground, including pore ice, segregation ice and ice wedges. Here, we focus on ice wedges as the most promising climate archive that can be studied by stable water isotope methods analogously to glacier ice. They may be identified by their vertically oriented foliations. Ice wedges form by the repeated filling of wintertime thermal contraction cracks by snow melt water in spring. As the melt water quickly refreezes at negative ground temperature no isotopic fractionation takes place. Hence, the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD, d excess) of wedge ice is assumed to be representative of annual cold period climate conditions, i.e. winter and spring. Ice wedges are widely distributed in non-glaciated high northern latitudes, are diagnostic of permafrost and, in general, indicative of cold and stable climate conditions. They are found in continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones and may also have formed during and survived interglacials. They may provide unique paleo information that is not captured by other climate archives. Usually, ice wedges are dated by radiocarbon dating of organic material incorporated in the ice, but also 36Cl/Cl ratios have been successfully used to date ice wedges. Nevertheless reliable age determination is challenging when studying ice wedges. Here we tackle the potential of ice wedges from the Siberian and American Arctic to trace past climate changes from stable isotope
Harte, J.
1985-01-01
Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.
Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.
Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M
2015-03-31
Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.
Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids
Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.
2015-01-01
Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582
A spherical electrostatic orrery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smetana, Carole; Alexander, David; Robertson, Scott; Vilkaitis, Kim; Walch, Bob
1996-11-01
An electrostatic orrery for studying Keplerian orbits has been constructed in which one or more negatively charged hollow glass microparticles orbit a 9.5-mm-diam metal sphere at +8-kV potential in a vacuum. The device is similar to an earlier cylindrical orrery in which particles orbit a rod [Biewer et al., Am. J. Phys. 62(9), 821-827 (1994)]. Electrically biased cylinders covering the rod supporting the sphere give nearly spherical potential surfaces inside the trap. Additional electrodes at the boundary are used to reduce the perturbation of gravity and to prevent motion resulting in collisions with the supporting rod. Orbits last approximately 10 min or about 104 revolutions. The orbiters are illuminated with a slide projector and can be seen with the naked eye as well as videotaped. The trap has been used to observe orbital precession, interparticle collisions, and the effects of time-independent perturbations. This apparatus provides an opportunity for the study and demonstration of orbital motion in a laboratory.
Gravity inversion in spherical coordinates using tesseroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.
2014-05-01
Satellite observations of the gravity field have provided geophysicists with exceptionally dense and uniform coverage of data over vast areas. This enables regional or global scale high resolution geophysical investigations. Techniques like forward modeling and inversion of gravity anomalies are routinely used to investigate large geologic structures, such as large igneous provinces, suture zones, intracratonic basins, and the Moho. Accurately modeling such large structures requires taking the sphericity of the Earth into account. A reasonable approximation is to assume a spherical Earth and use spherical coordinates. In recent years, efforts have been made to advance forward modeling in spherical coordinates using tesseroids, particularly with respect to speed and accuracy. Conversely, traditional space domain inverse modeling methods have not yet been adapted to use spherical coordinates and tesseroids. In the literature there are a range of inversion methods that have been developed for Cartesian coordinates and right rectangular prisms. These include methods for estimating the relief of an interface, like the Moho or the basement of a sedimentary basin. Another category includes methods to estimate the density distribution in a medium. The latter apply many algorithms to solve the inverse problem, ranging from analytic solutions to random search methods as well as systematic search methods. We present an adaptation for tesseroids of the systematic search method of "planting anomalous densities". This method can be used to estimate the geometry of geologic structures. As prior information, it requires knowledge of the approximate densities and positions of the structures. The main advantage of this method is its computational efficiency, requiring little computer memory and processing time. We demonstrate the shortcomings and capabilities of this approach using applications to synthetic and field data. Performing the inversion of gravity and gravity gradient
Unsteady Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atreya, Arvind; Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.
2001-01-01
The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and (mu-g) flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand
2012-01-01
Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand
2012-01-01
Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…
Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza
2007-01-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.
Seismic reflection images of the accretionary wedge of Costa Rica
Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )
1990-05-01
The large-scale structure of modern accretionary wedges is known almost entirely from seismic reflection investigations using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. The authors will report on the first three-dimensional seismic reflection data volume collected of a wedge. This data set covers a 9-km-wide {times} 22-km-long {times} 6-km-thick volume of the accretionary wedge just arcward of the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. The three-dimensional processing has improved the imaging ability of the multichannel data, and the data volume allows mapping of structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size. These data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the wedge shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. Reflections from within the wedge define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular convergent margin. So far, the analysis shows that the subdued basement relief (horst and graben structures seldom have relief of more than a few hundred meters off Costa Rica) does affect the larger scale through going structural features within the wedge. The distribution of mud volcanoes and amplitude anomalies associated with the large-scale wedge structures suggests that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region at a distance of 50-100 km. Offscraping of the uppermost (about 45 m) sediment occurs within 4 km of the trench, creating a small pile of sediments near the trench lower slope. Underplating of parts of the 400-m-thick subducted sedimentary section begins at a very shallow structural level, 4-10 km arcward of the trench. Volumetrically, the most important accretionary process is underplating.
Ivrea mantle wedge and arc of the Western Alps (I): Geophysical evidence for the deep structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kissling, Edi; Schmid, Stefan M.; Diehl, Tobias
2017-04-01
The construction of five crustal-scale profiles across the Western Alps and the Ivrea mantle wedge integrates up-to-date geological and geophysical information and reveals important along strike changes in the overall structure of the crust of the Western Alpine arc (Schmid et al. 2017). The 3D crustal model of the Western Alps represented by these cross sections is based on recent P-velocity local earthquake tomography that compliments the previously existing wealth of geophysical information about lithosphere structure in the region. As part of Adria mantle lithosphere exhibiting strong upward bending toward the plate boundary along the inner arc of the Western Alps, the well-known Ivrea body plays a crucial role in our tectonic model. Until recently, however, the detailed 3D geometry of this key structure was only poorly constrained. In this study we present a review of the many seismic data in the region and we document the construction of our 3D lithosphere model by principles of multidisciplinary seismic tomography. Reference: Stefan M. Schmid, Edi Kissling, Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, Giancarlo Molli (2017). Ivrea mantle wedge and arc of the Western Alps (2): Kinematic evolution of the Alps-Apennines orogenic system. Abstract Volume EGU 2017.
Simulation of arrested salt wedges with a multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prestininzi, P.; Montessori, A.; La Rocca, M.; Sciortino, G.
2016-10-01
The ability to accurately and efficiently model the intrusion of salt wedges into river beds is crucial to assay its interaction with human activities and the natural environment. We present a 2D multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann (SWLB) model able to predict the salt wedge intrusion in river estuaries. The formulation usually employed for the simulation of gravity currents is here equipped with proper boundary conditions to handle both the downstream seaside outlet and the upstream river inlet. Firstly, the model is validated against highly accurate semi-analytical solutions of the steady state 1D two-layer Shallow Water model. Secondly, the model is applied to a more complex, fully 3D geometry, to assess its capability to handle realistic cases. The simple formulation proposed for the shear interlayer stress is proven to be consistent with the general 3D viscous solution. In addition to the accuracy, the model inherits the efficiency of the Lattice Boltzmann approach to fluid dynamics problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Mohammad Irfan; Dubey, A. K.; Toscani, Giovanni; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio
2014-01-01
Kinematic evolution of fold-thrust structures has been investigated by analogue models that include syntectonic sedimentation. Different decollement dips and basement thicknesses produced different wedge geometries and propagating characteristics. A model with one decollement level was characterized by a closely spaced thrust system during early stages of shortening as compared to the late stages. The frequency of fault nucleation was rapid during the early stages of deformation. Conversely, the frequency of fault nucleation was low and thrust spacing was significantly wider in a model with two decollement levels. Individual faults became locked at steep dips and deformation stepped forward as a new fault nucleated in-sequence in front of the older locked structure. Once the thrust system was established up to 27 % overall shortening, an overlying bed was introduced to simulate syntectonic deformation. Model sand wedge did not grow self similarly but rather its length and height increased episodically with deformation. Restoration of deformed models show that layer parallel shortening accommodated for approximately half of the total model shortening across the multilayers. Calculated error in apparent layer shortening from the restored layers revealed a direct relation with depth of the layers in the models. The experimental results are comparable to a natural example from the Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belts.
Double salt décollements: Effect of pinch-out overlapping in experimental thrust wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santolaria, P.; Vendeville, B.; Graveleau, F.; Casas, A.; Soto, R.
2013-12-01
The presence of one or more evaporitic horizons acting as detachment levels in fold-and-thrust belts is common. Numerous works have dealt with the analysis of the role played by basal detachments on the deformation style of fold-and-thrust belts, but less attention has been paid to the interaction between two décollements and strain transfer between them. In this study, 10 sand-silicone analogue experiments with two detachment levels and different stratigraphic pinch-out configurations were carried out: the basal décollement was located hinterlandwards, and the upper one was located forelandwards, with or without geographic underlap or overlap. These geometrical arrangements simulate evaporites deposited in foreland basins progressively involved in shortening. To analyze their influence on the geometry and kinematics of thrust wedges, we tested successively the following parameters: i) the amount of vertical overlapping between the two décollement pinch-outs, ii) the total amount of shortening, and iii) the geometry of the intermediate décollement (pinch-out line parallel or oblique with respect to the pinch-out line of the basal décollement). All experiments were quantitatively monitored by carrying DEM (Digital Elevation Models) and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements. All models had a similar style: (i) an inner domain, characterized by a thicker sand cover, with three forward verging thrusts rooted in the basal décollement, (ii) an outer domain with thinner sand cover, whose deformation pattern was characterized by 2 to 6 structures detaching on the upper décollement and (iii) a 'step zone' located between the inner and outer domains having varying geometry and kinematics. In longer-lived models, structures were reworked and salt migration deformed the early emplaced folds and thrusts. Our experimental results point out that the amount of vertical overlapping between the two décollement pinch outs is a first order parameter that conditions not
The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline
2017-04-01
The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montero, Pedro J.; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel
2012-06-01
Brown [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 104029 (2009)] has recently introduced a covariant formulation of the BSSN equations which is well suited for curvilinear coordinate systems. This is particularly desirable as many astrophysical phenomena are symmetric with respect to the rotation axis or are such that curvilinear coordinates adapt better to their geometry. However, the singularities associated with such coordinate systems are known to lead to numerical instabilities unless special care is taken (e.g., regularization at the origin). Cordero-Carrión will present a rigorous derivation of partially implicit Runge-Kutta methods in forthcoming papers, with the aim of treating numerically the stiff source terms in wavelike equations that may appear as a result of the choice of the coordinate system. We have developed a numerical code solving the BSSN equations in spherical symmetry and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations written in flux-conservative form. A key feature of the code is that it uses a second-order partially implicit Runge-Kutta method to integrate the evolution equations. We perform and discuss a number of tests to assess the accuracy and expected convergence of the code—namely a pure gauge wave, the evolution of a single black hole, the evolution of a spherical relativistic star in equilibrium, and the gravitational collapse of a spherical relativistic star leading to the formation of a black hole. We obtain stable evolutions of regular spacetimes without the need for any regularization algorithm at the origin.
Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.
2012-04-01
Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html
LOVEL: a low-velocity aerodynamic heating code for flat-plates, wedges, and cones
Thornton, A.L.
1981-12-01
The LOVEL computer program calculates the boundary-layer edge conditions for subsonic and supersonic flow over flat-plate, wedge, and cone geometries for freestream Mach conditions (M/sub infinity/ < 3. Cold-wall heat-transfer calculations use reference temperature correlations based on boundary-layer edge Mach number to compute fluid properties. The first part of this report describes the theory used in the computation of the cold-wall heat-transfer rates; the second part describes in detail the input/output format for the LOVEL computer program. Outputs include freestream conditions, boundary-layer edge conditions, cold-wall heat-transfer rates, plots of heating rates, and punched-card output for use in ablation and in-depth transient heat-conduction computer codes.
Diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zagumennyi, Ia V.; Dimitrieva, N. F.
2016-08-01
In this paper the problem of evolution of diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle is analyzed numerically. The governing set of fundamental equations is solved using original solvers from the open source OpenFOAM package on supercomputer facilities. Due to breaking of naturally existing diffusion flux of a stratifying agent by the impermeable surface of the wedge a complex multi-level vortex system of compensatory fluid motions is formed around the obstacle. Sharp edges of the obstacle generate extended high-gradient horizontal interfaces which are clearly observed in laboratory experiments by high-resolution Schlieren visualization. Formation of an intensive pressure depression zone in front of the leading vertex of the wedge is responsible for generation of propulsive force resulting in a self-displacement of the obstacle along the neutral buoyancy horizon in a stably stratified environment. The size of the pressure deficiency area near the sharp vertex of a concave wedge is about twice that for a convex one. This demonstrates a more intensive propulsion mechanism in case of the concave wedge and, accordingly, a higher velocity of its self-movement in a continuously stratified medium.
Empirical evidence for two nightside current wedges during substorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, R. A.; Gjerloev, J. W.
2013-12-01
We present results from a comprehensive statistical study of the ionospheric current system and its coupling to the magnetosphere during classical bulge type substorms. We identified 116 substorms and determined the global ionospheric current system before and during the substorm using the SuperMAG initiative and global auroral images obtained by the Polar VIS Earth camera. The westward electrojet (WEJ) display a distinct latitudinal shift between the pre- and post-midnight region and we find evidence that the two WEJ regions are disconnected. This, and other observational facts, led us to propose a new 3D current system configuration that consists of 2 wedge type systems: a current wedge in the pre-midnight region (substorm current wedge), and another current wedge system in the post-midnight region (oval current wedge). There is some local time overlap between the two systems. The former maps to the region inside the near Earth neutral line and is associated with structured BPS type electron precipitation. The latter maps to the inner magnetosphere and is associated with diffuse electron precipitation. We present results of the statistical study, show typical events, results from Biot-Savart simulations, and discuss the implications for our understanding of the 3D current system associated with substorms.
Implementation of enhanced dynamic wedge in the focus rtp system.
Miften, M; Wiesmeyer, M; Beavis, A; Takahashi, K; Broad, S
2000-01-01
The FOCUS RTP system implementation of Varian's enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is presented. Calculations of both dose distributions and wedge factors (WFs) are based on segmented treatment tables (STTs). Calculating dose requires a "transmission matrix" derived from an STT to model the modified fluence from the source. The dose calculation is then performed using either the Clarkson or convolution/superposition algorithms. An initial "primary dose/monitor unit (MU) fraction" WF estimate at the weight point of symmetric and asymmetric fields is calculated from the STT as the ratio of MU delivered on the axis of the weight point divided by total MU delivered for the treatment field. In our approach, we go beyond this initial estimate with a "scatter dose" correction. This requires measured 60 degrees WFs for 5 fields. Scatter corrections derived from measured WFs are interpolated for other wedge angles and field sizes in much the same way as arbitrary wedge angle STTs are derived from a "golden STT" using the "ratio of tangents" formalism. Dose comparisons with measured distributions show good agreement to within 3% or 3 mm for 6-MV beams and all EDW angles. Agreement with measurements to within 1% is obtained for WFs in all symmetric and asymmetric fields for 6- and 10-MV beams. For large wedge angles and field sizes, this represents a significant improvement over the 3% to 4% errors often observed using the MU fraction model alone.
Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forsythe, Sue
2007-01-01
In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…
Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forsythe, Sue
2007-01-01
In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, Edward S.
1982-01-01
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Laparoscopic caecal wedge resection with intraoperative endoscopic assistance.
Giavarini, Luisa; Boni, Luigi; Cortellezzi, Camillo Claudio; Segato, Sergio; Cassinotti, Elisa; Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Marzorati, Alessandro; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Sambucci, Daniele; Dionigi, Renzo
2013-01-01
Cancer is a potential evolution of adenomatous polyps, that is why nowadays screening programs for colorectal cancer are widely diffused. Colonoscopy is the gold standard procedure for identifying and resecting polyps; however, for some polyps resection during colonoscopy is not possible. The aim of the present study is to identify a fast and safe procedure for endoscopically resecting unresectable polyps. Patients with endoscopically unresectable polyps were scheduled for laparoscopic wedge resection under colonoscopic assistance. From November 2010 to November 2012 we treated 15 patients with endoscopically unresectable adenomatous polyps. All patients underwent a laparoscopic caecal wedge resection with intraoperative endoscopic assistance. All procedures were completed without complications and in all cases complete resection of the polyps was achieved. Laparoscopic wedge caecal resection with intraoperative colonoscopy is a fast and safe procedure that can be performed for large polyps that could not be treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, E.S.
1980-05-09
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Geometry of the Hikurangi subduction thrust and upper plate, North Island, New Zealand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henrys, S.; Barker, D.; Sutherland, R.; Bannister, S.
2009-04-01
We use 2800 line km of seismic-reflection data to map the offshore character and three-dimensional geometry of the Hikurangi subduction thrust and outer forearc wedge to depths of c. 15 km. Several first order subduction characteristics vary systematically north to south over relatively short along-strike distances on the Hikurangi margin, for example, convergence rate (60 mm/a in the north to <30 mm/a in the south), apparent plate locking, margin seafloor morphology. For 200 km along-strike south of Hawke Bay, the offshore subduction thrust is relatively smooth, shallow-dipping, and the wedge is characterised by accretion of young sediment and topographic slopes of < 3°. The resultant low wedge taper (approximately 4°) in this region is typical of high pore pressure, low permeability thrust wedges with fluids channelled along a weak basal décollement. The inner wedge region of the central Hikurangi margin is characterised by splay faults and out-of-sequence thrusting, which thicken the wedge behind the deformation front and maintain its mechanical stability. Also in Hawke Bay and north for 200 km, a kink in the subduction thrust is apparent, with a down-dip increase in dip to angles greater than 8° at depths of 10-15 km; there is a corresponding steepening of the outer wedge topographic slope to > 3° outboard of the kink and the wedge is characterised by lithified sedimentary rock and slope failure. The kink in the subduction thrust is a locus of inherent weakness in the subducting slab; we suggest its occurrence relates to a northward increase in subduction rate that controls initial slab dehydration and fluid release rates and hence intra-slab deformation patterns. The subduction thrust geometry, in combination with a northward increase in subducting plate roughness and decrease in the amount of sediment accreted, causes the observed spatial change in character of the subduction thrust and forearc wedge. We speculate that the mechanical behaviour and
Optofluidic encapsulation of crystalline colloidal arrays into spherical membrane.
Kim, Shin-Hyun; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man
2008-05-07
Double emulsion droplets encapsulating crystalline colloidal arrays (CCAs) with a narrow size distribution were produced using an optofluidic device. The shell phase of the double emulsion was a photocurable resin that was photopolymerized downstream of the fluidic channel within 1 s after drop generation. The present optofluidic synthesis scheme was very effective for fabricating highly monodisperse spherical CCAs that were made structurally stable by in situ photopolymerization of the encapsulating shells. The shell thickness and the number of core emulsion drops could be controlled by varying the flow rates of the three coflowing streams in the dripping regime. The spherical CCAs confined in the shell exhibited distinct diffraction patterns in the visible range, in contrast to conventional film-type CCAs. As a result of their structure, the spherical CCAs exhibited photonic band gaps for normal incident light independent of the position on the spherical surface. This property was induced by heterogeneous nucleation at the smooth wall of the spherical emulsion drop during crystallization into a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. On the other hand, the solidified shells did not permit the penetration of ionic species, enabling the CCAs to maintain their structure in a continuous aqueous phase of high ionic strength for at least 1 month. In addition, the evaporation of water molecules inside the shell was slowed considerably when the core-shell microparticles were exposed to air: It took approximately 6 h for a suspension encapsulated in a thick shell to evaporate completely, which is approximately 1000 times longer than the evaporation time for water droplets with the same volume. Finally, the spherical CCAs additionally exhibited enhanced stability against external electric fields. The spherical geometry and high dielectric constant of the suspension contributed to reducing the electric field inside the shell, thereby inhibiting the electrophoretic movement of
Thrust fault growth within accretionary wedges: New Insights from 3D seismic reflection data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orme, H.; Bell, R. E.; Jackson, C. A. L.
2015-12-01
The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. Previous studies have reported en-echelon thrust fault geometries from the NW part of the dataset, and have related this complex structure to seamount subduction. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. We also demonstrate that the majority of faults grew upward from the décollement, although there is some evidence for downward fault propagation. Our observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milazzo, Flavio; Storti, Fabrizio; Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Magistroni, Corrado; Meda, Marco; Salvi, Francesca
2016-04-01
Crustal mechanical stratigraphy i.e. alternating mechanically weaker and stronger layers within the crust, plays a key role in determining how contractional deformations are accommodated at convergent plate boundaries. In the upper crust, evaporites typically provide preferential décollement layers for fault localization and foreland ward propagation, thus significantly influencing evolution of thrust-fold belts in terms of mechanical balance, geometries, and chronological sequences of faulting. Evaporites occur at the base of many passive margin successions that underwent positive inversion within orogenic systems. They typically produce salient geometries in deformation fronts, as in the Jura in the Northern Alps, the Salakh Arch in the Oman Mountains, or the Ainsa oblique thrust-fold belt in the Spanish Pyrenees. Evaporites frequently occur also in foredeep deposits, as in the Apennines, the Pyrenees, the Zagros etc. causing development of additional structural complexity. Low-friction décollement layers also occur within sedimentary successions involved in thrust-fold belts and they contribute to the development of staircase fault trajectories. The role of décollement layers in thrust wedge evolution has been investigated in many experimental works, particularly by sandbox analogue experiments that have demonstrated the impact of basal weak layers on many first order features of thrust wedges, including the dominant fold vergence, the timing of fault activity, and the critical taper. Some experiments also investigated on the effects of weak layers within accreting sedimentary successions, showing how this triggers kinematic decoupling of the stratigraphy above and below the décollements, thus enhancing disharmonic deformation. However, at present a systematic experimental study of the deformation modes of an upper crustal mechanical stratigraphy consisting of both low-friction and viscous décollement layers is still missing in the specific literature. In
Noise attenuation by a hard wedge-shaped barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouis, D.
2003-04-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of sound screening by a wedge-like barrier. The sound source is assumed to be point like, and the receiver is located in the shadow of the source sound field, so that according to geometrical optics only the field diffracted by the edge of the barrier is considered. First, for the hard wedge in space, three models are used for calculating the amplitude of the edge-diffracted field. These are the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD), the Hadden-Pierce model, both in the frequency domain, and the Biot-Tolstoy theory of diffraction which is a time domain formulation. It is first shown that even at relatively low frequencies, the frequency domain models perform quite satisfactorily as compared to the exact time domain theory. Hence, and due to its relative simplicity the UTD is proposed as an accurate calculation scheme for solving problems with edge diffraction by hard wedges. It is also proved from theoretical calculations that the amplitude of the edge-diffracted field increases for an increasing angle of the wedge, and consequently the hard half-plane gives the lowest field amplitude in the shadow zone. Some applications are then considered for evaluating the performance of a barrier on a flat ground, either completely hard or with mixed homogeneous boundary conditions. An improvement of the scheme for calculating the sound field in the all-hard case is achieved through considering the multiple diffraction, in this case only to the second order, between the top of the wedge barrier and its base. The results show that for usually occurring situations, increasing the angle of the hard wedge barrier affects negatively its efficiency through diminishing its insertion loss. These conclusions are also supported by the results of some experimental measurements conducted at a scale-model level.
Wedge covariance for two-dimensional filling and wetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parry, A. O.; Greenall, M. J.; Wood, A. J.
2002-02-01
A comprehensive theory of interfacial fluctuation effects occurring at two-dimensional wedge (corner) filling transitions in pure (thermal disorder) and impure (random bond disorder) systems is presented. Scaling theory and the explicit results of transfer matrix and replica trick studies of interfacial Hamiltonian models reveal that, for almost all examples of intermolecular forces, the critical behaviour at filling is fluctuation dominated, characterized by universal critical exponents and scaling functions that depend only on the wandering exponent ζ. Within this filling-fluctuation (FFL) regime, the critical behaviour of the midpoint interfacial height, probability distribution function, local compressibility and wedge free energy are identical to corresponding quantities predicted for the strong-fluctuation (SFL) regime for critical wetting transitions at planar walls. In particular the wedge free energy is related to the SFL regime point tension, which is calculated for systems with random bond disorder using the replica trick. The connection with the SFL regime for all these quantities can be expressed precisely in terms of special wedge covariance relations, which complement standard scaling theory and restrict the allowed values of the critical exponents for both FFL filling and SFL critical wetting. The predictions for the values of the exponents in the SFL regime recover earlier results based on random walk arguments. The covariance of the wedge free energy leads to a new, general relation for the SFL regime point tension, which derives the conjectured Indekeu-Robledo critical exponent relation and also explains the origin of the logarithmic singularity for pure systems known from exact Ising studies due to Abraham and co-workers. Wedge covariance is also used to predict the numerical values of critical exponents and position dependence of universal one-point functions for pure systems.
Crystallization controlled by the geometry of a surface.
Page, Amanda J; Sear, Richard P
2009-12-09
Crystallization is of great importance in fields as diverse as atmospheric chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It starts with nucleation, the formation of a microscopic crystal. Here we study, via computer simulation, the heterogeneous nucleation of a crystal in wedge-shaped grooves in a surface. We find that nucleation in these grooves is many orders of magnitude faster than on a flat surface. We also find that there is an optimum wedge angle at which nucleation is fastest. Our observation that nucleation in grooves dominates that on flat surfaces not only explains the effectiveness of scratching a surface to induce crystallization but also allows us to see the microscopic behavior that underlies this common technique. We also show how it may also be possible to control the crystal form, the polymorph, by controlling the groove geometry to favor nucleation of the desired polymorph.
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals
Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.
2015-07-21
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
Three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of experimental piggyback thrusting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulugeta, Genene; Koyi, Hemin
1987-11-01
The three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of piggyback stacks of imbricate thrust sheets are illustrated and discussed using a single model shortened in a squeeze box. Strike-parallel geometric elements simulated include lateral ramps, eyed sheath folds, splays, and thrust/thrust interference. Fine details of these structures were exposed by eroding a shortened wedge of sand using a newly developed vacuum-eroding technique. A kinematic analysis of the model shows a stepwise increase in imbricate thrust spacing and/or a decrease in rate of nucleation of imbricate thrusts in the direction of thrust transport. Despite the steady forward advance of a rear wall, the piggyback wedge accreted episodically, recording different strain domains in longitudinal cross sections. Strain partitioning in single layers by bed-length balancing showed an increase in layer shortening with volume loss and a corresponding decrease in imbricate thrusting and ramp folding with depth.
Capillary surfaces in a wedge: Differing contact angles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert
1994-01-01
The possible zero-gravity equilibrium configurations of capillary surfaces u(x, y) in cylindrical containers whose sections are (wedge) domains with corners are investigated mathematically, for the case in which the contact angles on the two sides of the wedge may differ. In such a situation the behavior can depart in significant qualitative ways from that for which the contact angles on the two sides are the same. Conditions are described under which such qualitative changes must occur. Numerically computed surfaces are depicted to indicate the behavior.
Regularization for Inverting the Radon Transform with Wedge Consideration (PREPRINT)
2006-11-01
medical imaging , and industrial testing, the object of interest is scanned over a limited angular range, which is less than the full 180 deg mathematically required for density reconstruction. The use of standard full-range reconstruction algorithms produces results with notorious "butter-fly" or "wedge" artifacts. In this work we propose a reconstruction technique with a regularization term that takes into account the orientation of the missing angular range, also denoted as missing wedge. We show that a regularization that penalizes non-uniformly in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yong; Li, Haibing; Zhou, Rongjun; Su, Dechen; Yan, Liang; Yan, Zhaokun
2014-04-01
Longmen Shan is located at the boundary between the Sichuan Basin and Tibetan Plateau, representing the steepest gradient of any edges of the plateau. Three endmember models of uplift process and mechanism have been proposed, including crustal thickening, crustal flow, and crustal isostatic rebound. Here, we use tectonostratigraphic units in the Late Triassic foreland basin to restraint uplift process and mechanism in the Longmen Shan during Indosinian orogeny. The Late Triassic foreland basin developed as a flexural foredeep on the Yangtze passive continental margin during the Indosinian orogeny. The basin fill includes the Maantang Formation, the Xiaotangzi Formation and the Xujiahe Formation, and it is divided into four tectonostratigraphic units with wedge-shaped or tabular cross-sectional geometry by unconformities and flooding surfaces in this paper. The first and third ones are wedge-shaped tectonostratigraphic units and correspond to underfilled condition with basal unconformities or major flooding surfaces, the high rate of subsidence and sediment accumulation, coarsening-upward succession and a dual sediment supply, and them may link to strong active thrust loading events or the rapidly advance rate of the orogenic wedge; the second and fourth ones are tabular tectonostratigraphic units and correspond to overfilled condition with the unconformity, the low rate of subsidence and sediment accumulation, fining-upward succession, a single sediment supply, the mass emergence of conglomerate layers, and they may be related to isostatic rebound and erosion unloading. Two endmember models of uplift process and mechanism in the Longmen Shan during Indosinian cycle have been proposed by coeval Late Triassic sedimentary sequences in the foreland basin here: (1) crustal thickening during the wedge-shaped tectonostratigraphic units, (2) crustal isostatic rebound during the tabular tectonostratigraphic units. This two endmember models proposed in this paper may be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koge, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kodaira, Shuichi; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Jun; Kitamura, Yujin; Hamahashi, Mari; Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Ashi, Juichiro; Kimura, Gaku
2014-12-01
The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) produced a fault rupture that extended to the toe of the Japan Trench. The deformation and frictional properties beneath the forearc are keys that can help to elucidate this unusual event. In the present study, to investigate the frictional properties of the shallow part of the plate boundary, we applied the critically tapered Coulomb wedge theory to the Japan Trench and obtained the effective coefficient of basal friction and Hubbert-Rubey pore fluid pressure ratio (λ) of the wedge beneath the lower slope. We extracted the surface slope angle and décollement dip angle (which are the necessary topographic parameters for applying the critical taper theory) from seismic reflection and refraction survey data at 12 sites in the frontal wedges of the Japan Trench. We found that the angle between the décollement and back-stop interface generally decreases toward the north. The measured taper angle and inferred effective friction coefficient were remarkably high at three locations. The southernmost area, which had the highest coefficient of basal friction, coincides with the area where the seamount is colliding offshore of Fukushima. The second area with a high effective coefficient of basal friction coincides with the maximum slip location during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The area of the 2011 earthquake rupture was topographically unique from other forearc regions in the Japan Trench. The strain energy accumulation near the trench axis may have proceeded because of the relatively high friction, and later this caused a large slip and collapse of the wedge. The location off Sanriku, where there are neither seamount collisions nor rupture propagation, also has a high coefficient of basal friction. The characteristics of the taper angle, effective coefficient of basal friction, and pore fluid pressure ratio along the Japan Trench presented herein may contribute to the understanding of the relationship between the geometry of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, A. G.; Yu, H.; Hendershott, Z.
2010-12-01
Orogenic wedges are standard elements of collisional plate tectonics, from accretionary prisms to retro-arc basins. Recent study of orogenic wedge development has focused on links between mechanisms of internal deformation and surface processes. Models of orogenic wedges are commonly presented in the cross-section plane, which is generally effective as wedges largely develop via plane strain. The 3rd dimension can be utilized to explore effects of differences in controlling parameters on wedge evolution. We are investigating a stretch of the western Himalayan orogenic wedge that has two prominent changes in along-strike morphology: (1) a tectonic window (the Kullu Window) that appears to be strongly influenced by erosion along the 3rd largest river in the Himalayan system, the Sutlej River and (2) the Kangra Re-entrant, the largest re-entrant along the Himalayan arc. In addition to the along-strike heterogeneity, a key advantage of the proposed study area is its rich stratigraphy, with the most known diversity in the Himalayan arc. The stratigraphic wealth, combined with the along-strike heterogeneity in exposure level, offers a high resolution view of regional structural geometry. Our preliminary reconstructions suggest that the Sutlej River erosion increases the exposure depth and shortening budget across a narrow segment of the orogen, strongly warping the Kullu Window. Previous models have suggested that the out-of-sequence Munsiari thrust is the main structure associated with Kullu window formation, while our work suggests that most of this uplift and warping is accomplished by antiformal stacking of basement thrust horses. Late Miocene ages (U-Pb ages of zircons and Th-Pb ages of monazites) from a leucogranite in the core of the Kullu Window along the Sutlej River further suggests that this segment of the orogen represents a middle ground between plane strain orogenic wedge development and a tectonic aneurysm model. We have constructed a palinspastic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, George T., Jr.; Bare, E. Ann; Burley, James R., II
1987-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effect of a boattail angle and wedge-size trade on the performance of nonaxisymmetric wedge nozzles installed on a generic twin-engine fighter aircraft model. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.25. Angle of attack was held constant at 0 deg. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust, and the nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to slightly over 15.0. For the configurations studied, the results indicate that wedge size can be reduced without affecting aeropropulsive performance.
Milking the spherical cow - on aspherical dynamics in spherical coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontzen, Andrew; Read, Justin I.; Teyssier, Romain; Governato, Fabio; Gualandris, Alessia; Roth, Nina; Devriendt, Julien
2015-08-01
Galaxies and the dark matter haloes that host them are not spherically symmetric, yet spherical symmetry is a helpful simplifying approximation for idealized calculations and analysis of observational data. The assumption leads to an exact conservation of angular momentum for every particle, making the dynamics unrealistic. But how much does that inaccuracy matter in practice for analyses of stellar distribution functions, collisionless relaxation, or dark matter core-creation? We provide a general answer to this question for a wide class of aspherical systems; specifically, we consider distribution functions that are `maximally stable', i.e. that do not evolve at first order when external potentials (which arise from baryons, large-scale tidal fields or infalling substructure) are applied. We show that a spherically symmetric analysis of such systems gives rise to the false conclusion that the density of particles in phase space is ergodic (a function of energy alone). Using this idea we are able to demonstrate that: (a) observational analyses that falsely assume spherical symmetry are made more accurate by imposing a strong prior preference for near-isotropic velocity dispersions in the centre of spheroids; (b) numerical simulations that use an idealized spherically symmetric setup can yield misleading results and should be avoided where possible; and (c) triaxial dark matter haloes (formed in collisionless cosmological simulations) nearly attain our maximally stable limit, but their evolution freezes out before reaching it.
Newtonian wormholes with spherical symmetry and tidal forces on test particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luz, Paulo; Lemos, José P. S.
2015-06-01
A spherically symmetric wormhole in Newtonian gravitation in curved space, enhanced with a connection between the mass density and the Ricci scalar, is presented. The wormhole, consisting of two connected asymptotically flat regions, inhabits a spherically symmetric curved space. The gravitational potential, gravitational field and the pressure that supports the fluid that permeates the Newtonian wormhole are computed. Particle dynamics and tidal effects in this geometry are studied. The possibility of having Newtonian black holes in this theory is sketched.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonald, Nathaniel J.
2001-01-01
Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonald, Nathaniel J.
2001-01-01
Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…
Wedge factor dependence with depth, field size, and nominal distance--a general computational rule.
Popescu, A; Lai, K; Singer, K; Phillips, M
1999-04-01
We have investigated the dependence of the wedge factors with field size, depth, nominal, and extended distances for 4, 6, 18, and 24 MV photon beams. Analysis of the experimental data suggests a general linear dependence of the wedge factors with field size and depth. The study shows that changes in wedge factors are insignificant (< or = +/-1.0%) with respect to measurements at nominal SSD, SAD, or extended SSD. This independence of the wedge factors on source-to-surface distance was studied for different photon energies (4-24 MV) and for different attenuating wedges (external and internal wedges). For clinical applications, an algorithm is presented to calculate the wedge factor dependence with field size and depth. The new algorithm has been successfully implemented to replace wedge look-up tables for dose and MU calculations in PRISM 1.2 treatment planning system used in our department.
Spherical harmonics in texture analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeben, Helmut; van den Boogaart, K. Gerald
2003-07-01
The objective of this contribution is to emphasize the fundamental role of spherical harmonics in constructive approximation on the sphere in general and in texture analysis in particular. The specific purpose is to present some methods of texture analysis and pole-to-orientation probability density inversion in a unifying approach, i.e. to show that the classic harmonic method, the pole density component fit method initially introduced as a distinct alternative, and the spherical wavelet method for high-resolution texture analysis share a common mathematical basis provided by spherical harmonics. Since pole probability density functions and orientation probability density functions are probability density functions defined on the sphere Ω3⊂ R3 or hypersphere Ω4⊂ R4, respectively, they belong at least to the space of measurable and integrable functions L1( Ωd), d=3, 4, respectively. Therefore, first a basic and simplified method to derive real symmetrized spherical harmonics with the mathematical property of providing a representation of rotations or orientations, respectively, is presented. Then, standard orientation or pole probability density functions, respectively, are introduced by summation processes of harmonic series expansions of L1( Ωd) functions, thus avoiding resorting to intuition and heuristics. Eventually, it is shown how a rearrangement of the harmonics leads quite canonically to spherical wavelets, which provide a method for high-resolution texture analysis. This unified point of view clarifies how these methods, e.g. standard functions, apply to texture analysis of EBSD orientation measurements.
Benchmark solutions for sound propagation in an ideal wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Wen-Yu; Yang, Chun-Mei; Qin, Ji-Xing; Zhang, Ren-He
2013-05-01
Sound propagation in a wedge-shaped waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of the few range-dependent problems with an analytical solution, and hence provides an ideal benchmark for a full two-way solution to the wave equation. An analytical solution for the sound propagation in an ideal wedge with a pressure-release bottom was presented by Buckingham and Tolstoy [Buckingham and Tolstoy 1990 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87 1511]. The ideal wedge problem with a rigid bottom is also of great importance in underwater acoustics. We present an analytical solution to the ideal wedge problem with a perfectly reflecting bottom, either rigid or pressure-release, which may be used to provide a means for investigating the sound field in depth-varying channels, and to establish the accuracy of numerical propagation models. Closed-form expressions for coupling matrices are also provided for the ideal waveguides characterized by a homogeneous water column bounded by perfectly reflecting boundaries. A comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical solution recently proposed by Luo et al. [Luo W Y, Yang C M and Zhang R H 2012 Chin. Phys. Lett. 29 014302] is also presented, through which the accuracy of this numerical model is illustrated.
Experimental investigation of hypersonic flow induced separation over double wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Tokitada
2009-09-01
Flow separation occurs over the compression corners generated by deflected control surfaces on hypersonic re-entry vehicles and in the inlet of scram jet engines. Configurations like a double wedge and double cone model are useful for studying the separated flow features. Flow fields around concave corners are relatively complicated and produce several classical viscous flow features depending on the combination of the first and second wedge or cone half apex angles. Particularly characteristic phenomena are mainly shock/boundary layer, shock/shock interaction, unsteady shear layers and non-linear shock oscillations. Although most of these basic gas dynamics characteristics are well known, it is not clear what happens at high enthalpy conditions. This paper reports a result of flow fields over a double wedge at a stagnation enthalpy of 4.8 MJ/kg. The experiment was carried out in a free piston shock tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 6.99. Schlieren and double exposure holographic interferometry were applied to visualize the flow field over the double wedge.
Acoustic or Electromagnetic Scattering from the Penetrable Wedge
1993-02-28
difference equation to be solved in the transform variable. A special inhomogeneous surface impedance yields purely algebraic equations for the... lineal density is located at the source coordinates (r’, 0’) of Fig. 1. The permittivity of the wedge of angle 2a is f 2 , which is surrounded by a
The Gibbons-Hawking ansatz over a wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Borbon, Martin
2017-10-01
We discuss the Ricci-flat 'model metrics' on C2 with cone singularities along the conic { zw = 1 } constructed by Donaldson (2012), Section 5-using the Gibbons-Hawking ansatz over wedges in R3. In particular we describe their asymptotic behavior at infinity and compute their energies.
Magnetic and structural instabilities of ultrathin Fe(100) wedges
Bader, S.D.; Li, Dongqi; Qiu, Z.Q.
1994-05-01
An overview is provided of recent efforts to explore magnetic and related structural issues for ultrathin Fe films grown epitaxially as wedge structures onto Ag(100) and Cu(100). Experiments were carried out utilizing the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE). Ordinary bcc Fe is lattice-matched to the primitive unit cell of the Ag(100) surface. Fe wedges on Ag(100) can be fabricated whose thick end has in-plane magnetic easy axes due to the shape anisotropy, and whose thin end has perpendicular easy axes due to the surface magnetic anisotrophy. A spin-reorientation transition can thus be studied in the center of the wedge where the competing anisotropies cancel. The goal is to test the Mermin-Wagner theorem which states that long-range order is lost at finite temperatures in an isotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg system. Fe wedges on Cu(100) can be studied in like manner, but the lattice matching permits fcc and tetragonally-distorted fcc phases to provide structural complexity in addition to the interplay of competing magnetic anisotropies. The results of these studies are new phase identifications that help both to put previous work into perspective and to define issues to pursue in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javidan, Kurosh; Pakzad, Hamid Reza
2012-02-01
Propagation of cylindrical and spherical electron-acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a superthermal distribution and stationary ions are investigated. The standard reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the cylindrical/spherical Korteweg-de-Vries equation which governs the dynamics of electron-acoustic solitons. The effects of nonplanar geometry and superthermal hot electrons on the behavior of cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic soliton and its structure are also studied using numerical simulations.
Footprint geometry and sessile drop resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.
2017-03-01
In this work, we examine experimentally the resonance of a sessile drop with a square footprint (square drop) on a flat plate. Two families of modal behaviors are reported. One family is identified with the modes of sessile drops with circular footprints (circular drop), denoted as "spherical modes." The other family is associated with Faraday waves on a square liquid bath (square Faraday waves), denoted as "grid modes." The two families are distinguished based on their dispersion behaviors. By comparing the occurrence of the modes, we recognize spherical modes as the characteristic of sessile drops, and grid modes as the constrained response. Within a broader context, we further discuss the resonance modes of circular sessile drops and free spherical drops, and we recognize various modal behaviors as surface waves under different extents of constraint. From these, we conclude that sessile drops resonate according to how wave-number selection by footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes; otherwise, the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates.
Footprint geometry and sessile drop resonance.
Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H
2017-03-01
In this work, we examine experimentally the resonance of a sessile drop with a square footprint (square drop) on a flat plate. Two families of modal behaviors are reported. One family is identified with the modes of sessile drops with circular footprints (circular drop), denoted as "spherical modes." The other family is associated with Faraday waves on a square liquid bath (square Faraday waves), denoted as "grid modes." The two families are distinguished based on their dispersion behaviors. By comparing the occurrence of the modes, we recognize spherical modes as the characteristic of sessile drops, and grid modes as the constrained response. Within a broader context, we further discuss the resonance modes of circular sessile drops and free spherical drops, and we recognize various modal behaviors as surface waves under different extents of constraint. From these, we conclude that sessile drops resonate according to how wave-number selection by footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes; otherwise, the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates.
Wedges, cones, cosmic strings and their vacuum energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulling, S. A.; Trendafilova, C. S.; Truong, P. N.; Wagner, J.
2012-09-01
One of J Stuart Dowker’s most significant achievements has been to observe that the theory of diffraction by wedges developed a century ago by Sommerfeld and others provided the key to solving two problems of great interest in general-relativistic quantum field theory during the last quarter of the 20th century: the vacuum energy associated with an infinitely thin, straight cosmic string, and (after an interchange of time with a space coordinate) the apparent vacuum energy of empty space as viewed by an accelerating observer. In a sense the string problem is more elementary than the wedge, since Sommerfeld’s technique was to relate the wedge problem to that of a conical manifold by the method of images. Indeed, Minkowski space, as well as all cone and wedge problems, are related by images to an infinitely sheeted master manifold, which we call Dowker space. We review the research in this area and exhibit in detail the vacuum expectation values of the energy density and pressure of a scalar field in Dowker space and the cone and wedge spaces that result from it. We point out that the (vanishing) vacuum energy of Minkowski space results, from the point of view of Dowker space, from the quantization of angular modes, in precisely the way that the Casimir energy of a toroidal closed universe results from the quantization of Fourier modes; we hope that this understanding dispels any lingering doubts about the reality of cosmological vacuum energy. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Spherical demons: fast surface registration.
Yeo, B T Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina
2008-01-01
We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast - registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces.
Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration
Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina
2009-01-01
We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813
P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments
Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.
1978-01-01
An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.
Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria preserved in a permafrost ice wedge for 25,000 years.
Katayama, Taiki; Tanaka, Michiko; Moriizumi, Jun; Nakamura, Toshio; Brouchkov, Anatoli; Douglas, Thomas A; Fukuda, Masami; Tomita, Fusao; Asano, Kozo
2007-04-01
Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria preserved within an ice wedge from the Fox permafrost tunnel was undertaken by cultivation and molecular techniques. The radiocarbon age of the ice wedge was determined. Our results suggest that the bacteria in the ice wedge adapted to the frozen conditions have survived for 25,000 years.
Biomechanical Analysis of a Novel Wedge Locking Plate in a Porcine Tibial Model
Ha, Jeong-Ku; Yeom, Chul Hyun; Jang, Ho Su; Song, Han Eui; Lee, Sung Jae; Kim, Kang Hee; Chung, Kyu Sung; Bhat, Mahendar Gururaj
2016-01-01
Background The purpose of this study was to analyze biomechanical properties of a novel wedge locking plate in medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) in a porcine tibial model. Methods A uniform 8-mm OWHTO was performed in 12 porcine tibiae. Six of them were subsequently fixed with the plate without a wedge, whereas the other 6 were additionally reinforced with a metal wedge of 8 mm. Biomechanical properties (stiffness, displacement of the osteotomy gap, and failure load) were evaluated under axial load. The different modes of failure were also investigated. Results The plate showed an axial stiffness of 2,457 ± 450 N/mm with a wedge and 1,969 ± 874 N/mm without a wedge. The maximum failure load was 5,380 ± 952 N with a wedge and 4,354 ± 607 N without a wedge. The plate with a wedge had a significantly greater failure load and significantly less displacement of medial gap at failure than that without a wedge (p = 0.041 and p = 0.002, respectively). The axial stiffness was not different between the two types of fixation. Most failures were caused by lateral cortex breakage and there was no implant failure. Conclusions The novel wedge locking plate showed excellent biomechanical properties and an additional wedge provided significant improvement. This plate can be a good fixation method for OWHTO. PMID:27904718
Basketballs as spherical acoustic cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, Daniel A.
2010-06-01
The sound field resulting from striking a basketball is found to be rich in frequency content, with over 50 partials in the frequency range of 0-12 kHz. The frequencies are found to closely match theoretical expectations for standing wave patterns inside a spherical cavity. Because of the degenerate nature of the mode shapes, explicit identification of the modes is not possible without internal investigation with a microphone probe. A basketball proves to be an interesting application of a boundary value problem involving spherical coordinates.
Radiance calibration of spherical integrators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.
1989-01-01
Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.
Compressible inviscid instability of rapidly expanding spherical material interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mankbadi, Mina R.; Balachandar, S.
2012-03-01
A high-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme is employed to investigate the stability of a rapidly expanding material interface produced by a spherical shock tube. The flow structure is characterized by a forward moving primary shock, a backward moving secondary shock, and a spherical contact interface in-between. We consider herein the linear inviscid regime and focus on the development of the three-dimensional perturbations around the contact interface by solving a one-dimensional system of partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effects of the contact interface's density discontinuity on the growth of the disturbances for various spherical wave numbers. In a spherical shock tube the instability is influenced by various mechanisms which include classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effects, Bell-Plesset or geometry/curvature effects, the effects of impulsively accelerating the interface, and compressibility effects. Henceforth, the present instability will be referred to as non-classical RT instability to distinguish it from classical RT instability. For an extended intermediate time period, it can be shown that the small disturbances grow exponentially as in the classical RT instability. During this stage, the exponential growth rate increases with the spherical wave number, until it saturates for very large wave numbers due to the finite thickness limitation of the numerical representation of the contact interface. The results compare favorably with previous theoretical models; but indicate that in addition to compressibility, the space-time evolution of the contact interface's thickness plays a significant role. A parametric study is performed that varies the pressure and density ratios of the initial spherical container. The characteristics of the contact interface and the applicability of various instability theories is investigated for these regimes. Furthermore, varying the pressure and density ratios aids
Active shortening within the Himalayan orogenic wedge implied by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whipple, Kelin X.; Shirzaei, Manoochehr; Hodges, Kip V.; Ramon Arrowsmith, J.
2016-09-01
Models of Himalayan neotectonics generally attribute active mountain building to slip on the Himalayan Sole Thrust, also termed the Main Himalayan Thrust, which accommodates underthrusting of the Indian Plate beneath Tibet. However, the geometry of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and thus how slip along it causes uplift of the High Himalaya are unclear. We show that the geodetic record of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence significantly clarifies the architecture of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and suggests the need for revision of the canonical view of how the Himalaya grow. Inversion of Gorkha surface deformation reveals that the Himalayan Sole Thrust extends as a planar gently dipping fault surface at least 20-30 km north of the topographic front of the High Himalaya. This geometry implies that building of the high range cannot be attributed solely to slip along the Himalayan Sole Thrust over a steep ramp; instead, shortening within the Himalayan wedge is required to support the topography and maintain rapid rock uplift. Indeed, the earthquake sequence may have included a moderate rupture (Mw 6.9) on an out-of-sequence thrust fault at the foot of the High Himalaya. Such internal deformation is an expected response to sustained, focused rapid erosion, and may be common to most compressional orogens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choubey, Gautam; Pandey, K. M.
2017-04-01
Numerical analysis of the supersonic combustion and flow structure through a scramjet engine at Mach 7 with alternating wedge fuel injection and with three angle of attack (α=-3°, α=0°, α=3°) have been studied in the present research article. The configuration used here is slight modification of the Rabadan et al. scramjet model. Steady two dimensional (2D) Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation and Shear stress transport (SST) based on k-ω turbulent model is used to predict the shock structure and combustion phenomenon inside the scramjet combustor. All the simulations are done by using Ansys 14-Fluent code. The combustion model used here is the combination of eddy dissipation and finite rate chemistry models since this model avoids Arrhenius calculations in which reaction rates are controlled by turbulence. Present results show that the geometry with negative angle of attack (α=-3°) have lowest ignition delay and it improves the performance of scramjet combustor as compared to geometry with α=0°, α=3°. The combustion phenomena and efficiency is also found to be stronger and highest in case of α=-3°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leever, K.; Thieulot, C.; Oncken, O.
2012-12-01
Analogue tectonic modeling combined with digital image analysis (PIV) gives high resolution constraints on the kinematics of (crustal) deformation. Observations are, however, limited to the model surface. While 3D numerical codes suffer much lower resolution than their analogue counterparts, they do allow unrestrained access to the internal dynamics. We apply both methods to constrain the mechanics of brittle transpressional wedges as fully as possible, allowing for a validation of existing analytical models. In this contribution, we highlight the strong control of erosional unloading on strain partitioning in highly oblique convergence. Results from analogue modelling Analogue tectonic transpression models with a brittle rheology and driven by constant basal kinematic boundary conditions were run at convergence angles of 10°, 20° and 30°. In one end member series, no erosion was applied. In the other series, the wedge topography was fully removed at 3 cm displacement increments. The models were observed with digital cameras. Using PIV, displacement fields were calculated and the slip on individual fault segments was derived. The analogue models reveal a strong dependence of fault kinematics on erosional unloading. The model series without erosion show a two-stage evolution. An initial, transient "oblique wedge" stage with oblique slip on pro- and retro-shear is followed by a steady state stage of "strain partitioning", in which slip is partitioned between strike-slip on a sub-vertical fault above the velocity discontinuity and oblique slip (20-30° obliquity, depending on the convergence angle) on the pro-shears. In this stage, the retro-shear accommodates near-orthogonal slip (5-10° obliquity). In the model series with erosion, a strike-slip fault develops as well. However, probably due to its inclined geometry, a larger component of the boundary-parallel displacement remains to be accommodated on the pro-shears. Slip on the retro-shear remains highly oblique
Dynamical systems and spherically symmetric cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yanjing
2006-06-01
In this thesis we present a study of the timelike self-similar spherically symmetric cosmological models with two scalar fields with exponential potentials. We first define precisely the timelike self-similar spherically symmetric (TSS) spacetimes. We write the TSS metric in a conformally isometric form in a coordinate system adapted to the geometry of the spacetime manifold. In this coordinate system, both the metric functions of the TSS spacetimes and the potential functions of the scalar fields can be simplified to four undetermined functions of a single coordinate. As a result, the Einstein field equations reduce to an autonomous system of first-order ODEs and polynomial constraints in terms of these undetermined functions. By introducing new bounded variables as well as a new independent variable and solving the constraints, we are able to apply the theory of dynamical systems to study the properties of the TSS solutions. By finding invariant sets and associated monotonic functions, by applying the LaSalle Invariance Principle and the Monotonicity Principle, by applying the [straight phi] t -connected property of a limit set, and using other theorems, we prove that all of the TSS trajectories are heteroclinic trajectories. In addition, we conduct numerical simulations to confirm and support the qualitative analysis. We obtain all possible types of TSS solutions, by analyzing the qualitative behavior of the original system of ODES from those of the reduced one. We obtain asymptotic expressions for the TSS solutions (e.g., the asymptotic expressions for the metric functions, the source functions and the Ricci scalar). In particular, self-similar flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes are examined in order to obtain insights into the issues related to the null surface in general TSS spacetimes in these coordinates. A discussion of the divergence of the spacetime Ricci scalar and the possible extension of the TSS solutions across the null boundary is presented
Spherical microwave confinement and ball lightning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, William Richard
This dissertation presents the results of research done on unconventional energy technologies from 1995 to 2009. The present civilization depends on an infrastructure that was constructed and is maintained almost entirely using concentrated fuels and ores, both of which will run out. Diffuse renewable energy sources rely on this same infrastructure, and hence face the same limitations. I first examined sonoluminescence directed toward fusion, but demonstrated theoretically that this is impossible. I next studied Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and developed methods for improving results, although these have not been implemented. In 2000, I began Spherical Microwave Confinement (SMC), which confines and heats plasma with microwaves in a spherical chamber. The reactor was designed and built to provide the data needed to investigate the possibility of achieving fusion conditions with microwave confinement. A second objective was to attempt to create ball lightning (BL). The reactor featured 20 magnetrons, which were driven by a capacitor bank and operated in a 0.2 s pulse mode at 2.45 GHz. These provided 20 kW to an icosahedral array of 20 antennas. Video of plasmas led to a redesign of the antennas to provide better coupling of the microwaves to the plasma. A second improvement was a grid at the base of the antennas, which provided corona electrons and an electric field to aid quick formation of plasmas. Although fusion conditions were never achieved and ball lightning not observed, experience gained from operating this basic, affordable system has been incorporated in a more sophisticated reactor design intended for future research. This would use magnets that were originally planned. The cusp geometry of the magnetic fields is suitable for electron cyclotron resonance in the same type of closed surface that in existing reactors has generated high-temperature plasmas. Should ball lightning be created, it could be a practical power source with nearly ideal
Wu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zhicheng; Cai, Xiaobin; Gao, Weiyang
2017-01-01
High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been widely used for clinical treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee, and both opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO are the most commonly used methods. However, it remains unclear which technique has better clinical and radiological outcomes in practice. To systematically evaluate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by pooling all available data for the opening-wedge HTO and closing-wedge HTO techniques from the electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wed of Science and Cochrane Library. A total of 22 studies encompassing 2582 cases were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference regarding surgery time, duration of hospitalization, knee pain VAS, Lysholm score and HSS knee score (clinical outcomes) between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05). However, the opening-wedge HTO group showed wider range of motion than the closing-wedge HTO group (P = 0.003). Moreover, as for Hip-Knee-Ankle angle and mean angle of correction, no significant difference was observed between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05), while the opening-wedge HTO group showed greater posterior tibial slope angle (P < 0.001) and lesser patellar height than the closing-wedge HTO group (P < 0.001). On light of the above analysis, we believe that individualized surgical approach should be introduced based on the clinical characteristics of each patient. PMID:28182736
The method of planes pressure tensor for a spherical subvolume
Heyes, D. M. Smith, E. R. Dini, D. Zaki, T. A.
2014-02-07
Various formulas for the local pressure tensor based on a spherical subvolume of radius, R, are considered. An extension of the Method of Planes (MOP) formula of Todd et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995)] for a spherical geometry is derived using the recently proposed Control Volume formulation [E. R. Smith, D. M. Heyes, D. Dini, and T. A. Zaki, Phys. Rev. E 85, 056705 (2012)]. The MOP formula for the purely radial component of the pressure tensor is shown to be mathematically identical to the Radial Irving-Kirkwood formula. Novel offdiagonal elements which are important for momentum conservation emerge naturally from this treatment. The local pressure tensor formulas for a plane are shown to be the large radius limits of those for spherical surfaces. The radial-dependence of the pressure tensor computed by Molecular Dynamics simulation is reported for virtual spheres in a model bulk liquid where the sphere is positioned randomly or whose center is also that of a molecule in the liquid. The probability distributions of angles relating to pairs of atoms which cross the surface of the sphere, and the center of the sphere, are presented as a function of R. The variance in the shear stress calculated from the spherical Volume Averaging method is shown to converge slowly to the limiting values with increasing radius, and to be a strong function of the number of molecules in the simulation cell.
Photoelectric sheath formation around small spherical objects in space
Misra, Shikha Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.
2015-04-15
The formation of a photoelectron sheath around positively charged small (∼cm) spherical objects roaming in near earth space due to the solar radiation (with continuous spectrum) and the solar wind plasma has been investigated. The sheath structure has been derived, taking into account anisotropic photoelectron flux with the Poisson equation, spherical geometry of the object, and half Fermi Dirac distribution of photoelectron velocities. Two cases, viz., when the object is illuminated by (i) isotropic or (ii) unidirectional (parallel beam) radiation, have been analyzed. The analysis predicts a spherically symmetric sheath in case of isotropic illumination, while a symmetry in sheath about a θ=π/4 is seen in case of parallel beam illumination; θ is the angle of incidence which is the angle made by the normal to a surface element with the direction of incidence of solar radiation. The radial and angular profiles of the electric potential and electron density in the photoelectron sheath have been evaluated and illustrated graphically; the dependence of the sheath structure on the solar wind plasma parameters, material properties of the spherical object, and its size have been discussed.
Diffraction-geometry refinement in the DIALS framework
Waterman, David G.; Winter, Graeme; Gildea, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James M.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Evans, Gwyndaf
2016-01-01
Rapid data collection and modern computing resources provide the opportunity to revisit the task of optimizing the model of diffraction geometry prior to integration. A comprehensive description is given of new software that builds upon established methods by performing a single global refinement procedure, utilizing a smoothly varying model of the crystal lattice where appropriate. This global refinement technique extends to multiple data sets, providing useful constraints to handle the problem of correlated parameters, particularly for small wedges of data. Examples of advanced uses of the software are given and the design is explained in detail, with particular emphasis on the flexibility and extensibility it entails. PMID:27050135
Diffraction-geometry refinement in the DIALS framework
Waterman, David G.; Winter, Graeme; Gildea, Richard J.; ...
2016-03-30
Rapid data collection and modern computing resources provide the opportunity to revisit the task of optimizing the model of diffraction geometry prior to integration. A comprehensive description is given of new software that builds upon established methods by performing a single global refinement procedure, utilizing a smoothly varying model of the crystal lattice where appropriate. This global refinement technique extends to multiple data sets, providing useful constraints to handle the problem of correlated parameters, particularly for small wedges of data. Examples of advanced uses of the software are given and the design is explained in detail, with particular emphasis onmore » the flexibility and extensibility it entails.« less
Diffraction-geometry refinement in the DIALS framework.
Waterman, David G; Winter, Graeme; Gildea, Richard J; Parkhurst, James M; Brewster, Aaron S; Sauter, Nicholas K; Evans, Gwyndaf
2016-04-01
Rapid data collection and modern computing resources provide the opportunity to revisit the task of optimizing the model of diffraction geometry prior to integration. A comprehensive description is given of new software that builds upon established methods by performing a single global refinement procedure, utilizing a smoothly varying model of the crystal lattice where appropriate. This global refinement technique extends to multiple data sets, providing useful constraints to handle the problem of correlated parameters, particularly for small wedges of data. Examples of advanced uses of the software are given and the design is explained in detail, with particular emphasis on the flexibility and extensibility it entails.
Spherical-Bearing Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleckner, R. J.
1984-01-01
Computer program SPHERBEAN, developed to predict thermomechanical performance characteristics of double-row spherical roller bearings over wide range of operating conditions. Analysis allows six degrees of freedom for each roller and three for each half of an optionally split cage. Program capabilities provide sufficient generality to allow detailed simulation of both high-speed and conventional bearing operation.
Analytical solution of the simplified spherical harmonics equations in spherical turbid media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edjlali, Ehsan; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves
2016-10-01
We present for the first time an analytical solution for the simplified spherical harmonics equations (so-called SPN equations) in the case of a steady-state isotropic point source inside a spherical homogeneous absorbing and scattering medium. The SPN equations provide a reliable approximation to the radiative transfer equation for describing light transport inside turbid media. The SPN equations consist of a set of coupled partial differential equations and the eigen method is used to obtain a set of decoupled equations, each resembling the heat equation in the Laplace domain. The equations are solved for the realistic partial reflection boundary conditions accounting for the difference in refractive indices between the turbid medium and its environment (air) as occurs in practical cases of interest in biomedical optics. Specifically, we provide the complete solution methodology for the SP3, which is readily applicable to higher orders as well, and also give results for the SP5. This computationally easy to obtain solution is investigated for different optical properties of the turbid medium. For validation, the solution is also compared to the analytical solution of the diffusion equation and to gold standard Monte Carlo simulation results. The SP3 and SP5 analytical solutions prove to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results. This work provides an additional tool for validating numerical solutions of the SPN equations for curved geometries.
Zhim, Fouad; Ayers, Reed A; Moore, John J; Moufarrège, Richard; Yahia, L'Hocine
2012-09-01
In this work a new generation of bioceramic personalized implants were developed. This technique combines the processes of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and combustion synthesis (CS) to create personalized bioceramic implants with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA). These porous bioceramics will be used to fill the tibial bone gap created by the opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). A freeform fabrication with three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique was used to fabricate a metallic mold with the same shape required to fill the gap in the opening wedge osteotomy. The mold was subsequently used in a CS process to fabricate the personalized ceramic implants with TCP and HA compositions. The mold geometry was designed on commercial 3D CAD software. The final personalized bioceramic implant was produced using a CS process. This technique was chosen because it exploits the exothermic reaction between P₂O₅ and CaO. Also, chemical composition and distribution of pores in the implant could be controlled. To determine the chemical composition, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of the implant, cylindrical shapes were also fabricated using different fabrication parameters. Chemical composition was performed by X-ray diffraction. Pore size and pore interconnectivity was measured and analyzed using an electronic microscope system. Mechanical properties were determined by a mechanical testing system. The porous TCP and HA obtained have an open porous structure with an average 400 µm channel size. The mechanical behavior shows great stiffness and higher load to failure for both ceramics. Finally, this personalized ceramic implant facilitated the regeneration of new bone in the gap created by OWHTO and provides additional strength to allow accelerated rehabilitation.
Big mantle wedge, anisotropy, slabs and earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Dapeng
2017-09-01
The Japan Sea is a part of the western Pacific trench-arc-backarc system and has a complex bathymetry and intense seismic activities in the crust and upper mantle. Local seismic tomography revealed strong lateral heterogeneities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which was determined using P and S wave arrival times of suboceanic earthquakes relocated precisely with sP depth phases. Ambient-noise tomography revealed a thin crust and a thin lithosphere beneath the Japan Sea and significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies in the shallow mantle beneath the western and eastern margins of the Japan Sea. Observations with ocean-bottom seismometers and electromagnetometers revealed low-V and high-conductivity anomalies at depths of 200-300 km in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the subducting Pacific slab, and the anomalies are connected with the low-V zone in the normal mantle wedge beneath NE Japan, suggesting that both shallow and deep slab dehydrations occur and contribute to the arc and back-arc magmatism. The Pacific slab has a simple geometry beneath the Japan Sea, and earthquakes occur actively in the slab down to a depth of ∼600 km beneath the NE Asian margin. Teleseismic P and S wave tomography has revealed that the Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to the mantle transition zone (MTZ, 410-660 km) depths beneath the southern Japan Sea and the Tsushima Strait, and a slab window is revealed within the aseismic Philippine Sea slab. Seismic anisotropy tomography revealed a NW-SE fast-velocity direction in the BMW, which reflects corner flows induced by the fast deep subduction of the Pacific slab. Large deep earthquakes (M > 7.0; depth > 500 km) occur frequently beneath the Japan Sea western margin, which may be related to the formation of the Changbai and Ulleung intraplate volcanoes. A metastable olivine wedge is revealed within the cold core of the Pacific slab at the MTZ depth, which may be related
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M.; Binder, K.
2005-03-01
By confining a binary mixture, one can profoundly alter its miscibility behaviour. The qualitative features of miscibility in confined geometry are rather universal and are shared by polymer mixtures as well as small molecules, but the unmixing transition in the bulk and the wetting transition are typically well separated in polymer blends. We study the interplay between wetting and miscibility of a symmetric polymer mixture via large scale Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of the bond fluctuation model and via numerical self-consistent field calculations. The film surfaces interact with the monomers via short-ranged potentials, and the wetting transition of the semi-infinite system is of first order. It can be accurately located in the simulations by measuring the surface and interface tensions and using Young's equation. If both surfaces in a film attract the same component, capillary condensation occurs and the critical point is close to the critical point of the bulk. If surfaces attract different components, an interface localization/delocalization occurs which gives rise to phase diagrams with two critical points in the vicinity of the pre-wetting critical point of the semi-infinite system. The crossover between these two types of phase diagrams as a function of the surface field asymmetry is studied. We investigate the dependence of the phase diagram on the film width Δ for antisymmetric surface fields. Upon decreasing the film width the two critical points approach the symmetry axis of the phase diagram, and below a certain width, Δtri, there remains only a single critical point at symmetric composition. This corresponds to a second order interface localization/delocalization transition even though the wetting transition is of first order. At a specific film width, Δtri, tricritical behaviour is found. The behaviour of antisymmetric films is compared with the phase behaviour in an antisymmetric double wedge. While the former is the analogy of the
Geometry-induced protein pattern formation
Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin
2016-01-01
Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in Δ EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems. PMID:26739566
Geometry-induced protein pattern formation.
Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin
2016-01-19
Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in [Formula: see text] EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems.
Developments in special geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen
2012-02-01
We review the special geometry of Script N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we disucss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.
Liquid bridges in complex geometries: Equilibrium shape metamorphosis using electrowetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baratian, Davood; Cavalli, Andrea; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder
2015-11-01
The equilibrium morphology of liquid drops exposed to geometric constraints can be rather complex. Even for simple geometries, analytical solutions are scarce. We investigate the equilibrium shape and position of liquid drops confined in the wedge between two solid surfaces. Using electrowetting, we control the contact angle and thereby manipulate the shape and the equilibrium position of aqueous drops in ambient oil. In the absence of contact angle hysteresis and buoyancy, we find that the equilibrium shape is given by a truncated sphere, prior to filling the wedge corner, at a position that is determined by the drop volume and the contact angle. At this position, the net force between drop and the surfaces vanishes. The effect of buoyancy gives rise to substantial deviations from this equilibrium configuration which we discuss it as well. We elegantly show how the geometric constraint and electrowetting can be used to position droplets inside a wedge in a controlled way, without mechanical actuation. The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbina, M. A.; Bakirov, A. V.; Yakunin, A. N.; Percec, V.; Beginn, U.; Möller, M.; Chvalun, S. N.
2012-03-01
The main stages of the self-assembling of supramolecular ensembles have been revealed by studying different functional wedged macromolecules: polymethacrylates with tapered side chains based on gallic acid, their macromonomers, and salts of 2,3,4- and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzenesulphonic acid. The first stage is the formation of individual supramolecular aggregates (long cylinders or spherical micelles) due to the weak noncovalent interactions of mesogenic groups and the subsequent ordering in these aggregates, which is accompanied by a decrease in the free energy of the system. Supramolecular aggregates, in turn, form 2D or 3D lattices. The shape of supramolecular aggregates and its change with temperature are delicate functions of the mesogen chemical structure; this circumstance makes it possible to rationally design complex self-assembling systems with the ability to respond smartly to external stimuli. X-ray diffraction analysis allows one to study the structure of supramolecular systems with different degrees of order, determine the type of mesophases formed by these systems, and reveal the phase behavior of the material. Particular attention has been paid to the method for reconstruction of electron density distribution from the relative reflection intensity. The application of a suite of experimental methods, including wide- and small-angle X-ray diffraction, molecular modeling, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarization optical microscopy, allows one to establish the relationship between the shape of the structural unit (molecule or molecular aggregate), the nature of the interaction, and the phase behavior of the material.
Spherically symmetric solutions of the λ -R model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loll, R.; Pires, L.
2017-08-01
We derive spherically symmetric solutions of the classical λ -R model, a minimal, anisotropic modification of general relativity with a preferred foliation and two local degrees of freedom. Starting from a 3 +1 decomposition of the four-metric in a general spherically symmetric ansatz, we perform a phase space analysis of the reduced model. We show that its constraint algebra is consistent with that of the full λ -R model, and also yields a constant mean curvature or maximal slicing condition as a tertiary constraint. Although the solutions contain the standard Schwarzschild geometry for the general relativistic value λ =1 or for vanishing mean extrinsic curvature K , they are in general nonstatic, incompatible with asymptotic flatness, and parametrized not only by a conserved mass. We show by explicit computation that the four-dimensional Ricci scalar of the solutions is in general time dependent and nonvanishing.
New machining and testing method of large angle infrared wedge mirror parts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fumei; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Xuanmin; Zengqi, Xu; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng
2016-10-01
Large angle wedge parts were widely used in the optical system that was used for achieving a wide range of scanning. Due to the parts having the characteristic of large difference in the thickness of both ends and high density, the accuracy of the wedge angle was hard to ensure to reach second level in optical processing. Generally, wedge mirror angle was measured by contact comparison method which was easy to damage the surface. In view of the existence of two practical problems, in this paper, based on theoretical analysis, by taking three key measures that were the accurate positioning for the central position of the large angle wedge part, the accuracy control of angle precision machined of wedge mirror and fast and non destructive laser assisted absolute measurement of large angle wedge, the qualified rate of parts were increased to 100%, a feasible, controllable and efficient process route for large angle infrared wedge parts was found out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dielforder, Armin
2017-09-01
Using Coulomb wedge solutions, we show that the effective strength of megathrusts (μb‧) can be determined from the geometry of out-of-sequence thrusts cutting through an accretionary or orogenic wedge. The method is first tested on central Chilean margin for which it yields a frictional strength of μb‧ = 0.053 (+ 0.043 / - 0.024). The inferred value agrees well with previous strength estimates and with the tectonic response of the central Chilean wedge to 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake. We then use the approach to constrain the strength of the collision megathrust of the central European Alps ∼30-20 million years ago. We find that the collision megathrust had a strength of μb‧ = 0.065 (+ 0.035 / - 0.026), which is similarly low than the strength of subduction megathrusts. The result is integrated into a static force balance model to examine potential implications of a weak megathrust for the Alpine orogeny. The model results suggest that the Alpine megathrust supported a mean maximum elevation of ∼2,000 m and that growth of the wedge up to this elevation supported a switch from contractional to extensional tectonics in the interior of the Alps around 20 Ma. Finally, using the example of the Himalayas, we show how the strength of megathrusts may be also derived from the geometry of crustal ramps, which provides a valuable alternative if details on out-of-sequence thrusts are missing.
Collective neutrino oscillations in nonspherical geometry
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg
2008-08-01
The rich phenomenology of collective neutrino oscillations has been studied only in one-dimensional or spherically symmetric systems. Motivated by the nonspherical example of coalescing neutron stars, presumably the central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, we use the Liouville equation to formulate the problem for general source geometries. Assuming the neutrino ensemble displays self-maintained coherence, the problem once more becomes effectively one-dimensional along the streamlines of the overall neutrino flux. This approach for the first time provides a formal definition of the 'single-angle approximation' frequently used for supernova neutrinos and allows for a natural generalization to nonspherical geometries. We study the explicit example of a disk-shaped source as a proxy for coalescing neutron stars.
Impulse Representation of Sound Field due to a Rigid Wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawu, Tjundewo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro
2004-05-01
An impulse representation for calculating a diffraction wave due to a rigid wedge is described. The method is an approximation of the Biot-Tolstoy rigorous closed-form solution for the diffraction of point source radiation by an infinite rigid wedge. The band-limited time-domain function can be reconstructed to the original waveform if it satisfies the sampling theorem, which assumes that sampling takes place at the lowest permissible sampling rate. Therefore, if the energy is concentrated between the first sampling intervals immediately after the rise time of the time-domain function, the rigorous solution can be approximated as a delta function. This paper shows the description methods of the diffraction field near the ridge in three-dimensional space. Using the proposed impulse representation, numerical simulation was performed and the calculation accuracy was examined.
Shock wave reflection over convex and concave wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitade, M.; Kosugi, T.; Yada, K.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2001-04-01
It is well known that the transition criterion nearly agrees with the detachment criterion in the case of strong shocks, two-dimensional, and pseudosteady flow. However, when the shock wave diffracts over a wedge whose angle is below the detachment criterion, that is, in the domain of Mach reflection, precursory regular reflection (PRR) appears near the leading edge and as the shock wave propagates, the PRR is swept away by the overtaking corner signal (cs) that forces the transition to Mach reflection. It is clear that viscosity and thermal conductivity influences transition and the triple point trajectory. On the other hand, the reflection over concave and convex wedges is truly unsteady flow, and the effect of viscosity and thermal conductivity on transition and triple point trajectory has not been reported. This paper describes that influence of viscosity over convex and concave corners investigated both experiments and numerical simulations.
MHD Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge with Newtonian heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Kartini; Hanouf, Zahir; Ishak, Anuar
2017-02-01
The problem of steady Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge is studied in this paper. The presence of magnetic field along with Newtonian heating at the surface is considered. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations, before being solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The effects of the wedge angle Ω from 0° (horizontal plate) to 180° (vertical plate) as well as of as the magnetic parameter M on the non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is found that the surface temperature is slightly higher for the flow over a horizontal plate compared to that over a vertical plate. It is also found that the magnetic field decreases the surface temperature but increases the skin friction. The flow of a Newtonian fluid is found to give higher skin friction as compared to that of Casson fluid.
A Experimental Investigation and Optimization of a Variable Reluctance Spherical Motor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, Ronald B.
1992-01-01
In robotic wrist applications, a three degree -of-freedom variable reluctance (VR) spherical motor offers advantages over conventional mechanisms which includes its compact size, the potential of no singularities in its workspace except at its boundaries, and continuous three dimensional motion with uniform resolution. Although the principle of a VR spherical motor has been demonstrated, the modeling techniques remained to be verified. Therefore, this research investigated and further developed the magnetic modeling techniques essential to the design and control law development of a VR spherical motor. A nonlinear magnetic circuit model is presented which is composed of linear (airgap) permeance elements and nonlinear (iron) permeance elements. The model reduces the complex field distribution of the spherical motor magnetic system governed by Maxwell's equations to a tractable magnetic model. A torque prediction model is presented which determines the torque generated by the spherical motor for a given set of input currents to the coils. An experimental airgap permeance function was determined from a VR spherical motor experimental testbed utilizing the linear magnetic circuit model. The permeance function showed good agreement with the theoretical overlapping area permeance model for small pole separation angles. Flux density levels were estimated in iron "choke" points and saturation was successfully predicted. Inclusion of the iron permeance in noncritical motor iron regions improved torque predictions under saturated conditions. Finally, a methodology for optimizing the VR spherical motor's magnetics is presented. The formulation focused on the derivation of inequalities governing geometry, thermal, amplifier, saturation, and leakage flux. An example problem is presented where the motor's geometry is determined by maximizing the output torque at one rotor orientation subject to constraints. The resulting analysis provides experimental verification of modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lottero, Richard E.; Wortman, John D.
1990-09-01
Hydrodynamic computer code simulations of the interaction of a non-decaying Mach 2.12 shock wave with wedges of various angles are presented. Techniques for simulating this interaction with the HULL and SHARC hydrocodes are evaluated by running the codes in various geometric configurations commonly used to simulate Mach reflection. Fluid dynamics aspects of each geometry are evaluated and discussed. The codes are also run with systematic variations in differencing method and artificial viscosity options. Most of these variations done in the SHARC also includes the option of using half hydrodynamic and half rigid flow field cells to simulate a smooth wedge surface in a rectangular finite difference grid. These computations are based on experimental and computational work performed at the Ernst Mach Institute, Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, L.; Ding, W.; Chen, L.; Gerya, T.
2016-12-01
The Manila Trench is located at the eastern boundary of the South China Sea (SCS). It was created by the subduction of the South China Sea Plate beneath the Philippine Sea Plate since the early Neogene, and also influenced by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. There is wide discussion whether the dual-subduction and widespread seamounts in the South China Sea would have play important roles in the 'S-shaped' geometry and the different diving angle along the Manila Trench. Multi-beam tectono-geomorphological studies on the accretionary wedges have suggested that: (1) the stress direction of the subduction along the middle part of the Manila Trench, between 17o and 18 o N, is NW55 o; (2) The Manila Trench is actually caused by obduction due to the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. Although the NW 55 o stress direction has been supported by detailed analysis on the trend of the folds, thrust faults, extension fractures and large sea-floor canyon, its obduction-origin is purely based on regional structure. Here we use 2D numerical modeling experiments to investigate the deformation style of accretionary wedge in response to the seamounts subduction and obduction, and provide new insights into the mechanism responsible for the Luzon obduction along the Manila Trench. Our preliminary results show that: (1) the accretionary wedge is eroded faster in subduction model; (2) the velocity field direction of the slab differs in two models at the beginning of seamount subduction, which is vertical in obduction model, but oblique in subduction model; (3) both sides of the accretionary wedge deform strongly in subduction model, whereas in obduction model only the leading edge shows intensive deformation. Further modelling will focus on other parts of the Manila Trench with different slab age and subduction velocity to see their tectonic influences on the accretionary wedges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yong; Yan, Zhaokun; Liu, Shugen; Li, Haibing; Cao, Junxing; Su, Dechen; Dong, Shunli; Sun, Wei; Yang, Rongjun; Yan, Liang
2014-04-01
The marine Carnian the Maantang Fm. overlies a flexural forebulge unconformity and records the initial establishment, drowning and migration of a carbonate ramp and sponge buildup along the forebulge margin of the Longmen Shan foreland basin. The Maantang Fm. is of wedge-shaped geometry, and is composed of oolitic and bioclastic limestones, siliceous sponge reef and shale in an upward-fining succession. The formation shows the establishment and drowning of a distal margin carbonate ramp and sponge buildup, deepening into offshore marine muds, followed by progradation of marginal marine siliciclastics. The formation also shows the transition from shale cratonward into carbonate rock southeastward. The sponge reefs and shoal were deposited on a carbonate ramp on the distal margin of the early foreland basin. The growth rate of sponge reefs is 0.04 mm/yr, equivalent to the rate of relative sea level rise of 0.01-0.05 mm/yr. The sponge buildup and oolitic shoal are divided into seven zones southeastward on the carbonate ramp along the basal unconformity. Their migration rate of 18 mm/yr from NW to SE coincides with the estimated orogenic wedge advance rate (5-15 mm/yr, Li et al., 2003), a clear indication that the advancing wedge controlled the migration rate of foreland oolitic shoal-siliceous sponge reef. We have inferred that the tectonic load of the Longmen Shan orogenic wedge led to flexural subsidence and rising relative sea level in the foreland basin located at the western margin of the Yangtze Craton, driving the growth and subsequent drowning of the oolitic shoal-sponge buildup in the early stage of the foreland basin. We propose that the drowning and migration processes were the sedimentary response to the orogenic wedge advance toward the Yangtze Craton, and to the rapid closure of the Carnian Songpan-Ganzi remnant ocean basin.
Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beißel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A. M.; Bernier, K.; Blüm, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J. M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; De Troy, J.; Drouhin, F.; Eberlé, H.; Flügge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J. M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M. R.; Kärcher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kräber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Müller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; von Dratzig, A. Schultz; Schunk, J. P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M. H.; Simonis, H. J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thümmel, W. H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Dyck, Ch.; Vanlaer, P.; Van Lancker, L.; Verdini, P. G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V.
1999-11-01
In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.
Wedge-local quantum fields on a nonconstant noncommutative spacetime
Much, A.
2012-08-15
Within the framework of warped convolutions we deform the massless free scalar field. The deformation is performed by using the generators of the special conformal transformations. The investigation shows that the deformed field turns out to be wedge-local. Furthermore, it is shown that the spacetime induced by the deformation with the special conformal operators is nonconstant noncommutative. The noncommutativity is obtained by calculating the deformed commutator of the coordinates.
Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle wedge dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, Susanne
2010-05-01
Numerical and laboratory models are often used to investigate the evolution of deformation processes at various scales in crust and lithosphere. In both approaches, the freedom in choice of simulation method, materials and their properties, and deformation laws could affect model outcomes. To assess the role of modelling method and to quantify the variability among models, we have performed a comparison of laboratory and numerical experiments. Here, we present results of 11 numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference and distinct element techniques. We present three experiments that describe shortening of a sand-like, brittle wedge. The material properties of the numerical ‘sand', the model set-up and the boundary conditions are strictly prescribed and follow the analogue setup as closely as possible. Our first experiment translates a non-accreting wedge with a stable surface slope of 20 degrees. In agreement with critical wedge theory, all models maintain the same surface slope and do not deform. This experiment serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions for taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work. The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup, which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. The models accommodate shortening by formation of forward and backward shear zones. We compare surface slope, rate of dissipation of energy, root-mean-square velocity, and the location, dip angle and spacing of shear zones. We show that we successfully simulate sandbox-style brittle behaviour using different numerical modelling techniques and that we obtain the same styles of deformation behaviour in numerical and laboratory experiments at similar levels of variability. The GeoMod2008 Numerical Team: Markus Albertz, Michelle Cooke, Tony Crook, David Egholm, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Yury Mishin
Silurian Extrusion Wedge Tectonics in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimmer, J. C.; Glodny, J.; Drüppel, K.; Greiling, R. O.
2015-12-01
The Scandian fold-thrust belt of the central Scandinavian Caledonides host the high-grade metamorphic Seve Nappe Complex bounded on top by a normal sense shear zone and at the base by a reverse sense shear zone. Rb-Sr multimineral geochronology in synkinematic assemblages indicates simultaneous movements at the normal-sense roof shear zone and at the reverse-sense floor shear zone between 434 Ma and 429 Ma. Pressure temperature pseudosection calculations provide evidence for eclogite facies metamorphic conditions and nearly isothermal decompression at ~670 ± 50 °C from 17.5 to 14.5 kbar in garnet-kyanite mica schists during reverse-sense shearing, and from 15 to 11 kbar in garnet mica schists during normal-sense shearing. These and other published data and the presence of decompression-related pegmatites dated at 434 Ma and 429 Ma indicate that the Seve nappes form a 1-2 km thin extrusion wedge that extends along strike for at least 150 km. Devonian ductile extensional to transtensional deformation of the more internal parts of the orogen did not affect the early to mid-Silurian extrusion wedge that was preserved in the more external parts of the orogen due to foreland-directed nappe displacements in the order of >400 km. This wedge marks an early stage of exhumation of (ultra-)high-pressure metamorphic rocks and orogenic wedge formation in this part of the Scandinavian Caledonides predating the ≥10 km thick, post-415 Ma exhumation processes of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in southwestern Norway.
Wedge Prism for Direction Resolved Speckle Correlation Interferometry
Pechersky, M.J.
1999-01-20
The role of a wedge prism for strain sign determination and enhancing the sensitivity for sub-fringe changes is emphasized. The design and incorporation aspects for in-plane sensitive interferometers have been described in detail. Some experimental results dealing with stress determination by laser annealing and speckle corelation interferometry are presented. The prism can also be applied to produce standardized carrier fringes in spatial phase shifting interferometry.
Comparison between realistic and spherical approaches in EEG forward modelling.
Meneghini, Fabio; Vatta, Federica; Esposito, Fabrizio; Mininel, Stefano; Di Salle, Francesco
2010-06-01
In electroencephalography (EEG) a valid conductor model of the head (forward model) is necessary for predicting measurable scalp voltages from intra-cranial current distributions. All inverse models, capable of inferring the spatial distribution of the neural sources generating measurable electrical and magnetic signals outside the brain are normally formulated in terms of a pre-estimated forward model, which implies considering one (or more) current dipole(s) inside the head and computing the electrical potentials generated at the electrode sites on the scalp surface. Therefore, the accuracy of the forward model strongly affects the reliability of the source reconstruction process independently of the specific inverse model. So far, it is as yet unclear which brain regions are more sensitive to the choice of different model geometry, from both quantitative and qualitative points of view. In this paper, we compare the finite difference method-based realistic model with the four-layers sensor-fitted spherical model using simulated cortical sources in the MNI152 standard space. We focused on the investigation of the spatial variation of the lead fields produced by simulated cortical sources which were placed on the reconstructed mesh of the neocortex along the surface electrodes of a 62-channel configuration. This comparison is carried out by evaluating a point spread function all over the brain cortex, with the aim of finding the lead fields mismatch between realistic and spherical geometry. Realistic geometry turns out to be a relevant factor of improvement which is particularly important when considering sources placed in the temporal or in the occipital cortex. In these situations, using a realistic head model will allow a better spatial discrimination of neural sources when compared to the spherical model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Barbara H.
2004-01-01
This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…
Twistors to twisted geometries
Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone
2010-10-15
In a previous paper we showed that the phase space of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph can be parametrized in terms of twisted geometries, quantities describing the intrinsic and extrinsic discrete geometry of a cellular decomposition dual to the graph. Here we unravel the origin of the phase space from a geometric interpretation of twistors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan
2012-01-01
Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…
Euclidean Geometry via Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt
1992-01-01
Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability…
Geometry of multihadron production
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan
2012-01-01
Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…
Missing wedge computed tomography by iterative algorithm DIRECTT.
Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Hentschel, Manfred P; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grothausmann, Roman; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo
2015-01-01
A strategy to mitigate typical reconstruction artefacts in missing wedge computed tomography is presented. These artefacts appear as elongations of reconstructed details along the mean direction (i.e. the symmetry centre of the projections). Although absent in standard computed tomography applications, they are most prominent in advanced electron tomography and also in special topics of X-ray and neutron tomography under restricted geometric boundary conditions. We investigate the performance of the DIRECTT (Direct Iterative Reconstruction of Computed Tomography Trajectories) algorithm to reduce the directional artefacts in standard procedures. In order to be sensitive to the anisotropic nature of missing wedge artefacts, we investigate isotropic substructures of metal foam as well as circular disc models. Comparison is drawn to filtered backprojection and algebraic techniques. Reference is made to reconstructions of complete data sets. For the purpose of assessing the reconstruction quality, Fourier transforms are employed to visualize the missing wedge directly. Deficient reconstructions of disc models are evaluated by a length-weighted kernel density estimation, which yields the probabilities of boundary orientations. The DIRECTT results are assessed at different signal-to-noise ratios by means of local and integral evaluation parameters. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.
Integrated waste management as a climate change stabilization wedge.
Bahor, Brian; Van Brunt, Michael; Stovall, Jeff; Blue, Katherine
2009-11-01
Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas emissions are known to contribute to global increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and are widely believed to contribute to climate change. A reference carbon dioxide concentration of 383 ppm for 2007 is projected to increase to a nominal 500 ppm in less than 50 years according to business as usual models. This concentration change is equivalent to an increase of 7 billion tonnes of carbon per year (7 Gt C year(-1)). The concept of a stabilization wedge was introduced by Pacala and Socolow (Science, 305, 968-972, 2004) to break the 7 Gt C year(- 1) into more manageable 1 Gt C year(- 1) reductions that would be achievable with current technology. A total of fifteen possible 'wedges' were identified; however, an integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management system based on the European Union's waste management hierarchy was not evaluated as a wedge. This analysis demonstrates that if the tonnage of MSW is allocated to recycling, waste to energy and landfilling in descending order in lieu of existing 'business-as-usual' practices with each option using modern technology and best practices, the system would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 1 Gt C year( -1). This integrated waste management system reduces CO(2) by displacing fossil electrical generation and avoiding manufacturing energy consumption and methane emissions from landfills.
The wedge hot-film anemometer in supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seiner, J. M.
1983-01-01
A commercial wedge hot-film probe is studied to determine its heat transfer response in transonic to low supersonic flows of high unit Reynolds number. The results of this study show that its response in this flow regime differs from the response of cylindrical type sensors. Whereas the cylindrical sensor has the same sensitivity to velocity as to density for free-stream Mach numbers exceeding 1.3, the wedge probe sensitivity to velocity is always greater than its sensitivity to density over the entire flow regime. This property requires determination of three fluctuation components due to density, velocity, and temperature, in a transonic or supersonic turbulent flow. Sensitivity equations are derived based on the observed behavior of the wedge probe. Both the durability and the frequency response of the probe are excellent, the square wave insertion test indicating frequency response near 130 kHz. The directional response of the probe at sonic speed is poor and requires further examination before Reynolds stress measurements are attempted with dual sensor probes.
RADIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF THE OPENING WEDGE PROXIMAL TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY
Silva, Carlos Francisco Bittencourt; Camara, Eduardo Kastrup Bittencourt; Vieira, Luiz Antonio; Adolphsson, Fernando; Rodarte, Rodrigo Ribeiro Pinho
2015-01-01
Objective: To radiographically evaluate individuals who underwent opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy, with the aim of analyzing the proximal tibial slope in the frontal and sagittal planes, and the patellar height. Method: The study included 22 individuals who were operated at the National Traumatology and Orthopedics Institute (INTO) for correction of varus angular tibial deviation using the opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) technique with the Orthofix monolateral external fixator. Patients with OWO whose treatment was completed between January 2000 and December 2006 were analyzed. The measurement technique consisted of using anteroposterior radiographs with loading and lateral views with the operated knees flexed at 30°. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the pre and postoperative tibial slope and patellar height values in the patients evaluated. Conclusion: Opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is a technique that avoids the problems presented by high proximal tibial osteotomy, since it is done without causing changes to the extensor mechanism, ligament imbalance or distortions in the proximal tibia. PMID:27022577
Stability of Supersonic Boundary Layers Over Blunt Wedges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam
2006-01-01
Receptivity and stability of supersonic boundary layers over blunt flat plates and wedges are numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. Computations are performed for a flat plate with leading edge thicknesses of 0.0001, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 inches that give Reynolds numbers based on the leading edge thickness ranging from 1000 to 10000. Calculations are also performed for a wedge of 10 degrees half angle with different leading edge radii 0.001 and 0.01 inches. The linear stability results showed that the bluntness has a strong stabilizing effect on the stability of two-dimensional boundary layers. The transition Reynolds number for a flat plate with a leading edge thickness of 0.01 inches is about 3.5 times larger than it is for the Blasius boundary layer. It was also revealed that boundary layers on blunt wedges are far more stable than on blunt flat plates.
Geomorphological-thermo-mechanical modeling: Application to orogenic wedge dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueda, K.; Willett, S. D.; Gerya, T.; Ruh, J.
2015-09-01
Coupled geomorphological-thermo-mechanical modeling is presented in a new implementation that combines two established thermo-mechanical and landscape evolution models. A finite-difference marker-in-cell technique is used to solve for the thermo-mechanical problem including complex visco-plastic rheologies in high resolution. Each timestep is synchronously solved with a fluvial landscape evolution model that includes numerical solution of fluvial incision and analytical hillslope processes for both diffusive and slope-limited processes on an adaptive grid. The implementation is successful in modeling large deformation at different scales. We demonstrate high degrees of coupling through processes such as exhumation of rocks with different erodibilities. Sensitivity of the coupled system evolution to surface parameters, and mechanical parameters, is explored for the established case of development of compressive wedges. The evolution of wedge models proves to be primarily sensitive to erodibility and the degree of river network integration. Relief follows deformation in propagating forward with wedge growth. We apply the method to a large-scale model of continental collision, in which a close relationship between deep tectonics, fluvial network evolution, and uplift and erosion can be demonstrated.
On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi
2016-10-01
This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.
Washing wedges: a capillary instability in a gradient of confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keiser, Ludovic; Herbaut, Remy; Bico, Jose; Reyssat, Etienne
2015-11-01
When a drop of oil is introduced into a gradient of confinement (two glass plates forming a sharp wedge) capillary forces drive it toward the most confined regions, where the solid-fluid contact area is maximal. A surfactant solution subsequently introduced into the wedge undergoes the same movement until it reaches the oil previously added. If the aqueous phase wets the solid better than the oil, a complex exchange process between both phases occurs. The water-oil interface destabilizes, oil fingers grow in the water phase, pinch-off and lead to the formation of droplets that migrate away from the tip of the wedge. The whole oil phase is eventually extracted. A linear stability analysis of the interface is presented and captures the size of the oil droplets. The dynamics of the system is however not perfectly explained by a simple Poiseuille flow. Indeed, more refined models should account for the dissipation in meniscii and lubrication films. Finally, we suggest that our model experiment may constitute a useful tool to select optimal systems for oil recovery processes.
Wedge-Filtering of Geomorphologic Terrestrial Laser Scan Data
Panholzer, Helmut; Prokop, Alexander
2013-01-01
Terrestrial laser scanning is of increasing importance for surveying and hazard assessments. Digital terrain models are generated using the resultant data to analyze surface processes. In order to determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. Filtering in mountainous terrain is more difficult than in other topography types. Here, existing automatic filtering solutions are not acceptable, because they are usually designed for airborne scan data. The present article describes a method specifically suitable for filtering terrestrial laser scanning data. This method is based on the direct line of sight between the scanner and the measured point and the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above this connection line. This assumption is only true for terrestrial laser data, but not for airborne data. We present a comparison of the wedge filtering to a modified inverse distance filtering method (IDWMO) filtered point cloud data. Both methods use manually filtered surfaces as reference. The comparison shows that the mean error and root–mean-square-error (RSME) between the results and the manually filtered surface of the two methods are similar. A significantly higher number of points of the terrain surface could be preserved, however, using the wedge-filtering approach. Therefore, we suggest that wedge-filtering should be integrated as a further parameter into already existing filtering processes, but is not suited as a standalone solution so far. PMID:23429548
Hypersingularity, electromagnetic edge condition, and an analytic hyperbolic wedge model.
Li, Lifeng
2014-04-01
It is insufficient to consider that hypersingularity is unphysical solely based on energy considerations. With a proper combination of the two degenerate hypersingular modes, the energy-flux edge condition is satisfied. A hyperbolic wedge model is presented that is much simpler than the previous model for the purpose of studying singular characteristics of the edge fields. This model not only reproduces the sharp edge model as the wedge becomes infinitely sharp but also naturally shows how the two degenerate hypersingular modes of the sharp edge model should be combined. In an incidental study of the effect of rounding edges on numerical computation, I show that the converged results for rounded edges do not converge to a fixed value when the radius of curvature tends to zero, if the corresponding sharp edge supports hypersingularity. I also prove that introducing a small amount of absorption loss for the purpose of improving numerical convergence is effective only when the ratio of the real parts of the permittivities of the two media forming the wedge is close to -1. Finally I remark on the possible illposedness of the hypersingularity problem without imposition of the edge condition.
Shock interaction mechanisms on a double wedge at Mach 7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durna, Ahmet Selim; El Hajj Ali Barada, Mohamad; Celik, Bayram
2016-09-01
Present computational study investigates formation and interaction mechanisms of shocks and boundary layer for low enthalpy Mach 7 flows of nitrogen over double wedges, which have fixed fore and various aft angles of 30° and 45°-60°, respectively. We use a density based finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver to simulate low enthalpy Mach 7 flows of nitrogen over double wedges. The solver is first and second order accurate in time and space, respectively. The meshes used in simulations of two-dimensional laminar flows consist of multiple blocks of structured mesh. Depending on the intensity, impingement angle, and impingement location of transmitted shock wave, the resulting adverse pressure gradient related disturbances on the wedge surface can trigger complex flow physics both in subsonic and supersonic regions. We observe a strong interaction between the deformation of the boundary layer and the bow shock as well as the transmitted shock for high aft angles. Comparison of the obtained results in terms of general flow physics shows that there exists an aft angle threshold value for such interaction which is in the range of 45°-50°.
Hassenzahl, W.
1988-08-01
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) plants have been proposed in both solenoidal and toroidal geometries. The former is efficient in terms of the quantity of superconductor required per unit of stored energy. For applications where a fringe field could be a problem, the toroidal geometry, which requires at least a factor of two more material, has been proposed. In addition to the solenoid and toroid, other geometries are possible, such as linear multipoles and spherical coils. These geometries have been considered for use in applications other than energy storage. In this report, the effectiveness (quantity of superconductor/stored energy) is calculated for various coil geometries. 7 refs., 4 tabs.
Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Light Galileon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni, D.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Güdekli, E.; Rodrigues, M. E.; Alvarenga, F. G.; Myrzakulov, R.
2016-02-01
We have been studied the model of light Galileon with translational shift symmetry ϕ → ϕ + c. The matter Lagrangian is presented in the form {L}_{φ }= -η (partial φ )2+β G^{μ ν }partial _{μ }φ partial _{ν }φ . We have been addressed two issues: the first is that, we have been proven that, this type of Galileons belong to the modified matter-curvature models of gravity in type of f(R,R^{μ ν }T_{μ ν }m). Secondly, we have been investigated exact solution for spherically symmetric geometries in this model. We have been found an exact solution with singularity at r = 0 in null coordinates. We have been proven that the solution has also a non-divergence current vector norm. This solution can be considered as an special solution which has been investigated in literature before, in which the Galileon's field is non-static (time dependence). Our scalar-shift symmetrized Galileon has the simple form of ϕ = t, which it is remembered by us dilaton field.
Buckling of spherical shells revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, John W.
2016-11-01
A study is presented of the post-buckling behaviour and imperfection sensitivity of complete spherical shells subject to uniform external pressure. The study builds on and extends the major contribution to spherical shell buckling by Koiter in the 1960s. Numerical results are presented for the axisymmetric large deflection behaviour of perfect spheres followed by an extensive analysis of the role axisymmetric imperfections play in reducing the buckling pressure. Several types of middle surface imperfections are considered including dimple-shaped undulations and sinusoidal-shaped equatorial undulations. Buckling occurs either as the attainment of a maximum pressure in the axisymmetric state or as a non-axisymmetric bifurcation from the axisymmetric state. Several new findings emerge: the abrupt mode localization that occurs immediately after the onset of buckling, the existence of an apparent lower limit to the buckling pressure for realistically large imperfections, and comparable reductions of the buckling pressure for dimple and sinusoidal equatorial imperfections.
Orthogonality of spherical harmonic coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, M. G.
1980-01-01
Orthogonality relations are obtained for the spherical harmonic coefficients of functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Following a brief discussion of the orthogonality of Fourier series coefficients, consideration is given to the values averaged over all orientations of the coordinate system of the spherical harmonic coefficients of a function defined on the surface of a sphere that can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials for the special case where the function is the sum of two delta functions located at two different points on the sphere, and for the case of an essentially arbitrary function. It is noted that the orthogonality relations derived have found applications in statistical studies of the geomagnetic field.
Orthogonality of spherical harmonic coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, M. G.
1980-01-01
Orthogonality relations are obtained for the spherical harmonic coefficients of functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Following a brief discussion of the orthogonality of Fourier series coefficients, consideration is given to the values averaged over all orientations of the coordinate system of the spherical harmonic coefficients of a function defined on the surface of a sphere that can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials for the special case where the function is the sum of two delta functions located at two different points on the sphere, and for the case of an essentially arbitrary function. It is noted that the orthogonality relations derived have found applications in statistical studies of the geomagnetic field.
Spherical gearing with intermediate ball elements: parameter ranges with a high contact ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbenko, M. V.; Gorbenko, T. I.
2017-02-01
The paper presents analytical research of the geometry and kinematical parameters of spherical gearing with ball intermediate elements. The main attention is paid to the influence of the offset coefficient on the tooth geometry generation, the contact ratio and the motion transmission angle. Intermediate ball element racetracks on the gear are trochoidal curves on a spherical surface. Two areas for the offset coefficient values providing a high value of the contact ratio – basic trochoid (without offset) and prolate trochoid with abutting racetracks of adjacent ball elements ― were revealed. Analysis of the investigated parameters showed that for power transmission, it is preferable to use spherical gearing without an offset, and for kinematic transmission, it is possible to use profiles with a large offset. The present study allows making a rational choice of geometrical parameters depending on the transmission predestination.
Fresnel diffraction by spherical obstacles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hovenac, Edward A.
1989-01-01
Lommel functions were used to solve the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral for the case of a spherical obstacle. Comparisons were made between Fresnel diffraction theory and Mie scattering theory. Fresnel theory is then compared to experimental data. Experiment and theory typically deviated from one another by less than 10 percent. A unique experimental setup using mercury spheres suspended in a viscous fluid significantly reduced optical noise. The major source of error was due to the Gaussian-shaped laser beam.
Contractions of affine spherical varieties
Arzhantsev, I V
1999-08-31
The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.
Subduction zone evolution and low viscosity wedges and channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manea, Vlad; Gurnis, Michael
2007-12-01
Dehydration of subducting lithosphere likely transports fluid into the mantle wedge where the viscosity is decreased. Such a decrease in viscosity could form a low viscosity wedge (LVW) or a low viscosity channel (LVC) on top of the subducting slab. Using numerical models, we investigate the influence of low viscosity wedges and channels on subduction zone structure. Slab dip changes substantially with the viscosity reduction within the LVWs and LVCs. For models with or without trench rollback, overthickening of slabs is greatly reduced by LVWs or LVCs. Two divergent evolutionary pathways have been found depending on the maximum depth extent of the LVW and wedge viscosity. Assuming a viscosity contrast of 0.1 with background asthenosphere, models with a LVW that extends down to 400 km depth show a steeply dipping slab, while models with an LVW that extends to much shallower depth, such as 200 km, can produce slabs that are flat lying beneath the overriding plate. There is a narrow range of mantle viscosities that produces flat slabs (5 to10 × 10 19 Pa s) and the slab flattening process is enhanced by trench rollback. Slab can be decoupled from the overriding plate with a LVC if the thickness is at least a few 10 s of km, the viscosity reduction is at least a factor of two and the depth extent of the LVC is several hundred km. These models have important implications for the geochemical and spatial evolution of volcanic arcs and the state of stress within the overriding plate. The models explain the poor correlation between traditional geodynamic controls, subducting plate age and convergence rates, on slab dip. We predict that when volcanic arcs change their distance from the trench, they could be preceded by changes in arc chemistry. We predict that there could be a larger volatile input into the wedge when arcs migrate toward the trench and visa-versa. The transition of a subduction zone into the flat-lying regime could be preceded by changes in the volatile
Focus on the Calabrian Arc subduction: interface, edges, break-off and the accretionary wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maesano, Francesco E.; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto
2017-04-01
The accurately reconstructed geometry of the subduction interface is a crucial element for seismic and tsunami hazard studies that require realistic modelling of future earthquake ruptures. The Calabrian Arc is a cornerstone in the Mediterranean plate-tectonics puzzle and understanding its geometry and behavior may strongly contribute to estimating the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. Besides, it has occasionally be blamed to have generated some past large earthquakes and tsunamis, despite it shows no sign of significant seismic activity on the shallow portion of the interface. In addition, significant in-slab seismicity is recorded below 40 km depth and a rate of 1-5 mm/yr characterize the convergence between the two plates involved, Africa and Europe. An accurate 3D reconstruction of the Calabrian subduction plate interface based on the interpretation of ca. 9000 km of seismic reflection profiles, provided in the collaborative framework between Spectrum and INGV (CA-60), allows us to detail the architecture of the shallow part of the subduction interface (<20 km). The resulting 3D model images the peculiar features that characterize the Calabrian subduction interface: 1) an external flat at 5-8 km depth located under an accreted Messinian evaporites wedge; 2) a central ramp cutting between 8-14 km depth with high roughness and lateral variations of the dip angle; 3) a deeper flat between 14 and 20 km; 4) the overthrusting over the continental Apulia margin in the northern part; 5) the Subduction Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault system guiding the southeastern propagation of the subduction; The deeper part of the subducted slab was reconstructed by analysing the seismicity distribution and the available tomographic data and allows us to highlight the progressive development from north to south of the slab breakoff at 100-150 km depth. The detailed 3D reconstruction allows us to also estimate the rock volume involved in the accretionary wedge
Sphericity Tests and Repeated Measures Data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robey, Randall R.; Barcikowski, Robert S.
The mixed model analysis of variance assumes a mathematical property known as sphericity. Several preliminary tests have been proposed to detect departures from the sphericity assumption. The logic of the preliminary testing procedure is to conduct the mixed model analysis of variance if the preliminary test suggests that the sphericity assumption…
Theoretical Study of a Spherical Plasma Focus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ay, Yasar
A theoretical model is developed for two concentric electrodes spherical plasma focus device in order to investigate the plasma sheath dynamics, radiative emission, and the ion properties. The work focuses on the model development of the plasma sheath dynamics and its validation, followed by studying of the radiation effects and the beam-ion properties in such unique geometry as a pulsed source for neutrons, soft and hard x-rays, and electron and ion beams. Chapter 1 is an introduction on fusion systems including plasma focus. Chapter 2 is an extensive literature survey on plasma focus modeling and experiments including the various radiations and their mechanism. Chapter 3 details modeling and validation of the plasma sheath dynamics model with comparison between hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and deuterium-tritium mixture for the production of pulsed neutrons. Chapter 4 is a study of the radiative phase, in which neutron yield is investigated, as well as the predicted beam-ion properties. Chapter 5 summarizes and discusses the results. Chapter 6 provides concluding remarks and proposed future works. The phases of the developed model are the rundown phase I, rundown phase II, the reflected phase and a radiative phase. The rundown phase I starts immediately after the completion of the gas breakdown and ends when the current sheath reaches the equator point of the spherical shape. Then immediately followed by rundown phase II to start and it ends when the shock front hits the axis, which is the beginning of the reflected shock phase. Reflected shock front moves towards the incoming current sheath and meets it which is both the end of the reflected shock phase and the beginning of the radiative phase. After the reflected shock front and the current sheath meet, the current sheath continues to move radially inward by compressing the produced plasma column until it reaches the axis. Since the discharge current contains important information about the plasma dynamic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean D.; Gerya, Taras V.; Strasser, Michael
2016-12-01
Syntectonic sedimentation history is a potential cause of differentiated accretionary wedge structures along the subduction margin. Recent efforts to model the role of sedimentation on wedge evolution have highlighted the importance of spatiotemporal history of sedimentation on the evolution of the wedge. Moreover, reconstruction of deformation history of the accretionary wedges using reflection seismic and borehole data has further substantiated the impact of sedimentation on wedge evolution. We conduct several numerical experiments using a high-resolution dynamic 2-D thermomechanical plate subduction model to systematically investigate and quantify different effects of sedimentation on accretionary wedge evolution. Models with sedimentation suggest migration of deformation to parts of the wedge lying outside the sedimentation zone leading to emergence/reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs). Frequency and length of new thrust sheets are correlated with sedimentation in the trench. Models undergo a transition period of 1.5 Myr following the onset of sedimentation, after which they continue to grow under a new steady state. Stabilization of the wedge and increased load on the oceanic plate due to sedimentation create conditions in which smaller wedge-top basins combine to form a large and flat forearc basin. Last but not the least, emergence of OOST in models of accretionary wedges undergoing sedimentation provides important insights in to evolution of potentially tsunamigenic OOSTs like the Megasplay Fault seaward of the Kumano forearc basin.
Hydrodynamic interactions of cilia on a spherical body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasouri, Babak; Elfring, Gwynn J.
2015-11-01
The emergence of metachronal waves in ciliated microorganisms can arise solely from the hydrodynamic interactions between the cilia. For a chain of cilia attached to a flat ciliate, it was observed that fluid forces can lead the system to form a metachronal wave. However, several microorganisms such as paramecium and volvox possess a curved shaped ciliate body. To understand the effect of this geometry on the formation of metachronal waves, we evaluate the hydrodynamic interactions of cilia near a large spherical body. Using a minimal model, we show that for a chain of cilia around the sphere, the embedded periodicity in the geometry leads the system to synchronize. We also report an emergent wave-like behavior when an asymmetry is introduced to the system.
Hydrodynamic interactions of cilia on a spherical body.
Nasouri, Babak; Elfring, Gwynn J
2016-03-01
Microorganisms develop coordinated beating patterns on surfaces lined with cilia known as metachronal waves. For a chain of cilia attached to a flat ciliate, it has been shown that hydrodynamic interactions alone can lead the system to synchronize. However, several microorganisms possess a curve-shaped ciliate body and so to understand the effect of this geometry on the formation of metachronal waves, we evaluate the hydrodynamic interactions of cilia near a large spherical body. Using a minimal model, we show that for a chain of cilia around the sphere, the natural periodicity in the geometry leads the system to synchronize. We also report an emergent wavelike behavior when an asymmetry is introduced to the system.
A regional-scale estimation of ice wedge ice volumes in the Canadian High Arctic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Templeton, M.; Pollard, W. H.; Grand'Maison, C. B.
2016-12-01
Ice wedges are both prominent and environmentally vulnerable features in continuous permafrost environments. As the world's Arctic regions begin to warm, concern over the potential effects of ice wedge melt out has become an immediate issue, receiving much attention in the permafrost literature. In this study we estimate the volume of ice wedge ice for large areas in the Canadian High Arctic through the use of high resolution satellite imagery and the improved capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The methodology used for this study is similar to that of one performed in Siberia and Alaska by Ulrich et al, in 2014. Utilizing Ulrich's technique, this study detected ice wedge polygons from satellite imagery using ArcGIS. The average width and depth of these ice wedges were obtained from a combination of field data and long-term field studies for the same location. The assumptions used in the analysis of ice wedge volume have been tested, including trough width being representative of ice wedge width, and ice wedge ice content (Pollard and French 1980). This study used specific field sites located near Eureka on Ellesmere Island (N80°01', W85°43') and at Expedition Fiord on Axel Heiberg Island (N79°23', W90°59'). The preliminary results indicate that the methodology used by Ulrich et al, 2014 is transferrable to the Canadian High Arctic, and that ice wedge volumes range between 3-10% of the upper part of permafrost. These findings are similar to previous studies and their importance is made all the more evident by the dynamic nature of ice wedges where it could be argued that they are a key driver of thermokarst terrain. The ubiquitous nature of ice wedges across arctic terrain highlights the importance and the need to improve our understanding of ice wedge dynamics, as subsidence from ice wedge melt-out could lead to large scale landscape change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDougall, Julia G.; Kincaid, Chris; Szwaja, Sara; Fischer, Karen M.
2014-05-01
Observed seismic anisotropy and geochemical anomalies indicate the presence of 3-D flow around and above subducting slabs. To investigate how slab geometry and velocity affect mantle flow, we conducted a set of experiments using a subduction apparatus in a fluid-filled tank. Our models comprise two independently adjustable, continuous belts to represent discrete sections of subducting slabs that kinematically drive flow in the surrounding glucose syrup that represents the upper mantle. We analyse how slab dip (ranging from 30° to 80°), slab dip difference between slab segments (ranging from 20° to 50°), rates of subduction (4-8 cm yr-1) and slab/trench rollback (0-3 cm yr-1) affect mantle flow. Whiskers were used to approximate mineral alignment induced by the flow, as well as to predict directions of seismic anisotropy. We find that dip variations between slab segments generate 3-D flow in the mantle wedge, where the path lines of trenchward moving mantle material above the slab are deflected towards the slab segment with the shallower dip. The degree of path line deflection increases as the difference in slab dip between the segments increases, and, for a fixed dip difference, as slab dip decreases. In cases of slab rollback and large slab dip differences, we observe intrusion of subslab material through the gap and into the wedge. Flow through the gap remains largely horizontal before eventual downward entrainment. Whisker alignment in the wedge flow is largely trench-normal, except near the lateral edges of the slab where toroidal flow dominates. In addition, whisker azimuths located above the slab gap deviate most strongly from trench-normal orientations when slab rollback does not occur. Such flow field complexities are likely sufficient to affect deep melt production and shallow melt delivery. However, none of the experiments produced flow fields that explain the trench-parallel shear wave splitting fast directions observed over broad arc and backarc