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Sample records for sphingolipids

  1. Sphingolipids in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Bangs, James D.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The surface of most protozoan parasites relies heavily upon lipid-anchored molecules, to form protective barriers and play critical functions required for infectivity. Sphingolipids (SLs) play important roles through their abundance and involvement in membrane microdomain formation, as well as serving as the lipid anchor for many of these molecules, and in some but possibly not all species, as important signaling molecules. Interactions of parasite sphingolipid metabolism with that of the host may potentially contribute to parasite survival and/or host defense. In this chapter we summarize current knowledge of SL structure, synthesis and function in several of the major parasitic protozoan groups. PMID:20919659

  2. Novel drugs targeting sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bhabak, Krishna P; Arenz, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    While the evidence for an involvement of sphingolipids (SLs) in a variety of diseases is rapidly increasing, the development of sphingolipid-related drugs is still in its infancy. In fact, the recently FDA-approved fingolimod or FTY-720 (see chapter by J. Pfeilschifter for more information) is the first drug on the market to interfere with sphingolipid signaling. The reasons for this lagging are manifold and within this chapter we try to name some of them. Ceramide is in the center of sphingolipid metabolism. We describe the most important and most recent inhibitors for enzymes controlling cellular ceramide levels.

  3. The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

  4. Sphingolipids in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Zachary B; Ren, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite progress over the last few decades, the molecular mechanisms of secondary SCI that continue to occur days and weeks after the original trauma remain poorly understood. As a result, current therapies for SCI are only marginally effective. Sphingolipids, a diverse class of bioactive lipids, have been shown to regulate SCI repair and key secondary injury processes such as apoptosis, ischemia and inflammation. This review will discuss the numerous roles of sphingolipids and highlight the potential of sphingolipid-targeted therapies for SCI. PMID:27570580

  5. Molecular facets of sphingolipids: mediators of diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozbayraktar, Fatma Betul Kavun; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2009-07-01

    Sphingolipids constitute a biologically active lipid class that is significantly important from both structural and regulatory aspects. The manipulation of sphingolipid metabolism is currently being studied as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. The basics of this therapeutic approach lie in the regulation property of sphingolipids on cellular processes, which are important in a cell's fate, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and inflammation. Furthermore, the mutations in the enzymes catalyzing some specific reactions in the sphingolipid metabolism cause mortal lysosomal storage diseases like Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann-Pick, Farber, Krabbe, and Metachromatic Leukodystrophy. Therefore, the alteration of the sphingolipid metabolic pathway determines the choice between life and death. Understanding the sphingolipid metabolism and regulation is significant for the development of new therapeutic approaches for all sphingolipid-related diseases, as well as for cancer. An important feature of the sphingolipid metabolic pathway is the compartmentalization into endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosome and plasma membrane, and this compartmentalization makes the transport of sphingolipids critical for proper functioning. This paper focuses on the structures, metabolic pathways, localization, transport mechanisms, and diseases of sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and provides the latest comprehensive information on sphingolipid research.

  6. Autophagy regulates sphingolipid levels in the liver.

    PubMed

    Alexaki, Aikaterini; Gupta, Sita D; Majumder, Saurav; Kono, Mari; Tuymetova, Galina; Harmon, Jeffrey M; Dunn, Teresa M; Proia, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Sphingolipid levels are tightly regulated to maintain cellular homeostasis. During pathologic conditions such as in aging, inflammation, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, levels of some sphingolipids, including the bioactive metabolite ceramide, are elevated. Sphingolipid metabolism has been linked to autophagy, a critical catabolic process in both normal cell function and disease; however, the in vivo relevance of the interaction is not well-understood. Here, we show that blocking autophagy in the liver by deletion of the Atg7 gene, which is essential for autophagosome formation, causes an increase in sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide. We also show that overexpression of serine palmitoyltransferase to elevate de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis induces autophagy in the liver. The results reveal autophagy as a process that limits excessive ceramide levels and that is induced by excessive elevation of de novo sphingolipid synthesis in the liver. Dysfunctional autophagy may be an underlying mechanism causing elevations in ceramide that may contribute to pathogenesis in diseases.

  7. Sphingolipids in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Brittany; Donaldson, Cat; Obeid, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Recently, sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have emerged as important targets of many chemotherapeutics and DNA damaging agents and therefore play significant roles in mediating the physiological response of the cell to DNA damage. In this review we will highlight points of connection between the DNA damage response (DDR) and sphingolipid metabolism; specifically how certain sphingolipid enzymes are regulated in response to DNA damage and how the bioactive lipids produced by these enzymes affect cell fate. PMID:25434743

  8. Sphingolipids in inflammation: roles and implications.

    PubMed

    Pettus, B J; Chalfant, C E; Hannun, Y A

    2004-06-01

    Sphingolipids, historically described as potential reservoirs for bioactive lipids, presently define a new family of cellular mediators, joining the well-established glycerolipid-derived mediators of signal transduction such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositides, and eicosanoids. Sphingolipid metabolism is clearly involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Indeed, a majority of the greater than four thousand studies conducted on sphingolipids during the past five years were investigations of the role of sphingolipids as cellular bioregulators. Studies spanning more than a decade have shown multiple interactions and intersections of the sphingolipid-mediated pathways and the eicosanoid pathway. This review will discuss the emerging mechanisms by which sphingolipids induce inflammatory responses via the eicosanoid pathway in addition to linking previous literature on sphingolipids and inflammation with newer findings of distinct roles for sphingosine-1-phosphate in regulating cyclooygenase-2 and ceramide-1-phosphate in the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha. Finally, the relationship between bioactive sphingolipids and inflammation is discussed.

  9. Separation and identification of major plant sphingolipid classes from leaves.

    PubMed

    Markham, Jonathan E; Li, Jia; Cahoon, Edgar B; Jaworski, Jan G

    2006-08-11

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane, tonoplast, and other endomembranes of plant cells. Previous compositional analyses have focused only on individual sphingolipid classes because of the widely differing polarities of plant sphingolipids. Consequently, the total content of sphingolipid classes in plants has yet to be quantified. In addition, the major polar sphingolipid class in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has not been previously determined. In this report, we describe the separation and quantification of sphingolipid classes from A. thaliana leaves using hydrolysis of sphingolipids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives of the released long-chain bases to monitor the separation steps. An extraction solvent that contained substantial proportions of water was used to solubilized >95% of the sphingolipids from leaves. Neutral and charged sphingolipids were then partitioned by anion exchange solid phase extraction. HPLC analysis of the charged lipid fraction from A. thaliana revealed only one major anionic sphingolipid class, which was identified by mass spectrometry as hexose-hexuronic-inositolphosphoceramide. The neutral sphingolipids were predominantly composed of monohexosylceramide with lesser amounts of ceramides. Extraction and separation of sphingolipids from soybean and tomato showed that, like A. thaliana, the neutral sphingolipids consisted of ceramide and monohexosylceramides; however, the major polar sphingolipid was found to be N-acetyl-hexosamine-hexuronic-inositolphosphoceramide. In extracts from A. thaliana leaves, hexosehexuronic-inositolphosphoceramides, monohexosylceramides, and ceramides accounted for approximately 64, 34, and 2% of the total sphingolipids, respectively, suggesting an important role for the anionic sphingolipids in plant membranes.

  10. Sphingolipids inhibit vimentin-dependent cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Claire L; Kemppainen, Kati; Isoniemi, Kimmo O; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Goto, Hidemasa; Inagaki, Masaki; Fazeli, Elnaz; Eriksson, John E; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-06-01

    The sphingolipids, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), can induce or inhibit cellular migration. The intermediate filament protein vimentin is an inducer of migration and a marker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Given that keratin intermediate filaments are regulated by SPC, with consequences for cell motility, we wanted to determine whether vimentin is also regulated by sphingolipid signalling and whether it is a determinant for sphingolipid-mediated functions. In cancer cells where S1P and SPC inhibited migration, we observed that S1P and SPC induced phosphorylation of vimentin on S71, leading to a corresponding reorganization of vimentin filaments. These effects were sphingolipid-signalling-dependent, because inhibition of either the S1P2 receptor (also known as S1PR2) or its downstream effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK, for which there are two isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2) nullified the sphingolipid-induced effects on vimentin organization and S71 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the anti-migratory effect of S1P and SPC could be prevented by expressing S71-phosphorylation-deficient vimentin. In addition, we demonstrated, by using wild-type and vimentin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, that the sphingolipid-mediated inhibition of migration is dependent on vimentin. These results imply that this newly discovered sphingolipid-vimentin signalling axis exerts brake-and-throttle functions in the regulation of cell migration.

  11. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon A.; Mina, John G.; Denny, Paul W.; Smith, Terry K.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions. PMID:22400113

  12. Monogenic neurological disorders of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sabourdy, Frédérique; Astudillo, Leonardo; Colacios, Céline; Dubot, Patricia; Mrad, Marguerite; Ségui, Bruno; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Levade, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Sphingolipids comprise a wide variety of molecules containing a sphingoid long-chain base that can be N-acylated. These lipids are particularly abundant in the central nervous system, being membrane components of neurons as well as non-neuronal cells. Direct evidence that these brain lipids play critical functions in brain physiology is illustrated by the dramatic consequences of genetic disturbances of their metabolism. Inherited defects of both synthesis and catabolism of sphingolipids are now identified in humans. These monogenic disorders are due to mutations in the genes encoding for the enzymes that catalyze either the formation or degradation of simple sphingolipids such as ceramides, or complex sphingolipids like glycolipids. They cause varying degrees of central nervous system dysfunction, quite similarly to the neurological disorders induced in mice by gene disruption of the corresponding enzymes. Herein, the enzyme deficiencies and metabolic alterations that underlie these diseases are reviewed. Their possible pathophysiological mechanisms and the functions played by sphingolipids one can deduce from these conditions are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  13. Developmentally Regulated Sphingolipid Synthesis in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutterwala, Shaheen S.; Hsu, Fong Fu; Sevova, Elitza S.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Zhang, Kai; Key, Phillip; Turk, John; Beverley, Stephen M.; Bangs, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, and many unicellular eukaryotes, including kinetoplastid protozoa, are thought to synthesize exclusively inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC). Here we characterize sphingolipids from Trypanosoma brucei, and a trypanosome sphingolipid synthase gene family (TbSLS1-4) that is orthologous to Leishmania IPC synthase. Procyclic trypanosomes contain IPC, but also sphingomyelin, while surprisingly bloodstream stage parasites contain sphingomyelin and ethanolamine phosphorylceramide (EPC), but no detectable IPC. In vivo fluorescent ceramide labeling confirmed stage specific biosynthesis of both sphingomyelin and IPC. Expression of TbSLS4 in Leishmania resulted in production of sphingomyelin and EPC suggesting that the TbSLS gene family has bi-functional synthase activity. RNAi silencing of TbSLS1-4 in bloodstream trypanosomes led to rapid growth arrest and eventual cell death. Ceramide levels were increased >3-fold by silencing suggesting a toxic downstream effect mediated by this potent intracellular messenger. Topology predictions support a revised six transmembrane domain model for the kinetoplastid sphingolipid synthases consistent with the proposed mammalian SM synthase structure. This work reveals novel diversity and regulation in sphingolipid metabolism in this important group of human parasites. PMID:18699867

  14. Sphingolipids in High Fat Diet and Obesity-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Songhwa; Snider, Ashley J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient oversupply associated with a high fat diet (HFD) significantly alters cellular metabolism, and specifically including sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are emerging as bioactive lipids that play key roles in regulating functions, in addition to their traditional roles as membrane structure. HFD enhances de novo sphingolipid synthesis and turnover of sphingolipids via the salvage pathway, resulting in the generation of ceramide, and more specifically long chain ceramide species. Additionally, HFD elevates sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) levels in several tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular tissues. HFD-stimulated sphingolipid generation contributes to systemic insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid accumulation, and cytokine expression and secretion from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, exacerbating obesity-related conditions. Furthermore, altered sphingolipid levels, particularly ceramide and sphingomyelin, are involved in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this review, HFD-mediated sphingolipid metabolism and its impact on HFD-induced biology and pathobiology will be discussed. PMID:26648664

  15. Plant sphingolipids: decoding the enigma of the Sphinx

    PubMed Central

    Pata, Mickael O.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Ng, Carl K.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous class of lipids present in a variety of organisms including eukaryotes and bacteria. In the last two decades, research has focused on characterizing the individual species of this complex family of lipids, leading to a new field of research called sphingolipidomics. There are at least 500 (and perhaps thousands) different molecular species of sphingolipids in cells, and in Arabidopsis alone, it has been reported that there are at least 168 different sphingolipids. Plant sphingolipids can be divided into four classes: glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides (GIPCs), glycosylceramides, ceramides, and free long chain bases (LCBs). Numerous enzymes involved in plant sphingolipid metabolism have now been cloned and characterized, and, in general, there is broad conservation in the way sphingolipids are metabolized in animals, yeast and plants. Here, we review the diversity of sphingolipids reported in the literature, some of the recent advances in our understanding of sphingolipid metabolism in plants, and the physiological roles that sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites play in plant physiology. PMID:20028469

  16. A sphingolipid mechanism for behavioral extinction.

    PubMed

    Huston, Joseph P; Kornhuber, Johannes; Mühle, Christiane; Japtok, Lukasz; Komorowski, Mara; Mattern, Claudia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kleuser, Burkhard; Topic, Bianca; De Souza Silva, Maria A; Müller, Christian P

    2016-05-01

    Reward-dependent instrumental behavior must continuously be re-adjusted according to environmental conditions. Failure to adapt to changes in reward contingencies may incur psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression. When an expected reward is omitted, behavior undergoes extinction. While extinction involves active re-learning, it is also accompanied by emotional behaviors indicative of frustration, anxiety, and despair (extinction-induced depression). Here, we report evidence for a sphingolipid mechanism in the extinction of behavior. Rapid extinction, indicating efficient re-learning, coincided with a decrease in the activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which catalyzes turnover of sphingomyelin to ceramide, in the dorsal hippocampus of rats. The stronger the decline in ASM activity, the more rapid was the extinction. Sphingolipid-focused lipidomic analysis showed that this results in a decline of local ceramide species in the dorsal hippocampus. Ceramides shape the fluidity of lipid rafts in synaptic membranes and by that way can control neural plasticity. We also found that aging modifies activity of enzymes and ceramide levels in selective brain regions. Aging also changed how the chronic treatment with corticosterone (stress) or intranasal dopamine modified regional enzyme activity and ceramide levels, coinciding with rate of extinction. These data provide first evidence for a functional ASM-ceramide pathway in the brain involved in the extinction of learned behavior. This finding extends the known cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity to a new class of membrane-located molecules, the sphingolipids, and their regulatory enzymes, and may offer new treatment targets for extinction- and learning-related psychopathological conditions. Sphingolipids are common lipids in the brain which form lipid domains at pre- and postsynaptic membrane compartments. Here we show a decline in dorsal hippocampus ceramide species together with a

  17. Fostering Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Sphingolipid Strategies to Join Forces

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Hadi, Loubna; Di Vito, Clara; Riboni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Complex sphingolipids are essential structural components of intestinal membranes, providing protection and integrity to the intestinal mucosa and regulating intestinal absorption processes. The role of sphingolipid signaling has been established in numerous cellular events, including intestinal cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. A significant body of knowledge demonstrates that intestinal sphingolipids play a crucial role, as such and through their signaling pathways, in immunity and inflammatory disorders. In this review, we report on and discuss the current knowledge on the metabolism, signaling, and functional implications of sphingolipids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), focusing on the different aspects of sphingolipid actions on inflammatory responses and on the potential of sphingolipid-targeted molecules as anti-IBD therapeutic agents. PMID:26880864

  18. Fostering Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Sphingolipid Strategies to Join Forces.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hadi, Loubna; Di Vito, Clara; Riboni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Complex sphingolipids are essential structural components of intestinal membranes, providing protection and integrity to the intestinal mucosa and regulating intestinal absorption processes. The role of sphingolipid signaling has been established in numerous cellular events, including intestinal cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. A significant body of knowledge demonstrates that intestinal sphingolipids play a crucial role, as such and through their signaling pathways, in immunity and inflammatory disorders. In this review, we report on and discuss the current knowledge on the metabolism, signaling, and functional implications of sphingolipids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), focusing on the different aspects of sphingolipid actions on inflammatory responses and on the potential of sphingolipid-targeted molecules as anti-IBD therapeutic agents.

  19. Phase behavior of carbamyloxyphosphatidylcholine, a sphingolipid analogue.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, W; Bali, A; Gupta, C M

    1985-12-01

    The phase behavior of two series of phosphatidylcholines (PC) possessing carbamyloxy-linked fatty acids has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. These non-natural phosphatidylcholines are of interest because they possess the capability of forming interlipid hydrogen bonds via the carbamyloxy function and as such can serve as a model for sphingolipids, the phase behavior of which is thought to be dominated by interlipid hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, carbamyloxyphosphatidylcholines form unusually stable liposomes, and thus have potential in drug delivery. Carbamyloxyphosphatidylcholines of the type di-(CnH2n+1NHCOO)-PC, where n = 13, 15, or 17, exhibit metastable polymorphism. Cooling from the liquid crystalline state results in formation of a metastable low-temperature polymorph I, which must transform into a stable low-temperature polymorph II before the liquid crystalline state can be reached again. Carbamyloxyphosphatidylcholines of the type 1-C16:0-2-(CnH2n+1NHCOO)-PC exhibit similar metastable polymorphism. This metastability is similar to that exhibited by certain cerebrosides and sphingomyelins and indicates that the sphingosine backbone is not a prerequisite for this type of metastability. Furthermore, the carbamyloxy group is reversed in orientation compared with the amide of sphingolipids (-NHCO- versus -CONH-), suggesting that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding potential, rather than some highly specific steric or conformational constraint, is responsible for the observed metastability of sphingolipids.

  20. Phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids (SLs) are abundant membrane components and reservoirs for important signaling molecules. In Leishmania, the composition, metabolism, and function of PLs and SLs differ significantly from those in mammalian cells. Although only a handful of enzymes have been experimentally characterized, available data suggest many steps of PL/SL metabolism are critical for Leishmania viability and/or virulence, and could be a source for new drug targets. Further studies of genes involved in the synthesis (de novo and salvage) and degradation of PLs and SLs will reveal their diverse effects on Leishmania pathogenesis. PMID:20026359

  1. Drug targeting of sphingolipid metabolism: sphingomyelinases and ceramidases

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Daniel; Perry, David M; Jenkins, Russell W; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a class of diverse bioactive lipid molecules that are increasingly appreciated as key modulators of diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that include cell growth, cell death, autophagy, angiogenesis, and stress and inflammatory responses. Sphingomyelinases and ceramidases are key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism that regulate the formation and degradation of ceramide, one of the most intensely studied classes of sphingolipids. Improved understanding of these enzymes that control not only the levels of ceramide but also the complex interconversion of sphingolipid metabolites has provided the foundation for the functional analysis of the roles of sphingolipids. Our current understanding of the roles of various sphingolipids in the regulation of different cellular processes has come from loss-of-function/gain-of-function studies utilizing genetic deletion/downregulation/overexpression of enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism (e.g. knockout animals, RNA interference) and from the use of pharmacologic inhibitors of these same enzymes. While genetic approaches to evaluate the functional roles of sphingolipid enzymes have been instrumental in advancing the field, the use of pharmacologic inhibitors has been equally important in identifying new roles for sphingolipids in important cellular processes.The latter also promises the development of novel therapeutic targets with implications for cancer therapy, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on the status and use of pharmacologic compounds that inhibit sphingomyelinases and ceramidases, and we will review the history, current uses and future directions for various small molecule inhibitors, and will highlight studies in which inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been used to effectively treat models of human disease. PMID:21615386

  2. Sphingolipids are required for mammalian epidermal barrier function. Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis delays barrier recovery after acute perturbation.

    PubMed Central

    Holleran, W M; Man, M Q; Gao, W N; Menon, G K; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1991-01-01

    Stratum corneum lipids comprise an approximately equimolar mixture of sphingolipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, arranged as intercellular membrane bilayers that are presumed to mediate the epidermal permeability barrier. Prior studies have shown that alterations in epidermal barrier function lead to a rapid increase in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis which parallels the early stages of the repair process. Despite an abundance of indirect evidence for their role in the barrier, the importance of sphingolipids has yet to be demonstrated directly. Whereas sphingolipid synthesis also increases during barrier repair, this response is delayed in comparison to cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis (Holleran, W.M., et al. 1991. J. Lipid Res. 32:1151-1158). To further delineate the role of sphingolipids in barrier homeostasis, we assessed the impact of inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis on epidermal barrier recovery. A single topical application of beta-chloro-L-alanine (beta-CA), an irreversible inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl transferase (SPT), applied to acetone-treated skin of hairless mice resulted in: (a) greater than 75% inhibition of SPT activity at 30 min (P less than 0.001); (b) a global decrease in sphingolipid synthesis between 1 and 3 h (P less than 0.02); (c) reduction of epidermal sphingolipid content at 18 h (P less than 0.01); (d) delayed reaccumulation of histochemical staining for sphingolipids in the stratum corneum; and (e) reduced numbers and contents of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum. Finally, despite its immediate, marked diminution of sphingolipid synthesis, beta-CA slowed barrier recovery only at late time points (greater than 6 h) after acetone treatment. This inhibition was overridden by coapplications of ceramides (the distal SPT product), indicating that the delay in repair was not due to non-specific toxicity. These studies demonstrate a distinctive role for epidermal sphingolipids in permeability barrier homeostasis

  3. Sphingolipid Metabolism, Oxidant Signaling, and Contractile Function of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance Sphingolipids are a class of bioactive lipids that regulate diverse cell functions. Ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate accumulate in tissues such as liver, brain, and lung under conditions of cellular stress, including oxidative stress. The activity of some sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes, chiefly the sphingomyelinases, is stimulated during inflammation and in response to oxidative stress. Ceramide, the sphingomyelinase product, as well as the ceramide metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate, can induce the generation of more reactive oxygen species, propagating further inflammation. Recent Advances This review article summarizes information on sphingolipid biochemistry and signaling pertinent to skeletal muscle and describes the potential influence of sphingolipids on contractile function. Critical Issues It encompasses topics related to (1) the pathways for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis and degradation, emphasizing sphingolipid regulation in various muscle fiber types and subcellular compartments; (2) the emerging evidence that implicates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate as regulators of muscle oxidant activity, and (3) sphingolipid effects on contractile function and fatigue. Future Directions We propose that prolonged inflammatory conditions alter ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate levels in skeletal muscle and that these changes promote the weakness, premature fatigue, and cachexia that plague individuals with heart failure, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2501–2517. PMID:21453197

  4. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca2+ mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca2+ mobilization. Ca2+ mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  5. Viral trans-dominant manipulation of algal sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Louise V; Dunn, Teresa M; Napier, Johnathan A

    2010-12-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the host for the coccolithovirus (EhV), which is responsible for the demise of large oceanic blooms formed by this alga. The EhV-86 virus genome sequence has identified several genes apparently involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Recently, an unusual glucosylceramide from E. huxleyi infected with EhV-86 was isolated, implicating sphingolipids in the lysis of this alga. However, the EhV-86-encoded genes contain only a subset of the activities required to generate the novel sphingolipid, implying that its synthesis is the result of coordinated interactions between algal- and viral-encoded biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we discuss the likely role for EhV-86 open reading frames (ORFs) in the synthesis of novel sphingolipids and also consider the concept of the trans-dominant manipulation of lipid metabolism.

  6. Involvement of Sphingolipids in Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mariko; Saito, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol-induced neuronal death during a sensitive period of brain development is considered one of the significant causes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In rodent models, ethanol triggers robust apoptotic neurodegeneration during a period of active synaptogenesis that occurs around the first two postnatal weeks, equivalent to the third trimester in human fetuses. The ethanol-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent, involving Bax and caspase-3 activation. Such apoptotic pathways are often mediated by sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cellular membranes. While the central role of lipids in ethanol liver toxicity is well recognized, the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol neurotoxicity is less explored despite mounting evidence of their importance in neuronal apoptosis. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in animal models of FASD is mediated or regulated by cellular sphingolipids, including via the pro-apoptotic action of ceramide and through the neuroprotective action of GM1 ganglioside. Such sphingolipid involvement in ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing brain may provide unique targets for therapeutic applications against FASD. Here we summarize findings describing the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol-induced apoptosis and discuss the possibility that the combined action of various sphingolipids in mitochondria may control neuronal cell fate. PMID:24961420

  7. Role of Sphingolipids in the Pathobiology of Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ghidoni, Riccardo; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid bioactivities in the respiratory airways and the roles of the proteins that handle them have been extensively investigated. Gas or inhaled particles or microorganisms come into contact with mucus components, epithelial cells, blood barrier, and immune surveillance within the airways. Lung structure and functionality rely on a complex interplay of polar and hydrophobic structures forming the surfactant layer and governing external-internal exchanges, such as glycerol-phospholipids sphingolipids and proteins. Sphingolipids act as important signaling mediators involved in the control of cell survival and stress response, as well as secreted molecules endowed with inflammation-regulatory activities. Most successful respiratory infection and injuries evolve in the alveolar compartment, the critical lung functional unit involved in gas exchange. Sphingolipid altered metabolism in this compartment is closely related to inflammatory reaction and ceramide increase, in particular, favors the switch to pathological hyperinflammation. This short review explores a few mechanisms underlying sphingolipid involvement in the healthy lung (surfactant production and endothelial barrier maintenance) and in a selection of lung pathologies in which the impact of sphingolipid synthesis and metabolism is most apparent, such as acute lung injury, or chronic pathologies such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:26770018

  8. Ceramide synthases at the centre of sphingolipid metabolism and biology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Thomas D; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M

    2012-02-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism in metazoan cells consists of a complex interconnected web of numerous enzymes, metabolites and modes of regulation. At the centre of sphingolipid metabolism reside CerSs (ceramide synthases), a group of enzymes that catalyse the formation of ceramides from sphingoid base and acyl-CoA substrates. From a metabolic perspective, these enzymes occupy a unique niche in that they simultaneously regulate de novo sphingolipid synthesis and the recycling of free sphingosine produced from the degradation of pre-formed sphingolipids (salvage pathway). Six mammalian CerSs (CerS1-CerS6) have been identified. Unique characteristics have been described for each of these enzymes, but perhaps the most notable is the ability of individual CerS isoforms to produce ceramides with characteristic acyl-chain distributions. Through this control of acyl-chain length and perhaps in a compartment-specific manner, CerSs appear to regulate multiple aspects of sphingolipid-mediated cell and organismal biology. In the present review, we discuss the function of CerSs as critical regulators of sphingolipid metabolism, highlight their unique characteristics and explore the emerging roles of CerSs in regulating programmed cell death, cancer and many other aspects of biology.

  9. Tamoxifen regulation of sphingolipid metabolism--Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Morad, Samy A F; Cabot, Myles C

    2015-09-01

    Tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene antiestrogen and one of the first-line endocrine therapies used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has a number of interesting, off-target effects, and among these is the inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism. More specifically, tamoxifen inhibits ceramide glycosylation, and enzymatic step that can adventitiously support the influential tumor-suppressor properties of ceramide, the aliphatic backbone of sphingolipids. Additionally, tamoxifen and metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, have been shown to inhibit ceramide hydrolysis by the enzyme acid ceramidase. This particular intervention slows ceramide destruction and thereby depresses formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate, a mitogenic sphingolipid with cancer growth-promoting properties. As ceramide-centric therapies are becoming appealing clinical interventions in the treatment of cancer, agents like tamoxifen that can retard the generation of mitogenic sphingolipids and buffer ceramide clearance via inhibition of glycosylation, take on new importance. In this review, we present an abridged, lay introduction to sphingolipid metabolism, briefly chronicle tamoxifen's history in the clinic, examine studies that demonstrate the impact of triphenylethylenes on sphingolipid metabolism in cancer cells, and canvass works relevant to the use of tamoxifen as adjuvant to drive ceramide-centric therapies in cancer treatment. The objective is to inform the readership of what could be a novel, off-label indication of tamoxifen and structurally-related triphenylethylenes, an indication divorced from estrogen receptor status and one with application in drug resistance.

  10. Tamoxifen regulation of sphingolipid metabolism—therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Morad, Samy A F; Cabot, Myles C

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene antiestrogen and one of the first-line endocrine therapies used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has a number of interesting, off-target effects, and among these is the inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism. More specifically, tamoxifen inhibits ceramide glycosylation, and enzymatic step that can adventitiously support the influential tumor-suppressor properties of ceramide, the aliphatic backbone of sphingolipids. Additionally, tamoxifen and metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, have been shown to inhibit ceramide hydrolysis by the enzyme acid ceramidase. This particular intervention slows ceramide destruction and thereby depresses formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate, a mitogenic sphingolipid with cancer growth-promoting properties. As ceramide-centric therapies are becoming appealing clinical interventions in the treatment of cancer, agents like tamoxifen that can retard the generation of mitogenic sphingolipids and buffer ceramide clearance via inhibition of glycosylation, take on new importance. In this review, we present an abridged, lay introduction to sphingolipid metabolism, briefly chronicle tamoxifen’s history in the clinic, examine studies that demonstrate the impact of triphenylethylenes on sphingolipid metabolism in cancer cells, and canvass works relevant to the use of tamoxifen as adjuvant to drive ceramide-centric therapies in cancer treatment. The objective is to inform the readership of what could be a novel, off-label indication of tamoxifen and structurally-related triphenylethylenes, an indication divorced from estrogen receptor status and one with application in drug resistance. PMID:25964209

  11. Involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mariko; Saito, Mitsuo

    2013-04-26

    Ethanol-induced neuronal death during a sensitive period of brain development is considered one of the significant causes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In rodent models, ethanol triggers robust apoptotic neurodegeneration during a period of active synaptogenesis that occurs around the first two postnatal weeks, equivalent to the third trimester in human fetuses. The ethanol-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent, involving Bax and caspase-3 activation. Such apoptotic pathways are often mediated by sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cellular membranes. While the central role of lipids in ethanol liver toxicity is well recognized, the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol neurotoxicity is less explored despite mounting evidence of their importance in neuronal apoptosis. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in animal models of FASD is mediated or regulated by cellular sphingolipids, including via the pro-apoptotic action of ceramide and through the neuroprotective action of GM1 ganglioside. Such sphingolipid involvement in ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing brain may provide unique targets for therapeutic applications against FASD. Here we summarize findings describing the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol-induced apoptosis and discuss the possibility that the combined action of various sphingolipids in mitochondria may control neuronal cell fate.

  12. Lipoxygenase inhibitory sphingolipids from Launaea nudicaulis.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Naheed; Parveen, Shehla; Saleem, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Malik, Abdul; Ashraf, Muhammad; Afzal, Iftikhar; Jabbar, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Four new sphingolipids: nudicaulin A [(2S,3S,4R,14E)-2-{[octadecanoyl]amino}tetraeicos-14-ene-1,3,4-triol; 1], nudicaulin B [(2S,3S,4R,14E)-2-{[(2R)-2-hydroxyoctadecanoyl]amino}tetraeicos-14-ene-1,3,4-triol; 2], nudicaulin C [(2S,3S,4R,14E)-2-{[(2R)-2-hydroxyoctadecanoyl]amino}tetraeicos-14-ene-1,3,4-triol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside; 3], and nudicaulin D [(2S,3S,4R)-2-{[(2R,3S,12E)-2,3-dihydroxyeicos-12-enoyl]amino}octadecane-1,3,4-triol; 4] together with 1-hexatriacontanol, β-sitosterol, octadecyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, elaidic acid, cholesta-5,22-diene-3,7-diol, oleanolic acid, apigenin, and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Launaea nudicaulis. Their structures were elucidated using ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra and 2D NMR analyses (HMQC, HMBC, and COSY) in combination with mass spectrometry (EI-MS, HR-EI-MS, FAB-MS, and HR-FAB-MS) experiments and comparison with literature data of related compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed moderate inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase in concentration-dependent manner with IC₅₀ value ranges 103-193 μM.

  13. The sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme Sphingolipid delta8 desaturase is important for chilling resistance of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    The physiological functions of sphingolipids in animals have been intensively studied, while less attention has been paid to their roles in plants. Here, we reveal the involvement of sphingolipid delta8 desaturase (SlSLD) in the chilling resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). We used the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to knock-down SlSLD expression in tomato leaves, and then evaluated chilling resistance. Changes in leaf cell structure under a chilling treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In control plants, SlSLD was highly expressed in the fruit and leaves in response to a chilling treatment. The degree of chilling damage was greater in SlSLD-silenced plants than in control plants, indicating that SlSLD knock-down significantly reduced the chilling resistance of tomato. Compared with control plants, SlSLD-silenced plants showed higher relative electrolytic leakage and malondialdehyde content, and lower superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities after a chilling treatment. Chilling severely damaged the chloroplasts in SlSLD-silenced plants, resulting in the disruption of chloroplast membranes, swelling of thylakoids, and reduced granal stacking. Together, these results show that SlSLD is crucial for chilling resistance in tomato. PMID:27929095

  14. Sphingolipid metabolism regulates development and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Roy G.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Camandola, Simonetta; Mack, Kendra T.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a highly conserved lipid component of cell membranes involved in the formation of lipid raft domains that house many of the receptors and cell-to-cell signaling factors involved in regulating cell division, maturation, and terminal differentiation. By measuring and manipulating sphingolipid metabolism using pharmacological and genetic tools in Caenorhabditis elegans, we provide evidence that the synthesis and remodeling of specific ceramides (e.g., dC18:1–C24:1), gangliosides (e.g., GM1–C24:1), and sphingomyelins (e.g., dC18:1–C18:1) influence development rate and lifespan. We found that the levels of fatty acid chain desaturation and elongation in many sphingolipid species increased during development and aging, with no such changes in developmentally-arrested dauer larvae or normal adults after food withdrawal (an anti-aging intervention). Pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs directed against serine palmitoyl transferase and glucosylceramide synthase acted to slow development rate, extend the reproductive period, and increase lifespan. In contrast, worms fed an egg yolk diet rich in sphingolipids exhibited accelerated development and reduced lifespan. Our findings demonstrate that sphingolipid accumulation and remodeling are critical events that determine development rate and lifespan in the nematode model, with both development rate and aging being accelerated by the synthesis of sphingomyelin, and its metabolism to ceramides and gangliosides. PMID:25437839

  15. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Fikadu G; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Schmidt, Florian I; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-10-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  16. Membrane engineering of S. cerevisiae targeting sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lina; Santos, Aline X. S.; Olsson, Helén; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and chemicals using microbial cell factories is now well established. However, many microbial production processes are still limited in scale due to inhibition from compounds that are present in the feedstock or are produced during fermentation. Some of these inhibitors interfere with cellular membranes and change the physicochemical properties of the membranes. Another group of molecules is dependent on their permeation rate through the membrane for their inhibition. We have investigated the use of membrane engineering to counteract the negative effects of inhibitors on the microorganism with focus on modulating the abundance of complex sphingolipids in the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of ELO3, involved in fatty acid elongation, and AUR1, which catalyses the formation of complex sphingolipids, had no effect on the membrane lipid profile or on cellular physiology. Deletion of the genes ORM1 and ORM2, encoding negative regulators of sphingolipid biosynthesis, decreased cell viability and considerably reduced phosphatidylinositol and complex sphingolipids. Additionally, combining ELO3 and AUR1 overexpression with orm1/2Δ improved cell viability and increased fatty acyl chain length compared with only orm1/2Δ. These findings can be used to further study the sphingolipid metabolism, as well as giving guidance in membrane engineering. PMID:28145511

  17. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans. PMID:26431038

  18. Tumor PDT-associated immune response: relevance of sphingolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Separovic, Duska M.

    2010-02-01

    Sphingolipids have become recognized as essential effector molecules in signal transduction with involvement in various aspects of cell function and death, immune response and cancer treatment response. Major representatives of sphingolipids family, ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have attracted interest in their relevance to tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) because of their roles as enhancers of apoptosis, mediators of cell growth and vasculogenesis, and regulators of immune response. Our recent in vivo studies with mouse tumor models have confirmed that PDT treatment has a pronounced impact on sphingolipid profile in the targeted tumor and that significant advances in therapeutic gain with PDT can be attained by combining this modality with adjuvant treatment with ceramide analog LCL29.

  19. Sterols and sphingolipids: Dynamic duo or partners in crime?

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sonia; Liu, Ying; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Wilcox, Lisa; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    One manner in which eukaryotic cells respond to their environments is by optimizing the composition and proportions of sterols and sphingolipids in membranes. The physical association of the planar ring of sterols with the acyl chains of phospholipids, particularly sphingolipids, produces membrane micro-heterogeneity that is exploited to coordinate several crucial pathways. We hypothesize that these lipid molecules play an integrated role in human disease; when one of the partners is mis-regulated, pathology frequently ensues. Sterols and sphingolipid levels are not coordinated by the action of a single master regulator, however the cross talk between their metabolic pathways is considerable. We describe our perspectives on the key components of synthesis, catabolism and transport of these lipid partners with an emphasis on evolutionarily conserved reactions that produce disease states when defective. PMID:20362613

  20. Sphingolipids as Regulators of the Phagocytic Response to Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Arielle M.; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Luberto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections pose a significant risk for the increasing population of individuals who are immunocompromised. Phagocytes play an important role in immune defense against fungal pathogens, but the interactions between host and fungi are still not well understood. Sphingolipids have been shown to play an important role in many cell functions, including the function of phagocytes. In this review, we discuss major findings that relate to the importance of sphingolipids in macrophage and neutrophil function and the role of macrophages and neutrophils in the most common types of fungal infections, as well as studies that have linked these three concepts to show the importance of sphingolipid signaling in immune response to fungal infections. PMID:26688618

  1. Rice Stripe Virus Infection Alters mRNA Levels of Sphingolipid-Metabolizing Enzymes and Sphingolipids Content in Laodelphax striatellus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei-Qiang; Bai, Yue-Liang; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Mu-Fei; Zhang, Min-Jing; Mao, Cun-Gui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids and their metabolites have been implicated in viral infection and replication in mammal cells but how their metabolizing enzymes in the host are regulated by viruses remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 12 sphingolipid genes and their regulation by Rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén), a serious pest of rice throughout eastern Asia. According to protein sequence similarity, we identified 12 sphingolipid enzyme genes in L. striatellus. By comparing their mRNA levels in viruliferous versus nonviruliferous L. striatellus at different life stages by qPCR, we found that RSV infection upregulated six genes (LsCGT1, LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, LsSMPD4, LsSMS, and LsSPT) in most stages of L. striatellus. Especially, four genes (LsCGT1, LsSMPD2, LsNAGA1, and LsSMS) and another three genes (LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, and LsSMS) were significantly upregulated in viruliferous third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that RSV infection increased the levels of various ceramides, such as Cer18:0, Cer20:0, and Cer22:0 species, in third and fourth instar L. striatellus nymphs. Together, these results demonstrate that RSV infection alters the transcript levels of various sphingolipid enzymes and the contents of sphingolipids in L. striatellus, indicating that sphingolipids may be important for RSV infection or replication in L. striatellus. PMID:28130458

  2. Two new sphingolipids from the leaves of Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-09-12

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  3. Interictal, circulating sphingolipids in women with episodic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Dickens, Alex M.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Dash, Paul; Alexander, Guillermo; Vieira, Rebeca V.A.; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Dorskind, Joelle M.; Tietjen, Gretchen E.; Haughey, Norman H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate interictal, circulating sphingolipids in women migraineurs. Methods: In the fasting state, serum samples were obtained pain-free from 88 women with episodic migraine (EM; n = 52) and from controls (n = 36). Sphingolipids were detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between serum sphingolipids and EM odds. A recursive partitioning decision tree based on the serum concentrations of 10 sphingolipids was used to determine the presence or absence of EM in a subset of participants. Results: Total ceramide (EM 6,502.9 ng/mL vs controls 10,518.5 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) and dihydroceramide (EM 39.3 ng/mL vs controls 63.1 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) levels were decreased in those with EM as compared with controls. Using multivariate logistic regression, each SD increase in total ceramide (odds ratio [OR] 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.22; p < 0.001) and total dihydroceramide (OR 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.21; p < 0.001) levels was associated with more than 92% reduced odds of migraine. Although crude sphingomyelin levels were not different in EM compared with controls, after adjustments, every SD increase in the sphingomyelin species C18:0 (OR 4.28; 95% CI: 1.87, 9.81; p = 0.001) and C18:1 (OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.54; p = 0.001) was associated with an increased odds of migraine. Recursive portioning models correctly classified 14 of 14 randomly selected participants as EM or control. Conclusion: These results suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in women with EM and that serum sphingolipid panels may have potential to differentiate EM presence or absence. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that serum sphingolipid panels accurately distinguish women with migraine from women without migraine. PMID:26354990

  4. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.

  5. Sphingolipid Domains in the Plasma Membranes of Fibroblasts Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. Thus, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton. PMID:23609440

  6. Metabolism, Physiological Role, and Clinical Implications of Sphingolipids in Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Piotrowska, Dominika M.; Wiesiołek, Patrycja; Chabowska, Anna Małgorzata; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids in digestive system are responsible for numerous important physiological and pathological processes. In the membrane of gut epithelial cells, sphingolipids provide structural integrity, regulate absorption of some nutrients, and act as receptors for many microbial antigens and their toxins. Moreover, bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramide or sphingosine-1-phosphate regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death—apoptosis. Although it is well established that sphingolipids have clinical implications in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis or inflammation, further studies are needed to fully explore the role of sphingolipids in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases in gastrointestinal tract. Pharmacological agents which regulate metabolism of sphingolipids can be potentially used in the management of colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this work is to critically the review physiological and pathological roles of sphingolipids in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24083248

  7. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    DOE PAGES

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; ...

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize themore » cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.« less

  8. Sphingolipid modulation of angiogenic factor expression in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-Hong; Hla, Timothy; Ferrer, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism of sphingolipids into downstream lipid mediators followed by signaling modulates tumor microenvironment and the cancer cells to influence tumor progression. As such, sphingolipid signaling represents a novel way to modulate tumor biology. Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, is highly angiogenic and often displays poor prognosis. However, the role of sphingolipid mediators is not known in NB. We found that NB expresses high levels of sphingosine kinase-2 (SphK2), which is essential for the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in SK-N-AS NB cells. The effect occurred at the transcriptional level. Hypoxia in combination with S1P had a synergistic effect on VEGF expression. Strong correlation was detected between S1P receptor-2 (S1P2) and VEGF mRNAs in 11 different cell lines and 17 NB tissues. Blockade of S1P2 with the selective antagonist JTE-013 significantly inhibited S1P-induced VEGF expression. Overexpression and knockdown of S1P2 in SK-N-AS cells increased or inhibited S1P-induced VEGF secretion, respectively. Interestingly, JTE-013 significantly inhibited tumor growth, VEGF mRNA expression and induced apoptosis in the NB tumor xenografts. Taken together, our data suggest that enhanced formation of sphingolipid mediator S1P in NB profoundly influences tumor microenvironment by inducing VEGF expression via S1P2. Modulation of sphingolipid signaling by inhibiting S1P2 may constitute a novel strategy to control NB. PMID:21576349

  9. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein. PMID:25642418

  10. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  11. Beyond the Cherry-Red Spot: Ocular Manifestations of Sphingolipid-mediated Neurodegenerative and Inflammatory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Donald U.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell and found most abundantly in neural tissues. Disorders such as Tay Sachs or Niemann Pick disease are the most familiar examples of dysfunction in sphingolipid metabolism and are typically associated with neurodegeneration and ocular findings such as blindness. More recently, the role of bioactive sphingolipids has been established in a multitude of cellular events, including cell survival, growth, senescence and apoptosis, inflammation, and neovascularization. We discuss our current knowledge and understanding of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. PMID:24011710

  12. Genes encoding Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase from various plants: identification, biochemical functions, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Hu, Zan-Min; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-09-01

    ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase catalyzes the C8 desaturation of a long chain base, which is the characteristic structure of various complex sphingolipids. The genes of 20 ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases from 12 plants were identified and functionally detected by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae system to elucidate the relationship between the biochemical function and evolution of this enzyme. Results showed that the 20 genes all can encode a functional ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase, which catalyzes different ratios of two products, namely, 8(Z) and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine. The coded enzymes could be divided into two groups on the basis of biochemical functions: ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase with a preference for an E-isomer product and ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase with a preference for a Z-isomer product. The conversion rate of the latter was generally lower than that of the former. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 20 desaturases could also be clustered into two groups, and this grouping is consistent with that of the biochemical functions. Thus, the biochemical function of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase is correlated with its evolution. The two groups of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases could arise from distinct ancestors in higher plants. However, they might have initially evolved from ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases in lower organisms, such as yeasts, which can produce E-isomer products only. Furthermore, almost all of the transgenic yeasts harboring ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase genes exhibit an improvement in aluminum tolerance. Our study provided new insights into the biochemical function and evolution of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases in plants.

  13. Harnessing the power of yeast to elucidate the role of sphingolipids in metabolic and signaling processes pertinent to psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders is hampered by the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their pathologies. While aberrant sphingolipid metabolism is associated with psychiatric illness, the role of sphingolipids in these disorders is not understood. The genetically tractable yeast model can be exploited in order to elucidate the cellular consequences of sphingolipid perturbation. Hypotheses generated from studies in yeast and tested in mammalian cells may contribute to our understanding of the role of sphingolipids in psychiatric disorders and to the development of new treatments. Here, we compare sphingolipid metabolism in yeast and mammalian cells, discuss studies implicating sphingolipids in psychiatric disorders and propose approaches that utilize yeast in order to elucidate sphingolipid function and identify drugs that target sphingolipid synthesis. PMID:25750665

  14. Sphingolipid regulation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin proteins family: implications for cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Adada, Mohamad; Canals, Daniel; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M

    2014-05-01

    A key but poorly studied domain of sphingolipid functions encompasses endocytosis, exocytosis, cellular trafficking, and cell movement. Recently, the ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) family of proteins emerged as novel potent targets regulated by sphingolipids. ERMs are structural proteins linking the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, also forming a scaffold for signaling pathways that are used for cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and cell division. Opposing functions of the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), contribute to ERM regulation. S1P robustly activates whereas ceramide potently deactivates ERM via phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, respectively. This recent dimension of cytoskeletal regulation by sphingolipids opens up new avenues to target cell dynamics, and provides further understanding of some of the unexplained biological effects mediated by sphingolipids. In addition, these studies are providing novel inroads into defining basic mechanisms of regulation and action of bioactive sphingolipids. This review describes the current understanding of sphingolipid regulation of the cytoskeleton, it also describes the biologies in which ERM proteins have been involved, and finally how these two large fields have started to converge. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology.

  15. A systematic simulation of the effect of salicylic acid on sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chao; Yin, Jian; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Qi; Ren, Jian; Yao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects plant development and defense responses. Recent studies revealed that SA also participates in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism, but the details of this regulation remain to beexplored. Here, we use in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) with published microarray data to construct a whole-cell simulation model, including 23 pathways, 259 reactions, and 172 metabolites, to predict the alterations in flux of major sphingolipid species after treatment with exogenous SA. This model predicts significant changes in fluxes of certain sphingolipid species after SA treatment, changes that likely trigger downstream physiological and phenotypic effects. To validate the simulation, we used 15N-labeled metabolic turnover analysis to measure sphingolipid contents and turnover rate in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with SA or the SA analog benzothiadiazole (BTH). The results show that both SA and BTH affect sphingolipid metabolism, altering the concentrations of certain species and also changing the optimal flux distribution and turnover rate of sphingolipids. Our strategy allows us to estimate sphingolipid fluxes on a short time scale and gives us a systemic view of the effect of SA on sphingolipid homeostasis. PMID:25859253

  16. Characteristics of the rat cardiac sphingolipid pool in two mitochondrial subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Monette, Jeffrey S; Gómez, Luis A; Moreau, Régis F; Bemer, Brett A; Taylor, Alan W; Hagen, Tory M

    2010-07-23

    Mitochondrial sphingolipids play a diverse role in normal cardiac function and diseases, yet a precise quantification of cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids has never been performed. Therefore, rat heart interfibrillary mitochondria (IFM) and subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) were isolated, lipids extracted, and sphingolipids quantified by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that sphingomyelin (approximately 10,000 pmol/mg protein) was the predominant sphingolipid regardless of mitochondrial subpopulation, and measurable amounts of ceramide (approximately 70 pmol/mg protein) sphingosine, and sphinganine were also found in IFM and SSM. Both mitochondrial populations contained similar quantities of sphingolipids except for ceramide which was much higher in SSM. Analysis of sphingolipid isoforms revealed ten different sphingomyelins and six ceramides that differed from 16- to 24-carbon units in their acyl side chains. Sub-fractionation experiments further showed that sphingolipids are a constituent part of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, inner membrane ceramide levels were 32% lower versus whole mitochondria (45 pmol/mg protein). Three ceramide isotypes (C20-, C22-, and C24-ceramide) accounted for the lower amounts. The concentrations of the ceramides present in the inner membranes of SSM and IFM differed greatly. Overall, mitochondrial sphingolipid content reflected levels seen in cardiac tissue, but the specific ceramide distribution distinguished IFM and SSM from each other.

  17. Characteristics of the Rat Cardiac Sphingolipid Pool in Two Mitochondrial Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Monette, Jeffrey S.; Gómez, Luis A.; Moreau, Régis F.; Bemer, Brett A.; Taylor, Alan W.; Hagen, Tory M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial sphingolipids play a diverse role in normal cardiac function and diseases, yet a precise quantification of cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids has never been performed. Therefore, rat heart interfibrillary (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria were isolated, lipids extracted, and sphingolipids quantified by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that sphingomyelin (~10,000 pmols/mg protein) was the predominant sphingolipid regardless of mitochondrial subpopulation, and measurable amounts of ceramide (~70 pmols/mg protein) sphingosine, and sphinganine were also found in IFM and SSM. Both mitochondrial populations contained similar quantities of sphingolipids except for ceramide which was much higher in SSM. Analysis of sphingolipid isoforms revealed ten different sphingomyelins and six ceramides that differed from 16 to 24 carbon units in their acyl side-chains. Sub-fractionation experiments further showed that sphingolipids are a constituent part of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, inner membrane ceramide levels were 32% lower versus whole mitochondria (45 pmols/mg protein). Three ceramide isotypes (C20-, C22-, and C24-ceramide) accounted for the lower amounts. The concentrations of the ceramides present in the inner membranes of SSM and IFM differed greatly. Overall, mitochondrial sphingolipid content reflected levels seen in cardiac tissue, but the specific ceramide distribution distinguished IFM and SSM from each other. PMID:20599536

  18. Hemagglutinin Clusters in the Plasma Membrane Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert L.; Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    The clusters of the influenza envelope protein, hemagglutinin, within the plasma membrane are hypothesized to be enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to image the distributions of antibody-labeled hemagglutinin and isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of fibroblast cells that stably express hemagglutinin. We found that the hemagglutinin clusters were neither enriched with cholesterol nor colocalized with sphingolipid domains. Thus, hemagglutinin clustering and localization in the plasma membrane is not controlled by cohesive interactions between hemagglutinin and liquid-ordered domains enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, or from specific binding interactions between hemagglutinin, cholesterol, and/or the majority of sphingolipid species in the plasma membrane. PMID:25863057

  19. Sphingolipids regulate telomere clustering by affecting the transcription of genes involved in telomere homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsuko; Muneoka, Tetsuya; Murakami, Suguru; Hirota, Ayaka; Yabuki, Yukari; Karashima, Takefumi; Nakazono, Kota; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Pichler, Harald; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Shimamoto, Toshi; Mizuta, Keiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-07-15

    In eukaryotic organisms, including mammals, nematodes and yeasts, the ends of chromosomes, telomeres are clustered at the nuclear periphery. Telomere clustering is assumed to be functionally important because proper organization of chromosomes is necessary for proper genome function and stability. However, the mechanisms and physiological roles of telomere clustering remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in telomere clustering in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because abnormal sphingolipid metabolism causes downregulation of expression levels of genes involved in telomere organization, sphingolipids appear to control telomere clustering at the transcriptional level. In addition, the data presented here provide evidence that telomere clustering is required to protect chromosome ends from DNA-damage checkpoint signaling. As sphingolipids are found in all eukaryotes, we speculate that sphingolipid-based regulation of telomere clustering and the protective role of telomere clusters in maintaining genome stability might be conserved in eukaryotes.

  20. Sphingolipid Organization in the Plasma Membrane and the Mechanisms That Influence It

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Mary L.

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are structural components in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Their metabolism produces bioactive signaling molecules that modulate fundamental cellular processes. The segregation of sphingolipids into distinct membrane domains is likely essential for cellular function. This review presents the early studies of sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells that shaped the most popular current model of plasma membrane organization. The results of traditional imaging studies of sphingolipid distribution in stimulated and resting cells are described. These data are compared with recent results obtained with advanced imaging techniques, including super-resolution fluorescence detection and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Emphasis is placed on the new insight into the sphingolipid organization within the plasma membrane that has resulted from the direct imaging of stable isotope-labeled lipids in actual cell membranes with high-resolution SIMS. Super-resolution fluorescence techniques have recently revealed the biophysical behaviors of sphingolipids and the unhindered diffusion of cholesterol analogs in the membranes of living cells are ultimately in contrast to the prevailing hypothetical model of plasma membrane organization. High-resolution SIMS studies also conflicted with the prevailing hypothesis, showing sphingolipids are concentrated in micrometer-scale membrane domains, but cholesterol is evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Reductions in cellular cholesterol decreased the number of sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane, whereas disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated them. In addition, hemagglutinin, a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a putative raft marker, did not cluster within sphingolipid-enriched regions in the plasma membrane. Thus, sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membrane is dependent on the cytoskeleton, but not on favorable interactions with

  1. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wai Y.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors. PMID:23316248

  2. Sphingolipids and mitochondrial function, lessons learned from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Spincemaille, Pieter; Cammue, Bruno P.; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, but also of cancer, diabetes and rare diseases such as Wilson’s disease (WD) and Niemann Pick type C1 (NPC). Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying human pathologies has often been associated with an aberrant cellular sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important membrane constituents that also act as signaling molecules. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been pivotal in unraveling mammalian SL metabolism, mainly due to the high degree of conservation of SL metabolic pathways. In this review we will first provide a brief overview of the major differences in SL metabolism between yeast and mammalian cells and the use of SL biosynthetic inhibitors to elucidate the contribution of specific parts of the SL metabolic pathway in response to for instance stress. Next, we will discuss recent findings in yeast SL research concerning a crucial signaling role for SLs in orchestrating mitochondrial function, and translate these findings to relevant disease settings such as WD and NPC. In summary, recent research shows that S. cerevisiae is an invaluable model to investigate SLs as signaling molecules in modulating mitochondrial function, but can also be used as a tool to further enhance our current knowledge on SLs and mitochondria in mammalian cells. PMID:28357246

  3. Brave little yeast, please guide us to thebes: sphingolipid function in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schneiter, R

    1999-12-01

    Sphingolipids typically cover the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They differ from the more abundant glycerophospholipids in that they contain ceramide instead of diacylglycerol as a hydrophobic anchor. Why did nature choose to invent this complex class of lipids, and why do eukaryotic cells follow elaborate remodelling pathways in order to generate dozens to hundreds of different molecular species of sphingolipid, depending on cell type? Yeast may, once again, serve as a model to dissect sphingolipid function at various levels. Almost the complete pathway for sphingolipid synthesis in yeast has been uncovered during the past two decades. More recently, key enzymes in sphingolipid degradation and signalling have been identified. Together with a wealth of genetic data obtained from the characterization of various suppressor mutants, this information now allows for an unprecedented analysis of sphingolipid function in this organism. This overview summarizes recent data on sphingolipid function in cell signalling, their role in the heat-stress response and Ca(2+) homeostasis, and addresses their function in transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

  4. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-02-12

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia.

  5. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  6. Tackling the biophysical properties of sphingolipids to decipher their biological roles.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Ana C; Ventura, Ana E; Varela, Ana R P; Silva, Liana C

    2015-06-01

    From the most simple sphingoid bases to their complex glycosylated derivatives, several sphingolipid species were shown to have a role in fundamental cellular events and/or disease. Increasing evidence places lipid-lipid interactions and membrane structural alterations as central mechanisms underlying the action of these lipids. Understanding how these molecules exert their biological roles by studying their impact in the physical properties and organization of membranes is currently one of the main challenges in sphingolipid research. Herein, we review the progress in the state-of-the-art on the biophysical properties of sphingolipid-containing membranes, focusing on sphingosine, ceramides, and glycosphingolipids.

  7. Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

  8. An introduction to sphingolipid metabolism and analysis by new technologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanfeng; Liu, Ying; Sullards, M Cameron; Merrill, Alfred H

    2010-12-01

    Sphingolipids (SP) are a complex class of molecules found in essentially all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes and viruses where they influence membrane structure, intracellular signaling, and interactions with the extracellular environment. Because of the combinatorial nature of their biosynthesis, there are thousands of SP subspecies varying in the lipid backbones and complex phospho- and glycoheadgroups. Therefore, comprehensive or "sphingolipidomic" analyses (structure-specific, quantitative analyses of all SP, or at least all members of a critical subset) are needed to know which and how much of these subspecies are present in a system as a step toward understanding their functions. Mass spectrometry and related novel techniques are able to quantify a small fraction, but nonetheless a substantial number, of SP and are beginning to provide information about their localization. This review summarizes the basic metabolism of SP and state-of-art mass spectrometric techniques that are producing insights into SP structure, metabolism, functions, and some of the dysfunctions of relevance to neuromedicine.

  9. Plasma sphingolipids in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Shane; Griffin, Timothy J; Reilly, Cavan; Harvey, Stephen; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Sandri, Brian J; Wendt, Chris H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV appears to uniquely cause COPD, independent of smoking. The mechanisms by which HIV leads to COPD are not clear. The objective of this study was to identify metabolomic biomarkers and potential mechanistic pathways of HIV-associated COPD (HIV-COPD). Methods We performed case–control metabolite profiling via mass spectrometry in plasma from 38 individuals with HIV-COPD (cases), comparing to matched controls with/without HIV and with/without COPD. Untargeted metabolites of interest were identified with liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/mass spectrometry (MS)), and targeted metabolomics for tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) were measured by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) with LC-MS/MS. We used mixed-effects models to compare metabolite concentrations in cases compared with controls while controlling for relevant biological variables. Results We identified 1689 analytes associated with HIV-COPD at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 10%. In PLWH, we identified 263 analytes (10% FDR) between those with and without COPD. LC MS/MS identified Trp and 17 lipids, including sphingolipids and diacylglycerol. After adjusting for relevant covariates, the Kyn/Trp ratio measured by SRM was significantly higher in PLWH (p=0.022), but was not associated with COPD status (p=0.95). Conclusions There is a unique metabolite profile in HIV-COPD that includes sphingolipids. Trp metabolism is increased in HIV, but does not appear to independently contribute to HIV-COPD. Trial registration numbers NCT01810289, NCT01797367, NCT00608764.

  10. Specific sphingolipid content decrease in Cerkl knockdown mouse retinas

    PubMed Central

    Garanto, Alejandro; Mandal, Nawajes A.; Egido-Gabás, Meritxell; Marfany, Gemma; Fabriàs, Gemma; Anderson, Robert E.; Casas, Josefina; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SPLs) are finely tuned structural compounds and bioactive molecules involved in membrane fluidity and cellular homeostasis. The core sphingolipid, ceramide (CER), and its derivatives, regulate several crucial processes in neuronal cells, among them cell differentiation, cell–cell interactions, membrane conductance, synaptic transmission, and apoptosis. Mutations in Ceramide Kinase-Like (CERKL) cause autosomal recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and Cone Rod Dystrophy. The presence of a conserved lipid kinase domain and the overall similarity with CERK suggested that CERKL might play a role in the SPL metabolism as a CER kinase. Unfortunately, CERKL function and substrate(s), as well as its contribution to the retinal etiopathology, remain as yet unknown. In this work we aimed to characterize the mouse retinal sphingolipidome by UPLC-TOF to first, thoroughly investigate the SPL composition of the murine retina, compare it to our Cerkl −/− model, and finally assess new possible CERKL substrates by phosphorus quantification and protein-lipid overlay. Our results showed a consistent and notable decrease of the retinal SPL content (mainly ranging from 30% to 60%) in the Cerkl −/− compared to WT retinas, which was particularly evident in the glucosyl/galactosyl ceramide species (Glc/GalCer) whereas the phospholipids and neutral lipids remained unaltered. Moreover, evidence in favor of CERKL binding to GlcCer, GalCer and sphingomyelin has been gathered. Altogether, these results highlight the involvement of CERKL in the SPL metabolism, question its role as a kinase, and open new scenarios concerning its function. PMID:23501591

  11. Sphingolipids, Lipid Rafts, and Giardial Encystation: The Show Must Go On.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Tavis L; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Duarte, Trevor; De Leon, Joaquin; Robles-Martinez, Leobarda; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-09-01

    Sphingolipids are sphingosine-based phospholipids, which are present in the plasma and endomembranes of many eukaryotic cells. These lipids are involved in various cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (also called "lipid rafts") contain a set of proteins and lipids, which take part in the signaling process in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. Recent findings suggest that sphingolipids, especially glucosylceramide, play a critical role in inducing encystation and maintaining the cyst viability in Giardia. Similarly, the assembly/disassembly of lipid rafts modulates the encystation and cyst production of this ubiquitous enteric parasite. In this review article, we discuss the overall progress in the field and examine whether sphingolipids and lipid rafts can be used as novel targets for designing therapies to control infection by Giardia, which is rampant in developing countries, where children are especially vulnerable.

  12. Trafficking and Functions of Bioactive Sphingolipids: Lessons from Cells and Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kecheng; Blom, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide and sphingosine and their phosphorylated counterparts are recognized as “bioactive sphingolipids” and modulate membrane integrity, the activity of enzymes, or act as ligands of G protein-coupled receptors. The subcellular distribution of the bioactive sphingolipids is central to their function as the same lipid can mediate diametrically opposite effects depending on its location. To ensure that these lipids are present in the right amount and in the appropriate organelles, cells employ selective lipid transport and compartmentalize sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes to characteristic subcellular sites. Our knowledge of key mechanisms involved in sphingolipid signaling and trafficking has increased substantially in the past decades—thanks to advances in biochemical and cell biological methods. In this review, we focus on the bioactive sphingolipids and discuss how the combination of studies in cells and in model membranes have contributed to our understanding of how they behave and function in living organisms. PMID:26715852

  13. Sphingolipids Are Dual Specific Drug Targets for the Management of Pulmonary Infections: Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lalita; Prakash, Hridayesh

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are the major constituent of the mucus secreted by the cells of epithelial linings of lungs where they maintain the barrier functions and prevent microbial invasion. Sphingolipids are interconvertible, and their primary and secondary metabolites have both structural and functional roles. Out of several sphingolipid metabolites, sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and ceramide are central molecules and decisive for sphingolipid signaling. These are produced by enzymatic activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1) upon the challenge with either biological or physiological stresses. S1P and ceramide rheostat are important for the progression of various pathologies, which are manifested by inflammatory cascade. S1P is a well-established secondary messenger and associated with various neuronal, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases other than respiratory infections such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These pathogens are known to exploit sphingolipid metabolism for their opportunistic survival. Decreased sphingosine kinase activity/S1P content in the lung and peripheral blood of tuberculosis patients clearly indicated a dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism during infection and suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is important for management of infection by the host. Our previous study has demonstrated that gain of SK-1 activity is important for the maturation of phagolysosomal compartment, innate activation of macrophages, and subsequent control of mycobacterial replication/growth in macrophages. Furthermore, S1P-mediated amelioration of lung pathology and disease severity in TB patients is believed to be mediated by the selective activation or rearrangement of various S1P receptors (S1PR) particularly S1PR2, which has been effective in controlling respiratory fungal pathogens. Therefore, such specificity of S1P–S1PR would be paramount for triggering inflammatory events, subsequent activation, and fostering

  14. Symbiont-derived sphingolipids modulate mucosal homeostasis and B cells in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Ali; Cordero, Héctor; Goldfine, Howard; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Salinas, Irene

    2016-12-14

    Symbiotic bacteria and mucosal immunoglobulins have co-evolved for millions of years in vertebrate animals. Symbiotic bacteria products are known to modulate different aspects of the host immune system. We recently reported that Flectobacillus major is a predominant species that lives in the gill and skin mucosal surfaces of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). F. major is known to produce sphingolipids of a unique molecular structure. Here we propose a role for F. major and its sphingolipids in the regulation of B cell populations in rainbow trout, as well as an essential role for sphingolipids in trout mucosal homeostasis. We found that F. major-specific IgT titers are confined to the gill and skin mucus, whereas F. major-specific IgM titers are only detected in serum. Live F. major cells are able to stimulate sustained IgT expression and secretion in gills. F. major sphingolipids modulate the growth of trout total skin and gill symbiotic bacteria. In vivo systemic administration of F. major sphingolipids changes the proportion of IgT(+) to IgM(+) B cells in trout HK. These results demonstrate the key role of the symbiont F. major and its sphingolipids in mucosal homeostasis via the modulation of mucosal and systemic Igs and B cells.

  15. Symbiont-derived sphingolipids modulate mucosal homeostasis and B cells in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, Ali; Cordero, Héctor; Goldfine, Howard; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Salinas, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria and mucosal immunoglobulins have co-evolved for millions of years in vertebrate animals. Symbiotic bacteria products are known to modulate different aspects of the host immune system. We recently reported that Flectobacillus major is a predominant species that lives in the gill and skin mucosal surfaces of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). F. major is known to produce sphingolipids of a unique molecular structure. Here we propose a role for F. major and its sphingolipids in the regulation of B cell populations in rainbow trout, as well as an essential role for sphingolipids in trout mucosal homeostasis. We found that F. major-specific IgT titers are confined to the gill and skin mucus, whereas F. major-specific IgM titers are only detected in serum. Live F. major cells are able to stimulate sustained IgT expression and secretion in gills. F. major sphingolipids modulate the growth of trout total skin and gill symbiotic bacteria. In vivo systemic administration of F. major sphingolipids changes the proportion of IgT+ to IgM+ B cells in trout HK. These results demonstrate the key role of the symbiont F. major and its sphingolipids in mucosal homeostasis via the modulation of mucosal and systemic Igs and B cells. PMID:27966609

  16. Exploring the role of sphingolipid machinery during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition program using an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Köfeler, Harald C.; Triebl, Alexander; Mungenast, Felicitas; Heinze, Georg; Gerner, Christopher; Zimmermann, Philip; Jaritz, Markus; Mechtcheriakova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is activated in epithelial cancer cells and facilitates their ability to metastasize based on enhanced migratory, proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and pluripotent capacities. Given the fundamental impact of sphingolipid machinery to each individual process, the sphingolipid-related mechanisms might be considered among the most prominent drivers/players of EMT; yet, there is still limited knowledge. Given the complexity of the interconnected sphingolipid system, which includes distinct sphingolipid mediators, their synthesizing enzymes, receptors and transporters, we herein apply an integrative approach for assessment of the sphingolipid-associated mechanisms underlying EMT program. We created the sphingolipid-/EMT-relevant 41-gene/23-gene signatures which were applied to denote transcriptional events in a lung cancer cell-based EMT model. Based on defined 35-gene sphingolipid/EMT-attributed signature of regulated genes, we show close associations between EMT markers, genes comprising the sphingolipid network at multiple levels and encoding sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-/ceramide-metabolizing enzymes, S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors and S1P transporters, pluripotency genes and inflammation-related molecules, and demonstrate the underlying biological pathways and regulators. Mass spectrometry-based sphingolipid analysis revealed an EMT-attributed shift towards increased S1P and LPA accompanied by reduced ceramide levels. Notably, using transcriptomics data across various cell-based perturbations and neoplastic tissues (24193 arrays), we identified the sphingolipid/EMT signature primarily in lung adenocarcinoma tissues; besides, bladder, colorectal and prostate cancers were among the top-ranked. The findings also highlight novel regulatory associations between influenza virus and the sphingolipid/EMT-associated mechanisms. In sum, data propose the multidimensional contribution of sphingolipid machinery

  17. Establishment of HeLa Cell Mutants Deficient in Sphingolipid-Related Genes Using TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components in eukaryotes and have various cellular functions. Recent developments in genome-editing technologies have facilitated gene disruption in various organisms and cell lines. We here show the disruption of various sphingolipid metabolic genes in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). A TALEN pair targeting the human CERT gene (alternative name COL4A3BP) encoding a ceramide transport protein induced a loss-of-function phenotype in more than 60% of HeLa cells even though the cell line has a pseudo-triploid karyotype. We have isolated several loss-of-function mutant clones for CERT, UGCG (encoding glucosylceramide synthase), and B4GalT5 (encoding the major lactosylceramide synthase), and also a CERT/UGCG double-deficient clone. Characterization of these clones supported previous proposals that CERT primarily contributes to the synthesis of SM but not GlcCer, and that B4GalT5 is the major LacCer synthase. These newly established sphingolipid-deficient HeLa cell mutants together with our previously established stable transfectants provide a ‘sphingolipid-modified HeLa cell panel,’ which will be useful to elucidate the functions of various sphingolipid species against essentially the same genomic background. PMID:24498430

  18. Sphingolipids in Genetic and Acquired Forms of Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Norishi

    2017-01-12

    Sphingolipids (SLs) regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. SLs, including ceramide, glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and gangliosides) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of genetic (lysosomal storage disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome and polycystic kidney disease) and non-genetic forms of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). SLs metabolism defects promote complications (cardiovascular events, etc.) via oxidant stress in CKDs. A balancing role of apoptotic SLs and anti-apoptotic S1P is crucial in the regulation of glomerular injury and complications associated with CKDs. Interaction between SLs, endothelial function and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the regulation of glomerular injury. SLs affect mitochondrial function that regulate the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release and caspase activation, leading to apoptosis, and regulate glomerular cell proliferation or renal fibrosis. Interaction between SLs, endothelial function and RAAS plays a role in the regulation of glomerular injury. This review article summarizes the current evidence supporting a role of SLs metabolism defects in the pathogenesis and progression of glomerular injury and discusses a role of mitochondria, including MPT pore, MOMP, ROS, Bcl-2 family proteins, interaction between SLs, endothelial function and RAAS, and SLs-induced downstream signaling events in CKDs. Crosstalk between these factors plays a role in the pathogenesis and progression of CKDs. Therapeutic strategy of targeting SLs metabolism defects for CKDs through modulation of the enzymes responsible for SLs metabolism defects are also discussed.

  19. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  20. Loss of Frataxin activates the iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway in mammals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuchuan; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Lin, Guang; Tan, Kai Li; Rasband, Matthew N; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-11-30

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors. Here, we show that loss of Fxn in the nervous system in mice also activates an iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway, indicating that the mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, sphingolipid levels and PDK1 activity are also increased in hearts of FRDA patients, suggesting that a similar pathway is affected in FRDA.

  1. The chemistry and biology of 6-hydroxyceramide, the youngest member of the human sphingolipid family.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Andrej; Roh, Jaroslav; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2014-07-21

    Sphingolipids are crucial for the life of the cell. In land-dwelling mammals, they are equally important outside the cell-in the extracellular space of the skin barrier-because they prevent loss of water. Although a large body of research has elucidated many of the functions of sphingolipids, their extensive structural diversity remains intriguing. A new class of sphingolipids based on 6-hydroxylated sphingosine has recently been identified in human skin. Abnormal levels of these 6-hydroxylated ceramides have repeatedly been observed in atopic dermatitis; however, neither the biosynthesis nor the roles of these unique ceramide subclasses have been established in the human body. In this Minireview, we summarize the current knowledge of 6-hydroxyceramides, including their discovery, structure, stereochemistry, occurrence in healthy and diseased human epidermis, and synthetic approaches to 6-hydroxysphingosine and related ceramides.

  2. ORM Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, Athen N.; Chen, Ming; Dunn, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid synthesis is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. This regulation in plants ensures sufficient sphingolipids to support growth while limiting the accumulation of sphingolipid metabolites that induce programmed cell death. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is considered the primary sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory point. In this report, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative SPT regulatory proteins, orosomucoid-like proteins AtORM1 and AtORM2, were found to interact physically with Arabidopsis SPT and to suppress SPT activity when coexpressed with Arabidopsis SPT subunits long-chain base1 (LCB1) and LCB2 and the small subunit of SPT in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SPT-deficient mutant. Consistent with a role in SPT suppression, AtORM1 and AtORM2 overexpression lines displayed increased resistance to the programmed cell death-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1, with an accompanying reduced accumulation of LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) suppression lines of AtORM1 and AtORM2 displayed increased sensitivity to fumonisin B1 and an accompanying strong increase in LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Overexpression lines also were found to have reduced activity of the class I ceramide synthase that uses C16 fatty acid acyl-coenzyme A and dihydroxy LCB substrates but increased activity of class II ceramide synthases that use very-long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A and trihydroxy LCB substrates. RNAi suppression lines, in contrast, displayed increased class I ceramide synthase activity but reduced class II ceramide synthase activity. These findings indicate that ORM mediation of SPT activity differentially regulates functionally distinct ceramide synthase activities as part of a broader sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory network. PMID:27506241

  3. Synthesis of Sphingolipids Impacts Survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis and the Presentation of Surface Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Zachary D.; Valiuskyte, Kornelija; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Nichols, Frank C.; Davey, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria alter the biophysical properties of their membrane lipids in response to environmental cues, such as shifts in pH or temperature. In essence, lipid composition determines membrane structure, which in turn influences many basic functions, such as transport, secretion, and signaling. Like other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, the oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses the ability to synthesize a variety of novel membrane lipids, including species of dihydroceramides that are distinct, yet similar in structure to sphingolipids produced by the human host. The role of dihydroceramides in the physiology and pathogenic potential of the human microbiota is only beginning to be explored; yet there is increasing data indicating that these lipids play a role in human diseases, such as periodontitis and multiple sclerosis. Here, we report on the identification of a gene (PG1780) in the chromosome of P. gingivalis strain W83 encoding a putative serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. While we were able to detect dihydroceramides in whole lipid extracts of P. gingivalis cells as well as crude preparations of outer membrane vesicles, sphingolipids were absent in the PG1780 mutant strain. Moreover, we show that the synthesis of sphingolipids plays an essential role in the long-term survival of the organism as well as its resistance to oxidative stress. Further, a PG1780 mutant displayed much lower activity of cell-associated arginine and lysine gingipains, yet slightly higher activity in the corresponding culture supernates, which we hypothesize is due to altered membrane properties and anchoring of these proteases to the cell surface. In addition, we determined that sphingolipid production is critical to the presentation of surface polysaccharides, with the mutant strain displaying less K-antigen capsule and more anionic polysaccharide (APS). Overall, we have discovered that, in addition to their

  4. Tools for the analysis of metabolic flux through the sphingolipid pathway.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Schneiter, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Discerning the complex regulation of the enzymatic steps necessary for sphingolipid biosynthesis is facilitated by the utilization of tracers that allow a time-resolved analysis of the pathway dynamics without affecting the metabolic flux. Different strategies have been used and new tools are continuously being developed to probe the various enzymatic conversions that occur within this complex pathway. Here, we provide a short overview of the divergent fungal and mammalian sphingolipid biosynthetic routes, and of the tracers and methods that are frequently employed to follow the flux of intermediates throughout these pathways.

  5. Effect of sterol carrier protein-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution in plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, Barbara P; Jefferson, John R; McIntosh, Avery L; Gallegos, Adalberto; McCann, Bonnie M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2007-10-01

    Although sphingolipids are highly important signaling molecules enriched in lipid rafts/caveolae, relatively little is known regarding factors such as sphingolipid binding proteins that may regulate the distribution of sphingolipids to lipid rafts/caveolae of living cells. Since early work demonstrated that sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) enhanced glycosphingolipid transfer from membranes in vitro, the effect of SCP-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells was examined. Using a non-detergent affinity chromatography method to isolate lipid rafts/caveolae and non-rafts from purified L-cell plasma membranes, it was shown that lipid rafts/caveolae were highly enriched in multiple sphingolipid species including ceramides, acidic glycosphingolipids (ganglioside GM1); neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, globosides), and sphingomyelin as compared to non-raft domains. SCP-2 overexpression further enriched the content of total sphingolipids and select sphingolipid species in the lipid rafts/caveolae domains. Analysis of fluorescence binding and displacement data revealed that purified human recombinant SCP-2 exhibited high binding affinity (nanomolar range) for all sphingolipid classes tested. The binding affinity decreased in the following order: ceramides > acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside GM1) > neutral glycosphingolipid (monohexosides, hexosides, globosides) > sphingomyelin. Enrichment of individual sphingolipid classes to lipid rafts/caveolae versus non-rafts in SCP-2 expressing plasma membranes followed closely with those classes most strongly bound to SCP-2 (ceramides, GM1 > the neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, and globosides) > sphingomyelin). Taken together these data suggested that SCP-2 acts to selectively regulate sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells.

  6. Nogo-B regulates endothelial sphingolipid homeostasis to control vascular function and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kothiya, Milankumar; Galvani, Sylvain; Obinata, Hideru; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Giordano, Frank J; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Hla, Timothy; Di Lorenzo, Annarita

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Although lipid signaling has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, specific molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, regulates endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis with direct effects on vascular function and blood pressure. Nogo-B inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, thereby controlling production of endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate and autocrine, G protein–coupled receptor–dependent signaling by this metabolite. Mice lacking Nogo-B either systemically or specifically in endothelial cells are hypotensive, resistant to angiotensin II–induced hypertension and have preserved endothelial function and nitric oxide release. In mice that lack Nogo-B, pharmacological inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase with myriocin reinstates endothelial dysfunction and angiotensin II–induced hypertension. Our study identifies Nogo-B as a key inhibitor of local sphingolipid synthesis and shows that autocrine sphingolipid signaling within the endothelium is critical for vascular function and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:26301690

  7. Sphingolipids Mediate Differential Echinocandin Susceptibility in Candida albicans and Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kelley R.; Challa, Krishna K.; Edlind, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall synthesis-inhibiting echinocandins, including caspofungin and micafungin, play important roles in the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis. Previous studies revealed that, in the haploid yeast Candida glabrata, sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway mutations confer caspofungin reduced susceptibility (CRS) but micafungin increased susceptibility (MIS). Here, we describe one Candida albicans strain (of 10 tested) that similarly yields CRS-MIS mutants at relatively high frequency. Mutants demonstrated increased levels of long-chain bases (sphingolipid pathway intermediates) and, unique to this strain, loss of His104/Pro104 heterozygosity in the TSC13-encoded enoyl reductase. CRS-MIS was similarly observed in a C. albicans homozygous fen1Δ fen12Δ laboratory strain and in diverse wild-type strains following exogenous long-chain-base treatment. Analogous to these results, CRS-MIS was demonstrated in an Aspergillus nidulans basA mutant encoding defective sphingolipid C4-hydroxylase and in its wild-type parent exposed to long-chain bases. Sphingolipids likely modulate echinocandin interaction with their Fks membrane target in all susceptible fungi, with potential implications for optimizing therapy with existing antifungals and the development of novel agents. PMID:25824222

  8. Skin ceramide alterations in first-episode schizophrenia indicate abnormal sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smesny, Stefan; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Hinder, Anke; Köhler, Alexandra; Schneider, Christiane; Rudzok, Maria; Schmidt, Ulrike; Milleit, Berko; Milleit, Christine; Nenadic, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-07-01

    There is considerable evidence for specific pathology of lipid metabolism in schizophrenia, affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular sphingolipids. These deficits are assumed to interfere with neuronal membrane functioning and the development and maintenance of myelin sheaths. Recent studies suggest that some of these lipid pathologies might also be detected in peripheral skin tests. In this study, we examined different skin lipids and their relation to schizophrenia. We assessed epidermal lipid profiles in 22 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls matched for age and gender using a hexan/ethanol extraction technique and combined high-performance thin-layer chromatography/gas-chromatography. We found highly significant increase of ceramide AH and NH/AS classes in patients and decrease of EOS and NP ceramide classes. This is the first demonstration of specific peripheral sphingolipid alterations in schizophrenia. The results support recent models of systemic lipid pathology and in particular of specific sphingolipids, which are crucial in neuronal membrane integrity. Given recent findings showing amelioration of psychopathology using fatty acid supplementation, our findings also bear relevance for sphingolipids as potential biomarkers of the disease.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii salvages sphingolipids from the host Golgi through the rerouting of selected Rab vesicles to the parasitophorous vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; Sonda, Sabrina; Bergbower, Emily; Smith, Maria Elisa; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii actively invades mammalian cells and, upon entry, forms its own membrane-bound compartment, named the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Within the PV, the parasite replicates and scavenges nutrients, including lipids, from host organelles. Although T. gondii can synthesize sphingolipids de novo, it also scavenges these lipids from the host Golgi. How the parasite obtains sphingolipids from the Golgi remains unclear, as the PV avoids fusion with host organelles. In this study, we explore the host Golgi–PV interaction and evaluate the importance of host-derived sphingolipids for parasite growth. We demonstrate that the PV preferentially localizes near the host Golgi early during infection and remains closely associated with this organelle throughout infection. The parasite subverts the structure of the host Golgi, resulting in its fragmentation into numerous ministacks, which surround the PV, and hijacks host Golgi–derived vesicles within the PV. These vesicles, marked with Rab14, Rab30, or Rab43, colocalize with host-derived sphingolipids in the vacuolar space. Scavenged sphingolipids contribute to parasite replication since alterations in host sphingolipid metabolism are detrimental for the parasite's growth. Thus our results reveal that T. gondii relies on host-derived sphingolipids for its development and scavenges these lipids via Golgi-derived vesicles. PMID:23615442

  10. Toxoplasma gondii salvages sphingolipids from the host Golgi through the rerouting of selected Rab vesicles to the parasitophorous vacuole.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; Sonda, Sabrina; Bergbower, Emily; Smith, Maria Elisa; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    The obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii actively invades mammalian cells and, upon entry, forms its own membrane-bound compartment, named the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Within the PV, the parasite replicates and scavenges nutrients, including lipids, from host organelles. Although T. gondii can synthesize sphingolipids de novo, it also scavenges these lipids from the host Golgi. How the parasite obtains sphingolipids from the Golgi remains unclear, as the PV avoids fusion with host organelles. In this study, we explore the host Golgi-PV interaction and evaluate the importance of host-derived sphingolipids for parasite growth. We demonstrate that the PV preferentially localizes near the host Golgi early during infection and remains closely associated with this organelle throughout infection. The parasite subverts the structure of the host Golgi, resulting in its fragmentation into numerous ministacks, which surround the PV, and hijacks host Golgi-derived vesicles within the PV. These vesicles, marked with Rab14, Rab30, or Rab43, colocalize with host-derived sphingolipids in the vacuolar space. Scavenged sphingolipids contribute to parasite replication since alterations in host sphingolipid metabolism are detrimental for the parasite's growth. Thus our results reveal that T. gondii relies on host-derived sphingolipids for its development and scavenges these lipids via Golgi-derived vesicles.

  11. Serum sphingolipids: relationships to insulin sensitivity and changes with exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Bryan C; Brozinick, Joseph T; Strauss, Allison; Bacon, Samantha; Kerege, Anna; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Kuo, Ming Shang; Perreault, Leigh

    2015-08-15

    Ceramides and sphingolipids are a family of lipid molecules that circulate in serum and accumulate in skeletal muscle, promoting insulin resistance. Plasma ceramide and dihydroceramide are related to insulin resistance, yet less is known regarding other ceramide and sphingolipid species. Despite its association with insulin sensitivity, chronic endurance exercise training does not change plasma ceramide and sphingolipid content, with little known regarding a single bout of exercise. We measured basal relationships and the effect of acute exercise (1.5 h at 50% V̇o2 max) and recovery on serum ceramide and sphingolipid content in sedentary obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes, and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Basal serum C18:0, C20:0, and C24:1 ceramide and C18:0 and total dihydroceramide were significantly higher in T2D and, along with C16:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, correlated positively with insulin resistance. Acute exercise significantly increased serum ceramide, glucosylceramide, and GM3 gangliosides, which largely decreased to basal values in recovery. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingomyelin did not change during exercise but decreased below basal values in recovery. Serum C16:0 and C18:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, but not the total concentrations of either of them, were positively correlated with markers of muscle NF-κB activation, suggesting that specific species activate intracellular inflammation. Interestingly, a subset of sphingomyelin species, notably C14:0, C22:3, and C24:4 species, was positively associated with insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Together, these data show that unique ceramide and sphingolipid species associate with either protective or deleterious features for diabetes and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the future.

  12. Selective knockdown of ceramide synthases reveals complex interregulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Thomas D; Spassieva, Stefka; Jenkins, Russell W; Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ceramide synthases 1 to 6 (CerS1-6) generate Cer in an acyl-CoA-dependent manner, and expression of individual CerS has been shown to enhance the synthesis of ceramides with particular acyl chain lengths. However, the contribution of each CerS to steady-state levels of specific Cer species has not been evaluated. We investigated the knockdown of individual CerS in the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by using small-interfering RNA (siRNA). We found that siRNA-induced downregulation of each CerS resulted in counter-regulation of nontargeted CerS. Additionally, each CerS knockdown produced unique effects on the levels of multiple sphingolipid species. For example, downregulation of CerS2 decreased very long-chain Cer but increased levels of CerS4, CerS5, and CerS6 expression and upregulated long-chain and medium-long-chain sphingolipids. Conversely, CerS6 knockdown decreased C16:0-Cer but increased CerS5 expression and caused non-C16:0 sphingolipids to be upregulated. Knockdown of individual CerS failed to decrease total sphingolipids or upregulate sphingoid bases. Treatment with siRNAs targeting combined CerS, CerS2, CerS5, and CerS6, did not change overall Cer or sphingomyelin mass but caused upregulation of dihydroceramide and hexosyl-ceramide and promoted endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is robustly regulated by both redundancy in CerS-mediated Cer synthesis and counter-regulation of CerS expression.

  13. An apparent association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and a sphingolipid in Tetrahymena mimbres.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Thompson, G A

    1997-01-01

    Sphingolipids are thought to stabilize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein-rich membrane domains of yeast and polarized higher animal cells during the processing and targeting of these proteins to the plasma membrane. A widely used criterion for identifying the stable sphingolipid- and GPI-anchored protein-enriched membrane domains is the resistance of these lipid-modified proteins to solubilization by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) at low temperature. Surprisingly, there have been no reports of sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein association in protozoans, despite the fact that these cells contain considerably higher levels of GPI-anchored proteins than does any other organism. We report here the presence in Tetrahymena mimbres of a significant pool of GPI-anchored proteins which resisted extraction by 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Of the total cellular complement of GPI-anchored proteins, which together accounted for more than 2% of whole-cell protein and were especially enriched in surface membranes, 10% of the major 63kDa component (gpi63) and 23% of a somewhat less abundant component (gpi23) were insoluble in TX-100 at 4 degrees C. A substantial proportion of the cell's only abundant sphingolipid, ceramideaminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), was also insoluble in 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C. Radiolabelling studies involving [3H]leucine incorporation into proteins and [3H]palmitic acid incorporation into lipids revealed that the TX-100-resistant gpi63, gpi23 and CAEP molecules were all metabolically distinct from their TX-100-soluble counterparts in other compartments of the cell. The presence of detergent-resistant sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein domains in non-polarized ciliate and trypanosomatid cells was probably obscured in previous studies by the profusion of accompanying detergent-soluble molecules. PMID:9173882

  14. Yeast lacking the amphiphysin family protein Rvs167 is sensitive to disruptions in sphingolipid levels.

    PubMed

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2016-08-01

    Rvs167 and Rvs161 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are amphiphysin family proteins, which are involved in several important cellular events, such as invagination and scission of endocytic vesicles, and actin cytoskeleton organization. It has been reported that cellular dysfunctions caused by deletion of RVS167 or RVS161 are rescued by deletion of specific nonessential sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme genes. Here, we found that yeast cells lacking RVS167 or RVS161 exhibit a decrease in sphingolipid levels. In rvs167∆ cells, the expression level of Orm2, a negative regulator of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, was increased in a calcineurin-dependent manner, and the decrease in sphingolipid levels in rvs167∆ cells was reversed on deletion of ORM2. Moreover, repression of both ORM1 and ORM2 expression or overexpression of SPT caused a strong growth defect of rvs167∆ cells, indicating that enhancement of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis is detrimental to rvs167∆ cells. In contrast, partial repression of LCB1-encoding SPT suppressed abnormal phenotypes caused by the deletion of RVS167, including supersensitivity to high temperature and salt stress, and impairment of endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton organization. In addition, the partial repression of SPT activity suppressed the temperature supersensitivity and abnormal vacuolar morphology caused by deletion of VPS1 encoding a dynamin-like GTPase, which is required for vesicle scission and is functionally closely related to Rvs167/Rvs161, whereas repression of both ORM1 and ORM2 expression in vps1∆ cells caused a growth defect. Thus, it was suggested that proper regulation of SPT activity is indispensable for amphiphysin-deficient cells.

  15. Alteration of complex sphingolipid composition and its physiological significance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking vacuolar ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Toume, Moeko

    2015-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complex sphingolipids have three types of polar head group and five types of ceramide; however, the physiological significance of the structural diversity is not fully understood. Here, we report that deletion of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in yeast causes dramatic alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition, which includes decreases in hydroxylation at the C-4 position of long-chain bases and the C-2 position of fatty acids in the ceramide moiety, decreases in inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) levels, and increases in mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and mannosyldiinositol phosphorylceramide [M(IP)2C] levels. V-ATPase-deleted cells exhibited slow growth at pH 7.2, whereas the increase in MIPC levels was significantly enhanced when V-ATPase-deleted cells were incubated at pH 7.2. The protein expression levels of MIPC and M(IP)2C synthases were significantly increased in V-ATPase-deleted cells incubated at pH 7.2. Loss of MIPC synthesis or an increase in the hydroxylation level of the ceramide moiety of sphingolipids on overexpression of Scs7 and Sur2 sphingolipid hydroxylases enhanced the growth defect of V-ATPase-deleted cells at pH 7.2. On the contrary, the growth rate of V-ATPase-deleted cells was moderately increased on the deletion of SCS7 and SUR2. In addition, supersensitivities to Ca2+, Zn2+ and H2O2, which are typical phenotypes of V-ATPase-deleted cells, were enhanced by the loss of MIPC synthesis. These results indicate the possibility that alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition is an adaptation mechanism for a defect of V-ATPase.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Circulating Phospho- and Sphingolipid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Kirichenko, Anatoly V.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Gnewuch, Carsten; Domingues, Francisco S.; Pattaro, Cristian; Wild, Sarah H.; Jonasson, Inger; Polasek, Ozren; Zorkoltseva, Irina V.; Hofman, Albert; Karssen, Lennart C.; Struchalin, Maksim; Floyd, James; Igl, Wilmar; Biloglav, Zrinka; Broer, Linda; Pfeufer, Arne; Pichler, Irene; Campbell, Susan; Zaboli, Ghazal; Kolcic, Ivana; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Huffman, Jennifer; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Uitterlinden, Andre; Franke, Lude; Franklin, Christopher S.; Vitart, Veronique; Nelson, Christopher P.; Preuss, Michael; Bis, Joshua C.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Franceschini, Nora; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Axenovich, Tatiana; Oostra, Ben A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Schmitz, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034) on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM), 9 ceramides (CER), 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC), 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE), as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88×10−204) and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10×10−57). After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value<2.2×10−9), we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1) and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE) explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3) suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE) mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2) to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our

  17. Drug target identification in sphingolipid metabolism by computational systems biology tools: metabolic control analysis and metabolic pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozbayraktar, F Betül Kavun; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2010-08-01

    Sphingolipids regulate cellular processes that are critically important in cell's fate and function in cancer development and progression. This fact underlies the basics of the novel cancer therapy approach. The pharmacological manipulation of the sphingolipid metabolism in cancer therapeutics necessitates the detailed understanding of the pathway. Two computational systems biology tools are used to identify potential drug target enzymes among sphingolipid pathway that can be further utilized in drug design studies for cancer therapy. The enzymes in sphingolipid pathway were ranked according to their roles in controlling the metabolic network by metabolic control analysis. The physiologically connected reactions, i.e. biologically significant and functional modules of network, were identified by metabolic pathway analysis. The final set of candidate drug target enzymes are selected such that their manipulation leads to ceramide accumulation and long chain base phosphates depletion. The mathematical tools' efficiency for drug target identification performed in this study is validated by clinically available drugs.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, Ashley N.; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2016-01-08

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. Furthermore, the low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the 18O-enriched regions suggest that these 18O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipiddroplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides.

  19. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell

    DOE PAGES

    Yeager, Ashley N.; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2016-01-08

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of 18O-cholesterol and 15N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. Furthermore, the low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the 18O-enriched regions suggest that these 18O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipiddroplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides.

  20. Free-radical Destruction of Sphingolipids Resulting in 2-hexadecenal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Shadyro, Oleg; Lisovskaya, Alexandra; Semenkova, Galina; Edimecheva, Irina; Amaegberi, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    The action of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and γ-radiation on aqueous lysosphingolipid dispersions was found to produce 2-hexadecenal (Hex). This process includes the stages of formation of nitrogen-centered radicals from the starting molecules and the subsequent fragmentation of these radicals via the rupture of C–C and O–H bonds. These findings prove the existence of a nonenzymatic pathway of sphingolipid destruction leading to the formation of Hex, which possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity. Analysis of the effect of HOCl on transplantable rat glioma C6 cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells points to the formation of Hex. This suggests that the described mechanism of free-radical destruction of sphingolipids may be replicated on cell culture under the stress of active chlorine forms. PMID:25861222

  1. Sphingolipids as Mediators in the Crosstalk between Microbiota and Intestinal Cells: Implications for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Phillips-Farfán; Karla, Carvajal; Edgar Alejandro, Medina-Torres; Sara Elva, Espinosa-Padilla; Gemma, Fabrias; Luz, Camacho

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes different illnesses characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the pathogenic mechanisms leading to IBD are poorly understood, immune system disturbances likely underlie its development. Sphingolipids (SLs) have been identified as important players and promising therapeutic targets to control inflammation in IBD. Interestingly, it seems that microorganisms of the normal gut microbiota and probiotics are involved in sphingolipid function. However, there is a great need to investigate the role of SLs as intermediates in the crosstalk between intestinal immunity and microorganisms. This review focuses on recent investigations that describe some mechanisms involved in the regulation of cytokine profiles by SLs. We also describe the importance of gut microbiota in providing signaling molecules that favor the communication between resident bacteria and intestinal cells. This, in turn, modulates the immune response in the bowel and likely in other peripheral organs. The potential of SLs and gut microbiota as targets or therapeutic agents for IBD is also discussed.

  2. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Robin W.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A.; Kaiser, Hermann-Josef; Gerl, Mathias J.; Sampaio, Julio L.; de Robillard, Quentin; Ferguson, Charles; Proszynski, Tomasz J.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN sorting selectively enriched ergosterol and sphingolipid species in the immunoisolated secretory vesicles. This finding, for the first time, indicates that the TGN exhibits the capacity to sort membrane lipids. Furthermore, the observation that the immunoisolated vesicles exhibited a higher membrane order than the late Golgi membrane, as measured by C-Laurdan spectrophotometry, strongly suggests that lipid rafts play a role in the TGN-sorting machinery. PMID:19433450

  3. Sphingolipid Metabolism Correlates with Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta Amyloid Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fonteh, Alfred N.; Ormseth, Cora; Chiang, Jiarong; Cipolla, Matthew; Arakaki, Xianghong; Harrington, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a) total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b) levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c) three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but not impaired

  4. Endothelial Nogo-B regulates sphingolipid biosynthesis to promote pathological cardiac hypertrophy during chronic pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Azevedo, Paula S.; Siragusa, Mauro; Bielawski, Jacek; Giordano, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently discovered that endothelial Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the ER, regulates vascular function by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Here, we show that endothelium-derived sphingolipids, particularly sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the heart from inflammation, fibrosis, and dysfunction following pressure overload and that Nogo-B regulates this paracrine process. SPT activity is upregulated in banded hearts in vivo as well as in TNF-α–activated endothelium in vitro, and loss of Nogo removes the brake on SPT, increasing local S1P production. Hence, mice lacking Nogo-B, systemically or specifically in the endothelium, are resistant to the onset of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SPT with myriocin restores permeability, inflammation, and heart dysfunction in Nogo-A/B–deficient mice to WT levels, whereas SEW2871, an S1P1 receptor agonist, prevents myocardial permeability, inflammation, and dysfunction in WT banded mice. Our study identifies a critical role of endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis and its regulation by Nogo-B in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and proposes a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation or reversal of this clinical condition. PMID:27158676

  5. Rapid nanoscale quantitative analysis of plant sphingolipid long-chain bases by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Melser, Su; Domergue, Frédéric; Joubès, Jérôme; Bourdenx, Brice; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2012-07-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, sphingolipids are major structural lipids of biological membranes and perform additional essential functions as signalling molecules. While long-chain bases (LCB), the common precursor to all sphingolipid classes, is represented by only one major molecular species in animals and fungi, up to nine LCB have been found in plants. In the absence of genuine plant sphingolipid references required for proper quantification, we have reinvestigated and optimized a protocol destined to the quantification of total plant LCB that relies on the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This rapid three-step protocol sequentially involves (1) the release of LCB from biological samples using barium hydroxide solution, (2) their oxidation into aldehydes by metaperiodate, and (3) the subsequent identification/quantification of these aldehydes by GC-MS. It is simple and reliable and enables separation of aldehydes upon their stero-specificity. It further enables the quantification of total LCB from a wide variety of samples including yeast and animal cell cultures.

  6. PLP-dependent enzymes as entry and exit gates of sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Florence; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are membrane constituents as well as signaling molecules involved in many essential cellular processes. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), both PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate)-dependent enzymes, function as entry and exit gates of the sphingolipid metabolism. SPT catalyzes the condensation of serine and a fatty acid into 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine, whereas SPL degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into phosphoethanolamine and a long-chain aldehyde. The recently solved X-ray structures of prokaryotic homologs of SPT and SPL combined with functional studies provide insight into the structure–function relationship of the two enzymes. Despite carrying out different reactions, the two enzymes reveal striking similarities in the overall fold, topology, and residues crucial for activity. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial SPT and SPL lack a transmembrane helix, making them targets of choice for biochemical characterization because the use of detergents can be avoided. Both human enzymes are linked to severe diseases or disorders and might therefore serve as targets for the development of therapeutics aiming at the modulation of their activity. This review gives an overview of the sphingolipid metabolism and of the available biochemical studies of prokaryotic SPT and SPL, and discusses the major similarities and differences to the corresponding eukaryotic enzymes. PMID:21710479

  7. Iron, Glucose and Intrinsic Factors Alter Sphingolipid Composition as Yeast Cells Enter Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Robert L.; Withers, Bradley R.; Schultz, Megan A.; Dickson, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, like most microorganisms, requires switching from a rapidly dividing to a non-dividing or stationary state. To further understand how cells navigate this switch, we examined sphingolipids since they are key structural elements of membranes and also regulate signaling pathways vital for survival. During and after the switch to a non-dividing state there is a large increase in total free and sphingolipid-bound long chain-bases and an even larger increase in free and bound C20-long-chain bases, which are nearly undetectable in dividing cells. These changes are due to intrinsic factors including Orm1 and Orm2, ceramide synthase, Lcb4 kinase and the Tsc3 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase as well as extrinsic factors including glucose and iron. Lowering the concentration of glucose, a form of calorie restriction, decreases the level of LCBs, which is consistent with the idea that reducing the level of some sphingolipids enhances lifespan. In contrast, iron deprivation increases LCB levels and decreases long term survival; however, these phenomena may not be related because iron deprivation disrupts many metabolic pathways. The correlation between increased LCBs and shorter lifespan is unsupported at this time. The physiological rise in LCBs that we observe may serve to modulate nutrient transporters and possibly other membrane phenomena that contribute to enhanced stress resistance and survival in stationary phase. PMID:23286903

  8. Loss of Frataxin activates the iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuchuan; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Lin, Guang; Tan, Kai Li; Rasband, Matthew N; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors. Here, we show that loss of Fxn in the nervous system in mice also activates an iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway, indicating that the mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, sphingolipid levels and PDK1 activity are also increased in hearts of FRDA patients, suggesting that a similar pathway is affected in FRDA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20732.001 PMID:27901468

  9. Sphingolipid metabolism is strikingly different between pollen and leaf in Arabidopsis as revealed by compositional and gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Luttgeharm, Kyle D; Kimberlin, Athen N; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Cerny, Ronald L; Napier, Johnathan A; Markham, Jonathan E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Although sphingolipids are essential for male gametophytic development in Arabidopsis thaliana, sphingolipid composition and biosynthetic gene expression have not been previously examined in pollen. In this report, electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS was applied to characterization of sphingolipid compositional profiles in pollen isolated from wild type Arabidopsis Col-0 and a long-chain base (LCB) Δ4 desaturase mutant. Pollen fractions were highly enriched in glucosylceramides (GlcCer) relative to levels previously reported in leaves. Accompanying the loss of the Δ4 unsaturated LCB sphingadiene (d18:2) in the Δ4 desaturase mutant was a 50% reduction in GlcCer concentrations. In addition, pollen glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) were found to have a complex array of N-acetyl-glycosylated GIPCs, including species with up to three pentose units that were absent from leaf GIPCs. Underlying the distinct sphingolipid composition of pollen, genes for key biosynthetic enzymes for GlcCer and d18:2 synthesis and metabolism were more highly expressed in pollen than in leaves or seedlings, including genes for GlcCer synthase (GCS), sphingoid base C-4 hydroxylase 2 (SBH2), LCB Δ8 desaturases (SLD1 and SLD2), and LOH2 ceramide synthase (LOH2). Overall, these findings indicate strikingly divergent sphingolipid metabolism between pollen and leaves in Arabidopsis, the significance of which remains to be determined.

  10. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Liana; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Shephard, Gordon S; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-07-15

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB(1) containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB(1) dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB(1) treatment in the control rats was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by the 2-AAF/PH cancer promotion treatment. The nodular and surrounding Sa levels returned to baseline following FB(1) initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB(1) treatment, the initiation effected by FB(1) was less (P < 0.01) sensitive to the accumulation of Sa in the nodular and surrounding tissues than DEN initiation and the 2-AAF/PH control treatment. In contrast, the So level of FB(1) initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P < 0.05) higher with the secondary FB(1) treatment. Although, the FB(1)-induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).

  11. Sphingolipids: Key Regulators of Apoptosis and Pivotal Players in Cancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, Paola; Tringali, Cristina; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a) counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b) increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c) modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8)αNeu5Ac(2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:24625663

  12. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  13. Analysis of Mammalian Sphingolipids by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Tissue Imaging Mass Spectrometry (TIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Sullards, M. Cameron; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanfeng; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a highly diverse category of molecules that serve not only as components of biological structures but also as regulators of numerous cell functions. Because so many of the structural features of sphingolipids give rise to their biological activity, there is a need for comprehensive or “sphingolipidomic” methods for identification and quantitation of as many individual subspecies as possible. This review defines sphingolipids as a class, briefly discusses classical methods for their analysis, and focuses primarily on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tissue imaging mass spectrometry (TIMS). Recently, a set of evolving and expanding methods have been developed and rigorously validated for the extraction, identification, separation, and quantitation of sphingolipids by LC-MS/MS. Quantitation of these biomolecules is made possible via the use of an internal standard cocktail. The compounds that can be readily analyzed are free long-chain (sphingoid) bases, sphingoid base 1-phosphates, and more complex species such as ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-hexosylceramides sulfatides, and novel compounds such as the 1-deoxy- and 1-(deoxymethyl)-sphingoid bases and their N-acyl-derivatives. These methods can be altered slightly to separate and quantitate isomeric species such as glucosyl/galactosylceramide. Because these techniques require the extraction of sphingolipids from their native environment, any information regarding their localization in histological slices is lost. Therefore, this review also describes methods for TIMS. This technique has been shown to be a powerful tool to determine the localization of individual molecular species of sphingolipids directly from tissue slices. PMID:21749933

  14. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J.; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W. T.; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J.; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen’s Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis. PMID:26831115

  15. Sphingolipids as Mediators in the Crosstalk between Microbiota and Intestinal Cells: Implications for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Phillips-Farfán; Edgar Alejandro, Medina-Torres; Sara Elva, Espinosa-Padilla; Gemma, Fabrias

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes different illnesses characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the pathogenic mechanisms leading to IBD are poorly understood, immune system disturbances likely underlie its development. Sphingolipids (SLs) have been identified as important players and promising therapeutic targets to control inflammation in IBD. Interestingly, it seems that microorganisms of the normal gut microbiota and probiotics are involved in sphingolipid function. However, there is a great need to investigate the role of SLs as intermediates in the crosstalk between intestinal immunity and microorganisms. This review focuses on recent investigations that describe some mechanisms involved in the regulation of cytokine profiles by SLs. We also describe the importance of gut microbiota in providing signaling molecules that favor the communication between resident bacteria and intestinal cells. This, in turn, modulates the immune response in the bowel and likely in other peripheral organs. The potential of SLs and gut microbiota as targets or therapeutic agents for IBD is also discussed. PMID:27656050

  16. Modulation of sphingolipid metabolism with calorie restriction enhances insulin action in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Yu, Yongmei; Wang, Zhong Q; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of calorie restriction (CR) on skeletal muscle sphingolipid metabolism and its contribution to improved insulin action in rats after a 6 month feeding study. Twenty nine (29) male Fischer-344 rats were randomized to an ad libitum (AL) diet or 30% CR. Dietary intake, body weight, and insulin sensitivity were monitored. After 6 months, skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) was obtained for insulin signaling and lipid profiling. Calorie restriction significantly decreased insulin and glucose levels and also altered the expression and activity of proteins involved in sphingolipid formation and metabolism. The quantities of ceramides significantly increased in CR animals (p<0.05; n=14–15), while ceramide metabolism products (i.e glycosphingolipids: hexosylceramides and lactosylceramides) significantly decreased (p<0.05; n=14–15). Ceramide phosphates, sphingomyelins, sphingosine and sphingosine phosphate were not significantly different between AL and CR groups (p=ns; n=14–15). Lactosylceramide quantities correlated significantly with surrogate markers of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.7, p<0.005). Products of ceramide metabolism (glycosphingolipids), known to interfere with insulin signaling at elevated levels were significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle of CR animals. The increase in insulin sensitivity is associated with glycosphingolipid levels. PMID:25771159

  17. Hepatic fatty acid uptake is regulated by the sphingolipid acyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Jae; Park, Joo-Won; Merrill, Alfred H.; Storch, Judith; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mice cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain (C22-C24) ceramides resulting in significant alterations in the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. We now demonstrate that hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels are reduced in liver but not in adipose tissue or skeletal muscle in the CerS2 null mouse, both before and after feeding with a high fat diet (HFD), where no weight gain was observed and large hepatic nodules appeared. Uptake of both BODIPY-palmitate and [3H]-palmitate were also abrogated in hepatocytes and liver. The role of a number of key proteins involved in fatty acid uptake was examined, including FATP5, CD36/FAT, FABPpm and cytoplasmic FABP1. Levels of FATP5 and FABP1 were decreased in CerS2 null mouse liver, whereas CD36/FAT levels were significantly elevated and CD36/FAT was also mislocalized upon insulin treatment. Moreover, treatment of hepatocytes with C22-C24-ceramides down-regulated CD36/FAT levels. Infection of CerS2 null mice with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-CerS2 restored normal TG levels and corrected the mislocalization of CD36/FAT, but had no effect on the intracellular localization or levels of FATP5 or FABP1. Together, these results demonstrate that hepatic fatty acid uptake via CD36/FAT can be regulated by altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. PMID:25241943

  18. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Bedia, Carmen; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-02-16

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen's Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis.

  19. A procedure for fractionation of sphingolipid classes by solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl cartridges.

    PubMed

    Bodennec, J; Koul, O; Aguado, I; Brichon, G; Zwingelstein, G; Portoukalian, J

    2000-09-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods are easy, rapid, and reliable. Their growing popularity is in part due to their operational simplicity and cost reduction in solvents, and partly because they are easier to automate. Sphingolipids are implicated in various cellular events such as growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, their separation by small SPE cartridges has attracted limited attention. Here we describe an SPE procedure on aminopropyl cartridges that by sequential elution allows the separation of a lipid mixture into free ceramides, neutral glycosphingolipids, neutral phospholipids (sphingomyelin), and a fraction containing the acidic phospholipids and phosphorylated sphingoid bases, phosphoceramides and sulfatides. Individual components are obtained in high yield and purity. We applied the procedure to obtain data on separation of [(3)H]myristic acid-labeled sphingolipids from fish gills, and from human melanoma tumor tissue. Individual lipids in the SPE fractions were identified by chromatography on several high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) systems. The chromatographic behavior of free sphingoid bases is also reported.

  20. Sphingolipids from a symbiotic microbe regulate homeostasis of host intestinal natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Dingding; Oh, Sungwhan F.; Olszak, Torsten; Neves, Joana F.; Avci, Fikri; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Lu, Xi; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Co-evolution of beneficial microorganisms with the mammalian intestine fundamentally shapes mammalian physiology. Herein we report that the intestinal microbe Bacteroides fragilis modifies the homeostasis of host invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells by supplementing the host’s endogenous lipid antigen milieu with unique inhibitory sphingolipids. The process occurs early in life and effectively impedes iNKT cell proliferation during neonatal development. Consequently, total colonic iNKT cell numbers are restricted into adulthood and hosts are protected against experimental iNKT cell–mediated, oxazolone-induced colitis. In studies with neonatal mice lacking access to bacterial sphingolipids, we found that treatment with B. fragilis glycosphingolipids—exemplified by an isolated peak (M.W.=717.6) called GSL-Bf717—reduces colonic iNKT cell numbers and confers protection against oxazolone-induced colitis in adulthood. Our results suggest that the distinctive inhibitory capacity of GSL-Bf717 and similar molecules may prove useful in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic disorders in which iNKT cell activation is destructive. PMID:24439373

  1. Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

    2001-04-15

    The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves.

  2. Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis as tools to understand the structure and function of membrane microdomains in plasmodesmata

    PubMed Central

    González-Solís, Ariadna; Cano-Ramírez, Dora L.; Morales-Cedillo, Francisco; Tapia de Aquino, Cinthya; Gavilanes-Ruiz, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata—intercellular channels that communicate adjacent cells—possess complex membranous structures. Recent evidences indicate that plasmodesmata contain membrane microdomains. In order to understand how these submembrane regions collaborate to plasmodesmata function, it is necessary to characterize their size, composition and dynamics. An approach that can shed light on these microdomain features is based on the use of Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are canonical components of microdomains together with sterols and some glycerolipids. Moreover, sphingolipids are transducers in pathways that display programmed cell death as a defense mechanism against pathogens. The study of Arabidopsis mutants would allow determining which structural features of the sphingolipids are important for the formation and stability of microdomains, and if defense signaling networks using sphingoid bases as second messengers are associated to plasmodesmata operation. Such studies need to be complemented by analysis of the ultrastructure and the use of protein probes for plasmodesmata microdomains and may constitute a very valuable source of information to analyze these membrane structures. PMID:24478783

  3. The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) regulates esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters are a large family (~48 genes divided into seven families A-G) of proteins that utilize the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to pump substrates across lipid bilayers against a concentration gradient. The ABC "A" subfamily is comprised of 13 members and transport sterols, phospholipids and bile acids. ABCA2 is the most abundant ABC transporter in human and rodent brain with highest expression in oligodendrocytes, although it is also expressed in neurons. Several groups have studied a possible connection between ABCA2 and Alzheimer's disease as well as early atherosclerosis. ABCA2 expression levels have been associated with changes in cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism. In this paper, we hypothesized that ABCA2 expression level may regulate esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism. ABCA2 overexpression in N2a neuroblastoma cells was associated with an altered bilayer distribution of the sphingolipid ceramide that inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and cholesterol esterification. In contrast, depletion of endogenous ABCA2 in the rat schwannoma cell line D6P2T increased esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol following treatment with exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase. These findings suggest that control of ABCA2 expression level may be a key locus of regulation for esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

  4. Sphingolipids regulate [Mg2+]o uptake and [Mg2+]i content in vascular smooth muscle cells: potential mechanisms and importance to membrane transport of Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Li, Wenyan; Altura, Bella T; Shah, Nilank C; Altura, Burton M

    2011-02-01

    Sphingolipids have a variety of important signaling roles in mammalian cells. We tested the hypothesis that certain sphingolipids and neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) can regulate intracellular free magnesium ions ([Mg2+]i) in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Herein, we show that several sphingolipids, including C2-ceramide, C8-ceramide, C16-ceramide, and sphingosine, as well as N-SMase, have potent and direct effects on content and mobilization of [Mg2+]i in primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. All of these sphingolipid molecules increase, rapidly, [Mg2+]i in these vascular cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The increments of [Mg2+]i, induced by these agents, are derived from influx of extracellular Mg2+ and are extracellular Ca2+ concentration-dependent. Phospholipase C and Ca2+/calmodulin/Ca2+-ATPase activity appear to be important in the sphingolipid-induced rises of [Mg2+]i. Activation of certain PKC isozymes may also be required for sphingolipid-induced rises in [Mg2+]i. These novel results suggest that sphingolipids may be homeostatic regulators of extracellular Mg2+ concentration influx (and transport) and [Mg2+]i content in vascular muscle cells.

  5. Sphingolipid biosynthesis upregulation by TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling during yeast adaptive response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Joana F; Muir, Alexander; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Thorner, Jeremy; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Acetic acid-induced inhibition of yeast growth and metabolism limits the productivity of industrial fermentation processes, especially when lignocellulosic hydrolysates are used as feedstock in industrial biotechnology. Tolerance to acetic acid of food spoilage yeasts is also a problem in the preservation of acidic foods and beverages. Thus understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation and tolerance to acetic acid stress is increasingly important in industrial biotechnology and the food industry. Prior genetic screens for Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity to acetic acid identified loss-of-function mutations in the YPK1 gene, which encodes a protein kinase activated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 2 (TORC2). We show in the present study by several independent criteria that TORC2-Ypk1 signaling is stimulated in response to acetic acid stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that TORC2-mediated Ypk1 phosphorylation and activation is necessary for acetic acid tolerance, and occurs independently of Hrk1, a protein kinase previously implicated in the cellular response to acetic acid. In addition, we show that TORC2-Ypk1-mediated activation of l-serine:palmitoyl-CoA acyltransferase, the enzyme complex that catalyzes the first committed step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, is required for acetic acid tolerance. Furthermore, analysis of the sphingolipid pathway using inhibitors and mutants indicates that it is production of certain complex sphingolipids that contributes to conferring acetic acid tolerance. Consistent with that conclusion, promoting sphingolipid synthesis by adding exogenous long-chain base precursor phytosphingosine to the growth medium enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Thus appropriate modulation of the TORC2-Ypk1-sphingolipid axis in industrial yeast strains may have utility in improving fermentations of acetic acid-containing feedstocks.

  6. The Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Is a Potential Target for Chemotherapy against Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koeller, Carolina Macedo; Heise, Norton

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of human Chagas disease, for which there currently is no cure. The life cycle of T. cruzi is complex, including an extracellular phase in the triatomine insect vector and an obligatory intracellular stage inside the vertebrate host. These phases depend on a variety of surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-(GPI-) anchored glycoconjugates that are synthesized by the parasite. Therefore, the surface expression of GPI-anchored components and the biosynthetic pathways of GPI anchors are attractive targets for new therapies for Chagas disease. We identified new drug targets for chemotherapy by taking the available genome sequence information and searching for differences in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways (SBPs) of mammals and T. cruzi. In this paper, we discuss the major steps of the SBP in mammals, yeast and T. cruzi, focusing on the IPC synthase and ceramide remodeling of T. cruzi as potential therapeutic targets for Chagas disease. PMID:21603271

  7. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  8. Nitric oxide-sphingolipid interplays in plant signalling: a new enigma from the Sphinx?

    PubMed

    Guillas, Isabelle; Puyaubert, Juliette; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2013-09-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) emerged as one of the major signaling molecules operating during plant development and plant responses to its environment. Beyond the identification of the direct molecular targets of NO, a series of studies considered its interplay with other actors of signal transduction and the integration of NO into complex signaling networks. Beside the close relationships between NO and calcium or phosphatidic acid signaling pathways that are now well-established, recent reports paved the way for interplays between NO and sphingolipids (SLs). This mini-review summarizes our current knowledge of the influence NO and SLs might exert on each other in plant physiology. Based on comparisons with examples from the animal field, it further indicates that, although SL-NO interplays are common features in signaling networks of eukaryotic cells, the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets significantly differ.

  9. Disruption of sphingolipid metabolism augments ceramide-induced autophagy in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Melland-Smith, Megan; Ermini, Leonardo; Chauvin, Sarah; Craig-Barnes, Hayley; Tagliaferro, Andrea; Todros, Tullia; Post, Martin; Caniggia, Isabella

    2015-04-03

    Bioactive sphingolipids including ceramides are involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes by regulating cell death and survival. The objective of the current study was to examine ceramide metabolism in preeclampsia, a serious disorder of pregnancy characterized by oxidative stress, and increased trophoblast cell death and autophagy. Maternal circulating and placental ceramide levels quantified by tandem mass spectrometry were elevated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Placental ceramides were elevated due to greater de novo synthesis via high serine palmitoyltransferase activity and reduced lysosomal breakdown via diminished ASAH1 expression caused by TGFB3-induced E2F4 transcriptional repression. SMPD1 activity was reduced; hence, sphingomyelin degradation by SMPD1 did not contribute to elevated ceramide levels in preeclampsia. Oxidative stress triggered similar changes in ceramide levels and acid hydrolase expression in villous explants and trophoblast cells. MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry localized the ceramide increases to the trophophoblast layers and syncytial knots of placentae from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. ASAH1 inhibition or ceramide treatment induced autophagy in human trophoblast cells via a shift of the BOK-MCL1 rheostat toward prodeath BOK. Pharmacological inhibition of ASAH1 activity in pregnant mice resulted in increased placental ceramide content, abnormal placentation, reduced fetal growth, and increased autophagy via a similar shift in the BOK-MCL1 system. Our results reveal that oxidative stress-induced reduction of lysosomal hydrolase activities in combination with elevated de novo synthesis leads to ceramide overload, resulting in increased trophoblast cell autophagy, and typifies preeclampsia as a sphingolipid storage disorder.

  10. Enrichment of hydroxylated C24- and C26-acyl-chain sphingolipids mediates PIN2 apical sorting at trans-Golgi network subdomains

    PubMed Central

    Wattelet-Boyer, Valérie; Brocard, Lysiane; Jonsson, Kristoffer; Esnay, Nicolas; Joubès, Jérôme; Domergue, Frédéric; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raikhel, Natasha; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Moreau, Patrick; Boutté, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    The post-Golgi compartment trans-Golgi Network (TGN) is a central hub divided into multiple subdomains hosting distinct trafficking pathways, including polar delivery to apical membrane. Lipids such as sphingolipids and sterols have been implicated in polar trafficking from the TGN but the underlying mechanisms linking lipid composition to functional polar sorting at TGN subdomains remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that sphingolipids with α-hydroxylated acyl-chains of at least 24 carbon atoms are enriched in secretory vesicle subdomains of the TGN and are critical for de novo polar secretory sorting of the auxin carrier PIN2 to apical membrane of Arabidopsis root epithelial cells. We show that sphingolipid acyl-chain length influences the morphology and interconnections of TGN-associated secretory vesicles. Our results uncover that the sphingolipids acyl-chain length links lipid composition of TGN subdomains with polar secretory trafficking of PIN2 to apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:27681606

  11. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; vanDam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal amounts of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid, whereas the classical DRM/lipid raft markers Src, caveolin-1 and flotillin display the same gradient distribution. DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts themselves are severely depleted of sphingolipids. The fatty acid profile of the remaining sphingolipids as well as that of the glycerophospholipids shows several differences compared with control, most prominently an increase in highly saturated C16 species. The glycerophospholipid headgroup composition is unchanged in sphingolipid-depleted cells and cell-derived detergent-free lipid rafts. Sphingolipid depletion does not alter the localization of MRP1 (multidrug-resistance-related protein 1) in DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts or MRP1-mediated efflux of carboxyfluorescein. We conclude that extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity in two cell lines and does not affect the function of the lipid-raft-associated protein MRP1. PMID:20604746

  12. Orosomucoid Proteins Interact with the Small Subunit of Serine Palmitoyltransferase and Contribute to Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Stress Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yin, Jian; Rong, Chan; Li, Kai-En; Wu, Jian-Xin; Huang, Li-Qun; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Yao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a pyridoxyl-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In humans and yeast, orosomucoid proteins (ORMs) negatively regulate SPT and thus play an important role in maintaining sphingolipid levels. Despite the importance of sphingoid intermediates as bioactive molecules, the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis through SPT is not well understood in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana ORMs, ORM1 and ORM2. Loss of function of both ORM1 and ORM2 (orm1 amiR-ORM2) stimulated de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, leading to strong sphingolipid accumulation, especially of long-chain bases and ceramides. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ORM1 and ORM2 physically interact with the small subunit of SPT (ssSPT), indicating that ORMs inhibit ssSPT function. We found that orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants exhibited an early-senescence phenotype accompanied by H2O2 production at the cell wall and in mitochondria, active vesicular trafficking, and formation of cell wall appositions. Strikingly, the orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants showed increased expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and defenses and also had enhanced resistance to oxidative stress and pathogen infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that ORMs interact with SPT to regulate sphingolipid homeostasis and play a pivotal role in environmental stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27923879

  13. Characterization of inositol phospho-sphingolipid-phospholipase C 1 (Isc1) in Cryptococcus neoformans reveals unique biochemical features.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jennifer; Guillotte, Aimee; Luberto, Chiara; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2011-02-18

    In this work, we biochemically characterized inositol phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase C (Isc1) from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Unlike Isc1 from other fungi and parasites which hydrolyze both fungal complex sphingolipids (IPC-PLC) and mammalian sphingomyelin (SM-PLC), C. neoformans Isc1 only exerts IPC-PLC activity. Genetic mutations thought to regulate substrate recognition in other Isc1 proteins do not restore SM-PLC activity of the cryptococcal enzyme. C. neoformans Isc1 regulates the level of complex sphingolipids and certain species of phytoceramide, especially when fungal cells are exposed to acidic stress. Since growth in acidic environments is required for C. neoformans to cause disease, this study has important implications for understanding of C. neoformans pathogenicity.

  14. Alkaline Ceramidase 3 Deficiency Results in Purkinje Cell Degeneration and Cerebellar Ataxia Due to Dyshomeostasis of Sphingolipids in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Chet; Wang, Louis; Yi, Jae Kyo; Lin, Chih-Li; Sun, Wei; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Rhee, Soyoung; Li, Mingsong; Zhou, Jie; Ge, Shaoyu; Zhang, Guofeng; Snider, Ashley J.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2015-01-01

    Dyshomeostasis of both ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the brain has been implicated in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders in humans. However, mechanisms that maintain the homeostasis of these bioactive sphingolipids in the brain remain unclear. Mouse alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3), which preferentially catalyzes the hydrolysis of C18:1-ceramide, a major unsaturated long-chain ceramide species in the brain, is upregulated with age in the mouse brain. Acer3 knockout causes an age-dependent accumulation of various ceramides and C18:1-monohexosylceramide and abolishes the age-related increase in the levels of sphingosine and S1P in the brain; thereby resulting in Purkinje cell degeneration in the cerebellum and deficits in motor coordination and balance. Our results indicate that Acer3 plays critically protective roles in controlling the homeostasis of various sphingolipids, including ceramides, sphingosine, S1P, and certain complex sphingolipids in the brain and protects Purkinje cells from premature degeneration. PMID:26474409

  15. Loss of Frataxin induces iron toxicity, sphingolipid synthesis, and Pdk1/Mef2 activation, leading to neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuchuan; Lin, Guang; Haelterman, Nele A; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Li, Tongchao; Li, Zhihong; Duraine, Lita; Graham, Brett H; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Rasband, Matthew N; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Frataxin (FXN) cause Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), a recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Previous studies have proposed that loss of FXN causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which triggers elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to the demise of neurons. Here we describe a ROS independent mechanism that contributes to neurodegeneration in fly FXN mutants. We show that loss of frataxin homolog (fh) in Drosophila leads to iron toxicity, which in turn induces sphingolipid synthesis and ectopically activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2). Dampening iron toxicity, inhibiting sphingolipid synthesis by Myriocin, or reducing Pdk1 or Mef2 levels, all effectively suppress neurodegeneration in fh mutants. Moreover, increasing dihydrosphingosine activates Mef2 activity through PDK1 in mammalian neuronal cell line suggesting that the mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved. Our results indicate that an iron/sphingolipid/Pdk1/Mef2 pathway may play a role in FRDA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16043.001 PMID:27343351

  16. Viral serine palmitoyltransferase induces metabolic switch in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is required for infection of a marine alga

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Carmit; Malitsky, Sergey; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Wei, Yu; Zheng, Shuning; Aharoni, Asaph; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Marine viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans shaping community structure and nutrient cycling. The interaction between the bloom-forming alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific large dsDNA virus (EhV) is a major factor determining the fate of carbon in the ocean, thus serving as a key host-pathogen model system. The EhV genome encodes for a set of genes involved in the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, not reported in any viral genome to date. We combined detailed lipidomic and biochemical analyses to characterize the functional role of this virus-encoded pathway during lytic viral infection. We identified a major metabolic shift, mediated by differential substrate specificity of virus-encoded serine palmitoyltransferase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Consequently, unique viral glycosphingolipids, composed of unusual hydroxylated C17 sphingoid bases (t17:0) were highly enriched in the infected cells, and their synthesis was found to be essential for viral assembly. These findings uncover the biochemical bases of the virus-induced metabolic rewiring of the host sphingolipid biosynthesis during the chemical “arms race” in the ocean. PMID:26984500

  17. Dihydroceramide Desaturase Knockdown Impacts Sphingolipids and Apoptosis after Photodamage in Human Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    BREEN, PAUL; JOSEPH, NICHOLAS; THOMPSON, KYLE; KRAVEKA, JACQUELINE M.; GUDZ, TATYANA I.; LI, LI; RAHMANIYAN, MEHRDAD; BIELAWSKI, JACEK; PIERCE, JASON S.; VAN BUREN, ERIC; BHATTI, GAURAV; SEPAROVIC, DUSKA

    2014-01-01

    Background Dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (DES) is the enzyme responsible for converting dihydroceramide into ceramide in the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. Dihydroceramide can inhibit ceramide channel formation to interfere with apoptosis. We have shown that following ceramide synthase knockdown, photodynamic therapy (PDT), a cancer treatment modality, is associated with decreased levels of ceramides and dihydroceramides in cells that are resistant to apoptosis. Aim Here we investigated the effect of DES knockdown on the sphingolipid profile and apoptosis in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells after PDT with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4. Materials and Methods Following siRNA transfection and PDT treatment, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantification of DES mRNA, immunoblotting for protein expression, mass spectrometry for sphingolipid analysis, spectrofluorometry for caspase 3-like (DEVDase) activity, flow cytometry for apoptosis detection, and trypan blue assay for cell viability evaluation, were performed. Results Down-regulation of DES led to a substantial increase in levels of dihydroceramides without affecting ceramide levels. PDT-induced accumulation of individual dihydroceramides and global ceramides was increased by DES knockdown. Concomitantly, mitochondrial depolarization, DEVDase activation, late-apoptosis and cell death were attenuated by DES knockdown. Early apoptosis, however, was enhanced. Conclusion Our findings support the following: (i) dihydroceramide reduces pro-apoptotic effects of ceramide; (ii) cells adapt to DES knockdown to become more sensitive to ceramide and early-apoptosis; (iii) DES is a potential molecular target for regulating apoptotic resistance to PDT. PMID:23267130

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and denervation alter sphingolipids and up-regulate glucosylceramide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Croixmarie, Vincent; Priestman, David A.; Rosenbohm, Angela; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; D'Ambra, Eleonora; Huebecker, Mylene; Hussain, Ghulam; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Ludolph, Albert C.; Platt, Frances M.; Walther, Bernard; Spedding, Michael; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, muscle wasting and paralysis. Growing evidence suggests a link between changes in lipid metabolism and ALS. Here, we used UPLC/TOF-MS to survey the lipidome in SOD1(G86R) mice, a model of ALS. Significant changes in lipid expression were evident in spinal cord and skeletal muscle before overt neuropathology. In silico analysis also revealed appreciable changes in sphingolipids including ceramides and glucosylceramides (GlcCer). HPLC analysis showed increased amounts of GlcCer and downstream glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in SOD1(G86R) muscle compared with wild-type littermates. Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the enzyme responsible for GlcCer biosynthesis, was up-regulated in muscle of SOD1(G86R) mice and ALS patients, and in muscle of wild-type mice after surgically induced denervation. Conversely, inhibition of GCS in wild-type mice, following transient peripheral nerve injury, reversed the overexpression of genes in muscle involved in oxidative metabolism and delayed motor recovery. GCS inhibition in SOD1(G86R) mice also affected the expression of metabolic genes and induced a loss of muscle strength and morphological deterioration of the motor endplates. These findings suggest that GSLs may play a critical role in ALS muscle pathology and could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26483191

  19. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; Keijzer, Sandra de; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F.; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  20. Sphingolipids, Transcription Factors, and Conserved Toolkit Genes: Developmental Plasticity in the Ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Lukas; Simola, Daniel F.; Heinze, Jürgen; Oettler, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Developmental plasticity allows for the remarkable morphological specialization of individuals into castes in eusocial species of Hymenoptera. Developmental trajectories that lead to alternative caste fates are typically determined by specific environmental stimuli that induce larvae to express and maintain distinct gene expression patterns. Although most eusocial species express two castes, queens and workers, the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior expresses diphenic females and males; this provides a unique system with four discrete phenotypes to study the genomic basis of developmental plasticity in ants. We sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of 28 individual C. obscurior larvae of known developmental trajectory, providing the first in-depth analysis of gene expression in eusocial insect larvae. Clustering and transcription factor binding site analyses revealed that different transcription factors and functionally distinct sets of genes are recruited during larval development to induce the four alternative trajectories. In particular, we found complex patterns of gene regulation pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, a conserved molecular pathway involved in development, obesity, and aging. PMID:25725431

  1. Structure and function of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Florence; Riezman, Howard; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G

    2010-08-11

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, catalyzes the irreversible degradation of sphingoid base phosphates. Its main substrate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts both extracellularly, by binding G protein-coupled receptors of the lysophospholipid receptor family, and inside the cell, as a second messenger. There, S1P takes part in regulating various cellular processes and its levels are tightly regulated. SPL is a pivotal enzyme regulating S1P intracellular concentrations and a promising drug target for the design of immunosuppressants. We structurally and functionally characterized yeast SPL (Dpl1p) and its first prokaryotic homolog, from Symbiobacterium thermophilum. The Dpl1p structure served as a basis for a very reliable model of Homo sapiens SPL. The above results, together with in vitro and in vivo studies of SPL mutants, reveal which residues are involved in activity and substrate binding and pave the way to studies aimed at controlling the activity of this pivotal enzyme.

  2. Revisiting Plant Plasma Membrane Lipids in Tobacco: A Focus on Sphingolipids1

    PubMed Central

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Grosjean, Kevin; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Lherminier, Jeannine; Rombouts, Yoann; Maes, Emmanuel; Gronnier, Julien; Furt, Fabienne; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bayer, Emmanuelle; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Deleu, Magali; Lins, Laurence; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The lipid composition of plasma membrane (PM) and the corresponding detergent-insoluble membrane (DIM) fraction were analyzed with a specific focus on highly polar sphingolipids, so-called glycosyl inositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs). Using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ‘Bright Yellow 2’ cell suspension and leaves, evidence is provided that GIPCs represent up to 40 mol % of the PM lipids. Comparative analysis of DIMs with the PM showed an enrichment of 2-hydroxylated very-long-chain fatty acid-containing GIPCs and polyglycosylated GIPCs in the DIMs. Purified antibodies raised against these GIPCs were further used for immunogold-electron microscopy strategy, revealing the distribution of polyglycosylated GIPCs in domains of 35 ± 7 nm in the plane of the PM. Biophysical studies also showed strong interactions between GIPCs and sterols and suggested a role for very-long-chain fatty acids in the interdigitation between the two PM-composing monolayers. The ins and outs of lipid asymmetry, raft formation, and interdigitation in plant membrane biology are finally discussed. PMID:26518342

  3. Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

  4. Inactivation of ceramide synthase 6 in mice results in an altered sphingolipid metabolism and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-07-19

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain.

  5. Digestion of Ceramide 2-Aminoethylphosphonate, a Sphingolipid from the Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas, in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Nami; Manabe, Yuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2017-04-01

    Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), a sphingophosphonolipid containing a carbon-phosphorus bond, is frequently found in marine organisms and has a unique triene type of sphingoid base in its structure. CAEP has not been evaluated as a food ingredient, although it is generally contained in Mollusca organisms such as squids and shellfish, which are consumed worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of CAEP as a food component by evaluating the digestion of CAEP extracted from the skin of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas. Our results revealed that dietary CAEP was digested to free sphingoid bases via ceramides by the mouse small intestinal mucosa. At pH 7.2, CAEP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the major mammalian sphingolipid sphingomyelin; however, the hydrolysis of CAEP was similar to that of sphingomyelin at pH 9.0. Thus, the digestion of CAEP may be catalyzed by alkaline spingomyelinase and other enzymes. Our findings provide important insights into the digestion of the dietary sphingophosphonolipid CAEP in marine foods.

  6. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B.; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent estimates suggest that >300 million people are afflicted by serious fungal infections worldwide. Current antifungal drugs are static and toxic and/or have a narrow spectrum of activity. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal drugs. The fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is critical in promoting virulence of a variety of human-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we screened a synthetic drug library for compounds that target the synthesis of fungal, but not mammalian, GlcCer and found two compounds [N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-methylbenzohydrazide (BHBM) and its derivative, 3-bromo-N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide (D0)] that were highly effective in vitro and in vivo against several pathogenic fungi. BHBM and D0 were well tolerated in animals and are highly synergistic or additive to current antifungals. BHBM and D0 significantly affected fungal cell morphology and resulted in the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. Deep-sequencing analysis of drug-resistant mutants revealed that four protein products, encoded by genes APL5, COS111, MKK1, and STE2, which are involved in vesicular transport and cell cycle progression, are targeted by BHBM. PMID:26106079

  7. The role of sphingolipid signalling in diabetes-associated pathologies (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mei Li; Wadham, Carol; Sukocheva, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is an important signalling enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of sphingosine (Sph) to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The multifunctional lipid, S1P binds to a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As an intracellular second messenger, S1P activates key signalling cascades responsible for the maintenance of sphingolipid metabolism, and has been implicated in the progression of cancer, and the development of other inflammatory and metabolic diseases. SphK and S1P are critical molecules involved in the regulation of various cellular metabolic processes, such as cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, adhesion and migration. There is strong evidence supporting the critical roles of SphK and S1P in the progression of diabetes mellitus, including insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, and the development of diabetic inflammatory state. In this review, we summarise the current state of knowledge for SphK/S1P signalling effects, associated with the development of insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cell death and the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28075451

  8. A minimalist approach to MALDI imaging of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in rat brain sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hay-Yan J.; Post, Shelley N. Jackson Jeremy; Woods, Amina S.

    2008-12-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a powerful tool that has allowed researchers to directly probe tissue molecular structure and drug content with minimal manipulations, while maintaining anatomical integrity. In the present work glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids images were acquired from 16-[mu]m thick coronal rat brain sections using MALDI-MS. Images of phosphatidylinositol 38:4 (PI 38:4), sulfatide 24:1 (ST 24:1), and hydroxyl sulfatide 24:1 (ST 24:1 (OH)) were acquired in negative ion mode, while the images of phosphatidylcholine 34:1 (PC 34:1), potassiated phosphatidylcholines 32:0 (PC 32:0 + K+) and 36:1 (PC 36:1 + K+) were acquired in positive ion mode. The images of PI 38:4 and PC 36:1 + K+ show the preferential distribution of these two lipids in gray matter; and the images of two sulfatides and PC 32:0 + K+ show their preferential distribution in white matter. In addition, the gray cortical band and its adjacent anatomical structures were also identified by contrasting their lipid makeup. The resulting images were compared to lipid images acquired by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The suitability of TLC sprayers, Collison Nebulizer, and artistic airbrush were also evaluated as means for matrix deposition.

  9. Counter-regulation of opioid analgesia by glial-derived bioactive sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Muscoli, Carolina; Doyle, Tim; Dagostino, Concetta; Bryant, Leesa; Chen, Zhoumou; Watkins, Linda R.; Ryerse, Jan; Bieberich, Erhard; Neumman, William; Salvemini, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of opiates for pain control is severely limited by analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia. Herein we show that chronic morphine upregulates both the sphingolipid ceramide in spinal astrocytes and microglia, but not neurons, and spinal sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the end-product of ceramide metabolism. Co-administering morphine with intrathecal administration of pharmacological inhibitors of ceramide and S1P blocked formation of spinal S1P and development of hyperalgesia and tolerance in rats. Our results show that spinally formed S1P signals at least in part by 1) modulating glial function, since inhibiting S1P formation blocked increased formation of glial-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-α, IL-1β α, and IL6, which are known modulators of neuronal excitability, and 2) peroxynitrite-mediated post-translational nitration and inactivation of glial-related enzymes (glutamine synthetase and the glutamate transporter, GLT-1) known to play critical roles in glutamate neurotransmission. Inhibitors of the ceramide metabolic pathway may have therapeutic potential as adjuncts to opiates in relieving suffering from chronic pain. PMID:21084596

  10. From Molecules to the Clinic: Linking Schizophrenia and Metabolic Syndrome through Sphingolipids Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rolando I; Rojo, Leonel E; Henriquez-Henriquez, Marcela; Silva, Hernán; Maturana, Alejandro; Villar, María J; Fuentes, Manuel; Gaspar, Pablo A

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations. MS and SZ share common intrinsic susceptibility factors and etiopathogenic mechanisms, which may change the way we approach clinical management of SZ patients. Among the most relevant common pathogenic pathways of SZ and MS are alterations in the sphingolipids (SLs) metabolism and SLs homeostasis. SLs have important structural functions as they participate in the formation of membrane "lipid rafts." SLs also play physiological roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and inflammatory processes, which might be part of MS/SZ common pathophysiological processes. In this article we review a plausible mechanism to explain the link between MS and SZ through a disruption in SL homeostasis. Additionally, we provide insights on how this hypothesis can lead to the developing of new diagnostic/therapeutic technologies for SZ patients.

  11. Bladder cancer cell growth and motility implicate cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated modifications of sphingolipids metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bettiga, Arianna; Aureli, Massimo; Colciago, Giorgia; Murdica, Valentina; Moschini, Marco; Lucianò, Roberta; Canals, Daniel; Hannun, Yusuf; Hedlund, Petter; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Colombo, Renzo; Bassi, Rosaria; Samarani, Maura; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Benigni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The inhibitory effects demonstrated by activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB) on cancer proliferation and migration may also play critical roles in controlling bladder cancer (BC). CB expression on human normal and BC specimens was tested by immunohistochemistry. Human BC cells RT4 and RT112 were challenged with CB agonists and assessed for proliferation, apoptosis, and motility. Cellular sphingolipids (SL) constitution and metabolism were evaluated after metabolic labelling. CB1-2 were detected in BC specimens, but only CB2 was more expressed in the tumour. Both cell lines expressed similar CB2. Exposure to CB2 agonists inhibited BC growth, down-modulated Akt, induced caspase 3-activation and modified SL metabolism. Baseline SL analysis in cell lines showed differences linked to unique migratory behaviours and cytoskeletal re-arrangements. CB2 activation changed the SL composition of more aggressive RT112 cells by reducing (p < 0.01) Gb3 ganglioside (−50 ± 3%) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, −40 ± 4%), which ended up to reduction in cell motility (−46 ± 5%) with inhibition of p-SRC. CB2-selective antagonists, gene silencing and an inhibitor of SL biosynthesis partially prevented CB2 agonist-induced effects on cell viability and motility. CB2 activation led to ceramide-mediated BC cell apoptosis independently of SL constitutive composition, which instead was modulated by CB2 agonists to reduce cell motility. PMID:28191815

  12. From Molecules to the Clinic: Linking Schizophrenia and Metabolic Syndrome through Sphingolipids Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Rolando I.; Rojo, Leonel E.; Henriquez-Henriquez, Marcela; Silva, Hernán; Maturana, Alejandro; Villar, María J.; Fuentes, Manuel; Gaspar, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations. MS and SZ share common intrinsic susceptibility factors and etiopathogenic mechanisms, which may change the way we approach clinical management of SZ patients. Among the most relevant common pathogenic pathways of SZ and MS are alterations in the sphingolipids (SLs) metabolism and SLs homeostasis. SLs have important structural functions as they participate in the formation of membrane “lipid rafts.” SLs also play physiological roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and inflammatory processes, which might be part of MS/SZ common pathophysiological processes. In this article we review a plausible mechanism to explain the link between MS and SZ through a disruption in SL homeostasis. Additionally, we provide insights on how this hypothesis can lead to the developing of new diagnostic/therapeutic technologies for SZ patients. PMID:27877101

  13. Fast screening of highly glycosylated plant sphingolipids by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buré, Corinne; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Wang, Fen; Gaudin, Karen; Domergue, Frédéric; Mongrand, Sébastien; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2011-10-30

    The structural characterization of Glycosyl-Inositol-Phospho-Ceramides (GIPCs), which are the main sphingolipids of plant tissues, is a critical step towards the understanding of their physiological function. After optimization of their extraction, numerous plant GIPCs have been characterized by mass spectrometry. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) full scan analysis of negative ions provides a quick overview of GIPC distribution. Clear differences were observed for the two plant models studied: six GIPC series bearing from two to seven saccharide units were detected in tobacco BY-2 cell extracts, whereas GIPCs extracted from A. thaliana cell cultures and leaves were less diverse, with a dominance of species containing only two saccharide units. The number of GIPC species was around 50 in A. thaliana and 120 in tobacco BY-2 cells. MALDI-MS/MS spectra gave access to detailed structural information relative to the ceramide moiety, the polar head, as well as the number and types of saccharide units. Once released from GIPCs, fatty acid chains and long-chain bases were analyzed by GC/MS to verify that all GIPC series were taken into account by the MALDI-MS/MS approach. ESI-MS/MS provided complementary information for the identification of isobaric species and fatty acid chains. Such a methodology, mostly relying on MALDI-MS/MS, should open new avenues to determine structure-function relationships between glycosphingolipids and membrane organization.

  14. Dysregulations in circulating sphingolipids associate with disease activity indices in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Checa, A; Idborg, H; Zandian, A; Sar, D Garcia; Surowiec, I; Trygg, J; Svenungsson, E; Jakobsson, P-J; Nilsson, P; Gunnarsson, I; Wheelock, C E

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of clinical and renal disease activity with circulating sphingolipids in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 27 sphingolipids in plasma from 107 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 23 controls selected using a design of experiment approach. We investigated the associations between sphingolipids and two disease activity indices, the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Damage was scored according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index. Renal activity was evaluated with the British Island Lupus Activity Group index. The effects of immunosuppressive treatment on sphingolipid levels were evaluated before and after treatment in 22 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active disease. Results Circulating sphingolipids from the ceramide and hexosylceramide families were increased, and sphingoid bases were decreased, in systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls. The ratio of C16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate was the best discriminator between patients and controls, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.77. The C16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate ratio was associated with ongoing disease activity according to the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, but not with accumulated damage according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Levels of C16:0- and C24:1-hexosylceramides were able to discriminate patients with current versus inactive/no renal involvement. All dysregulated sphingolipids were normalized after immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion We provide evidence that sphingolipids are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus and associated with

  15. Delineating Amyloid Plaque Associated Neuronal Sphingolipids in Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice (tgArcSwe) Using MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the progressive aggregation and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein into neurotoxic deposits. Aβ aggregation has been suggested as the critical early inducer, driving the disease progression. However, the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides, and proteins in biological tissue sections. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging was used on transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse (tgArcSwe) brain tissue to investigate the sphingolipid microenvironment of individual Aβ plaques and elucidate plaque-associated sphingolipid alterations. Multivariate data analysis was used to interrogate the IMS data for identifying pathologically relevant, anatomical features based on their lipid chemical profile. This approach revealed sphingolipid species that distinctly located to cortical and hippocampal deposits, whose Aβ identity was further verified using fluorescent amyloid staining and immunohistochemistry. Subsequent multivariate statistical analysis of the spectral data revealed significant localization of gangliosides and ceramides species to Aβ positive plaques, which was accompanied by distinct local reduction of sulfatides. These plaque-associated changes in sphingolipid levels implicate a functional role of sphingolipid metabolism in Aβ plaque pathology and AD pathogenesis. Taken together, the presented data highlight the potential of imaging mass spectrometry as a powerful approach for probing Aβ plaque-associated lipid changes underlying AD pathology. PMID:27984697

  16. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds.

  17. Sphingolipid Metabolites Modulate Dielectric Characteristics of Cells in a Mouse Ovarian Cancer Progression Model

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Elvington, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, conventional cancer treatment regimens often rely upon highly toxic chemotherapeutics or target oncogenes that are variably expressed within the heterogeneous cell population of tumors. These challenges highlight the need for novel treatment strategies that 1) are non-toxic yet able to at least partially reverse the aggressive phenotype of the disease to a benign or very slow-growing state, and 2) act on the cells independently of variably expressed biomarkers. Using a label-independent rapid microfluidic cell manipulation strategy known as contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP), we investigated the effect of non-toxic concentrations of two bioactive sphingolipid metabolites, sphingosine (So), with potential anti-tumor properties, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a tumor-promoting metabolite, on the intrinsic electrical properties of early and late stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cancer cells. Previously, we demonstrated that electrical properties change as cells progress from a benign early stage to late malignant stages. Here, we demonstrate an association between So treatment and a shift in the bioelectrical characteristics of late stage MOSE (MOSE-L) cells towards a profile similar to that of benign MOSE-E cells. Particularly, the specific membrane capacitance of MOSE-L cells shifted toward that of MOSE-E cells, decreasing from 23.94±2.75 to 16.46±0.62 mF/m2 after So treatment, associated with a decrease in membrane protrusions. In contrast, S1P did not reverse the electrical properties of MOSE-L cells. This work is the first to indicate that treatment with non-toxic doses of So correlates with changes in the electrical properties and surface roughness of cells. It also demonstrates the potential of cDEP to be used as a new, rapid technique for drug efficacy studies, and eventually designing more personalized treatment regimens. PMID:23609351

  18. Annexin II-dependent actin remodelling evoked by hydrogen peroxide requires the metalloproteinase/sphingolipid pathway.

    PubMed

    Cinq-Frais, Christel; Coatrieux, Christelle; Savary, Aude; D'Angelo, Romina; Bernis, Corinne; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Augé, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Actin remodeling is a dynamic process associated with cell shape modification occurring during cell cycle and proliferation. Oxidative stress plays a role in actin reorganization via various systems including p38MAPK. Beside, the mitogenic response evoked by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC) involves the metalloproteinase (MMPs)/sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) signaling pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether this system plays a role in actin remodeling induced by H2O2. Low H2O2 dose (5µM) rapidly triggered a signaling cascade leading to nSMase2 activation, src and annexin 2 (AnxA2) phosphorylation, and actin remodeling, in fibroblasts and SMC. These events were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs (Ro28-2653) and p38MAPK (SB203580), and were lacking in MMP2(-/-) and in nSMase2-mutant (fro) fibroblasts. Likewise, H2O2 was unable to induce actin remodeling in fro and MMP2(-/-) fibroblasts or in cells pretreated with p38MAPK, or MMP inhibitors. Finally we show that nSMase2 activation by H2O2, depends on MMP2 and p38MAPK, and is required for the src-dependent phosphorylation of AnxA2, and actin remodeling. Taken together, these findings indicate for the first time that AnxA2 phosphorylation and actin remodeling evoked by oxidative stress depend on the sphingolipid pathway, via MMP2 and p38MAPK.

  19. Annexin II-dependent actin remodelling evoked by hydrogen peroxide requires the metalloproteinase/sphingolipid pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cinq-Frais, Christel; Coatrieux, Christelle; Savary, Aude; D’Angelo, Romina; Bernis, Corinne; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Augé, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Actin remodeling is a dynamic process associated with cell shape modification occurring during cell cycle and proliferation. Oxidative stress plays a role in actin reorganization via various systems including p38MAPK. Beside, the mitogenic response evoked by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC) involves the metalloproteinase (MMPs)/sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) signaling pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether this system plays a role in actin remodeling induced by H2O2. Low H2O2 dose (5 µM) rapidly triggered a signaling cascade leading to nSMase2 activation, src and annexin 2 (AnxA2) phosphorylation, and actin remodeling, in fibroblasts and SMC. These events were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs (Ro28-2653) and p38MAPK (SB203580), and were lacking in MMP2−/− and in nSMase2-mutant (fro) fibroblasts. Likewise, H2O2 was unable to induce actin remodeling in fro and MMP2−/− fibroblasts or in cells pretreated with p38MAPK, or MMP inhibitors. Finally we show that nSMase2 activation by H2O2, depends on MMP2 and p38MAPK, and is required for the src-dependent phosphorylation of AnxA2, and actin remodeling. Taken together, these findings indicate for the first time that AnxA2 phosphorylation and actin remodeling evoked by oxidative stress depend on the sphingolipid pathway, via MMP2 and p38MAPK. PMID:25574848

  20. MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

    2009-10-01

    Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors.

  1. Sphingolipid long-chain-base auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetics, physiology, and a method for their selection.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, W J; Srinivasan, B; Shepherd, S; Schmidt, A; Dickson, R C; Lester, R L

    1992-01-01

    A selection method for sphingolipid long-chain-base auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was devised after observing that strains that require a long-chain base for growth become denser when starved for this substance. Genetic analysis of over 60 such strains indicated only two complementation classes, lcb1 and lcb2. Mutant strains from each class grew equally well with 3-ketodihydrosphingosine, erythrodihydrosphingosine or threodihydrosphingosine, or phytosphingosine. Since these metabolites represent the first, second, and last components, respectively, of the long-chain-base biosynthetic pathway, it is likely that the LCB1 and LCB2 genes are involved in the first step of long-chain-base synthesis. The results of long-chain-base starvation in the Lcb- strains suggest that one or more sphingolipids have a vital role in S. cerevisiae. Immediate sequelae of long-chain-base starvation were loss of viability, exacerbated in the presence of alpha-cyclodextrin, and loss of phosphoinositol sphingolipid synthesis but not phosphatidylinositol synthesis. Loss of viability with long-chain-base starvation could be prevented by also blocking either protein or nucleic acid synthesis. Without a long-chain-base, cell division, dry mass accumulation, and protein synthesis continued at a diminished rate and were further inhibited by the detergent Tergitol. The cell density increase induced by long-chain-base starvation is thus explained as a differential loss of cell division and mass accumulation. Long-chain-base starvation in Lcb- S. cerevisiae and inositol starvation of Inos- S. cerevisiae share common features: an increase in cell density and a loss of cell viability overcome by blocking macromolecular synthesis. PMID:1556075

  2. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for accurate analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistance tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Linlin; Shangguan, Dihua; Wei, Yanbo; Han, Juanjuan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2015-02-13

    Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are important signaling molecules which are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Here we reported an effective method for accurate analysis of these lipids by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The methanol method was adopted for extraction of lipids due to its simplicity and high efficiency. It was found that two subclasses of sphingolipids, sulfatide (ST) and cerebroside (CB), were heat labile, so a decreased temperature in the ion source of MS might be necessary for these compounds analysis. In addition, it was found that the isobaric interferences were commonly existent, for example, the m/z of 16:0/18:1 PC containing two (13)C isotope being identical to that of 16:0/18:0 PC determined by a unit mass resolution mass spectrometer; therefore, a baseline separation of interferential species was required to maintain selectivity and accuracy of analysis. In this work, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-based method was developed for separation of interferential species. Moreover, in order to deal with the characteristics of different polarity and wide dynamic range of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in biological systems, three detecting conditions were combined together for comprehensive and rational analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was utilized to profile glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistant tumor cells. Our results showed that many lipids were significantly changed in drug resistant tumor cells compared to paired drug sensitive tumor cells. This is a systematic report about the isobaric interferences and heat labile compounds interferences when analyzing glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids by ESI-MS/MS, which aids in ruling out one potential source of systematic error to ensure the accuracy of analysis.

  3. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying; Jensen, Ole N; Dickson, Robert C

    2008-04-18

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1 and Pkh2 protein kinases in vitro. We show that Pkh1 and Pkh2 phosphorylate Pil1 and Lsp1 in vivo to produce species B, and that heat stress, which activates Pkh1 and Pkh2, generates a more highly phosphorylated species, C. Cells with low Pkh activity lack species B and C and contain abnormally organized eisosomes. To verify that Pil1 phosphorylation is essential for correct eisosome organization, phosphorylated serine and threonine residues were identified and changed to alanines. A variant Pil1 protein lacking five phosphorylation sites did not form eisosomes during log phase growth, indicating that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We conclude that eisosome formation and turnover are regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway. These data and previous data showing that endocytosis is regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway suggest that Pkh1 and -2 respond to changes in membrane sphingolipids and transmit this information to eisosomes via Pil1 phosphorylation. Eisosomes then control endocytosis to align the composition and function of the plasma membrane to match demand.

  4. Loss of Inositol Phosphorylceramide Sphingolipid Mannosylation Induces Plant Immune Responses and Reduces Cellulose Content in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshiki; Rennie, Emilie A.; Lao, Jeemeng; Yan, Jingwei; Tsai, Alex Yi-Lin; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Demura, Taku; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ∼25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1, is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1). Sphingolipid analysis revealed that the Arabidopsis thaliana gmt1 mutant almost completely lacks mannose-carrying GIPCs. Heterologous expression of GMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cv Bright Yellow 2 resulted in the production of non-native mannosylated GIPCs. gmt1 displays a severe dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response characterized by elevated salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels, similar to that we previously reported for the Golgi-localized, GIPC-specific, GDP-Man transporter GONST1 (Mortimer et al., 2013). Unexpectedly, we show that gmt1 cell walls have a reduction in cellulose content, although other matrix polysaccharides are unchanged. PMID:27895225

  5. Interfacial regulation of acid ceramidase activity. Stimulation of ceramide degradation by lysosomal lipids and sphingolipid activator proteins.

    PubMed

    Linke, T; Wilkening, G; Sadeghlar, F; Mozcall, H; Bernardo, K; Schuchman, E; Sandhoff, K

    2001-02-23

    The lysosomal degradation of ceramide is catalyzed by acid ceramidase and requires sphingolipid activator proteins (SAP) as cofactors in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate how ceramide is hydrolyzed by acid ceramidase at the water-membrane interface in the presence of sphingolipid activator proteins in a liposomal assay system. The degradation of membrane-bound ceramide was significantly increased both in the absence and presence of SAP-D when anionic lysosomal phospholipids such as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, phosphatidylinositol, and dolichol phosphate were incorporated into substrate-bearing liposomes. Higher ceramide degradation rates were observed in vesicles with increased membrane curvature. Dilution assays indicated that acid ceramidase remained bound to the liposomal surface during catalysis. Not only SAP-D, but also SAP-C and SAP-A, were found to be stimulators of ceramide hydrolysis in the presence of anionic phospholipids. This finding was confirmed by cell culture studies, in which SAP-A, -C, and -D reduced the amount of ceramide storage observed in fibroblasts of a patient suffering from prosaposin deficiency. Strong protein-lipid interactions were observed for both SAP-D and acid ceramidase in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Maximum binding of SAP-D and acid ceramidase to lipid bilayers occurred at pH 4.0. Our results demonstrate that anionic, lysosomal lipids are required for efficient hydrolysis of ceramide by acid ceramidase.

  6. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB1 at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB1 significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB1 (2.5–10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB1 impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB1 might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB1 on the equine hoof in more detail. PMID:27023602

  7. Comprehensive Plasma Metabolomic Analyses of Atherosclerotic Progression Reveal Alterations in Glycerophospholipid and Sphingolipid Metabolism in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Vi T.; Huang, Aric; Zhong, Lexy H.; Shi, Yuanyuan; Werstuck, Geoff H.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of most cardiovascular diseases. Despite recent advances, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of atherogenesis are not clear. In this study, comprehensive plasma metabolomics were used to investigate early-stage atherosclerotic development and progression in chow-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. Comprehensive plasma metabolomic profiles, based on 4365 detected metabolite features, differentiate atherosclerosis-prone from atherosclerosis-resistant models. Metabolites in the sphingomyelin pathway were significantly altered prior to detectable lesion formation and at all subsequent time-points. The cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol pathway was up-regulated during stage I of atherosclerosis, while metabolites in the phosphatidylethanolamine and glycosphingolipid pathways were augmented in mice with stage II lesions. These pathways, involving glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism, were also significantly affected during the course of atherosclerotic progression. Our findings suggest that distinct plasma metabolomic profiles can differentiate the different stages of atherosclerotic progression. This study reveals that alteration of specific, previously unreported pathways of glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism are associated with atherosclerosis. The clear difference in the level of several metabolites supports the use of plasma lipid profiling as a diagnostic tool of atherogenesis. PMID:27721472

  8. A combined fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and 2-photon microscopy approach to re-evaluate the properties of sphingolipid domains.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sandra N; Fernandes, Fábio; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Silva, Liana C; Prieto, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to provide further insight about the interplay between important signaling lipids and to characterize the properties of the lipid domains formed by those lipids in membranes containing distinct composition. To this end, we have used a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy and a stepwise approach to re-evaluate the biophysical properties of sphingolipid domains, particularly lipid rafts and ceramide (Cer)-platforms. By using this strategy we were able to show that, in binary mixtures, sphingolipids (Cer and sphingomyelin, SM) form more tightly packed gel domains than those formed by phospholipids with similar acyl chain length. In more complex lipid mixtures, the interaction between the different lipids is intricate and is strongly dictated by the Cer-to-Chol ratio. The results show that in quaternary phospholipid/SM/Chol/Cer mixtures, Cer forms gel domains that become less packed as Chol is increased. Moreover, the extent of gel phase formation is strongly reduced in these mixtures, even though Cer molar fraction is increased. These results suggest that in biological membranes, lipid domains such as rafts and ceramide platforms, might display distinctive biophysical properties depending on the local lipid composition at the site of the membrane where they are formed, further highlighting the potential role of membrane biophysical properties as an underlying mechanism for mediating specific biological processes.

  9. Inhibition of GM3 Synthase Attenuates Neuropathology of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C by Affecting Sphingolipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Yong Chul; Yang, Song Hyun; Okino, Nozomu; Schuchman, Edward H.; Yamashita, Tadashi; Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2014-01-01

    In several lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C), sphingolipids, including glycosphingolipids, particularly gangliosides, are the predominant storage materials in the brain, raising the possibility that accumulation of these lipids may be involved in the NP-C neurodegenerative process. However, correlation of these accumulations and NP-C neuropathology has not been fully characterized. Here we derived NP-C mice with complete and partial deletion of the Siat9 (encoding GM3 synthase) gene in order to investigate the role of ganglioside in NP-C pathogenesis. According to our results, NPC mice with homozygotic deletion of GM3 synthase exhibited an enhanced neuropathological phenotype and died significantly earlier than NP-C mice. Notably, in contrast to complete depletion, NP-C mice with partial deletion of the GM3 synthase gene showed ameliorated NP-C neuropathology, including motor disability, demyelination, and abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. These findings indicate the crucial role of GM3 synthesis in the NP-C phenotype and progression of CNS pathologic abnormality, suggesting that well-controlled inhibition of GM3 synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:24599001

  10. Sphingolipids Containing Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acids Define a Secretory Pathway for Specific Polar Plasma Membrane Protein Targeting in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Jonathan E.; Molino, Diana; Gissot, Lionel; Bellec, Yannick; Hématy, Kian; Marion, Jessica; Belcram, Katia; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Satiat-JeuneMaître, Béatrice; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a class of structural membrane lipids involved in membrane trafficking and cell polarity. Functional analysis of the ceramide synthase family in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates the existence of two activities selective for the length of the acyl chains. Very-long-acyl-chain (C > 18 carbons) but not long-chain sphingolipids are essential for plant development. Reduction of very-long-chain fatty acid sphingolipid levels leads in particular to auxin-dependent inhibition of lateral root emergence that is associated with selective aggregation of the plasma membrane auxin carriers AUX1 and PIN1 in the cytosol. Defective targeting of polar auxin carriers is characterized by specific aggregation of Rab-A2a– and Rab-A1e–labeled early endosomes along the secretory pathway. These aggregates correlate with the accumulation of membrane structures and vesicle fragmentation in the cytosol. In conclusion, sphingolipids with very long acyl chains define a trafficking pathway with specific endomembrane compartments and polar auxin transport protein cargoes. PMID:21666002

  11. Age-dependent changes in the sphingolipid composition of CD4+ T cell membranes and immune synapses implicate glucosylceramides in age-related T cell dysfunction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipid (SL4) composition can influence the biophysical properties of cell membranes. Additionally, specific SL modulate signaling pathways involved in proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. We investigated age-dependent changes in the SL composition of CD4+ T cells, and the impact of these ...

  12. Effects of inhibitors of key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism on insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in liver cells of old rats.

    PubMed

    Babenko, N A; Kharchenko, V S

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Ceramides are the most potent inhibitors of insulin signal transduction. Ceramides are generated in response to stress stimuli and in old age. In this work, we studied the possible contribution of different pathways of sphingolipid metabolism in age-dependent insulin resistance development in liver cells. Inhibition of key enzymes of sphingolipid synthesis (serine palmitoyl transferase, ceramide synthase) and degradation (neutral and acidic SMases) by means of specific inhibitors (myriocin, fumonisin B1, imipramine, and GW4869) was followed with the reduction of ceramide level and partly improved insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in "old" hepatocytes. Imipramine and GW4869 decreased significantly the acidic and neutral SMase activities, respectively. Treatment of "old" cells with myriocin or fumonisin B1 reduced the elevated in old age ceramide and SM synthesis. Ceramide and SM levels and glucose metabolism regulation by insulin could be improved with concerted action of all tested inhibitors of sphingolipid turnover on hepatocytes. The data demonstrate that not only newly synthesized ceramide and SM but also neutral and acidic SMase-dependent ceramide accumulation plays an important role in development of age-dependent insulin resistance.

  13. Downregulation of the autophagy protein ATG-7 correlates with distinct sphingolipid profile in MCF-7 cells sensitized to photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Separovic, Duska; Kelekar, Ameeta; Tarca, Adi L.; Bielawski, Jacek; Kessel, David

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sphingolipid (SL) profile in autophagy-defective cells and overall cell death after PDT with Pc 4 (PDT). Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with downregulated autophagy protein ATG-7 and their scrambled controls (Scr) were used. Exposure of ATG-7 knockdown cells to PDT led to defective processing of the autophagy marker LC3, and increased overall cell killing. In both cell types PDT evoked an early (2 h) increase in ceramides and dihydroceramides (DHceramides). When the two cell types were compared regarding time (2 and 24 h) and treatment conditions (with and without PDT), the levels of several ceramides and DHceramides were reduced, whereas the concentrations of C14-ceramide, C16-ceramide and C12-DHceramide were higher in ATG-7 knockdown cells. The data imply that the SL profile might be a marker of autophagy-deficiency in cells sensitized to PDT.

  14. A plasma-membrane E-MAP reveals links of the eisosome with sphingolipid metabolism and endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Pablo S; Fröhlich, Florian; Rehman, Michael; Shales, Mike; Ulitsky, Igor; Olivera-Couto, Agustina; Braberg, Hannes; Shamir, Ron; Walter, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Ejsing, Christer S; Krogan, Nevan J; Walther, Tobias C

    2010-07-01

    The plasma membrane delimits the cell and controls material and information exchange between itself and the environment. How different plasma-membrane processes are coordinated and how the relative abundance of plasma-membrane lipids and proteins is homeostatically maintained are not yet understood. Here, we used a quantitative genetic interaction map, or E-MAP, to functionally interrogate a set of approximately 400 genes involved in various aspects of plasma-membrane biology, including endocytosis, signaling, lipid metabolism and eisosome function. From this E-MAP, we derived a set of 57,799 individual interactions between genes functioning in these various processes. Using triplet genetic motif analysis, we identified a new component of the eisosome, Eis1, and linked the poorly characterized gene EMP70 to endocytic and eisosome function. Finally, we implicated Rom2, a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rho1 and Rho2, in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

  15. Differential Sphingolipid and Phospholipid Profiles in Alcohol and Nicotine-Derived Nitrosamine Ketone (NNK) Associated White Matter Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Nunez, Kavin; Tong, Ming; de la Monte, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-mediated neurodegeneration is associated with white matter (WM) atrophy due to targeting of myelin and oligodendrocytes. However, variability in disease severity suggests co-factors contribute to WM degeneration. We examined the potential co-factor role of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), since smoking causes WM atrophy and most heavy drinkers consume tobacco products. Methods This 8-week study of Long Evans rats had 4 treatment groups: control; NNK-2 mg/kg, 3×/wk in Wks 3–8; ethanol (chronic-26% caloric + binge-2 g/kg, 3×/week in Wks 7–8); and ethanol+NNK. Exposure effects on WM lipid biochemical profiles and in situ distributions were examined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and tandem mass spectrometry. Results NNK mainly caused WM fiber degeneration and fiber loss, ethanol caused demyelination, and dual exposures had additive effects. Ethanol and ethanol+NNK decreased WM (including corpus callosum) and/or gray matter (hypothalamus, cortex, medial temporal) levels of several phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and sphingolipid (sulfatide; ST) species, while NNK increased or had minimal effect on these lipids. Ethanol+NNK had broader and larger inhibitory effects on phospholipids and sulfatides than ethanol or NNK alone. Principle component analysis clustered control with NNK, and ethanol with ethanol+NNK groups, highlighting the independent ethanol-rather than NNK-driven responses. Conclusion Chronic ethanol exposures decreased several phospholipid and sphingolipid species in brain, while concomitant NNK exposures exacerbated these effects. These findings support our hypothesis that tobacco smoking is a pathogenic co-factor in alcohol-mediated WM degeneration. PMID:26756797

  16. The Yeast Magmas Ortholog Pam16 Has an Essential Function in Fermentative Growth That Involves Sphingolipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary K.; Hallett, Joshua P.; Tar, Krisztina; Dange, Thomas; Schmidt, Marion; Moir, Robyn; Willis, Ian M.; Jubinsky, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Magmas is a growth factor responsive gene encoding an essential mitochondrial protein in mammalian cells. Pam16, the Magmas ortholog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a component of the presequence translocase-associated motor. A temperature-sensitive allele (pam16-I61N) was used to query an array of non-essential gene-deletion strains for synthetic genetic interactions. The pam16-I61N mutation at ambient temperature caused synthetic lethal or sick phenotypes with genes involved in lipid metabolism, perixosome synthesis, histone deacetylation and mitochondrial protein import. The gene deletion array was also screened for suppressors of the pam16-I61N growth defect to identify compensatory pathways. Five suppressor genes were identified (SUR4, ISC1, IPT1, SKN1, and FEN1) and all are involved in sphingolipid metabolism. pam16-I61N cells cultured in glucose at non-permissive temperatures resulted in rapid growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest, but cell viability was maintained. Altered mitochondria morphology, reduced peroxisome induction in glycerol/ethanol and oleate, and changes in the levels of several sphingolipids including C18 alpha-hydroxy-phytoceramide, were also observed in the temperature sensitive strain. Deletion of SUR4, the strongest suppressor, reversed the temperature sensitive fermentative growth defect, the morphological changes and the elevated levels of C18 alpha-hydroxy phytoceramide in pam16-I61N. Deletion of the other four suppressor genes had similar effects on C18 alpha-hydroxy-phytoceramide levels and restored proliferation to the pam16-I61N strain. In addition, pam16-I61N inhibited respiratory growth, likely by reducing cardiolipin, which is essential for mitochondrial function. Our results suggest that the pleiotropic effects caused by impaired Pam16/Magmas function are mediated in part by changes in lipid metabolism. PMID:22808036

  17. The yeast magmas ortholog pam16 has an essential function in fermentative growth that involves sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Short, Mary K; Hallett, Joshua P; Tar, Krisztina; Dange, Thomas; Schmidt, Marion; Moir, Robyn; Willis, Ian M; Jubinsky, Paul T

    2012-01-01

    Magmas is a growth factor responsive gene encoding an essential mitochondrial protein in mammalian cells. Pam16, the Magmas ortholog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a component of the presequence translocase-associated motor. A temperature-sensitive allele (pam16-I61N) was used to query an array of non-essential gene-deletion strains for synthetic genetic interactions. The pam16-I61N mutation at ambient temperature caused synthetic lethal or sick phenotypes with genes involved in lipid metabolism, perixosome synthesis, histone deacetylation and mitochondrial protein import. The gene deletion array was also screened for suppressors of the pam16-I61N growth defect to identify compensatory pathways. Five suppressor genes were identified (SUR4, ISC1, IPT1, SKN1, and FEN1) and all are involved in sphingolipid metabolism. pam16-I61N cells cultured in glucose at non-permissive temperatures resulted in rapid growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest, but cell viability was maintained. Altered mitochondria morphology, reduced peroxisome induction in glycerol/ethanol and oleate, and changes in the levels of several sphingolipids including C18 alpha-hydroxy-phytoceramide, were also observed in the temperature sensitive strain. Deletion of SUR4, the strongest suppressor, reversed the temperature sensitive fermentative growth defect, the morphological changes and the elevated levels of C18 alpha-hydroxy phytoceramide in pam16-I61N. Deletion of the other four suppressor genes had similar effects on C18 alpha-hydroxy-phytoceramide levels and restored proliferation to the pam16-I61N strain. In addition, pam16-I61N inhibited respiratory growth, likely by reducing cardiolipin, which is essential for mitochondrial function. Our results suggest that the pleiotropic effects caused by impaired Pam16/Magmas function are mediated in part by changes in lipid metabolism.

  18. The Synthetic Amphipathic Peptidomimetic LTX109 Is a Potent Fungicide That Disturbs Plasma Membrane Integrity in a Sphingolipid Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Camilla Eggert; Folkesson, Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The peptidomimetic LTX109 (arginine-tertbutyl tryptophan-arginine-phenylethan) was previously shown to have antibacterial properties. Here, we investigated the activity of this novel antimicrobial peptidomimetic on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that LTX109 was an efficient fungicide that killed all viable cells in an exponentially growing population as well as a large proportion of cells in biofilm formed on an abiotic surface. LTX109 had similar killing kinetics to the membrane-permeabilizing fungicide amphotericin B, which led us to investigate the ability of LTX109 to disrupt plasma membrane integrity. S. cerevisiae cells exposed to a high concentration of LTX109 showed rapid release of potassium and amino acids, suggesting that LTX109 acted by destabilizing the plasma membrane. This was supported by the finding that cells were permeable to the fluorescent nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green after a few minutes of LTX109 treatment. We screened a haploid S. cerevisiae gene deletion library for mutants resistant to LTX109 to uncover potential molecular targets. Eight genes conferred LTX109 resistance when deleted and six were involved in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway (SUR1, SUR2, SKN1, IPT1, FEN1 and ORM2). The involvement of all of these genes in the biosynthetic pathway for the fungal-specific lipids mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and mannosyl di-(inositol phosphoryl) ceramide (M(IP)2C) suggested that these lipids were essential for LTX109 sensitivity. Our observations are consistent with a model in which LTX109 kills S. cerevisiae by nonspecific destabilization of the plasma membrane through direct or indirect interaction with the sphingolipids. PMID:23874964

  19. Evaluation of the change in sphingolipids in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 treated with arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Guangji; Shen, Li; Zhou, Liting; Yu, Yu; Zhu, Fanfan; Chen, Zhe

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been found to display anticancer activity against many types of tumors and has been developed into an anticancer drug in clinical treatments. Sphingolipids are membrane lipids that participate in many signal transduction pathways. In this paper, the changes in sphingolipids of the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and the gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 treated with arsenic trioxide were investigated using an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Analytes were separated by an XBridge BEH C8 column used for Cer, HexCer, LacCer and SM chromatographic separation, and a Capcell PAK MG II C18 column was used for Sph, dhSph, S1P and dhS1P chromatographic separation and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase. A tandem mass spectrometer QTrap in SRM mode was employed in combination with RPLC as a detector for quantitative analysis. The ceramide/sphingolipid internal standard (IS) mixture was used to quantify the levels of sphingolipids. The distributions of sphingolipids were found to be different in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and the gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Ceramide (Cer), hexosylceramide (HexCer) and dihexosylceramide (Hex2Cer) levels in U266 cell line are higher than those in MGC-803 cell line. Additionally, sphingomyelin (SM), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (dhS1P) levels in the MGC-803 cell line are higher than those in the U266 cell line. When treated with arsenic trioxide (1-5μM iAs(III)(As(III) ions)), the levels of Hex2Cer in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 decreased, and the levels of S1P and dhS1P in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 decreased. The decrease of Hex2Cer, S1P and dhS1P in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 were observed when the concentration of iAs(III) is 1.0μM. Therefore, arsenic trioxide exhibits anti-cancer activity by altering the sphingolipid pathway in the

  20. Prosaposin Deficiency and Saposin B Deficiency (Activator-Deficient Metachromatic Leukodystrophy): Report on Two Patients Detected by Analysis of Urinary Sphingolipids and Carrying Novel PSAP Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kuchař, Ladislav; Ledvinová, Jana; Hřebíček, Martin; Myšková, Helena; Dvořáková, Lenka; Berná, Linda; Chrastina, Petr; Asfaw, Befekadu; Elleder, Milan; Petermöller, Margret; Mayrhofer, Heidi; Staudt, Martin; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Paton, Barbara C; Harzer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Prosaposin deficiency (pSap-d) and saposin B deficiency (SapB-d) are both lipid storage disorders caused by mutations in the PSAP gene that codes for the 65–70 kDa prosaposin protein, which is the precursor for four sphingolipid activator proteins, saposins A–D. We report on two new patients with PSAP gene defects; one, with pSap-d, who had a severe neurovisceral dystrophy and died as a neonate, and the other with SapB-d, who presented with a metachromatic leukodystrophy-like disorder but had normal arylsulfatase activity. Screening for urinary sphingolipids was crucial to the diagnosis of both patients, with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry also providing quantification. The pSap-d patient is the first case with this condition where urinary sphingolipids have been investigated. Multiple sphingolipids were elevated, with globotriaosylceramide showing the greatest increase. Both patients had novel mutations in the PSAP gene. The pSap-d patient was homozygous for a splice-acceptor site mutation two bases upstream of exon 10. This mutation led to a premature stop codon and yielded low levels of transcript. The SapB-d patient was a compound heterozygote with a splice-acceptor site variant exclusively affecting the SapB domain on one allele, and a 2 bp deletion leading to a null, that is, pSap-d mutation, on the other allele. Phenotypically, pSap-d is a relatively uniform disease of the neonate, whereas SapB-d is heterogeneous with a spectrum similar to that in metachromatic leukodystrophy. The possible existence of genotypes and phenotypes intermediate between those of pSap-d and the single saposin deficiencies is speculated. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19267410

  1. HPTLC-MALDI MS for (glyco)sphingolipid multiplexing in tissues and blood: A promising strategy for biomarker discovery and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Enrica; Fania, Chiara; Vasso, Michele; Gelfi, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Sphingolipids have hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, different saturation and combination of the oligosaccharide chains and mass homology of species located in a narrow m/z region hampering their recognition. To target sphingolipids for diagnostic purposes, standardized methods for lipid extraction, quali- and quantitative assessments are required. In this study, HPTLC-MALDI MS was adopted to establish sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid profiles in muscle, brain and serum to create a database of molecules to be searched in the preclinical and clinical investigations. Specific protocols for lipid extraction were set up based on the characteristics of the tissue or/and fluids; this approach maximizes the HPTLC-MALDI MS analytical throughput both for lipids extracted in organic and aqueous phase. This study indicates that alkaline hydrolysis is necessary for the detection of low abundant species such as Gb3Cer and ceramides in serum and Gb4Cer, CerP and HexCer in muscle tissue. The high hydrophobicity of ceramides has been overcome by the development of HPTLC plate in chloroform:methanol/50:3.5, which increases the number and the intensity of low abundant Cer species. MS/MS analysis has been conducted directly on HPTLC plate allowing the molecular recognition; furthermore a dataset of spectra was acquired to create a database for future profiling of these molecules.

  2. Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Tomomi; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Sase, Yurie; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for their transports. Sodium azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment inhibited import of LCFA but not that of LCB. Furthermore, the ATP-AMP motif mutation FAA1 S271A largely impaired the metabolic activity and LCFA uptake, while leaving LCB import unaffected. These results indicate that only LCFA transport requires ATP. Since ACSs do not metabolize LCBs as substrates, Faa1 and Faa4 are likely directly involved in LCB transport. Furthermore, we revealed that ACSs are also involved in LCB transport in mammalian cells. Thus, our findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACSs directly transport LCFAs. PMID:27136724

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Intercepts Golgi-Derived Sphingolipids through a Rab14-Mediated Transport Required for Bacterial Development and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Capmany, Anahí; Damiani, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation. PMID:21124879

  4. Structure and Nanomechanics of Model Membranes by Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Insights into the Role of Cholesterol and Sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Gumí-Audenis, Berta; Costa, Luca; Carlá, Francesco; Comin, Fabio; Sanz, Fausto; Giannotti, Marina I

    2016-12-19

    Biological membranes mediate several biological processes that are directly associated with their physical properties but sometimes difficult to evaluate. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are model systems widely used to characterize the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol (Chol) plays an essential role in the modulation of membrane physical properties. It directly influences the order and mechanical stability of the lipid bilayers, and it is known to laterally segregate in rafts in the outer leaflet of the membrane together with sphingolipids (SLs). Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance and force resolution at the nanoscale, and in a controlled environment. AFM-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has become a crucial technique to study the nanomechanical stability of SLBs by controlling the liquid media and the temperature variations. In this contribution, we review recent AFM and AFM-FS studies on the effect of Chol on the morphology and mechanical properties of model SLBs, including complex bilayers containing SLs. We also introduce a promising combination of AFM and X-ray (XR) techniques that allows for in situ characterization of dynamic processes, providing structural, morphological, and nanomechanical information.

  5. Structure and Nanomechanics of Model Membranes by Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Insights into the Role of Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Gumí-Audenis, Berta; Costa, Luca; Carlá, Francesco; Comin, Fabio; Sanz, Fausto; Giannotti, Marina I.

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes mediate several biological processes that are directly associated with their physical properties but sometimes difficult to evaluate. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are model systems widely used to characterize the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol (Chol) plays an essential role in the modulation of membrane physical properties. It directly influences the order and mechanical stability of the lipid bilayers, and it is known to laterally segregate in rafts in the outer leaflet of the membrane together with sphingolipids (SLs). Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance and force resolution at the nanoscale, and in a controlled environment. AFM-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has become a crucial technique to study the nanomechanical stability of SLBs by controlling the liquid media and the temperature variations. In this contribution, we review recent AFM and AFM-FS studies on the effect of Chol on the morphology and mechanical properties of model SLBs, including complex bilayers containing SLs. We also introduce a promising combination of AFM and X-ray (XR) techniques that allows for in situ characterization of dynamic processes, providing structural, morphological, and nanomechanical information. PMID:27999368

  6. Apical sorting of bovine enteropeptidase does not involve detergent-resistant association with sphingolipid-cholesterol rafts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Lu, D; Sadler, J E

    1999-01-15

    Enteropeptidase is a heterodimeric type II membrane protein of the brush border of duodenal enterocytes. In this location, enteropeptidase cleaves and activates trypsinogen, thereby initiating the activation of other intestinal digestive enzymes. Recombinant bovine enteropeptidase was sorted directly to the apical surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Replacement of the cytoplasmic and signal anchor domains with a cleavable signal peptide (mutant proenteropeptidase lacking the amino-terminal signal anchor domain (dSA-BEK)) caused apical secretion. The additional amino-terminal deletion of a mucin-like domain (HL-BEK) resulted in secretion both apically and basolaterally. Further deletion of the noncatalytic heavy chain (L-BEK) resulted in apical secretion. Thus enteropeptidase appears to have at least three distinct sorting signals as follows: the light chain (L-BEK) directs apical sorting, addition of most of the heavy chain (HL-BEK) inhibits apical sorting, and addition of the mucin-like domain (dSA-BEK) restores apical sorting. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation with tunicamycin or disruption of microtubules with colchicine caused L-BEK to be secreted equally into apical and basolateral compartments, whereas brefeldin A caused basolateral secretion of L-BEK. Full-length BEK was not found in detergent-resistant raft domains of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells or baby hamster kidney cells. These results suggest apical sorting of enteropeptidase depends on N-linked glycosylation of the serine protease domain and an amino-terminal segment that includes an O-glycosylated mucin-like domain and three potential N-glycosylation sites. In contrast to many apically targeted proteins, enteropeptidase does not form detergent-resistant associations with sphingolipid-cholesterol rafts.

  7. FTY720/fingolimod increases NPC1 and NPC2 expression and reduces cholesterol and sphingolipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C mutant fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jason; Hait, Nitai C; Maceyka, Michael; Colaco, Alexandria; Maczis, Melissa; Wassif, Christopher A; Cougnoux, Antony; Porter, Forbes D; Milstien, Sheldon; Platt, Nicholas; Platt, Frances M; Spiegel, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 with decreased functions leading to lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. FTY720/fingolimod, used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated by nuclear sphingosine kinase 2, and its active phosphorylated form (FTY720-P) is an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases. In this study, administration of clinically relevant doses of FTY720 to mice increased expression of NPC1 and -2 in brain and liver and decreased cholesterol in an SphK2-dependent manner. FTY720 greatly increased expression of NPC1 and -2 in human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts that correlated with formation of FTY720-P and significantly reduced the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. In agreement with this finding, FTY720 pretreatment of human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts restored transport of the cholera toxin B subunit, which binds ganglioside GM1, to the Golgi apparatus. Together, these findings suggest that FTY720 administration can ameliorate cholesterol and sphingolipid storage and trafficking defects in NPC1 mutant fibroblasts. Because neurodegeneration is the main clinical feature of NPC disease, and FTY720 accumulates in the CNS and has several advantages over available histone deacetylase inhibitors now in clinical trials, our work provides a potential opportunity for treatment of this incurable disease.-Newton, J., Hait, N. C., Maceyka, M., Colaco, A., Maczis, M., Wassif, C. A., Cougnoux, A., Porter, F. D., Milstien, S., Platt, N., Platt, F. M., Spiegel, S. FTY720/fingolimod increases NPC1 and NPC2 expression and reduces cholesterol and sphingolipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C mutant fibroblasts.

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  9. Genetic, biochemical, and transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the novel immunomodulator FTY720 largely mimic those of the natural sphingolipid phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Carole A; Roth, Lukas W A; Goetschy, Jean François; Movva, N Rao

    2004-08-27

    Sphingolipids are signaling molecules that influence diverse cellular functions from control of the cell cycle to degradation of plasma membrane proteins. The synthetic sphingolipid-like compound FTY720 is an immunomodulating agent in clinical trials for transplant graft maintenance. In this report, we compare the effects of the natural yeast sphingolipid phytosphingosine with FTY720 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the multicopy suppressor genes that induce growth resistance to FTY720 also confer resistance to growth-inhibitory concentrations of phytosphingosine. In addition, mutants for ubiquitination pathway proteins are shown to be resistant to the growth-inhibiting effect of both FTY720 and phytosphingosine. We observe fewer similarities between sphingosine and FTY720 than between FTY720 and phytosphingosine as revealed by genetic studies. Yeast cells lacking the specific sphingosine kinase LCB4 are sensitive to phytosphingosine and FTY720 but resistant to sphingosine, suggesting that FTY720 and phytosphingosine have a more related mechanism of action. Gene expression profile comparisons of sensitive and resistant yeast cells exposed to FTY720 and phytosphingosine highlight a number of similarities. In response to treatment with these compounds, approximately 77% of the genes that are regulated >2-fold by FTY720 also respond to phytosphingosine in the same direction in the parent strain. In addition, a close inspection of TAT1 and TAT2 transporters following exposure to phytosphingosine indicates that TAT1 protein is degraded in a similar fashion upon treatment with FTY720 and phytosphingosine. There were differences, however, with respect to the TAT2 protein level and the expression profiles of a subset of genes. The genetic, transcriptional, and biochemical data together indicate that FTY720 and phytosphingosine influence similar pathways in yeast cells. These findings offer further insights into the physiological pathways influenced by these

  10. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18-C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18-C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys.

  11. The effect of the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P on multipotent stromal cells--new opportunities in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Jeleń, Marta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Grzesiak, Jakub; Meissner, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) belong to a family of bioactive sphingolipids that act as important extracellular signaling molecules and chemoattractants. This study investigated the influence of S1P and C1P on the morphology, proliferation activity and osteogenic properties of rat multipotent stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs). We show that S1P and C1P can influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), each in a different manner. S1P stimulation promoted the formation of cellular aggregates of BMSCs and ASCs, while C1P had an effect on the regular growth pattern and expanded intercellular connections, thereby increasing the proliferative activity. Although osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced by the addition of S1P, the effectiveness of osteoblast differentiation was more evident in BMSCs, particularly when biochemical and molecular marker levels were considered. The results of the functional osteogenic differentiation assay, which includes an evaluation of the efficiency of extracellular matrix mineralization (SEM-EDX), revealed the formation of numerous mineral aggregates in BMSC cultures stimulated with S1P. Our data demonstrated that in an appropriate combination, the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P may find wide application in regenerative medicine, particularly in bone regeneration with the use of MSCs.

  12. Effects of stereochemistry, saturation, and hydrocarbon chain length on the ability of synthetic constrained azacyclic sphingolipids to trigger nutrient transporter down-regulation, vacuolation, and cell death.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Michael S; Tessier, Jérémie; Wiher, Timothy; O'Donoghue, Heather; McCracken, Alison N; Kim, Seong M; Nguyen, Dean G; Simitian, Grigor S; Viana, Matheus; Rafelski, Susanne; Edinger, Aimee L; Hanessian, Stephen

    2016-09-15

    Constrained analogs containing a 2-hydroxymethylpyrrolidine core of the natural sphingolipids sphingosine, sphinganine, N,N-dimethylsphingosine and N-acetyl variants of sphingosine and sphinganine (C2-ceramide and dihydro-C2-ceramide) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to down-regulate nutrient transporter proteins and trigger cytoplasmic vacuolation in mammalian cells. In cancer cells, the disruptions in intracellular trafficking produced by these sphingolipids lead to cancer cell death by starvation. Structure activity studies were conducted by varying the length of the hydrocarbon chain, the degree of unsaturation and the presence or absence of an aryl moiety on the appended chains, and stereochemistry at two stereogenic centers. In general, cytotoxicity was positively correlated with nutrient transporter down-regulation and vacuolation. This study was intended to identify structural and functional features in lead compounds that best contribute to potency, and to develop chemical biology tools that could be used to isolate the different protein targets responsible for nutrient transporter loss and cytoplasmic vacuolation. A molecule that produces maximal vacuolation and transporter loss is expected to have the maximal anti-cancer activity and would be a lead compound.

  13. Co-option of the sphingolipid metabolism for the production of nitroalkene defensive chemicals in termite soldiers.

    PubMed

    Jirošová, Anna; Jančařík, Andrej; Menezes, Riya C; Bazalová, Olga; Dolejšová, Klára; Vogel, Heiko; Jedlička, Pavel; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Majer, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Svatoš, Aleš

    2017-01-23

    The aliphatic nitroalkene (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene (NPD), reported in early seventies in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first documented nitro compound produced by insects. Yet, its biosynthetic origin has long remained unknown. Here, we investigated in detail the biosynthesis of NPD in P. simplex soldiers. First, we track the dynamics in major metabolic pathways during soldier ontogeny, with emphasis on likely NPD precursors and intermediates. Second, we propose a hypothesis of NPD formation and verify its individual steps using in vivo incubations of putative precursors and intermediates. Third, we use a de novo assembled RNA-Seq profiles of workers and soldiers to identify putative enzymes underlying NPD formation. And fourth, we describe the caste- and age-specific expression dynamics of candidate initial genes of the proposed biosynthetic pathway. Our observations provide a strong support to the following biosynthetic scenario of NPD formation, representing an analogy of the sphingolipid pathway starting with the condensation of tetradecanoic acid with l-serine and leading to the formation of a C16 sphinganine. The C16 sphinganine is then oxidized at the terminal carbon to give rise to 2-amino-3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, further oxidized to 2-amino-3-oxohexadecanoic acid. Subsequent decarboxylation yields 1-aminopentadecan-2-one, which then proceeds through six-electron oxidation of the amino moiety to give rise to 1-nitropentadecan-2-one. Keto group reduction and hydroxyl moiety elimination lead to NPD. The proposed biosynthetic sequence has been constructed from age-related quantitative dynamics of individual intermediates and confirmed by the detection of labeled products downstream of the administered labeled intermediates. Comparative RNA-Seq analyses followed by qRT-PCR validation identified orthologs of serine palmitoyltransferase and 3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase genes as highly expressed in the NPD production site, i

  14. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Harrell, Tyler S.; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129–1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  15. Altering sphingolipid composition with aging induces contractile dysfunction of gastric smooth muscle via K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Shinkyu; Kim, Ji Aee; Kim, Tae Hun; Li, Hai-Yan; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon; Oh, Seikwan; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2015-12-01

    K(Ca) 1.1 regulates smooth muscle contractility by modulating membrane potential, and age-associated changes in K(Ca) 1.1 expression may contribute to the development of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important structural components of cellular membranes whose altered composition may affect K(Ca) 1.1 expression. Thus, in this study, we examined whether altered SL composition due to aging may affect the contractility of gastric smooth muscle (GSM). We studied changes in ceramide synthases (CerS) and SL levels in the GSM of mice of varying ages and compared them with those in young CerS2-null mice. The levels of C16- and C18-ceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were increased, and levels of C22, C24:1 and C24 ceramides were decreased in the GSM of both aged wild-type and young CerS2-null mice. The altered SL composition upregulated K(Ca) 1.1 and increased K(Ca) 1.1 currents, while no change was observed in K(Ca) 1.1 channel activity. The upregulation of KC a 1.1 impaired intracellular Ca²⁺mobilization and decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain levels, causing GSM contractile dysfunction. Additionally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase Cζ , c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and nuclear factor kappa-B were found to be involved in K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that age-associated changes in SL composition or CerS2 ablation upregulate K(Ca) 1.1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase Cζ /c-Jun N-terminal kinases/nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated pathway and impair Ca²⁺ mobilization, which thereby induces the contractile dysfunction of GSM. CerS2-null mice exhibited similar effects to aged wild-type mice; therefore, CerS2-null mouse models may be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of aging-associated motility disorders.

  16. Reproductive and sphingolipid metabolic effects of fumonisin B1 and its alkaline hydrolysis product in LM/Bc mice: hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 did not cause neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides. They are toxic to animals and exert their effects through mechanisms involving disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisins and their hydrolyzed analogues are found in alkaline-cooked, maize-based foods such as tortillas and the c...

  17. A non-glycosylated and functionally deficient mutant (N215H) of the sphingolipid activator protein B (SAP-B) in a novel case of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD).

    PubMed

    Wrobe, D; Henseler, M; Huettler, S; Pascual Pascual, S I; Chabas, A; Sandhoff, K

    2000-02-01

    The lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains depends on small glycosylated non-enzymatic sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs, saposins). Four of the five known SAPs, SAP-A, -B, -C and -D, are derived by proteolytic processing from a common precursor protein (SAP-precursor) that is encoded by a gene on chromosome 10 consisting of 15 exons and 14 introns. SAP-B is a non-specific glycolipid binding protein that stimulates in vitro the hydrolysis of about 20 glycolipids by different enzymes. In vivo SAP-B stimulates in particular the degradation of sulphatides by arylsulphatase A. So far, four different point mutations have been identified on the SAP-B domain of the SAP-precursor gene. The mutations result in a loss of mature SAP-B, causing the lysosomal accumulation of sulphatides and other sphingolipids, resulting in variant forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Here we report on a patient with SAP-B deficiency that is caused by a new homoallelic point mutation that has been identified by mRNA and DNA analysis. A 643A > C transversion results in the exchange of asparagine 215 to histidine and eliminates the single glycosylation site of SAP-B. Metabolic labelling experiments showed that the mutation had no effect on the intracellular transport of the encoded precursor to the acidic compartments and its maturation in the patient's cells. All four SAPs (SAP-A to SAP-D) were detectable by immunochemical methods. SAP-B in the patient's cells was found to be slightly less stable than the protein in normal cells and corresponded in size to the deglycosylated form of the wild-type SAP-B. Feeding studies with non-glycosylated SAP-precursor, generating non-glycosylated SAP-B, showed that the loss of the carbohydrate chain reduced the intracellular activity of the protein significantly. The additional structural change of the patient's SAP-B, caused by the change of amino acid 215 from asparagine to histidine, presumably resulted in an

  18. Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis improves dyslipidemia in the diet-induced hamster model of insulin resistance: evidence for the role of sphingosine and sphinganine in hepatic VLDL-apoB100 overproduction.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Mark J; Baker, Chris; Naples, Mark; Samsoondar, Josh; Zhang, Rianna; Qiu, Wei; Sacco, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-05-01

    Sphingolipids have emerged as important bioactive lipid species involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known of the regulatory role of sphingolipids in dyslipidemia of insulin-resistant states. We employed hamster models of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance to investigate the role of sphingolipids in hepatic VLDL overproduction, induction of insulin resistance, and inflammation. Hamsters were fed either a control chow diet, a high fructose diet, or a diet high in fat, fructose and cholesterol (FFC diet). They were then treated for 2 weeks with vehicle or 0.3 mg/kg myriocin, a potent inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Both fructose and FFC feeding induced significant increases in hepatic sphinganine, which was normalized to chow-fed levels with myriocin (P < 0.05); myriocin also lowered hepatic ceramide content (P < 0.05). Plasma TG and cholesterol as well as VLDL-TG and -apoB100 were similarly reduced with myriocin treatment in all hamsters, regardless of diet. Myriocin treatment also led to improved insulin sensitivity and reduced hepatic SREBP-1c mRNA, though it did not appear to ameliorate the activation of hepatic inflammatory pathways. Importantly, direct treatment of primary hamster hepatocytes ex vivo with C2 ceramide or sphingosine led to an increased secretion of newly synthesized apoB100. Taken together, these data suggest that a) hepatic VLDL-apoB100 overproduction may be stimulated by ceramides and sphingosine and b) inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis can reduce circulating VLDL in hamsters and improve circulating lipids--an effect that is possibly due to improved insulin signaling and reduced lipogenesis but is independent of changes in inflammation.

  19. Modification of sphingolipid metabolism by tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen in acute myelogenous leukemia--Impact on enzyme activity and response to cytotoxics.

    PubMed

    Morad, Samy A F; Tan, Su-Fern; Feith, David J; Kester, Mark; Claxton, David F; Loughran, Thomas P; Barth, Brian M; Fox, Todd E; Cabot, Myles C

    2015-07-01

    The triphenylethylene antiestrogen, tamoxifen, can be an effective inhibitor of sphingolipid metabolism. This off-target activity makes tamoxifen an interesting ancillary for boosting the apoptosis-inducing properties of ceramide, a sphingolipid with valuable tumor censoring activity. Here we show for the first time that tamoxifen and metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (DMT), block ceramide glycosylation and inhibit ceramide hydrolysis (by acid ceramidase, AC) in human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines and in AML cells derived from patients. Tamoxifen (1-10 μM) inhibition of AC in AML cells was accompanied by decreases in AC protein expression. Tamoxifen also depressed expression and activity of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme-catalyzing production of mitogenic sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1-P). Results from mass spectroscopy showed that tamoxifen and DMT (i) increased the levels of endogenous C16:0 and C24:1 ceramide molecular species, (ii) nearly totally halted production of respective glucosylceramide (GC) molecular species, (iii) drastically reduced levels of sphingosine (to 9% of control), and (iv) reduced levels of S1-P by 85%, in vincristine-resistant HL-60/VCR cells. The co-administration of tamoxifen with either N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), a ceramide-generating retinoid, or a cell-deliverable form of ceramide, C6-ceramide, resulted in marked decreases in HL-60/VCR cell viability that far exceeded single agent potency. Combination treatments resulted in synergistic apoptotic cell death as gauged by increased Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. These results show the versatility of adjuvant triphenylethylene with ceramide-centric therapies for magnifying therapeutic potential in AML. Such drug regimens could serve as effective strategies, even in the multidrug-resistant setting.

  20. Impact of insulin deprivation and treatment on sphingolipid distribution in different muscle subcellular compartments of streptozotocin-diabetic C57Bl/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Zabielski, Piotr; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Lanza, Ian R.; Gopala, Srinivas; Manjunatha, S.; Jakaitis, Daniel R.; Persson, Xuan-Mai; Gransee, Jaime; Klaus, Katherine A.; Schimke, Jill M.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin deprivation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) individuals increases lipolysis and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration, which can stimulate synthesis of intramyocellular bioactive lipids such as ceramides (Cer) and long-chain fatty acid-CoAs (LCFa-CoAs). Ceramide was shown to decrease muscle insulin sensitivity, and at mitochondrial levels it stimulates reactive oxygen species production. Here, we show that insulin deprivation in streptozotocin diabetic C57BL/6 mice increases quadriceps muscle Cer content, which was correlated with a concomitant decrease in the body fat and increased plasma FFA, glycosylated hemoglobin level (%Hb A1c), and muscular LCFa-CoA content. The alternations were accompanied by an increase in protein expression in LCFa-CoA and Cer synthesis (FATP1/ACSVL5, CerS1, CerS5), a decrease in the expression of genes implicated in muscle insulin sensitivity (GLUT4, GYS1), and inhibition of insulin signaling cascade by Aktα and GYS3β phosphorylation under acute insulin stimulation. Both the content and composition of sarcoplasmic fraction sphingolipids were most affected by insulin deprivation, whereas mitochondrial fraction sphingolipids remained stable. The observed effects of insulin deprivation were reversed, except for content and composition of LCFa-CoA, CerS protein expression, GYS1 gene expression, and phosphorylation status of Akt and GYS3β when exogenous insulin was provided by subcutaneous insulin implants. Principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis revealed close relationships between the features of the diabetic phenotype, the content of LCFa-CoAs and Cers containing C18-fatty acids in sarcoplasm, but not in mitochondria. Insulin replacement did not completely rescue the phenotype, especially regarding the content of LCFa-CoA, or proteins implicated in Cer synthesis and muscle insulin sensitivity. These persistent changes might contribute to muscle insulin resistance observed in T1D individuals. PMID:24368672

  1. Modification of sphingolipid metabolism by tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen in acute myelogenous leukemia – Impact on enzyme activity and response to cytotoxics

    PubMed Central

    Morad, Samy A. F.; Tan, Su-Fern; Feith, David J.; Kester, Mark; Claxton, David F.; Loughran, Thomas P.; Barth, Brian M.; Fox, Todd E.; Cabot, Myles C.

    2015-01-01

    The triphenylethylene antiestrogen, tamoxifen, can be an effective inhibitor of sphingolipid metabolism. This off-target activity makes tamoxifen an interesting ancillary for boosting the apoptosis-inducing properties of ceramide, a sphingolipid with valuable tumor censoring activity. Here we show for the first time that tamoxifen and metabolite, N –desmethyltamoxifen (DMT) block ceramide glycosylation and inhibit ceramide hydrolysis (by acid ceramidase, AC) in human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines and in AML cells derived from patients. Tamoxifen (1-10 μM) inhibition of AC in AML cells was accompanied by decreases in AC protein expression. Tamoxifen also depressed expression and activity of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme catalyzing production of mitogenic sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1-P). Results from mass spectroscopy showed that tamoxifen and DMT, i ) increased the levels of endogenous C16:0- and C24:1 ceramide molecular species, ii) nearly totally halted production of respective glucosylceramide (GC) molecular species, iii ) drastically reduced levels of sphingosine ( to 9% of control), and iv ) reduced levels of S1-P by 85%, in vincristine-resistant HL-60/VCR cells. Co-administration of tamoxifen with either N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), a ceramide-generating retinoid, or a cell-deliverable form of ceramide, C6-ceramide, resulted in marked decreases in HL-60/VCR cell viability that far exceeded single agent potency. Combination treatments resulted in synergistic apoptotic cell death as gauged by increased Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. These results show the versatility of adjuvant triphenylethylene with ceramide-centric therapies for magnifying therapeutic potential in AML. Such drug regimens could serve as effective strategies, even in the multidrug resistant setting. PMID:25769964

  2. Fumonisins disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube development in embryo culture and in vivo: a potential risk factor for human neural tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin-contaminated maize.

    PubMed

    Marasas, Walter F O; Riley, Ronald T; Hendricks, Katherine A; Stevens, Victoria L; Sadler, Thomas W; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Missmer, Stacey A; Cabrera, Julio; Torres, Olga; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Allegood, Jeremy; Martínez, Carolina; Maddox, Joyce; Miller, J David; Starr, Lois; Sullards, M Cameron; Roman, Ana Victoria; Voss, Kenneth A; Wang, Elaine; Merrill, Alfred H

    2004-04-01

    Fumonisins are a family of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme), a common fungal contaminant of maize. Fumonisins inhibit ceramide synthase, causing accumulation of bioactive intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism (sphinganine and other sphingoid bases and derivatives) as well as depletion of complex sphingolipids, which interferes with the function of some membrane proteins, including the folate-binding protein (human folate receptor alpha). Fumonisin causes neural tube and craniofacial defects in mouse embryos in culture. Many of these effects are prevented by supplemental folic acid. Recent studies in LMBc mice found that fumonisin exposure in utero increases the frequency of developmental defects and administration of folate or a complex sphingolipid is preventive. High incidences of neural tube defects (NTD) occur in some regions of the world where substantial consumption of fumonisins has been documented or plausibly suggested (Guatemala, South Africa, and China); furthermore, a recent study of NTD in border counties of Texas found a significant association between NTD and consumption of tortillas during the first trimester. Hence, we propose that fumonisins are potential risk factors for NTD, craniofacial anomalies, and other birth defects arising from neural crest cells because of their apparent interference with folate utilization.

  3. Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent DNase involvement in apoptotic effects in spermatozoa of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius induced by two-headed sphingolipid rhizochalin.

    PubMed

    Sibirtsev, Juriy T; Shastina, Valeria V; Menzorova, Natalia I; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Rasskazov, Valeriy A

    2011-06-01

    Previously, we have purified three distinct DNases from spermatozoa of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and we suppose the role of Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-dependent DNase (Ca, Mg-DNase) in apoptosis of spermatozoa. Two-headed sphingolipid rhizochalin (Rhz) induced characteristic apoptotic nuclear chromatin changes, internucleosomal DNA cleavage, and activation of caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 in spermatozoa as was shown by fluorescence Hoechst 33342/PI/FDA analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and fluorescence caspase inhibitors FAM-LEHD-fmk, FAM-IETD-fmk, and FAM-DEVD-fmk, respectively. Inhibitor of caspase-3 z-DEVD-fmk subdued Rhz-induced internucleosomal ladder formation, which confirmed the major role of caspase-3 in apoptotic DNA cleavage probably through Ca, Mg-DNase activation. Participation of sea urchin Ca, Mg-DNase in apoptosis of spermatozoa was demonstrated by ions Zn(2+) blocking of Rhz-induced DNA fragmentation due to direct inhibition of the Ca, Mg-DNase and internucleosomal cleavage of HeLa S and Vero E6 cell nuclei chromatin by highly purified Ca, Mg-DNase.

  4. DHA-mediated enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells is associated with engagement of mitochondria and specific alterations in sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skender, Belma; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Slavík, Josef; Jelínková, Iva; Machala, Miroslav; Moyer, Mary Pat; Kozubík, Alois; Hyršlová Vaculová, Alena

    2014-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, may exert cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells when applied individually or in combination with some anticancer drugs. Here we demonstrate a selective ability of subtoxic doses of DHA to enhance antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of clinically useful cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in cancer but not normal human colon cells. DHA-mediated stimulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis was associated with extensive engagement of mitochondrial pathway (Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release), activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response (CHOP upregulation, changes in PERK level), decrease of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, cIAP1) levels and significant changes in sphingolipid metabolism (intracellular levels of ceramides, hexosyl ceramides, sphingomyelines, sphingosines; HPLC/MS/MS). Interestingly, we found significant differences in representation of various classes of ceramides (especially C16:0, C24:1) between the cancer and normal colon cells treated with DHA and TRAIL, and suggested their potential role in the regulation of the cell response to the drug combination. These study outcomes highlight the potential of DHA for a new combination therapy with TRAIL for selective elimination of colon cancer cells via simultaneous targeting of multiple steps in apoptotic pathways.

  5. The role of the trans double bond in skin barrier sphingolipids: permeability and infrared spectroscopic study of model ceramide and dihydroceramide membranes.

    PubMed

    Skolová, Barbora; Jandovská, Kateřina; Pullmannová, Petra; Tesař, Ondřej; Roh, Jaroslav; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2014-05-20

    Dihydroceramides (dCer) are members of the sphingolipid family that lack the C4 trans double bond in their sphingoid backbone. In addition to being precursors of ceramides (Cer) and phytoceramides, dCer have also been found in the extracellular lipid membranes of the epidermal barrier, the stratum corneum. However, their role in barrier homeostasis is not known. We studied how the lack of the trans double bond in dCer compared to Cer influences the permeability, lipid chain order, and packing of multilamellar membranes composed of the major skin barrier lipids: (d)Cer, fatty acids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl sulfate. The permeability of the membranes with long-chain dCer was measured using various markers and was either comparable to or only slightly greater than (by up to 35%, not significant) that of the Cer membranes. The dCer were less sensitive to acyl chain shortening than Cer (the short dCer membranes were up to 6-fold less permeable that the corresponding short Cer membranes). Infrared spectroscopy showed that long dCer mixed less with fatty acids but formed more thermally stable ordered domains than Cer. The key parameter explaining the differences in permeability in the short dCer and Cer was the proportion of the orthorhombic phase. Our results suggest that the presence of the trans double bond in Cer is not crucial for the permeability of skin lipid membranes and that dCer may be underappreciated members of the stratum corneum lipid barrier that increase its heterogeneity.

  6. Enhanced killing of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after photodynamic therapy plus fenretinide via the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2015-05-01

    Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone is not always effective as an anticancer treatment, PDT is combined with other anticancer agents for improved efficacy. The clinically-relevant fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4HPR], was combined with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc4-mediated PDT to test for their potential to enhance killing of SCC17B cells, a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because each of these treatments induces apoptosis and regulates the de novo sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis pathway, the role of ceramide synthase, the pathway-associated enzyme, in PDT+4HPR-induced apoptotic cell death was determined using the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB). PDT+4HPR enhanced loss of clonogenicity. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and FB, protected cells from death post-PDT+4HPR. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 inhibitor ABT199 enhanced cell killing after PDT+4HPR. Combining PDT with 4HPR led to FB-sensitive, enhanced Bax associated with mitochondria and cytochrome c redistribution. Mass spectrometry data showed that the accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, a precursor of ceramide in the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway, was enhanced after PDT+4HPR. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we found that PDT+4HPR enhanced dihydroceramide/ceramide accumulation in the ER, which was inhibited by FB. The results suggest that SCC17B cells are sensitized to PDT by 4HPR via the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis, and imply potential clinical relevance of the combination for cancer treatment.

  7. Enhanced killing of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after photodynamic therapy plus fenretinide via the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    BOPPANA, NITHIN B.; STOCHAJ, URSULA; KODIHA, MOHAMED; BIELAWSKA, ALICJA; BIELAWSKI, JACEK; PIERCE, JASON S.; KORBELIK, MLADEN; SEPAROVIC, DUSKA

    2015-01-01

    Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone is not always effective as an anticancer treatment, PDT is combined with other anticancer agents for improved efficacy. The clinically-relevant fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4HPR], was combined with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc4-mediated PDT to test for their potential to enhance killing of SCC17B cells, a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because each of these treatments induces apoptosis and regulates the de novo sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis pathway, the role of ceramide synthase, the pathway-associated enzyme, in PDT+4HPR-induced apoptotic cell death was determined using the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB). PDT+4HPR enhanced loss of clonogenicity. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and FB, protected cells from death post-PDT+4HPR. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 inhibitor ABT199 enhanced cell killing after PDT+4HPR. Combining PDT with 4HPR led to FB-sensitive, enhanced Bax associated with mitochondria and cytochrome c redistribution. Mass spectrometry data showed that the accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, a precursor of ceramide in the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway, was enhanced after PDT+4HPR. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we found that PDT+4HPR enhanced dihydroceramide/ceramide accumulation in the ER, which was inhibited by FB. The results suggest that SCC17B cells are sensitized to PDT by 4HPR via the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis, and imply potential clinical relevance of the combination for cancer treatment. PMID:25739041

  8. Characterization of sphingolipids from mycopathogens: factors correlating with expression of 2-hydroxy fatty acyl (E)-Delta 3-unsaturation in cerebrosides of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M S; Levery, S B; Straus, A H; Suzuki, E; Momany, M; Glushka, J; Moulton, J M; Takahashi, H K

    1999-06-01

    results are discussed with respect to possible functional roles for fungal sphingolipids, particularly as they relate to the morphological transitions exhibited by P. brasiliensis.

  9. Intracellular translocation of fluorescent sphingolipids in cultured fibroblasts: endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside analogues pass through the Golgi apparatus en route to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    When monolayer cultures of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts are briefly incubated at 2 degrees C with the fluorescent sphingolipid analogue, C6- NBD-ceramide (N- [7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)] aminocaproyl sphingosine), fluorescent labeling of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear envelope occur. During further incubation at 37 degrees C, the Golgi apparatus, and later the plasma membrane, become intensely fluorescent. Within this period, the C6-NBD-ceramide is converted to equal amounts of fluorescent sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside (Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 80:2608-2612). In the present study, the intracellular translocation of these metabolites and their subsequent appearance at the plasma membrane were investigated by fluorescence microscopy, the addition of the ionophore monensin, and the technique of "back exchange," in which the amounts and types of fluorescent lipids present at the cell surface are identified after their transfer from the cell surface into recipient vesicles. In control cells, the amount of fluorescent glucocerebroside and sphingomyelin that could be removed from the cell surface by back exchange increased during incubation at 37 degrees C, correlating with the increased fluorescence of the plasma membrane observed by microscopy. In the presence of 10 microM monensin, visible labeling of the plasma membrane was greatly diminished, whereas the Golgi apparatus became highly fluorescent and distended. The ability to remove fluorescent metabolites from the cell surface by back exchange was significantly but reversibly inhibited by monensin. Monensin also increased the total amount of fluorescent sphingomyelin, but not the glucocerebroside found in cells. Subcellular fractions were assayed for their ability to convert radiolabeled and fluorescent ceramides to the corresponding sphingomyelins and glucocerebrosides. The activities of parallel fractions coincided, suggesting that

  10. Short-term Mg deficiency upregulates protein kinase C isoforms in cardiovascular tissues and cells; relation to NF-kB, cytokines, ceramide salvage sphingolipid pathway and PKC-zeta: hypothesis and review.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Shah, Gatha J; Zhang, Aimin; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Tao; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2014-01-01

    Numerous recent,epidemiological studies reveal that Western populations are growing more and more deficient in daily Mg intake which have been linked to etiology of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that a major missing link to this dilemma may reside within the sphingolipid-ceramide pathways. For the past 25 years , our labs have been focusing on these pathways in Mg-deficient mammals. The objective of this paper is two-fold: 1) to test various hypotheses and 2) to review the current status of the field and how protein kinase C isoforms may be pivotal to solving some of the CV attributes of Mg deficiency. Below, we test the hypotheses that: 1) short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (MgD) would result in the upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in left ventricular (LV) and aortic smooth muscle (ASM) and serum; 2) MgD would result in a release of select cytokines and an upregulation of NF-kB in LV and ASM, and in primary cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (PCASMC); 3) MgD would result in an activation of the sphingolipid salvage pathway in LV and ASM, and in PCASMC; 4) MgD would result in a synthesis of sphingosine, but not sphinganine, in PCASMC which could be inhibited by fumonisin B1 (FB) an inhibitor of ceramide synthase (CS), but not scyphostatin an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase); 5) incubation of PCASMC (in low Mg(2+)) with the PKC-mimic PMA would result in release and synthesis of NF-kB, cytokines, and ceramide but not sphingosine. The new data indicate that short-term MgD (10% normal dietary intake) result in an upregulation of all three classes of PKC isoforms in LV, aortic muscle and in serum coupled to the upregulation of ceramide, NF-kB activation, and cytokines. High degrees of linear correlation were found to exist between upregulation of PKC isoforms, p65 and cytokine release, suggesting cross-talk between these molecules and molecular pathways. Our experiments with PCASMCs demonstrated

  11. In-Depth Lipidomic Analysis of Molecular Species of Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides, Glycerophospholipids, and Sphingolipids of Buttermilk by GC-MS/FID, HPLC-ELSD, and UPLC-QToF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Gómez, Pilar; Montero, Olimpio; Fontecha, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Buttermilk, a byproduct of butter manufacturing, has gained considerable attention due to its high concentration of polar lipids as phospho- and sphingolipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These polar lipids (PLs) are essential components of all cellular membranes and exert a variety of indispensable metabolic, neurological, and intracellular signaling processes. Despite its importance, there are few research studies that report a comprehensive characterization of the lipid molecular species of MFGM that could contribute to a better understanding of their putative healthful activities. In this study, procedures such as pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids and their fractionation by flash chromatography have been carried out. The obtained fractions were submitted to an exhaustive characterization from a lipidomic point of view. The characterization includes new data about the identification and quantification of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG), and phospho- and sphingolipids using different chromatographic techniques. The fatty acid profile was comparable to that of the milk fat but with a highly diverse composition of fatty acids. Molecular species have also been determined by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QToF-MS). The TAG (16:0/16:0/6:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/8:0) were the predominant saturated TAG species and TAG (14:0/18:1/16:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/18:1) presented the highest content of monounsaturated TAG species. Furthermore; over 30 molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be identified within PL, with PC (16:0/18:1) being the most abundant species. Whereas C16:0 was found to be the preferred FA in TAGs, it was C18:1 in PLs. Several ganglioside species have also been characterized with d18:1 ceramide moiety and secondary acyl chains ranging from C

  12. Sphingolipid metabolism in organotypic mouse keratinocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, K.C.; Swartzendruber, D.C.; Wertz, P.W.; Downing, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Ceramides are the dominant component of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid lamellae, which constitute the epidermal permeability barrier. Only pig and human epidermal ceramides have been extensively characterized and the structures of the ceramides of cultured keratinocytes have not been previously investigated. In the present studies, we have characterized the ceramides synthesized by organotypic lifted mouse keratinocyte cultures for the first time and compared them to the ceramides of intact mouse epidermis. Both mouse epidermis and cultures contained five ceramides, ceramide 1 being the least polar and ceramide 5 the most polar. Ceramide 1 was a group of acylceramides, i.e., very-long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides with an ester-linked nonhydroxy fatty acid. Ceramide 2 contained medium-length saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids. (In culture, the ceramide 2 band was split into two parts with the slightly more polar ceramide 2' containing short-chain saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids.) Ceramide 5 contained short-chain alpha-hydroxy fatty acids. The structures of ceramides 1, 2, and 5 were analagous to those of pig and human epidermis. Mouse epidermal ceramide 3 was quite unusual, containing beta-hydroxy fatty acids, a structure not previously identified among mammalian ceramides. In contrast, culture ceramide 3 was composed of omega-hydroxy fatty acids with a chain-length distribution similar to that of ceramide 1. Mouse ceramide 4 was composed of fatty acids with chromatographic mobility similar to hydroxy fatty acids but with different chemical reactivity; it remains only partially characterized. Culture ceramide 4 was present in quantities too small for analysis. All ceramides in mouse epidermis and cultures contained only sphingosine bases, whereas pig and human ceramides also contain phytosphingosine.

  13. DNA damage response and sphingolipid signaling in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yasunobu; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Soma, Daiki; Hirose, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Takabe, Kazuaki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cannot generally be cured by systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to their poor response to conventional therapeutic agents. The development of novel and efficient targeted therapies to increase their treatment options depends on the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of HCC. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a network of cell-signaling events that are triggered by DNA damage. Its dysregulation is thought to be one of the key mechanisms underlying the generation of HCC. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator, has emerged as an important signaling molecule that has been found to be involved in many cellular functions. In the liver, the alteration of S1P signaling potentially affects the DDR pathways. In this review, we explore the role of the DDR in hepatocarcinogenesis of various etiologies, including hepatitis B and C infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolism and functions of S1P that may affect the hepatic DDR. The elucidation of the pathogenic role of S1P may create new avenues of research into therapeutic strategies for patients with HCC. PMID:26514817

  14. My journey into the world of sphingolipids and sphingolipidoses

    PubMed Central

    SANDHOFF, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of lipid storage in postmortem brains of patients with amaurotic idiocy led to the recognition of five lysosomal ganglioside storage diseases and identification of their inherited metabolic blocks. Purification of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase and analysis of their gene structures were the prerequisites for the clarification of Niemann-Pick and Farber disease. For lipid catabolism, intraendosomal vesicles are formed during the endocytotic pathway. They are subjected to lipid sorting processes and were identified as luminal platforms for cellular lipid and membrane degradation. Lipid binding glycoproteins solubilize lipids from these cholesterol poor membranes and present them to water-soluble hydrolases for digestion. Biosynthesis and intracellular trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases (hexosaminidases, acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase) and lipid binding and transfer proteins (GM2 activator, saposins) were analyzed to identify the molecular and metabolic basis of several sphingolipidoses. Studies on the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids yielded the scheme of Combinatorial Ganglioside Biosynthesis involving promiscuous glycosyltransferases. Their defects in mutagenized mice impair brain development and function. PMID:23229750

  15. Sphingolipid transfer proteins defined by the GLTP-fold

    PubMed Central

    Malinina, Lucy; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Zhai, Xiuhong; Samygina, Valeria R.; Kamlekar, RaviKanth; Kenoth, Roopa; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Malakhova, Margarita L.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) originally were identified as small (~24 kDa), soluble, amphitropic proteins that specifically accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids. GLTPs and related homologs now are known to adopt a unique, helically dominated, two-layer ‘sandwich’ architecture defined as the GLTP-fold that provides the structural underpinning for the eukaryotic GLTP superfamily. Recent advances now provide exquisite insights into structural features responsible for lipid headgroup selectivity as well as the adaptability of the hydrophobic compartment for accommodating hydrocarbon chains of differing length and unsaturation. A new understanding of the structural versatility and evolutionary premium placed on the GLTP motif has emerged. Human GLTP-motifs have evolved to function not only as glucosylceramide binding/transferring domains for phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 during glycosphingolipid biosynthesis but also as selective binding/transfer proteins for ceramide-1-phosphate. The latter, known as ceramide-l-phosphate transfer protein, recently has been shown to form GLTP-fold while critically regulating Group-IV cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity and pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production. PMID:25797198

  16. Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 degrades exogenous glycerolipid and sphingolipid phosphate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, R; Zhang, Q X; Pilquil, C; Singh, I; Xu, J; Dewald, J; Dillon, D A; Berthiaume, L G; Carman, G M; Waggoner, D W; Brindley, D N

    1999-01-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP)-1 cDNA was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library. It codes for a 32-kDa protein that shares 87 and 82% amino acid sequence identities with putative products of murine and human LPP-1 cDNAs, respectively. Membrane fractions of rat2 fibroblasts that stably expressed mouse or rat LPP-1 exhibited 3.1-3. 6-fold higher specific activities for phosphatidate dephosphorylation compared with vector controls. Increases in the dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidate, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine 1-phosphate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate were similar to those for phosphatidate. Rat2 fibroblasts expressing mouse LPP-1 cDNA showed 1.6-2.3-fold increases in the hydrolysis of exogenous lysophosphatidate, phosphatidate and ceramide 1-phosphate compared with vector control cells. Recombinant LPP-1 was located partially in plasma membranes with its C-terminus on the cytosolic surface. Lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation was inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ and this inhibition was diminished by extracellular Mg2+. Changing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations did not alter exogenous lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation significantly. Permeabilized fibroblasts showed relatively little latency for the dephosphorylation of exogenous lysophosphatidate. LPP-1 expression decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and DNA synthesis by exogenous lysophosphatidate. The product of LPP-1 cDNA is concluded to act partly to degrade exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulate its effects on cell signalling. PMID:10359651

  17. Alteration of glycerolipid and sphingolipid-derived second messenger kinetics in ras transformed 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Laurenz, J C; Gunn, J M; Jolly, C A; Chapkin, R S

    1996-01-05

    The effect of ras transformation (rasB fibroblasts) on basal and serum-stimulated diacylglycerol (DAG) composition and mass was examined over time with respect to changes in membrane phospholipid composition and ceramide mass. RasB cells vs. nontransformed control cells (rasD and NR6) had chronically elevated DAG levels (up to 240 min) following serum stimulation, indicating a defect in the recovery phase of the intracellular DAG pulse. Ras transformation also had a dramatic effect on DAG composition. Molecular species analysis revealed that DAG from unstimulated rasB cells was enriched in the delta 9 desaturase fatty acyl species (monoenoate 18:1(n - 7) and 18:1(n - 9)), and depleted in arachidonic acid (20:4(n - 6)). With the exception of glycerophosphoinositol (GPI), DAG remodeling paralleled the compositional alterations in individual phospholipid classes. Importantly, ras transformation altered the fatty acyl composition of sphingomyelin, a precursor to the ceramide second messenger. With the addition of serum, control cells (rasD) had a progressive increase in ceramide mass with levels approximately 5-fold higher by 240 min. In contrast, ceramide levels did not increase in rasB cells at either 4 or 240 min. These results demonstrate that ras-oncogene, in addition to its effects on DAG metabolism, can also abolish the cellular increase in ceramide mass in response to serum stimulation. Since DAG and ceramide may have opposing biological functions, the prolonged elevation of DAG and the suppression of ceramide levels would be consistent with an enhanced proliferative capacity.

  18. Cholesterol-Ceramide Interactions in Phospholipid and Sphingolipid Bilayers As Observed by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    García-Arribas, Aritz B; Axpe, Eneko; Mujika, Jon Iñaki; Mérida, David; Busto, Jon V; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Lopez, Xabier; García, Jose Ángel; Ugalde, Jesus M; Plazaola, Fernando; Goñi, Félix M

    2016-05-31

    Free volume voids in lipid bilayers can be measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This technique has been applied, together with differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to study the effects of cholesterol (Chol) and ceramide (Cer) on free volume voids in sphingomyelin (SM) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. Binary lipid samples with Chol were studied (DPPC:Chol 60:40, SM:Chol 60:40 mol ratio), and no phase transition was detected in the 20-60 °C range, in agreement with calorimetric data. Chol-driven liquid-ordered phase showed an intermediate free volume void size as compared to gel and fluid phases. For SM and SM:Cer (85:15 mol:mol) model membranes measured in the 20-60 °C range the gel-to-fluid phase transition could be observed with a related increase in free volume, which was more pronounced for the SM:Cer sample. MD simulations suggest a hitherto unsuspected lipid tilting in SM:Cer bilayers but not in pure SM. Ternary samples of DPPC:Cer:Chol (54:23:23) and SM:Cer:Chol (54:23:23) were measured, and a clear pattern of free volume increase was observed in the 20-60 °C because of the gel-to-fluid transition. Interestingly, MD simulations showed a tendency of Cer to change its distribution along the membrane to make room for Chol in ternary mixtures. The results suggest that the gel phase formed in these ternary mixtures is stabilized by Chol-Cer interactions.

  19. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation of fumonsin- contaminated corn grits protects against nephrotoxicity and disrupted sphingolipid metabolism in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. They are found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common fumonisin, causes animal diseases and, although its impact on human health is unclear, evidence suggests that it is a risk factor ...

  20. Stress-Induced Sphingolipid Signaling: Role of Type-2 Neutral Sphingomyelinase in Murine Cell Apoptosis and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Devillard, Raphael; Galvani, Sylvain; Thiers, Jean-Claude; Guenet, Jean-Louis; Hannun, Yusuf; Bielawski, Jacek; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Salvayre, Robert; Augé, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Background Sphingomyelin hydrolysis in response to stress-inducing agents, and subsequent ceramide generation, are implicated in various cellular responses, including apoptosis, inflammation and proliferation, depending on the nature of the different acidic or neutral sphingomyelinases. This study was carried out to investigate whether the neutral Mg2+-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) plays a role in the cellular signaling evoked by TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs, two stress-inducing agents, which are mitogenic at low concentrations and proapoptotic at higher concentrations. Methodology and Principal Findings For this purpose, we used nSMase2-deficient cells from homozygous fro/fro (fragilitas ossium) mice and nSMase2-deficient cells reconstituted with a V5-tagged nSMase2. We report that the genetic defect of nSMase2 (in fibroblasts from fro/fro mice) does not alter the TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs-mediated apoptotic response. Likewise, the hepatic toxicity of TNFalpha is similar in wild type and fro mice, thus is independent of nSMase2 activation. In contrast, the mitogenic response elicited by low concentrations of TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs (but not fetal calf serum) requires nSMase2 activation. Conclusion and Significance nSMase2 activation is not involved in apoptosis mediated by TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs in murine fibroblasts, and in the hepatotoxicity of TNFalpha in mice, but is required for the mitogenic response to stress-inducing agents. PMID:20352118

  1. Lipid bilayers containing sphingomyelins and ceramides of varying N-acyl lengths: a glimpse into sphingolipid complexity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; García-Arribas, Aritz B; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2014-01-01

    The thermotropic properties of aqueous dispersions of sphingomyelins (SM) and ceramides (Cer) with N-acyl chains varying from C6:0 to C24:1, either pure or in binary mixtures, have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Even in the pure state, Cer and particularly SM exhibited complex endotherms, and their thermal properties did not vary in a predictable way with changes in structure. In some cases, e.g. C18:0 SM, atomic force microscopy revealed coexisting lamellar domains made of a single lipid. Partial chain interdigitation and metastable crystalline states were deemed responsible for the complex behavior. SM:Cer mixtures (90:10mol ratio) gave rise to bilayers containing separate SM-rich and Cer-rich domains. In vesicles made of more complex mixtures (SM:PE:Chol, 2:1:1), it is known that sphingomyelinase degradation of SM to Cer is accompanied by vesicle aggregation and release of aqueous contents. These vesicles did not reveal observable domain separation by confocal microscopy. Vesicle aggregation occurred at a faster rate for those bilayers that appeared to be more fluid according to differential scanning calorimetry. Content efflux rates measured by fluorescence spectroscopy were highest with C18:0 and C18:1 SM, and in general those rates did not vary regularly with other physical properties of SM or Cer. In general the individual SM and Cer appear to have particular thermotropic properties, often unrelated to the changes in N-acyl chain.

  2. An efficient preparation of isosteric phosphonate analogues of sphingolipids by opening of oxirane and cyclic sulfamidate intermediates with alpha-lithiated alkylphosphonic esters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaode; Bittman, Robert

    2004-10-29

    D-erythro-(2S,3R,4E)-Sphingosine-1-phosphonate (1), the isosteric phosphonate analogue of naturally occurring sphingosine 1-phosphate (1a), and D-ribo-phytosphingosine 1-phosphonate (2), the isosteric phosphonate analogue of D-ribo-phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (2a), were synthesized starting with methyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-d-glycerate (4) and D-ribo-phytosphingosine (3), respectively. Oxirane 12 was formed in eight steps from 4, and cyclic sulfamidate 22 was formed in five steps from 3. The phosphonate group was introduced via regioselective ring-opening reactions of oxirane 12 and cyclic sulfamidate 22 with lithium dialkyl methylphosphonate, affording 13 and 23, respectively. The synthesis of 1 was completed by S(N)2 displacement of chloromesylate intermediate 14b with azide ion, followed by conversion of the resulting azido group to a NHBoc group and deprotection. The synthesis of 2 was completed by cleavage of the acetal, N-benzyl, and alkyl phosphonate ester groups.

  3. A Blood Spot Method for Detecting Fumonisin-Induced Changes in Putative Sphingolipid Biomarkers in LM/Bc Mice and Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxic chemical produced by molds. The molds that produce fumonisin are common in corn. Consumption of contaminated corn by farm animals has been shown to be the cause of disease. Fumonisin has been hypothesized to be an environmental risk factor for diseases in humans in c...

  4. Combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry of sphingolipids. I. Glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and cerebrosides of the spleen in Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Oshima, M; Ariga, T; Murata, T

    1977-08-01

    Trimethylsilylated glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and glucocerebrosides were analysed by combined gas chromatography (GC)-chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry. Isobutane, methane and ammonia were used as reactant gasses for chemical ionization. Essentially the same fragment ions were detected in the spectra with the different reactant gases. Purified glucocerebrosides isolated from the spleen of a patient with Gaucher's disease were clearly separated into their 8 molecular species by gas chromatography. Three other minor components were detected by spectrometry, and these 11 molecular species of glucocerbrosides from the spleen of the patient with Gaucher's disease have been analysed. The ceramides obtained by periodate oxidation and then alkaline reduction of the glucocerebrosides were also separated into 11 molecular species by GC-CI mass spectrometry. Molecular weight could be determined using the major fragment ion of m/e (M+-90) in the spectra of ceramides and cerebrosides. The chemical ionization method is useful for structural analysis and determination of the molecular species of sphingoglycolipids.

  5. Sphingolipid bases and their 1-phosphates, but not fumonisins, are translocated from roots to aerial tissues of maize seedlings watered with fumonisins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier study using maize seedlings grown from kernels inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides, fumonisin B1 (FB1) was preferentially accumulated in leaf tissue compared to FB2 and FB3. The present study tested whether maize seedlings preferentially translocate FB1 when plants are watered wit...

  6. Identification of Two Suppressors of CSG2 Calcium Sensitivity, SCS7 and SUR2, as Genes Encoding Hydroxylases of the Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-10

    the aliphatic chains is provided by a long chain base, (LCB; phytosphingosine in Figure 1), and the other is in amide linkage with the LCB. Ceramide...the ceramide structure they are the first three carbon positions ofthe ceramide long chain base, ( phytosphingosine as drawn). Sphingosine differs from...biosyn- thesis, the condensation ofserine and palmitoyl-CoA to form 3-ketosphinganine. There- fore the scsI mutant was tested for phytosphingosine

  7. A stereocontrolled, efficient synthetic route to bioactive sphingolipids: synthesis of phytosphingosine and phytoceramides from unsaturated ester precursors via cyclic sulfate intermediates.

    PubMed

    He, L; Byun, H S; Bittman, R

    2000-11-03

    An efficient and highly enantioselective method for the preparation of D-ribo- and L-lyxo-phytosphingosines (1a,b, respectively) and phytoceramides (2a,b) has been developed. The key steps in the syntheses are as follows: (i) osmium-catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation of 4-O-protected (E)-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester 5 (generated by dihydroxylation of 1-hexadecene, followed by oxidation to the aldehyde and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination), (ii) conversion to cyclic sulfate intermediate 7, and (iii) regioselective alpha-azidation of 7. Reduction of 4-O-protected 2-azido ester 8 via alpha-azidolactone 9 afforded phytosphingosine 1a. Staudinger reduction of the azido group of 8, followed by in situ N-acylation in aqueous media and reduction of the ester functionality with NaBH(4)/LiBr, provided phytoceramide 2a. By using a similar approach, phytosphingosine 1b was synthesized. D-erythro-4, 5-Dihydrosphingosine 1c and D-erythro-4,5-dihydroceramide 2c were synthesized in high yield from 1-hexadecanol via cyclic sulfate intermediate 15. The desired configurations at C-2, C-3, and C-4 of the sphingoid chain can be accessed readily by the route described here.

  8. Binding of the sphingolipid S1P to hTERT stabilizes telomerase at the nuclear periphery by allosterically mimicking protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Shanmugam; De Palma, Ryan M; Oaks, Joshua J; Oleinik, Natalia; Peterson, Yuri K; Stahelin, Robert V; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Smith, Charles D; Ogretmen, Besim

    2015-06-16

    During DNA replication, the enzyme telomerase maintains the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Shortened telomeres trigger cell senescence, and cancer cells often have increased telomerase activity to promote their ability to proliferate indefinitely. The catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is stabilized by phosphorylation. We found that the lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), generated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2), bound hTERT at the nuclear periphery in human and mouse fibroblasts. Docking predictions and mutational analyses revealed that binding occurred between a hydroxyl group (C'3-OH) in S1P and Asp(684) in hTERT. Inhibiting or depleting SK2 or mutating the S1P binding site decreased the stability of hTERT in cultured cells and promoted senescence and loss of telomere integrity. S1P binding inhibited the interaction of hTERT with makorin ring finger protein 1 (MKRN1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that tags hTERT for degradation. Murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells formed smaller tumors in mice lacking SK2 than in wild-type mice, and knocking down SK2 in LLC cells before implantation into mice suppressed their growth. Pharmacologically inhibiting SK2 decreased the growth of subcutaneous A549 lung cancer cell-derived xenografts in mice, and expression of wild-type hTERT, but not an S1P-binding mutant, restored tumor growth. Thus, our data suggest that S1P binding to hTERT allosterically mimicks phosphorylation, promoting telomerase stability and hence telomere maintenance, cell proliferation, and tumor growth.

  9. A neutral sphingomyelinase resides in sphingolipid-enriched microdomains and is inhibited by the caveolin-scaffolding domain: potential implications in tumour necrosis factor signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, R J; Maestre, N; Aduib, O M; Medin, J A; Salvayre, R; Levade, T

    2001-01-01

    Sphingomyelinases hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, a process involved in signal-transduction routes leading to apoptosis and various other cellular responses. In the present study, we investigated the sphingomyelinase content of caveolae, invaginated plasma-membrane microdomains that contain a variety of signalling molecules. These structures are highly enriched in sphingomyelin as well as in ceramide, which suggests that metabolism of these lipids might, to some extent, occur locally. By cell fractionation, we demonstrate that, in addition to a previously reported minute amount of acidic sphingomyelinase activity, a substantial amount of neutral sphingomyelinase activity resides in caveolae of human skin fibroblasts. This caveolar neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also detected in Niemann-Pick disease type A fibroblasts, which are completely devoid of functional acidic sphingomyelinase. Neutral (but not acidic) sphingomyelinase activity was specifically inhibited by a peptide that corresponds to the scaffolding domain of caveolin, which suggests a direct molecular interaction between the two proteins. In addition, this finding implies a cytosolic orientation of the caveolar neutral sphingomyelinase. Interestingly, stimulation of fibroblasts with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) resulted in a partial shift of its p55 receptor to caveolin-enriched membrane fractions and the appearance of caveolin-sensitive neutral sphingomyelinase activity in the non-caveolar fractions. These results suggest that (part of) the presently identified caveolar neutral sphingomyelinase activity is involved in TNFalpha signalling. PMID:11311151

  10. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B₁ by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine.

    PubMed

    Masching, Sabine; Naehrer, Karin; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi-Elisabeth; Sărăndan, Mihai; Schaumberger, Simone; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schatzmayr, Dian

    2016-03-21

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB₁ to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB₁ (HFB₁) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB₁ was completely degraded to HFB₁ in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB₁+FB₂; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB₁ in excreta, whereas HFB₁ concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB₁+FB₂ for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB₁ and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB₁ in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs.

  11. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine

    PubMed Central

    Masching, Sabine; Naehrer, Karin; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi-Elisabeth; Sărăndan, Mihai; Schaumberger, Simone; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schatzmayr, Dian

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB1 to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB1 was completely degraded to HFB1 in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB1+FB2; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB1 in excreta, whereas HFB1 concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB1+FB2 for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB1 and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB1 in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs. PMID:27007395

  12. A novel fluorescent ceramide analogue for studying membrane traffic in animal cells: accumulation at the Golgi apparatus results in altered spectral properties of the sphingolipid precursor

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    A series of ceramide analogues bearing the fluorophore boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) were synthesized and evaluated as vital stains for the Golgi apparatus, and as tools for studying lipid traffic between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane of living cells. Studies of the spectral properties of several of the BODIPY- labeled ceramides in lipid vesicles demonstrated that the fluorescence emission maxima were strongly dependent upon the molar density of the probes in the membrane. This was especially evident using N-[5-(5,7- dimethyl BODIPY)-1-pentanoyl]-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), which exhibited a shift in its emission maximum from green (integral of 515 nm) to red (integral of 620 nm) wavelengths with increasing concentrations. When C5-DMB-Cer was used to label living cells, this property allowed us to differentiate membranes containing high concentrations of the fluorescent lipid and its metabolites (the corresponding analogues of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide) from other regions of the cell where smaller amounts of the probe were present. Using this approach, prominent red fluorescent labeling of the Golgi apparatus, Golgi apparatus-associated tubulovesicular processes, and putative Golgi apparatus transport vesicles was seen in living human skin fibroblasts, as well as in other cell types. Based on fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy, we estimate that C5-DMB-Cer and its metabolites were present in Golgi apparatus membranes at concentrations up to 5-10 mol %. In addition, the concentration- dependent spectral properties of C5-DMB-Cer were used to monitor the transport of C5-DMB-lipids to the cell surface at 37 degrees C. PMID:2045412

  13. Mitochondrial protein alterations in a familial peripheral neuropathy caused by the V144D amino acid mutation in the sphingolipid protein, SPTLC1.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Scott E; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is the final common path in many neurological disorders. Subsets of neuropathies involving the sensory neuron are known as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs). Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN-I) is the most common subtype of HSN with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with clinical symptom onset between the second or third decade of life. Heterozygous mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) gene were identified as the pathogenic cause of HSN-I. Ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria from HSN-I patient cells has displayed unique morphological abnormalities that are clustered to the perinucleus where they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This investigation defines a small subset of proteins with major alterations in abundance in mitochondria harvested from HSN-I mutant SPTLC1 cells. Using mitochondrial protein isolates from control and patient lymphoblasts, and a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we have shown the increased abundance of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1, an electron transport chain protein, as well as the immunoglobulin, Ig kappa chain C. The regulation of these proteins may provide a new route to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying HSN-I.

  14. Suppressors (scsl-scs7) of CSG2, a Gene Required by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Growth in Media Containing 10 mMCa(2+), Identify Genes Required for Sphingolipid Biosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    activity and requires phytosphingosine or dihydrosphingarune for growth indicating that SCSI encodes serine palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme... phytosphingosine on the growth rate of scsI csg2, scsI CSG2, scsI::LEUZ’ CSGZ, SCSI csgZ and SCSI CSGZ. 87 20. Acid titration of wild·type and scsI-I cells. 21...ceramide) and a polar head group. The ceramide consists of a long-chain base (sphingosine in animals, phytosphingosine (PHS) in fungi and plants) and a

  15. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component.

  16. Cognitive status and vitamin K status in older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K has been implicated in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. In rats, vitamin K deficiency decreases sphingolipid concentrations, resulting in changes in behavior, but not short-term memory. The association between vitamin K intake and cognition in humans is not well studied. In 379 m...

  17. C16:0-Ceramide Signals Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hla, Timothy; Kolesnick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A substantive literature has accumulated implicating sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, as mediators of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. Thanks to recent technical advances in mouse genetics and lipidomics, two independent laboratories identify the same sphingolipid, C16:0-ceramide, as principal mediator of obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:25440051

  18. Lysenin: a sphingomyelin specific pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Shogomori, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2008-03-01

    Sphingomyelin is a major sphingolipid in mammalian cells. Recent results indicate that sphingomyelin is a reservoir of lipid second messengers, ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Sphingomyelin is also a major component of sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich membrane domains (lipid rafts). Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin that specifically binds sphingomyelin. The binding of lysenin to sphingomyelin is dependent on the membrane distribution of the lipid, i.e. the toxin selectively binds sphingomyelin clusters. Development of a non-toxic lysenin mutant revealed the spatial and functional heterogeneity of sphingolipid-rich membrane domains.

  19. Introduction to tools and techniques for ceramide-centered research.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Luberto, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cells, many of which function as bioactive signaling molecules. As thoroughly discussed elsewhere in this volume, ceramide, central metabolite of the sphingolipid pathway, plays key roles in a variety of cellular responses. Since the discovery of the bioactive function of ceramide, a growing number of tools and techniques have been and still are being developed in order to better decipher the complexity and implications of ceramide-mediated signaling. With this chapter it is our intention to provide new comers to the sphingolipid arena with a short overview of tools and techniques currently available for the study ofsphingolipid metabolism, with the focus on ceramide.

  20. Ceramide induced mitophagy and tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Dany, Mohammed; Ogretmen, Besim

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive lipid effectors, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways. Sphingolipids play essential roles in controlling cell inflammation, proliferation, death, migration, senescence, metastasis and autophagy. Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism has been also implicated in many human cancers. Macroautophagy (referred to here as autophagy) is a form of nonselective sequestering of cytosolic materials by double membrane structures, autophagosomes, which can be either protective or lethal for cells. Ceramide, a central molecule of sphingolipid metabolism is involved in the regulation of autophagy at various levels, including the induction of lethal mitophagy, a selective autophagy process to target and eliminate damaged mitochondria. In this review, we focused on recent studies with regard to the regulation of autophagy, in particular lethal mitophagy, by ceramide, and aimed at providing discussion points for various context-dependent roles and mechanisms of action of ceramide in controlling mitophagy. PMID:25634657

  1. Lipid Neuroprotectants and Traumatic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Intraocular pressure, sphingolipids, primary cell culture , elastic modulus, protein targets. Major goal 1. Test the hypothesis that selected lipids...targets. Medical students and undergraduate students learned a lot of bioinformatic analyses, database building, cell culture and mass spectrometric

  2. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which ...

  3. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Deficient Cells as a Tool to Study Protein Lipid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gerl, Mathias J.; Bittl, Verena; Kirchner, Susanne; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Brunner, Hanna L.; Lüchtenborg, Christian; Özbalci, Cagakan; Wiedemann, Hannah; Wegehingel, Sabine; Nickel, Walter; Haberkant, Per; Schultz, Carsten; Krüger, Marcus; Brügger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes contain hundreds to thousands of individual lipid species that are of structural importance but also specifically interact with proteins. Due to their highly controlled synthesis and role in signaling events sphingolipids are an intensely studied class of lipids. In order to investigate their metabolism and to study proteins interacting with sphingolipids, metabolic labeling based on photoactivatable sphingoid bases is the most straightforward approach. In order to monitor protein-lipid-crosslink products, sphingosine derivatives containing a reporter moiety, such as a radiolabel or a clickable group, are used. In normal cells, degradation of sphingoid bases via action of the checkpoint enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase occurs at position C2-C3 of the sphingoid base and channels the resulting hexadecenal into the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway. In case the functionalized sphingosine looses the reporter moiety during its degradation, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling is maintained. In case degradation of a sphingosine derivative does not remove either the photoactivatable or reporter group from the resulting hexadecenal, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling can be achieved by blocking sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity and thus preventing sphingosine derivatives to be channeled into the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. Here we report an approach using clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease Cas9 to create a sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1) HeLa knockout cell line to disrupt the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. We found that the lipid and protein compositions as well as sphingolipid metabolism of SGPL1 knock-out HeLa cells only show little adaptations, which validates these cells as model systems to study transient protein-sphingolipid interactions. PMID:27100999

  4. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Deficient Cells as a Tool to Study Protein Lipid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Gerl, Mathias J; Bittl, Verena; Kirchner, Susanne; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Brunner, Hanna L; Lüchtenborg, Christian; Özbalci, Cagakan; Wiedemann, Hannah; Wegehingel, Sabine; Nickel, Walter; Haberkant, Per; Schultz, Carsten; Krüger, Marcus; Brügger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes contain hundreds to thousands of individual lipid species that are of structural importance but also specifically interact with proteins. Due to their highly controlled synthesis and role in signaling events sphingolipids are an intensely studied class of lipids. In order to investigate their metabolism and to study proteins interacting with sphingolipids, metabolic labeling based on photoactivatable sphingoid bases is the most straightforward approach. In order to monitor protein-lipid-crosslink products, sphingosine derivatives containing a reporter moiety, such as a radiolabel or a clickable group, are used. In normal cells, degradation of sphingoid bases via action of the checkpoint enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase occurs at position C2-C3 of the sphingoid base and channels the resulting hexadecenal into the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway. In case the functionalized sphingosine looses the reporter moiety during its degradation, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling is maintained. In case degradation of a sphingosine derivative does not remove either the photoactivatable or reporter group from the resulting hexadecenal, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling can be achieved by blocking sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity and thus preventing sphingosine derivatives to be channeled into the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. Here we report an approach using clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease Cas9 to create a sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1) HeLa knockout cell line to disrupt the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. We found that the lipid and protein compositions as well as sphingolipid metabolism of SGPL1 knock-out HeLa cells only show little adaptations, which validates these cells as model systems to study transient protein-sphingolipid interactions.

  5. LC-MS Based Sphingolipidomic Study on A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line and its Taxol-resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Tong, Tian-Tian; Yau, Lee-Fong; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells continue to cause huge problems world-wide, for example, tens of thousands of patients are suffering from taxol-resistant human ovarian cancer. However, its biochemical mechanisms remain unclear. Sphingolipid metabolic dysregulation has been increasingly regarded as one of the drug-resistant mechanisms for various cancers, which in turn provides potential targets for overcoming the resistance. In the current study, a well-established LC-MS based sphingolipidomic approach was applied to investigate the sphingolipid metabolism of A2780 and taxol-resistant A2780 (A2780T) human ovarian cancer cell lines. 102 sphingolipids (SPLs) were identified based on accurate mass and characteristic fragment ions, among which 12 species have not been reported previously. 89 were further quantitatively analyzed by using multiple reaction monitoring technique. Multivariate analysis revealed that the levels of 52 sphingolipids significantly altered in A2780T cells comparing to those of A2780 cells. These alterations revealed an overall increase of sphingomyelin levels and significant decrease of ceramides, hexosylceramides and lactosylceramides, which concomitantly indicated a deviated SPL metabolism in A2780T. This is the most comprehensive sphingolipidomic analysis of A2780 and A2780T, which investigated significantly changed sphingolipid profile in taxol-resistant cancer cells. The aberrant sphingolipid metabolism in A2780T could be one of the mechanisms of taxol-resistance. PMID:27703266

  6. Oral glucosylceramide reduces 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene induced inflammatory response in mice by reducing TNF-alpha levels and leukocyte infiltration.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingjing; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Sakai, Shota; Aida, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Sphingolipids are constituents of cellular membranes and play important roles as second messengers mediating cell functions. As significant components in foods, sphingolipids have been proven to be critical for human health. Moreover, diverse metabolic intermediates of sphingolipids are known to play key roles both in proinflammatory and in anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of dietary sphingolipids on inflammation is a complicated field that needs to be further assessed. Our study evaluated the effects of orally administered maize glucosylceramide (GluCer), one of the most conventional dietary sphingolipids, on inflammation using the 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-treated BALB/c murine model. Oral administration of GluCer inhibited ear swelling and leukocyte infiltration to the inflammatory site, suggesting that dietary GluCer has anti-inflammatory properties. ELISA analyses revealed that oral administration of GluCer for 6 days had not modified the Th1/Th2 balance, but significantly down-regulated the activation of TNF-α at the inflammatory site. Based on these results, the down-regulation of TNF-α by dietary GluCer may suppress vascular permeability and reduce the migration of inflammatory cells. Our findings increase understanding of the actions of dietary sphingolipids on the balance of the immune response.

  7. Interferon-Beta Increases Plasma Ceramides of Specific Chain Length in Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Unlike Fingolimod or Natalizumab

    PubMed Central

    Ottenlinger, Florian M.; Mayer, Christoph A.; Ferreirós, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Schwiebs, Anja; Schmidt, Katrin G.; Ackermann, Hanns; Pfeilschifter, Josef M.; Radeke, Heinfried H.

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod is used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and targets receptors for the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Whether fingolimod or other MS therapies conversely affect plasma concentrations of sphingolipids has, however, not yet been analyzed. Herein, we quantified 15 representative sphingolipid species by mass spectrometry in plasma from relapsing-remitting MS patients currently under fingolimod (n = 24), natalizumab (n = 16), or IFN-β (n = 18) treatment. Healthy controls (n = 21) and untreated MS patients (n = 11) served as control groups. IFN-ß treatment strongly increased plasma level of C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, and C24:1 ceramides compared to healthy controls, untreated patients, or patients receiving fingolimod or natalizumab medication. Natalizumab treatment increased plasma concentrations of both S1P and sphinganine-1-phosphate, whereas fingolimod treatment did not affect any of these lipids. Correlations of sphingolipids with the Expanded Disability Status Scale and other disease specific parameters revealed no systemic change of sphingolipids in MS, independent of the respective treatment regime. These results indicate type I interferon treatment to cause a strong and specific increase in ceramide level. If confirmed in larger cohorts, these data have implications for the efficacy and adverse effects of IFN-β. Moreover, quantification of ceramides soon after therapy initiation may help to identify therapy-responsive patients. PMID:27857690

  8. Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Transfers and Determines Plasma Concentrations of Ceramide and Sphingomyelin but Not Glycosylceramide*

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Walsh, Meghan T.; Hammad, Samar M.; Cuchel, Marina; Tarugi, Patrizia; Hegele, Robert A.; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Rader, Daniel J.; Klein, Richard L.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids, a large family of bioactive lipids, are implicated in stress responses, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and other physiological processes. Aberrant plasma levels of sphingolipids contribute to metabolic disease, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. They are fairly evenly distributed in high density and apoB-containing lipoproteins (B-lps). Mechanisms involved in the transport of sphingolipids to the plasma are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), required for B-lp assembly and secretion, in sphingolipid transport to the plasma. Abetalipoproteinemia patients with deleterious mutations in MTP and absence of B-lps had significantly lower plasma ceramide and sphingomyelin but normal hexosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and different sphingosines compared with unaffected controls. Furthermore, similar differential effects on plasma sphingolipids were seen in liver- and intestine-specific MTP knock-out (L,I-Mttp−/−) mice, suggesting that MTP specifically plays a role in the regulation of plasma ceramide and sphingomyelin. We hypothesized that MTP deficiency may affect either their synthesis or secretion. MTP deficiency had no effect on ceramide and sphingomyelin synthesis but reduced secretion from primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Therefore, MTP is involved in ceramide and sphingomyelin secretion but not in their synthesis. We also found that MTP transferred these lipids between vesicles in vitro. Therefore, we propose that MTP might regulate plasma ceramide and sphingomyelin levels by transferring these lipids to B-lps in the liver and intestine and facilitating their secretion. PMID:26350457

  9. Variable substrate preference among phospholipase D toxins from sicariid spiders

    DOE PAGES

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; ...

    2015-03-09

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, andmore » all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. Lastly, the evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey.« less

  10. Adaptation of Skyline for Targeted Lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bing; Ahrends, Robert

    2016-01-04

    In response to the urgent need for analysis software that is capable of handling data from targeted high-throughput lipidomics experiments, we here present a systematic workflow for the straightforward method design and analysis of selected reaction monitoring data in lipidomics based on lipid building blocks. Skyline is a powerful software primarily designed for proteomics applications where it is widely used. We adapted this tool to a "Plug and Play" system for lipid research. This extension offers the unique capability to assemble targeted mass spectrometry methods for complex lipids easily by making use of building blocks. With simple yet tailored modifications, targeted methods to analyze main lipid classes such as glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids, cholesteryl-esters, and cholesterol can be quickly introduced into Skyline for easy application by end users without distinct bioinformatics skills. To illustrate the benefits of our novel strategy, we used Skyline to quantify sphingolipids in mesenchymal stem cells. We demonstrate a simple method building procedure for sphingolipids screening, collision energy optimization, and absolute quantification of sphingolipids. In total, 72 sphingolipids were identified and absolutely quantified at the fatty acid scan species level by utilizing Skyline for data interpretation and visualization.

  11. Sphingolipidomics: An Important Mechanistic Tool for Studying Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids form of a unique and complex group of bioactive lipids in fungi. Structurally, sphingolipids of fungi are quite diverse with unique differences in the sphingoid backbone, amide linked fatty acyl chain and the polar head group. Two of the most studied and conserved sphingolipid classes in fungi are the glucosyl- or galactosyl-ceramides and the phosphorylinositol containing phytoceramides. Comprehensive structural characterization and quantification of these lipids is largely based on advanced analytical mass spectrometry based lipidomic methods. While separation of complex lipid mixtures is achieved through high performance liquid chromatography, the soft – electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry allows a high sensitivity and selectivity of detection. Herein, we present an overview of lipid extraction, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry employed in qualitative and quantitative sphingolipidomics in fungi. PMID:27148190

  12. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes 'ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data.

  13. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes ‘ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data. PMID:20160710

  14. Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Is Essential for Male Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scherthan, Harry; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Ford, Steven J.; Burton, Neal C.; Razansky, Daniel; Trümbach, Dietrich; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Tobias; Floss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids and the derived gangliosides have critical functions in spermatogenesis, thus mutations in genes involved in sphingolipid biogenesis are often associated with male infertility. We have generated a transgenic mouse line carrying an insertion in the sphingomyelin synthase gene Sms1, the enzyme which generates sphingomyelin species in the Golgi apparatus. We describe the spermatogenesis defect of Sms1-/- mice, which is characterized by sloughing of spermatocytes and spermatids, causing progressive infertility of male homozygotes. Lipid profiling revealed a reduction in several long chain unsaturated phosphatidylcholins, lysophosphatidylcholins and sphingolipids in the testes of mutants. Multi-Spectral Optoacoustic Tomography indicated blood-testis barrier dysfunction. A supplementary diet of the essential omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid diminished germ cell sloughing from the seminiferous epithelium and restored spermatogenesis and fertility in 50% of previously infertile mutants. Our findings indicate that SMS1 has a wider than anticipated role in testis polyunsaturated fatty acid homeostasis and for male fertility. PMID:27788151

  15. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  16. Dihydroceramides: From Bit Players to Lead Actors*

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Monowarul Mobin; Li, Ying; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Kaddai, Vincent A.; Summers, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid synthesis involves a highly conserved biosynthetic pathway that produces fundamental precursors of complex sphingolipids. The final reaction involves the insertion of a double bond into dihydroceramides to generate the more abundant ceramides, which are converted to sphingomyelins and glucosylceramides/gangliosides by the addition of polar head groups. Although ceramides have long been known to mediate cellular stress responses, the dihydroceramides that are transiently produced during de novo sphingolipid synthesis were deemed inert. Evidence published in the last few years suggests that these dihydroceramides accumulate to a far greater extent in tissues than previously thought. Moreover, they have biological functions that are distinct and non-overlapping with those of the more prevalent ceramides. Roles are being uncovered in autophagy, hypoxia, and cellular proliferation, and the lipids are now implicated in the etiology, treatment, and/or diagnosis of diabetes, cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. This minireview summarizes recent findings on this emerging class of bioactive lipids. PMID:25947377

  17. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-11-17

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids.

  18. Lipid mediators in the neural cell nucleus: their metabolism, signaling, and association with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A

    2009-08-01

    Lipid mediators are important endogenous regulators of neural cell proliferation, differentiation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. They originate from enzymic degradation of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and cytochrome P450 hydroxylases, respectively. Arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators are called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids have emerged as key regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Another arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediator is lipoxin. Eicosanoids have proinflammatory effects, whereas lipoxins produce antiinflammatory effects. The crossponding lipid mediators of docosahexaenoic acid metabolism are named docosanoids. They include resolvins, protectins, and neuroprotectins. Docosanoids produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in the brain tissue. Other glycerophospholipid-derived lipid mediators are platelet-activating factor, lysophosphatidic acid, and endocannabinoids. Degradation of sphingolipids also results in the generation of sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators. Sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators are ceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. They mediate cellular differentiation, cell growth, and apoptosis. Similarly, cholesterol-derived lipid mediators hydroxycholesterol and oxycholesterol produce apoptosis. Most of these mediators originate from the plasma membrane. The nucleus has its own set of enzymes and lipid mediators that originate from the nuclear envelope and matrix. The purpose of this commentary is to describe basic and clinical information on lipid mediators in the nucleus.

  19. Narcotic Tolerance and Dependence Mechanism: A Neurological Correlate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Rol del Cerebrosido Monosulfato en la Accion de los Analgesicos Narcoticos. 5th Latin American Congress on Pharma- cology and Therapeutics, October...we have obtained evidence showing that a membrane sphingolipid, cerebro - side sulfate (CS), is related to narcotic stereospecific binding site(s) in

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF FLOTILLIN-1 ON EIMERIA TENELLA SPOROZOITES AND ITS ROLE IN HOST CELL INVASION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid rafts are detergent-resistant, liquid-ordered microdomains in plasma membranes that are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids and involved in intracellular signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and molecular sorting. In this study, we investigated the possibility that lipid rafts on E...

  1. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR.

  2. Increased sphingoid base-1-phosphates and failure of neural tube closure after exposure to fumonisin or FTY720

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Ingestion of FB1-contaminated food is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). FB1 induces NTDs in inbred LM/Bc mice. FB1 inhibits ceramide synthase in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, resultin...

  3. Accumulation of sphingoid bases and sphingoid base 1-phosphates: A possible mechanism for Fusarium verticillioides corn-seedling disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipids are important structural components of membranes involved in signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and death. Fumonisins (FB) are water soluble mycotoxins produced by F. verticillioides, which is parasitic to corn. FBs are inhibitors of ceramide synthase (CS), a key enzyme in sp...

  4. Age‐related remodeling of small arteries is accompanied by increased sphingomyelinase activity and accumulation of long‐chain ceramides

    PubMed Central

    Ohanian, Jacqueline; Liao, Aiyin; Forman, Simon P.; Ohanian, Vasken

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The structure and function of large arteries alters with age leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Age‐related large artery remodeling and arteriosclerosis is associated with increased collagen deposition, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Bioactive sphingolipids are known to regulate these processes, and are also involved in aging and cellular senescence. However, less is known about age‐associated alterations in small artery morphology and function or whether changes in arterial sphingolipids occur in aging. We show that mesenteric small arteries from old sheep have increased lumen diameter and media thickness without a change in media to lumen ratio, indicative of outward hypertrophic remodeling. This remodeling occurred without overt changes in blood pressure or pulse pressure indicating it was a consequence of aging per se. There was no age‐associated change in mechanical properties of the arteries despite an increase in total collagen content and deposition of collagen in a thickened intima layer in arteries from old animals. Analysis of the sphingolipid profile showed an increase in long‐chain ceramide (C14–C20), but no change in the levels of sphingosine or sphingosine‐1‐phosphate in arteries from old compared to young animals. This was accompanied by a parallel increase in acid and neutral sphingomyelinase activity in old arteries compared to young. This study demonstrates remodeling of small arteries during aging that is accompanied by accumulation of long‐chain ceramides. This suggests that sphingolipids may be important mediators of vascular aging. PMID:24872355

  5. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    The sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate ( S1P ) is the ligand for a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors ( S1P sub 1-5) that...action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by types 1 and 2 sphingosine kinase

  6. Circulating levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate are elevated in severe, but not mild psoriasis and are unresponsive to anti-TNF-α treatment

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio; Xu, Ning; Sar, Daniel G.; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules with a putative role in inflammation. Alterations in sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, have been consistently observed in psoriatic skin. Herein, we quantified the circulating sphingolipid profile in individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. In addition, the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment were determined. Levels of sphingoid bases, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased in severe (P < 0.001; n = 32), but not in mild (n = 32), psoriasis relative to healthy controls (n = 32). These alterations were not reversed in severe patients (n = 16) after anti-TNF-α treatment despite significant improvement in psoriasis lesions. Circulating levels of sphingomyelins and ceramides shifted in a fatty acid chain length-dependent manner. These alterations were also observed in psoriasis skin lesions and were associated with changes in mRNA levels of ceramide synthases. The lack of S1P response to treatment may have pathobiological implications due to its close relation to the vascular and immune systems. In particular, increased levels of sphingolipids and especially S1P in severe psoriasis patients requiring biological treatment may potentially be associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. The fact that shifts in S1P levels were not ameliorated by anti-TNF-α treatment, despite improvements in the skin lesions, further supports targeting S1P receptors as therapy for severe psoriasis. PMID:26174087

  7. Lipid mediators link cells progression with placental and neural tube defects after maternal fumonisin exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of maize. Increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) is observed in populations that rely on maize as a dietary staple. FB1 inhibits ceramide synthase, resulting in altered pools of biologically active sphingolipids. FB1...

  8. Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency Prevents Diet-induced Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Deevska, Gergana M.; Rozenova, Krassimira A.; Giltiay, Natalia V.; Chambers, Melissa A.; White, James; Boyanovsky, Boris B.; Wei, Jia; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric J.; Reid, Michael B.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase plays important roles in ceramide homeostasis, which has been proposed to be linked to insulin resistance. To test this association in vivo, acid sphingomyelinase deletion (asm–/–) was transferred to mice lacking the low density lipoprotein receptor (ldlr–/–), and then offsprings were placed on control or modified (enriched in saturated fat and cholesterol) diets for 10 weeks. The modified diet caused hypercholesterolemia in all genotypes; however, in contrast to asm+/+/ldlr–/–, the acid sphingomyelinase-deficient littermates did not display hepatic triacylglyceride accumulation, although sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids were substantially elevated, and the liver was enlarged. asm–/–/ldlr–/– mice on a modified diet did not accumulate body fat and were protected against diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Experiments with hepatocytes revealed that acid sphingomyelinase regulates the partitioning of the major fatty acid in the modified diet, palmitate, into two competitive and inversely related pools, triacylglycerides and sphingolipids, apparently via modulation of serine palmitoyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis. These studies provide evidence that acid sphingomyelinase activity plays an essential role in the regulation of glucose metabolism by regulating the hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerides and sphingolipids during consumption of a diet rich in saturated fats. PMID:19074137

  9. The Immunological Functions of Saposins

    PubMed Central

    Darmoise, Alexandre; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Winau, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Saposins or sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins that are ubiquitously present in lysosomes. SAPs comprise the five molecules saposins A–D and the GM2 activator protein. Saposins are essential for sphingolipid degradation and membrane digestion. On the one hand, they bind the respective hydrolases required to catabolize sphingolipid molecules; on the other hand, saposins can interact with intralysosomal membrane structures to render lipids accessible to their degrading enzymes. Thus, saposins bridge the physicochemical gap between lipid substrate and hydrophilic hydrolases. Accordingly, defects in saposin function can lead to lysosomal lipid accumulation. In addition to their specific functions in sphingolipid metabolism, saposins have membrane-perturbing properties. At the low pH of lysosomes, saposins get protonated and exhibit a high binding affinity for anionic phospholipids. Based on their universal principle to interact with membrane bilayers, we present the immunological functions of saposins with regard to lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells, processing of apoptotic bodies for antigen delivery and cross-priming, as well as their potential antimicrobial impact. PMID:20510729

  10. Fumonisins, Tortillas and Neural Tube Defects: Untangling a Complex Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are found in corn and corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism thereby causing species-specific diseases in animals that include cancer in rodents and (birth) neural tube defects (NTD) in LM/Bc mice. Fumonisins’ affect on human heal...

  11. In vivo Metabolism of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent fumonisin mycotoxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It inhibits ceramide synthase, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and function, is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and induces neural tube defects in some mouse strains. Its human health effect...

  12. Increased nuclear sphingoid base-1-phosphates and HDAC inhibition after fumonisin and FTY720-treatment: the link between epigenomic modifications and neural tube defects?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Ingestion of FB1-contaminated food during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). FB1 inhibits the enzyme ceramide synthase in de novo sphingolipid biosynthes...

  13. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are found in corn. The most common, fumonisin FB1 (FB1) is toxic to animals, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism, and is a suspected risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs; serious birth defect) and cancer in humans that consume contaminated corn as a diet staple. FB1 levels in foods an...

  14. Circulating levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate are elevated in severe, but not mild psoriasis and are unresponsive to anti-TNF-α treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checa, Antonio; Xu, Ning; Sar, Daniel G.; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-07-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules with a putative role in inflammation. Alterations in sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, have been consistently observed in psoriatic skin. Herein, we quantified the circulating sphingolipid profile in individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. In addition, the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment were determined. Levels of sphingoid bases, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased in severe (P < 0.001 n = 32), but not in mild (n = 32), psoriasis relative to healthy controls (n = 32). These alterations were not reversed in severe patients (n = 16) after anti-TNF-α treatment despite significant improvement in psoriasis lesions. Circulating levels of sphingomyelins and ceramides shifted in a fatty acid chain length-dependent manner. These alterations were also observed in psoriasis skin lesions and were associated with changes in mRNA levels of ceramide synthases. The lack of S1P response to treatment may have pathobiological implications due to its close relation to the vascular and immune systems. In particular, increased levels of sphingolipids and especially S1P in severe psoriasis patients requiring biological treatment may potentially be associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. The fact that shifts in S1P levels were not ameliorated by anti-TNF-α treatment, despite improvements in the skin lesions, further supports targeting S1P receptors as therapy for severe psoriasis.

  15. Fumonisin as a possible contributing factor to neural tube defects in populations consuming large amounts of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB) is an inhibitor of sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis and folate transport and can induce neural tube defects (NTD) in mice. NTD incidence is high in countries where maize is a dietary staple and FB exposure is likely. In Guatemala the incidence of FB in maize has been well documented ...

  16. Serum sphingolipidomic analyses reveal an upregulation of C16- ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikos, Georgios; Schoell, Niklas; Ferreirós, Nerea; Bon, Dimitra; Herrmann, Eva; Farnik, Harald; Köberle, Verena; Piiper, Albrecht; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that major alterations of serum sphingolipid metabolites in chronic liver disease associate significantly with the stage of liver fibrosis in corresponding patients. In the current study we assessed via mass spectrometry serum concentrations of sphingolipid metabolites in a series of 122 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to an age- and sex-matched series of 127 patients with cirrhosis. We observed a highly significant upregulation of long and very long chain ceramides (C16-C24) in the serum of patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Accordingly, dihydro-ceramides, synthetic precursors of ceramides and notably sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (SA1P) were upregulated in patients with HCC (P < 0.001). Especially the diagnostic accuracy of C16-ceramide and S1P, assessed by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) value as compared to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (0.999 and 0.985 versus 0.823, P < 0.001 respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of sphingolipid metabolites show a significant upregulation in patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis. Particularly C16-ceramide and S1P may serve as novel diagnostic markers for the identification of HCC in patients with liver diseases. Our data justify further investigations on the role of sphingolipids in HCC. PMID:26933996

  17. Autophagy Paradox and Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenhui; Ogretmen, Besim

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipid molecules act as bioactive lipid messengers and exert their actions on the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways. Sphingolipids play essential roles in numerous cellular functions, including controlling cell inflammation, proliferation, death, migration, senescence, tumor metastasis and/or autophagy. Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism has been also implicated in many human cancers. Macroatuophagy (referred to here as autophagy) “self-eating”, is characterized by nonselective sequestering of cytosolic materials by an isolation membrane, which can be either protective or lethal for cells. Ceramide (Cer), a central molecule of sphingolipid metabolism, has been extensively implicated in the control of autophagy. The increasing evidence suggests Cer is highly involved in mediating two opposing autophagic pathways, which regulate either cell survival or death, autophagy paradox. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the autophagy paradox remains unclear. Therefore, this review focuses on recent studies with regard to the regulation of autophagy by Cer and elucidate the roles and mechanisms of action of Cer in controlling autophagy paradox. PMID:24055889

  18. Change in activity of serine palmitoyltransferase affects sensitivity to syringomycin E in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2014-09-01

    Syringomycin E is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide produced by strains of the plant bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Genetic studies involving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that complex sphingolipids play important roles in the action of syringomycin E. Here, we found a novel mutation that confers resistance to syringomycin E on yeast; that is, a deletion mutant of ORM1 and ORM2, which encode negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, exhibited resistance to syringomycin E. On the contrary, overexpression of Orm2 resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. Moreover, overexpression of Lcb1 and Lcb2, catalytic subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase, causes resistance to the toxin, whereas partial repression of expression of Lcb1 had the opposite effect. Partial reduction of complex sphingolipids by repression of expression of Aur1, an inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, also resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. These results suggested that an increase in sphingolipid biosynthesis caused by a change in the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase causes resistance to syringomycin E.

  19. Finding pathway-modulating genes from a novel Ontology Fingerprint-derived gene network.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tingting; Matmati, Nabil; Tsoi, Lam C; Mohanty, Bidyut K; Gao, Nan; Tang, Jijun; Lawson, Andrew B; Hannun, Yusuf A; Zheng, W Jim

    2014-10-01

    To enhance our knowledge regarding biological pathway regulation, we took an integrated approach, using the biomedical literature, ontologies, network analyses and experimental investigation to infer novel genes that could modulate biological pathways. We first constructed a novel gene network via a pairwise comparison of all yeast genes' Ontology Fingerprints--a set of Gene Ontology terms overrepresented in the PubMed abstracts linked to a gene along with those terms' corresponding enrichment P-values. The network was further refined using a Bayesian hierarchical model to identify novel genes that could potentially influence the pathway activities. We applied this method to the sphingolipid pathway in yeast and found that many top-ranked genes indeed displayed altered sphingolipid pathway functions, initially measured by their sensitivity to myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Further experiments confirmed the modulation of the sphingolipid pathway by one of these genes, PFA4, encoding a palmitoyl transferase. Comparative analysis showed that few of these novel genes could be discovered by other existing methods. Our novel gene network provides a unique and comprehensive resource to study pathway modulations and systems biology in general.

  20. Spingolipids in the root play an important role in regulating the leaf ionome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipid synthesis is initiated by condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA to produce 3-ketodihydrosphinganine (3-KDS), which is subsequently reduced by a 3-KDS reductase to dihydrosphinganine (DHS). Serine palmitoyltransferase was recently shown to be essential for plant viability, but the 3...

  1. Phytosphingosine as a specific inhibitor of growth and nutrient import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chung, N; Mao, C; Heitman, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M

    2001-09-21

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have demonstrated a necessary role for sphingolipids in the heat stress response through inhibition of nutrient import (Chung, N., Jenkins, G. M., Hannun, Y. A., Heitman, J., and Obeid, L. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 17229-17232). In this study, we used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches to determine which endogenous sphingolipid is the likely mediator of growth inhibition. When cells were treated with exogenous phytosphingosine (PHS, 20 microm) or structurally similar or metabolically related molecules, including 3-ketodihydrosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, C(2)-phytoceramide (PHC), and stearylamine, only PHS inhibited growth. Also, PHS was shown to inhibit uptake of uracil, tryptophan, leucine, and histidine. Again this effect was specific to PHS. Because of the dynamic nature of sphingolipid metabolism, however, it was difficult to conclude that growth inhibition was caused by PHS itself. By using mutant yeast strains defective in various steps in sphingolipid metabolism, we further determined the specificity of PHS. The elo2Delta strain, which is defective in the conversion of PHS to PHC, was shown to have slower biosynthesis of ceramides and to be hypersensitive to PHS (5 microm), suggesting that PHS does not need to be converted to PHC. The lcb4Delta lcb5Delta strain is defective in the conversion of PHS to PHS 1-phosphate, and it was as sensitive to PHS as the wild-type strain. The syr2Delta mutant strain was defective in the conversion of DHS to PHS. Interestingly, this strain was resistant to high concentrations of DHS (40 microm) that inhibited the growth of an isogenic wild-type strain, demonstrating that DHS needs to be converted to PHS to inhibit growth. Together, these data demonstrate that the active sphingolipid species that inhibits yeast growth is PHS or a closely related and yet unidentified metabolite.

  2. Variable substrate preference among phospholipase D toxins from sicariid spiders

    SciTech Connect

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-03-09

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. Lastly, the evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey.

  3. Fingolimod for the treatment of neurological diseases—state of play and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, Robert; Vutukuri, Rajkumar; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a fascinating class of signaling molecules derived from the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. They show abundant expression in the brain. Complex sphingolipids such as glycosphingolipids (gangliosides and cerebrosides) regulate vesicular transport and lysosomal degradation and their dysregulation can lead to storage diseases with a neurological phenotype. More recently, simple sphingolipids such ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) were discovered to signal in response to many extracellular stimuli. Forming an intricate signaling network, the balance of these readily interchangeable mediators is decisive for cell fate under stressful conditions. The immunomodulator fingolimod is the prodrug of an S1P receptor agonist. Following receptor activation, the drug leads to downregulation of the S1P1 receptor inducing functional antagonism. As the first drug to modulate the sphingolipid signaling pathway, it was marketed in 2010 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). At that time, immunomodulation was widely accepted as the key mechanism of fingolimod’s efficacy in MS. But given the excellent passage of this lipophilic compound into the brain and its massive brain accumulation as well as the abundant expression of S1P receptors on brain cells, it is conceivable that fingolimod also affects brain cells directly. Indeed, a seminal study showed that the protective effect of fingolimod in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), a murine MS model, is lost in mice lacking the S1P1 receptor on astrocytes, arguing for a specific role of astrocytic S1P signaling in MS. In this review, we discuss the role of sphingolipid mediators and their metabolizing enzymes in neurologic diseases and putative therapeutic strategies arising thereof. PMID:25309325

  4. Local control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling in the Golgi apparatus by Vps74 and Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher S.; Hung, Chia-Sui; Huoh, Yu-San; Mousley, Carl J.; Stefan, Christopher J.; Bankaitis, Vytas; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the Golgi apparatus, lipid homeostasis pathways are coordinated with the biogenesis of cargo transport vesicles by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that produce phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), a signaling molecule that is recognized by downstream effector proteins. Quantitative analysis of the intra-Golgi distribution of a PtdIns4P reporter protein confirms that PtdIns4P is enriched on the trans-Golgi cisterna, but surprisingly, Vps74 (the orthologue of human GOLPH3), a PI4K effector required to maintain residence of a subset of Golgi proteins, is distributed with the opposite polarity, being most abundant on cis and medial cisternae. Vps74 binds directly to the catalytic domain of Sac1 (KD = 3.8 μM), the major PtdIns4P phosphatase in the cell, and PtdIns4P is elevated on medial Golgi cisternae in cells lacking Vps74 or Sac1, suggesting that Vps74 is a sensor of PtdIns4P level on medial Golgi cisternae that directs Sac1-mediated dephosphosphorylation of this pool of PtdIns4P. Consistent with the established role of Sac1 in the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis, complex sphingolipid homeostasis is perturbed in vps74Δ cells. Mutant cells lacking complex sphingolipid biosynthetic enzymes fail to properly maintain residence of a medial Golgi enzyme, and cells lacking Vps74 depend critically on complex sphingolipid biosynthesis for growth. The results establish additive roles of Vps74-mediated and sphingolipid-dependent sorting of Golgi residents. PMID:22553352

  5. Sphingosine-1 Phosphate: A New Modulator of Immune Plasticity in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Yamila I.; Campos, Ludmila E.; Castro, Melina G.; Aladhami, Ahmed; Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Alvarez, Sergio E.

    2016-01-01

    In the last 15 years, increasing evidences demonstrate a strong link between sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and both normal physiology and progression of different diseases, including cancer and inflammation. Indeed, numerous studies show that tissue levels of this sphingolipid metabolite are augmented in many cancers, affecting survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. Recent insights into the possible role of S1P as a therapeutic target has attracted enormous attention and opened new opportunities in this evolving field. In this review, we will focus on the role of S1P in cancer, with particular emphasis in new developments that highlight the many functions of this sphingolipid in the tumor microenvironment. We will discuss how S1P modulates phenotypic plasticity of macrophages and mast cells, tumor-induced immune evasion, differentiation and survival of immune cells in the tumor milieu, interaction between cancer and stromal cells, and hypoxic response. PMID:27800303

  6. Match-making for posaconazole through systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Fügi, Matthias A; Kaiser, Marcel; Tanner, Marcel; Schneiter, Roger; Mäser, Pascal; Guan, Xue Li

    2015-02-01

    Currently available drugs for Chagas' disease are limited by toxicity and low efficacy in the chronic stage. Posaconazole, the most advanced new anti-chagasic drug candidate, did not fully confirm its initial potential in a Phase II clinical trial for chronic Chagas' disease. Given that posaconazole is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro, and was very well tolerated in clinical trials, it should not be abandoned. Rather, a combination therapy may provide a highly promising outlook. Systems-scale approaches facilitate the hunt for a combination partner for posaconazole, which acts by blocking sterol biosynthesis. Mounting evidence suggests the functional interactions between sterols and sphingolipids in vivo. Here, we propose combining sterol and sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors to advance drug development in Chagas' disease.

  7. Reflections on my career in analytical chemistry and biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sweeley, Charles C

    2010-01-01

    My career has been focused in two major areas, analytical chemistry and biochemistry of complex lipids and glycoconjugates. Included here are the pioneering work on the gas chromatography of long-chain sphingolipid bases, carbohydrates, steroids and urinary organic acids. Mass spectrometry was utilized extensively in structural studies of sphingolipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, steroids, urinary organic acids, polyisoprenoid alcohols, and juvenile hormone. Computer systems were developed for the acquisition and analysis of mass spectra, and were used for development of automated metabolic profiling of complex mixtures of metabolites. Fabry's disease was discovered to be a glycosphingolipidosis. Enzymes of lysosomal metabolism of glycosphingolipids were purified, characterized, and used in one of the first demonstrations of the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder (Fabry's disease). Extracellular sialidases were studied to evaluate the hypothesis that they might be involved in the regulation of membrane growth factor receptors. The enzyme for hematoside synthesis was purified and characterized.

  8. A Conserved Circular Network of Coregulated Lipids Modulates Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Köberlin, Marielle S; Snijder, Berend; Heinz, Leonhard X; Baumann, Christoph L; Fauster, Astrid; Vladimer, Gregory I; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-07-02

    Lipid composition affects the biophysical properties of membranes that provide a platform for receptor-mediated cellular signaling. To study the regulatory role of membrane lipid composition, we combined genetic perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism with the quantification of diverse steps in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Membrane lipid composition was broadly affected by these perturbations, revealing a circular network of coregulated sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. This evolutionarily conserved network architecture simultaneously reflected membrane lipid metabolism, subcellular localization, and adaptation mechanisms. Integration of the diverse TLR-induced inflammatory phenotypes with changes in lipid abundance assigned distinct functional roles to individual lipid species organized across the network. This functional annotation accurately predicted the inflammatory response of cells derived from patients suffering from lipid storage disorders, based solely on their altered membrane lipid composition. The analytical strategy described here empowers the understanding of higher-level organization of membrane lipid function in diverse biological systems.

  9. Neuronal polarity: Essential role of protein–lipid complexes in axonal sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Simons, Kai; Dotti, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) and the endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein Thy-1 are efficiently targeted to the axonal surface of fully polarized hippocampal neurons in culture. Here we have shown that in these cells HA and Thy-1 interact with sphingolipid–cholesterol rafts and are included in detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched complexes. Axonal HA and Thy-1, but not two dendritic membrane proteins, resisted extraction to detergents at 4°C. Both HA and Thy-1 became detergent-soluble in neurons with reduced levels of cholesterol or sphingolipids. Missorting of the axonal Thy-1 but not of a dendritic membrane protein occurred in sphingolipid-deprived cells. These results indicate that neurons sort a subset of axolemmal proteins by a mechanism that requires the formation of protein–lipid rafts. The involvement of rafts in axonal membrane sorting may explain the neurological deficits observed in patients with certain types of Niemann–Pick disease. PMID:9520476

  10. Ceramide-1-Phosphate in Phagocytosis and Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Shayman, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well established sources of important signaling molecules. For example, ceramide (Cer) has been described as a potent inhibitor of cell growth and inducer of apoptosis. In contrast, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) has been reported to have mitogenic properties and to inhibit apoptosis. Our understanding of the distinct biological roles of C1P in the regulation of DNA synthesis, inflammation, membrane fusion, and intracellular Ca2+ increase has rapidly expanded. C1P is a bioactive sphingolipid formed by the phosphorylation of ceramide catalyzed by ceramide kinase (CERK). This chapter specifically focuses on the role of C1P in phagocytosis and Ca2+ homeostasis. Studies of the metabolism of C1P during phagocytosis, may lead to a better understanding of its role in signaling. Potentially, the inhibition of CERK and C1P formation may be a therapeutic target for inflammation. PMID:20919651

  11. Vitamin K and brain function.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-11-01

    One of the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K was initially discovered for its role in blood coagulation. Although several vitamin K-dependent hemostatic proteins are particularly important for the brain, other vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), not associated with blood coagulation, also contribute to the brain function. In addition to the VKDPs, vitamin K participates in the nervous system through its involvement in sphingolipid metabolism, a class of lipids widely present in brain cell membranes. Classically known for their structural role, sphingolipids are biologically potent molecules involved in a wide range of cellular actions. Also, there is growing evidence that the K vitamer, menaquinone-4, has anti-inflammatory activity and offers protection against oxidative stress. Finally, although limited in numbers, reports point to a modulatory role of vitamin K in cognition. This short review presents an overview of the known role of vitamin K in brain function to date.

  12. Therapeutic Strategies and Pharmacological Tools Influencing S1P Signaling and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominik; Stark, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades the study of the sphingolipid anabolic, catabolic, and signaling pathways has attracted enormous interest. Especially the introduction of fingolimod into market as first p.o. therapeutic for the treatment of multiple sclerosis has boosted this effect. Although the complex regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and other catabolic and anabolic sphingosine-related compounds is not fully understood, the influence on different (patho)physiological states from inflammation to cytotoxicity as well as the availability of versatile pharmacological tools that represent new approaches to study these states are described. Here, we have summarized various aspects concerning the many faces of sphingolipid function modulation by different pharmacological tools up to clinical candidates. Due to the immense heterogeneity of physiological or pharmacological actions and complex cross regulations, it is difficult to predict their role in upcoming therapeutic approaches. Currently, inflammatory, immunological, and/or antitumor aspects are discussed.

  13. Regulation of ceramide channel formation and disassembly: Insights on the initiation of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Stiban, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid research has surged in the past two decades and has produced a wide variety of evidence supporting the role of this class of molecules in mediating cellular growth, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. Ceramides are a subgroup of sphingolipids (SLs) that are directly involved in the process of initiation of apoptosis. We, and others, have recently shown that ceramides are capable of the formation of protein-permeable channels in mitochondrial outer membranes under physiological conditions. These pores are indeed good candidates for the pathway of release of pro-apoptotic proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) into the cytosol to initiate intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we review recent findings on the regulation of ceramide channel formation and disassembly, highlighting possible implications on the initiation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:26587005

  14. Targeted Induction of Ceramide Degradation Leads to Improved Systemic Metabolism and Reduced Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kusminski, Christine M.; Sun, Kai; Sharma, Ankit X.; Pearson, Mackenzie J.; Sifuentes, Angelika J.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Gordillo, Ruth; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids have garnered attention for their role in insulin resistance and lipotoxic cell death. Aberrant accumulation of ceramides correlates with hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. To further investigate the tissue-specific effects of local changes in ceramidase activity, we have developed transgenic mice inducibly expressing acid ceramidase, to trigger the deacylation of ceramides. This represents the first inducible genetic model that acutely manipulates ceramides in adult mouse tissues. Hepatic overexpression of acid ceramidase prevents hepatic steatosis and prompts improvements in insulin action in liver and adipose tissue. Conversely, overexpression of acid ceramidase within adipose tissue prevents hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Induction of ceramidase activity in either tissue promotes a lowering of hepatic ceramides and reduced activation of the ceramide-activated protein kinase C isoform PKC-zeta. These observations suggest the existence of a rapidly acting "crosstalk" between liver and adipose tissue sphingolipids, critically regulating glucose metabolism and hepatic lipid uptake. PMID:26190650

  15. Activation of the unfolded protein response pathway causes ceramide accumulation in yeast and INS-1E insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Sharon; Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Castillon, Guillaume A; Muñiz, Manuel; Riezman, Isabelle; David, Fabrice P A; Wollheim, Claes B; Riezman, Howard

    2012-03-01

    Sphingolipids are not only important components of membranes but also have functions in protein trafficking and intracellular signaling. The LCB1 gene encodes a subunit of the serine palmitoyltransferase, which is responsible for the first step of sphingolipid synthesis. Here, we show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can restore normal ceramide levels and viability in yeast cells with a conditional defect in LCB1. Dependence on UPR was demonstrated by showing the HAC1-dependence of the suppression. A similar induction of ceramides by UPR seems to take place in mammalian cells. In rat pancreatic INS-1E cells, UPR activation induces the transcription of the CerS6 gene, which encodes a ceramide synthase. This correlates with the specific accumulation of ceramide with a C16 fatty acyl chain upon UPR activation. Therefore, our study reveals a novel connection between UPR induction and ceramide synthesis that seems to be conserved between yeast and mammalian cells.

  16. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Brozinick, Joseph T; Wang, Li-Ping; Hawkins, Eric D; Sargent, Katherine M; Liu, Yanqi; Narra, Krishna; Hoehn, Kyle L; Knotts, Trina A; Siesky, Angela; Nelson, Don H; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Fontenot, Greg K; Birnbaum, Morris J; Summers, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis. Second, they identify enzymes required for ceramide synthesis as therapeutic targets for combating insulin resistance caused by nutrient excess or glucocorticoid therapy.

  17. A key role for transketolase-like 1 in tumor metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Moralli, Santiago; Aguilar, Esther; Marin, Silvia; Coy, Johannes F.; Dewerchin, Mieke; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.; Meca-Cortés, Oscar; Notebaert, Leen; Ghesquière, Bart; Eelen, Guy; Thomson, Timothy M.; Carmeliet, Peter; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming, a crucial cancer hallmark, shifts metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle or lipogenesis, to enable the growth characteristics of cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) orchestrates aerobic glycolysis, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis, glutamine metabolism, protection against oxidative stress and cell proliferation. Furthermore, silencing of TKTL1 reduced the levels of sphingolipids such as lactosylceramide (a sphingolipid regulating cell survival, proliferation and angiogenesis) and phosphatidylinositol (which activates PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling). Thus, in addition to its well-known roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, TKTL1 also regulates lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our study provides unprecedented evidence that TKTL1 plays central roles in major metabolic processes subject to reprogramming in cancer cells and thus identifies TKTL1 as a promising target for new anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27391434

  18. Flagellar membranes are rich in raft-forming phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Serricchio, Mauro; Schmid, Adrien W.; Steinmann, Michael E.; Sigel, Erwin; Rauch, Monika; Julkowska, Daria; Bonnefoy, Serge; Fort, Cécile; Bastin, Philippe; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct evidence for a preferential presence of raft-forming phospholipids in flagellar membranes of T. brucei. PMID:26276100

  19. New Immunosuppressive Sphingoid Base and Ceramide Analogues in Wild Cordyceps

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Han, Yuwei; Xu, Yingqiong; Kou, Junping; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides in wild Cordyceps was performed by integrating a sequential chromatographic enrichment procedure and an UHPLC-ultrahigh definition-Q-TOF-MS based sphingolipidomic approach. A total of 43 sphingoid bases and 303 ceramides were identified from wild Cordyceps, including 12 new sphingoid base analogues and 159 new ceramide analogues based on high-resolution MS and MS/MS data, isotope distribution, matching with the comprehensive personal sphingolipid database, confirmation by sphingolipid standards and chromatographic retention time rule. The immunosuppressive bioassay results demonstrated that Cordyceps sphingoid base fraction exhibits more potent immunosuppressive activity than ceramide fraction, elucidating the immunosuppressive ingredients of wild Cordyceps. This study represented the most comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides from a natural source. The findings of this study provided an insight into therapeutic application of wild Cordyceps. PMID:27966660

  20. Glycosphingolipid storage in Fabry mice extends beyond globotriaosylceramide and is affected by ABCB1 depletion

    PubMed Central

    Kamani, Mustafa A; Provençal, Philippe; Boutin, Michel; Pacienza, Natalia; Fan, Xin; Novak, Anton; Huang, Tonny C; Binnington, Beth; Au, Bryan C; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Lingwood, Clifford A; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Fabry disease is caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency leading to accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in tissues. Clinical manifestations do not appear to correlate with total Gb3 levels. Studies examining tissue distribution of specific acyl chain species of Gb3 and upstream glycosphingolipids are lacking. Material & methods/Results: Thorough characterization of the Fabry mouse sphingolipid profile by LC-MS revealed unique Gb3 acyl chain storage profiles. Storage extended beyond Gb3; all Fabry tissues also accumulated monohexosylceramides. Depletion of ABCB1 had a complex effect on glycosphingolipid storage. Conclusion: These data provide insights into how specific sphingolipid species correlate with one another and how these correlations change in the α-galactosidase A-deficient state, potentially leading to the identification of more specific biomarkers of Fabry disease. PMID:28116130

  1. New Immunosuppressive Sphingoid Base and Ceramide Analogues in Wild Cordyceps.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Han, Yuwei; Xu, Yingqiong; Kou, Junping; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-14

    A comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides in wild Cordyceps was performed by integrating a sequential chromatographic enrichment procedure and an UHPLC-ultrahigh definition-Q-TOF-MS based sphingolipidomic approach. A total of 43 sphingoid bases and 303 ceramides were identified from wild Cordyceps, including 12 new sphingoid base analogues and 159 new ceramide analogues based on high-resolution MS and MS/MS data, isotope distribution, matching with the comprehensive personal sphingolipid database, confirmation by sphingolipid standards and chromatographic retention time rule. The immunosuppressive bioassay results demonstrated that Cordyceps sphingoid base fraction exhibits more potent immunosuppressive activity than ceramide fraction, elucidating the immunosuppressive ingredients of wild Cordyceps. This study represented the most comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides from a natural source. The findings of this study provided an insight into therapeutic application of wild Cordyceps.

  2. Very long chain fatty acid and lipid signaling in the response of plants to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Leger, Amandine

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that lipid signaling is essential for plant resistance to pathogens. Besides oxylipins and unsaturated fatty acids known to play important signaling functions during plant-pathogen interactions, the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis pathway has been recently associated to plant defense through different aspects. VLCFAs are indeed required for the biosynthesis of the plant cuticle and the generation of sphingolipids. Elucidation of the roles of these lipids in biotic stress responses is the result of the use of genetic approaches together with the identification of the genes/proteins involved in their biosynthesis. This review focuses on recent observations which revealed the complex function of the cuticle and cuticle-derived signals, and the key role of sphingolipids as bioactive molecules involved in signal transduction and cell death regulation during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:19649180

  3. The longevity assurance homologue of yeast lag1 (Lass) gene family (review).

    PubMed

    Teufel, Andreas; Maass, Thorsten; Galle, Peter R; Malik, Nasir

    2009-02-01

    The Lass gene family contains a group of highly conserved genes that are found in eukaryotic species. The founding member, lag1, was discovered in a screen for yeast longevity genes. Subsequently, lag1 homologs were discovered in other organisms including six mammalian paralogs. All Lass genes encode a highly conserved Lag1 domain and many also have an additional Hox domain. Lass proteins are ceramide synthases and therefore are critical for ceramide biosynthesis. Ceramide synthase is also a critical enzyme in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. As ceramide and sphingolipids are key intermediates in diverse cellular processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, and stress response and may also play a role in cancer development, the function of Lass proteins is of great interest. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding Lass protein structure, biological function, and their emerging role in cancer development.

  4. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity.

    PubMed

    Benaim, Gustavo; Pimentel, Adriana A; Felibertt, Pimali; Mayora, Adriana; Colman, Laura; Sojo, Felipe; Rojas, Héctor; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2016-04-29

    The increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca(2+)]i by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca(2+) pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca(2+) entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support that this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca(2+)]I in mammalian cells.

  5. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  6. Development of pheochromocytoma in ceramide synthase 2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jae; Brenner, Ori; Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Saada, Ann; Merrill, Alfred H; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H

    2015-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, for which mutations in ∼15 disease-associated genes have been identified. We now document the role of an additional gene in mice, the ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) gene. CerS2, one of six mammalian CerS, synthesizes ceramides with very-long (C22-C24) chains. The CerS2 null mouse has been well characterized and displays lesions in several organs including the liver, lung and the brain. We now demonstrate that changes in the sphingolipid acyl chain profile of the adrenal gland lead to the generation of adrenal medullary tumors. Histological analyses revealed that about half of the CerS2 null mice developed PCC by ∼13 months, and the rest showed signs of medullary hyperplasia. Norepinephrine and normetanephrine levels in the urine were elevated at 7 months of age consistent with the morphological abnormalities found at later ages. Accumulation of ceroid in the X-zone was observed as early as 2 months of age and as a consequence, older mice displayed elevated levels of lysosomal cathepsins, reduced proteasome activity and reduced activity of mitochondrial complex IV by 6 months of age. Together, these findings implicate an additional pathway that can lead to PCC formation, which involves alterations in the sphingolipid acyl chain length. Analysis of the role of sphingolipids in PCC may lead to further understanding of the mechanism by which PCC develops, and might implicate the sphingolipid pathway as a possible novel therapeutic target for this rare tumor.

  7. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOEpatents

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  8. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathway in inner ear biology. New therapeutic strategies for hearing loss?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Guevara, Ricardo; Cencetti, Francesca; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent conditions around the world, in particular among people over 60 years old. Thus, an increase of this affection is predicted as result of the aging process in our population. In this context, it is important to further explore the function of molecular targets involved in the biology of inner ear sensory cells to better individuate new candidates for therapeutic application. One of the main causes of deafness resides into the premature death of hair cells and auditory neurons. In this regard, neurotrophins and growth factors such as insulin like growth factor are known to be beneficial by favoring the survival of these cells. An elevated number of published data in the last 20 years have individuated sphingolipids not only as structural components of biological membranes but also as critical regulators of key biological processes, including cell survival. Ceramide, formed by catabolism of sphingomyelin (SM) and other complex sphingolipids, is a strong inducer of apoptotic pathway, whereas sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), generated by cleavage of ceramide to sphingosine and phosphorylation catalyzed by two distinct sphingosine kinase (SK) enzymes, stimulates cell survival. Interestingly S1P, by acting as intracellular mediator or as ligand of a family of five distinct S1P receptors (S1P1–S1P5), is a very powerful bioactive sphingolipid, capable of triggering also other diverse cellular responses such as cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, and is critically involved in the development and homeostasis of several organs and tissues. Although new interesting data have become available, the information on S1P pathway and other sphingolipids in the biology of the inner ear is limited. Nonetheless, there are several lines of evidence implicating these signaling molecules during neurogenesis in other cell populations. In this review, we discuss the role of S1P during inner ear development, also as guidance for future

  9. Roles for biological membranes in regulating human immunodeficiency virus replication and progress in the development of HIV therapeutics that target lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Haughey, Norman J; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam

    2011-06-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involves a number of important interactions with lipid components in host membranes that regulate binding, fusion, internalization, and viral assembly. Available data suggests that HIV actively modifies the sphingolipid content of cellular membranes to create focal environments that are favorable for infection. In this review, we summarize the roles that membrane lipids play in HIV infection and discuss the current status of therapeutics that attempt to modify biological membranes to inhibit HIV.

  10. High-level production of tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) by combined genetic engineering of sphingoid base biosynthesis and L-serine availability in the non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii.

    PubMed

    Schorsch, Christoph; Köhler, Tim; Andrea, Heiko; Boles, Eckhard

    2012-03-01

    The non-conventional yeast Pichia ciferrii is known to secrete the sphingoid long-chain base phytosphingosine in a tetraacetylated form (TAPS). Sphingolipids are important ingredients in cosmetic applications as they play important roles in human skin. Our work aimed to improve TAPS production by genetic engineering of P. ciferrii. In the first step we improved precursor availability by blocking degradation of L-serine, which is condensed with palmitoyl-CoA by serine palmitoyltransferase in the first committed step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Successive deletion of two genes, SHM1 and SHM2, encoding L-serine hydroxymethyltransferases, and of CHA1 encoding L-serine deaminase, resulted in a strain producing 65 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)), which is a threefold increase in comparison with the parental strain. Attempts to increase the metabolic flux into and through the L-serine biosynthesis pathway did not improve TAPS production. However, genetic engineering of the sphingolipid pathway further increased secretion of TAPS. Blocking of sphingoid long-chain base phosphorylation by deletion of the LCB kinase gene PcLCB4 resulted in a further increase in TAPS production by 78% and significant secretion of the direct precursor of phytosphingosine, sphinganin, in a triacetylated form (TriASa). Overproduction of two serine palmitoyltransferase subunits, Lcb1 and Lcb2, together with a deletion of the gene ORM12 encoding a putative negative regulator of sphingolipid synthesis resulted in a strain producing 178 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)). Additional overproduction of the C4-hydroxylase Syr2 converting sphinganine to phytosphingosine reduced TriASa production and further improved TAPS production. The final recombinant P. ciferrii strain produced up to 199 mg((TAPS))g(-1)((cdw)) with a maximal production rate of 8.42 mg×OD(600nm)(-1)h(-1) and a titer of about 2 g L(-1), and should be applicable for industrial TAPS production.

  11. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Carayol, Marion; Achaintre, David; Scalbert, Augustin; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc J; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. Objective: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Design: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate–controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. Results: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Conclusions: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of

  12. Ceramidase Regulates Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbough, Jeffrey; Rushton, Emma; Palanker, Laura; Woodruff, Elvin; Matthies, Heinrich J. G.; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K.; Broadie, Kendal

    2009-01-01

    A screen for Drosophila synaptic dysfunction mutants identified slug-a-bed (slab). The slab gene encodes ceramidase, a central enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism and regulation. Sphingolipids are major constituents of lipid rafts, membrane domains with roles in vesicle trafficking, and signaling pathways. Null slab mutants arrest as fully developed embryos with severely reduced movement. The SLAB protein is widely expressed in different tissues but enriched in neurons at all stages of development. Targeted neuronal expression of slab rescues mutant lethality, demonstrating the essential neuronal function of the protein. C5-ceramide applied to living preparations is rapidly accumulated at neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses dependent on the SLAB expression level, indicating that synaptic sphingolipid trafficking and distribution is regulated by SLAB function. Evoked synaptic currents at slab mutant NMJs are reduced by 50–70%, whereas postsynaptic glutamate-gated currents are normal, demonstrating a specific presynaptic impairment. Hypertonic saline-evoked synaptic vesicle fusion is similarly impaired by 50–70%, demonstrating a loss of readily releasable vesicles. In addition, FM1-43 dye uptake is reduced in slab mutant presynaptic terminals, indicating a smaller cycling vesicle pool. Ultrastructural analyses of mutants reveal a normal vesicle distribution clustered and docked at active zones, but fewer vesicles in reserve regions, and a twofold to threefold increased incidence of vesicles linked together and tethered at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that SLAB ceramidase function controls presynaptic terminal sphingolipid composition to regulate vesicle fusion and trafficking, and thus the strength and reliability of synaptic transmission. PMID:15356190

  13. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate ( S1P ) is the ligand for a family of five specific G protein...cell motility. However, whether it also has an intracellular action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation...cells from apoptosis. Recently, we reported that in contrast, expression of SphK2 inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis independently of S1P receptor

  14. [Fumonisin intake and human health].

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that contaminate maize, disrupt the folate and sphingolipid metabolism, are associated with neural tube defects, and are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possible human carcinogens. Since maize-based foods are significant components of the Mexican diet and there is a high prevalence of genetic susceptibility for folate deficiency among Mexicans, this essay presents international and national evidence of fumonisin exposure and the relevance that such exposure represents for Mexico.

  15. l-Serine Deficiency Elicits Intracellular Accumulation of Cytotoxic Deoxysphingolipids and Lipid Body Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Kayoko; Sayano, Tomoko; Sonoda, Chiaki; Akagi, Takumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Ogawa, Takuya; Okamoto, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Furuya, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    l-Serine is required to synthesize membrane lipids such as phosphatidylserine and sphingolipids. Nevertheless, it remains largely unknown how a diminished capacity to synthesize l-serine affects lipid homeostasis in cells and tissues. Here, we show that deprivation of external l-serine leads to the generation of 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs), including 1-deoxysphinganine, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (KO-MEFs) lacking d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which catalyzes the first step in the de novo synthesis of l-serine. A novel mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach demonstrated that 1-deoxydihydroceramide was the most abundant species of doxSLs accumulated in l-serine-deprived KO-MEFs. Among normal sphingolipid species in KO-MEFs, levels of sphinganine, dihydroceramide, ceramide, and hexosylceramide were significantly reduced after deprivation of external l-serine, whereas those of sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were retained. The synthesis of doxSLs was suppressed by supplementing the culture medium with l-serine but was potentiated by increasing the ratio of l-alanine to l-serine in the medium. Unlike with l-serine, depriving cells of external l-leucine did not promote the occurrence of doxSLs. Consistent with results obtained from KO-MEFs, brain-specific deletion of Phgdh in mice also resulted in accumulation of doxSLs in the brain. Furthermore, l-serine-deprived KO-MEFs exhibited increased formation of cytosolic lipid bodies containing doxSLs and other sphingolipids. These in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that doxSLs are generated in the presence of a high ratio of l-alanine to l-serine in cells and tissues lacking Phgdh, and de novo synthesis of l-serine is necessary to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis when the external supply of this amino acid is limited. PMID:25903138

  16. Gene therapy in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sevin, C; Cartier-Lacave, N; Aubourg, P

    2009-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Deficiency of this enzyme results in intralysosomal storage of sphingolipid cerebroside 3-sulfates (sulfatides), which are abundant in myelin and neurons. A pathological hallmark of MLD is demyelination and neurodegeneration, causing various and ultimately lethal neurological symptoms. This review discusses the potential therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy and intracerebral gene transfer (brain gene therapy) in patients with MLD.

  17. The sphingosine rheostat is involved in the cnidarian heat stress response but not necessarily in bleaching.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Weis, Virginia M

    2017-02-22

    Sphingolipids play important roles in mitigating cellular heat and oxidative stress by altering membrane fluidity, receptor clustering and gene expression. Accumulation of signaling sphingolipids that comprise the sphingosine rheostat, pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) and pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is key to determining cell fate. Reef-building corals and other symbiotic cnidarians living in shallow tropical waters can experience elevated seawater temperature and high UV irradiance, two stressors that are increasing in frequency and severity with climate change. In symbiotic cnidarians, these stressors disrupt the photosynthetic machinery of the endosymbiont and ultimately result in the collapse of the partnership (dysbiosis), known as cnidarian bleaching. In a previous study, exogenously applied sphingolipids altered heat-induced bleaching in the symbiotic anemone Aiptasia pallida, but endogenous regulation of these lipids is unknown. Here, we characterized the role of the rheostat in the cnidarian heat stress response (HSR) and in dysbiosis. Gene expression of rheostat enzymes sphingosine kinase (AP-SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (AP-SGPP), and concentrations of sphingolipids were quantified from anemones incubated at elevated temperatures. We observed a biphasic HSR in A. pallida. At early exposure, rheostat gene expression and lipid levels were suppressed while gene expression of a heat stress biomarker increased and 40% of symbionts were lost. After longer incubations at the highest temperature, AP-SGPP and then Sph levels both increased. These results indicate that the sphingosine rheostat in A. pallida does not participate in initiation of dysbiosis, but instead functions in the chronic response to prolonged heat stress that promotes host survival.

  18. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L−1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L−1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  19. Targeting the S1P Axis and Development of a Novel Therapy for Obesity-Related Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    regulation of a wide variety of complex biological processes important for breast cancer progression ( Carroll et al., 2015; Maceyka and Spiegel, 2014). Most...breast cancer ( Carroll et al., 2015; Newton et al., 2015; Pyne et al., 2014; Sukocheva and Wadham, 2014; Truman et al., 2014). Moreover, expression of...therapies for metastatic triple- negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 138, 21-35. Carroll , B., Donaldson, J.C., Obeid, L. 2015. Sphingolipids in

  20. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  1. Identification and Characterization of FTY720 for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Marcel; Avery, Vicky M.

    2015-01-01

    The screening of a focused library identified FTY720 (Fingolimod; Gilenya) as a potent selective antitrypanosomal compound active against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense, the causative agents of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). This is the first report of trypanocidal activity for FTY720, an oral drug registered for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, and the characterization of sphingolipids as a potential new class of compounds for HAT. PMID:26666915

  2. Exogenous ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1) regulate key macrophage activities via distinct receptors

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sebastián; Ernst, Orna; Avni, Dorit; Athamna, Muhammad; Philosoph, Amir; Arana, Lide; Ouro, Alberto; Hoeferlin, L. Alexis; Meijler, Michael M.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an ensemble of tightly regulated steps, in which macrophages play an essential role. Previous reports showed that the natural sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates macrophages migration, while the synthetic C1P mimic, phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1), suppresses production of the key pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and amplifies production of the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated macrophages, via one or more unidentified G-protein coupled receptors. We show that C1P stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages migration via the NFκB pathway and MCP-1 induction, while PCERA-1 neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Conversely, PCERA-1 synergistically elevated LPS-dependent IL-10 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages via the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway, while C1P neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Interestingly, both compounds have the capacity to additively inhibit TNFα secretion; PCERA-1, but not C1P, suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression in macrophages in a CREB-dependent manner, while C1P, but not PCERA-1, directly inhibited recombinant TNFα converting enzyme (TACE). Finally, PCERA-1 failed to interfere with binding of C1P to either the cell surface receptor or to TACE. These results thus indicate that the natural sphingolipid C1P and its synthetic analog PCERA-1 bind and activate distinct receptors expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages. Identification of these receptors will be instrumental for elucidation of novel activities of extra-cellular sphingolipids, and may pave the way for the design of new sphingolipid mimics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and pathologies which depend on cell migration, as in metastatic tumors. PMID:26656944

  3. Activation of the melastatin-related cation channel TRPM3 by D-erythro-sphingosine [corrected].

    PubMed

    Grimm, Christian; Kraft, Robert; Schultz, Günter; Harteneck, Christian

    2005-03-01

    TRPM3, a member of the melastatin-like transient receptor potential channel subfamily (TRPM), is predominantly expressed in human kidney and brain. TRPM3 mediates spontaneous Ca2+ entry and nonselective cation currents in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Using measurements with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we found that D-erythro-sphingosine, a metabolite arising during the de novo synthesis of cellular sphingolipids, activated TRPM3. Other transient receptor potential (TRP) channels tested [classic or canonical TRP (TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5), vanilloid-like TRP (TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPV6), and melastatin-like TRP (TRPM2)] did not significantly respond to application of sphingosine. Sphingosine-induced TRPM3 activation was not mediated by inhibition of protein kinase C, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, and intracellular conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate. Although sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramides had no effect, two structural analogs of sphingosine, dihydro-D-erythro-sphingosine and N,N-dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine, also activated TRPM3. Sphingolipids, including sphingosine, are known to have inhibitory effects on a variety of ion channels. Thus, TRPM3 is the first ion channel activated by sphingolipids.

  4. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase mutations cause primary adrenal insufficiency and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rathi; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; Maharaj, Avinaash; Meimaridou, Eirini; Buonocore, Federica; Saleem, Moin; Hurcombe, Jenny; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Barbagelata, Eliana; Bergadá, Ignacio; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Das, Urmi; Krone, Ruth; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sari, Erkan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Storr, Helen L; Clemente, Maria; Fernandez-Cancio, Monica; Camats, Nuria; Ram, Nanik; Achermann, John C; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Guasti, Leonardo; Braslavsky, Debora; Guran, Tulay; Metherell, Louise A

    2017-03-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is life threatening and can present alone or in combination with other comorbidities. Here, we have described a primary adrenal insufficiency syndrome and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by loss-of-function mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 executes the final decisive step of the sphingolipid breakdown pathway, mediating the irreversible cleavage of the lipid-signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Mutations in other upstream components of the pathway lead to harmful accumulation of lysosomal sphingolipid species, which are associated with a series of conditions known as the sphingolipidoses. In this work, we have identified 4 different homozygous mutations, c.665G>A (p.R222Q), c.1633_1635delTTC (p.F545del), c.261+1G>A (p.S65Rfs*6), and c.7dupA (p.S3Kfs*11), in 5 families with the condition. In total, 8 patients were investigated, some of whom also manifested other features, including ichthyosis, primary hypothyroidism, neurological symptoms, and cryptorchidism. Sgpl1-/- mice recapitulated the main characteristics of the human disease with abnormal adrenal and renal morphology. Sgpl1-/- mice displayed disrupted adrenocortical zonation and defective expression of steroidogenic enzymes as well as renal histology in keeping with a glomerular phenotype. In summary, we have identified SGPL1 mutations in humans that perhaps represent a distinct multisystemic disorder of sphingolipid metabolism.

  5. Enzyme Activities of the Ceramide Synthases CERS2–6 Are Regulated by Phosphorylation in the C-terminal Region*

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Takayuki; Hirayama, Taisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide and complex sphingolipids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, apoptosis, and signaling. Dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism leads to pathological consequences such as sphingolipidoses and insulin resistance. Ceramides in mammals vary greatly in their acyl-chain composition: six different ceramide synthase isozymes (CERS1–6) that exhibit distinct substrate specificity and tissue distribution account for this diversity. In the present study, we demonstrated that CERS2–6 were phosphorylated at the cytoplasmic C-terminal regions. Most of the phosphorylated residues conformed to a consensus motif for phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and treatment of cells with the CK2-specific inhibitor CX-4945 lowered the phosphorylation levels of CERS2, -4, -5, and -6. Phosphorylation of CERS2 was especially important for its catalytic activity, acting mainly by increasing its Vmax value. Phosphorylation modestly increased the catalytic activities of CERS4 and -5 and mildly increased those of CERS3 and -6. Dephosphorylation of endogenous ceramide synthases in the mouse brain led to severely reduced activity toward the Cers2 substrates C22:0/C24:0-CoAs and modestly reduced activity toward the Cers5/6 substrate C16:0-CoA. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of ceramide synthases may be a key regulatory point in the control of the distribution and levels of sphingolipids of various acyl-chain lengths. PMID:26887952

  6. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite increases the concentrations of sphingoid bases in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Bauman, M; Mesarić, M; Ribar, S; Marić, V; Tudja, M

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we studied the effect of natural zeolite clinoptilolite on sphingolipid metabolism in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. We also investigated if zeolite addition had any impact on cell shape and size, as well as on the pH alterations during the culture growth. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of sphingoid bases obtained by acid hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids from Y. lipolytica showed that their concentrations markedly rose upon the zeolite addition. The largest increase among the identified molecular species of sphingoid bases was seen in C18 phytosphingosine, whose levels rose 6.2-fold and 22.3-fold after culturing cells for 24 and 36 hours respectively in the presence of finely ground zeolite. pH measurements of the culture medium showed a similarity between pH profiles of control and zeolite-supplemented cells, suggesting that ion-exchange capacity was not probably responsible for the observed change in sphingolipid metabolism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that zeolite affected cell size and shape. Y. lipolytica cells grown in the absence of zeolite were oval-shaped with an average cell size of 0.7-2.7 microns, whereas when cultured with zeolite, they were round-shaped and larger, having an average cell size of 1.3-2.9 microns.

  7. Membrane-spanning lipids for an uncompromised monitoring of membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer.

    PubMed

    Schwarzmann, Günter; Breiden, Bernadette; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    A Förster resonance energy transfer-based fusion and transfer assay was developed to study, in model membranes, protein-mediated membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer of fluorescent sphingolipid analogs. For this assay, it became necessary to apply labeled reporter molecules that are resistant to spontaneous as well as protein-mediated intermembrane transfer. The novelty of this assay is the use of nonextractable fluorescent membrane-spanning bipolar lipids. Starting from the tetraether lipid caldarchaeol, we synthesized fluorescent analogs with fluorophores at both polar ends. In addition, we synthesized radioactive glycosylated caldarchaeols. These labeled lipids were shown to stretch through bilayer membranes rather than to loop within a single lipid layer of liposomes. More important, the membrane-spanning lipids (MSLs) in contrast to phosphoglycerides proved to be nonextractable by proteins. We could show that the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) is promiscuous with respect to glycero- and sphingolipid transfer. Saposin (Sap) B also transferred sphingolipids albeit with kinetics different from GM2AP. In addition, we could unambiguously show that the recombinant activator protein Sap C x His6 induced membrane fusion rather than intermembrane lipid transfer. These findings showed that these novel MSLs, in contrast with fluorescent phosphoglycerolipids, are well suited for an uncompromised monitoring of membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer.

  8. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling regulates actin polarization via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Powers, Ted

    2014-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling pathway is an important regulator of actin cytoskeletal architecture and, as such, is a candidate target for preventing cancer cell motility and invasion. Remarkably, the precise mechanism(s) by which mTORC2 regulates the actin cytoskeleton have remained elusive. Here we show that in budding yeast, TORC2 and its downstream kinase Ypk1 regulate actin polarization by controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Specifically, we find that TORC2-Ypk1 regulates actin polarization both by vacuole-related ROS, controlled by the phospholipid flippase kinase Fpk1 and sphingolipids, and by mitochondria-mediated ROS, controlled by the PKA subunit Tpk3. In addition, we find that the protein kinase C (Pkc1)/MAPK cascade, a well-established regulator of actin, acts downstream of Ypk1 to regulate ROS, in part by promoting degradation of the oxidative stress responsive repressor, cyclin C. Furthermore, we show that Ypk1 regulates Pkc1 activity through proper localization of Rom2 at the plasma membrane, which is also dependent on Fpk1 and sphingolipids. Together these findings demonstrate important links between TORC2/Ypk1 signaling, Fpk1, sphingolipids, Pkc1, and ROS as regulators of actin and suggest that ROS may play an important role in mTORC2-dependent dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cells.

  9. Lag1p and Lac1p Are Essential for the Acyl-CoA–dependent Ceramide Synthase Reaction in Saccharomyces cerevisae

    PubMed Central

    Schorling, Stefan; Vallée, Béatrice; Barz, Wolfgang P.; Riezman, Howard; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Lag1p and Lac1p are two homologous transmembrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Homologous genes have been found in a wide variety of eukaryotes. In yeast, both genes, LAC1 and LAG1, are required for efficient endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. In this study, we show that lag1Δlac1Δ cells have reduced sphingolipid levels due to a block of the fumonisin B1-sensitive and acyl-CoA–dependent ceramide synthase reaction. The sphingolipid synthesis defect in lag1Δlac1Δ cells can be partially corrected by overexpression of YPC1 or YDC1, encoding ceramidases that have been reported to have acyl-CoA–independent ceramide synthesis activity. Quadruple mutant cells (lag1Δlac1Δypc1Δydc1Δ) do not make any sphingolipids, but are still viable probably because they produce novel lipids. Moreover, lag1Δlac1Δ cells are resistant to aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of the inositolphosphorylceramide synthase, suggesting that aureobasidin A may be toxic because it leads to increased ceramide levels. Based on these data, LAG1 and LAC1 are the first genes to be identified that are required for the fumonisin B1-sensitive and acyl-CoA–dependent ceramide synthase reaction. PMID:11694577

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Allende, Maria L; Mizukami, Hiroki; Cook, Emily K; Gavrilova, Oksana; Tuymetova, Galina; Clarke, Benjamin A; Chen, Weiping; Olivera, Ana; Proia, Richard L

    2016-06-03

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite that regulates basic cell functions through metabolic and signaling pathways. Intracellular metabolism of S1P is controlled, in part, by two homologous S1P phosphatases (SPPases), 1 and 2, which are encoded by the Sgpp1 and Sgpp2 genes, respectively. SPPase activity is needed for efficient recycling of sphingosine into the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. SPPase 1 is important for skin homeostasis, but little is known about the functional role of SPPase 2. To identify the functions of SPPase 2 in vivo, we studied mice with the Sgpp2 gene deleted. In contrast to Sgpp1(-/-) mice, Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal skin and were viable into adulthood. Unexpectedly, WT mice expressed Sgpp2 mRNA at high levels in pancreatic islets when compared with other tissues. Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal pancreatic islet size; however, they exhibited defective adaptive β-cell proliferation that was demonstrated after treatment with either a high-fat diet or the β-cell-specific toxin, streptozotocin. Importantly, β-cells from untreated Sgpp2(-/-) mice showed significantly increased expression of proteins characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response compared with β-cells from WT mice, indicating a basal islet defect. Our results show that Sgpp2 deletion causes β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a known cause of β-cell dysfunction, and reveal a juncture in the sphingolipid recycling pathway that could impact the development of diabetes.

  11. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase.

  12. Yeast 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity is inhibited by phytosphingosine localized to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Abe, M; Nishida, I; Minemura, M; Qadota, H; Seyama, Y; Watanabe, T; Ohya, Y

    2001-07-20

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan, a major filamentous component of the cell wall in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is synthesized by 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (GS). Although a yeast gene whose product is required for GS activity in vitro, GNS1, was isolated and characterized, its role in GS function has remained unknown. In the current study we show that Deltagns1 cells accumulate a non-competitive and non-proteinous inhibitor(s) in the membrane fraction. Investigations of inhibitory activity on GS revealed that the inhibitor(s) is mainly present in the sphingolipid fraction. It is shown that Deltagns1 cells contain phytosphingosine (PHS), an intermediate in the sphingolipid biosynthesis, 30-fold more than wild-type cells do. The membrane fraction isolated from Deltasur2 cells contains an increased amount of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and also exhibits reduced GS activity. Among constituents of the sphingolipid fraction, PHS and DHS show striking inhibition in a non-competitive manner. The intracellular level of DHS is much lower than that of PHS in wild-type cells, suggesting that PHS is the primary inhibitor of GS in vivo. The localization of PHS to the endoplasmic reticulum in wild-type cells coincides with that of the inhibitor(s) in Deltagns1 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that PHS is a potent inhibitor of yeast GS in vivo.

  13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase mutations cause primary adrenal insufficiency and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rathi; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; Meimaridou, Eirini; Buonocore, Federica; Saleem, Moin; Hurcombe, Jenny; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Barbagelata, Eliana; Bergadá, Ignacio; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Das, Urmi; Krone, Ruth; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sari, Erkan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Storr, Helen L.; Clemente, Maria; Fernandez-Cancio, Monica; Camats, Nuria; Ram, Nanik; Achermann, John C.; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Guasti, Leonardo; Braslavsky, Debora; Guran, Tulay; Metherell, Louise A.

    2017-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is life threatening and can present alone or in combination with other comorbidities. Here, we have described a primary adrenal insufficiency syndrome and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by loss-of-function mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 executes the final decisive step of the sphingolipid breakdown pathway, mediating the irreversible cleavage of the lipid-signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Mutations in other upstream components of the pathway lead to harmful accumulation of lysosomal sphingolipid species, which are associated with a series of conditions known as the sphingolipidoses. In this work, we have identified 4 different homozygous mutations, c.665G>A (p.R222Q), c.1633_1635delTTC (p.F545del), c.261+1G>A (p.S65Rfs*6), and c.7dupA (p.S3Kfs*11), in 5 families with the condition. In total, 8 patients were investigated, some of whom also manifested other features, including ichthyosis, primary hypothyroidism, neurological symptoms, and cryptorchidism. Sgpl1–/– mice recapitulated the main characteristics of the human disease with abnormal adrenal and renal morphology. Sgpl1–/– mice displayed disrupted adrenocortical zonation and defective expression of steroidogenic enzymes as well as renal histology in keeping with a glomerular phenotype. In summary, we have identified SGPL1 mutations in humans that perhaps represent a distinct multisystemic disorder of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:28165343

  14. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Shamroop K.; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S.; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant. PMID:26752183

  15. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela; Pontis, Silvia; Basit, Abdul; Bach, Anders; Ganesan, Anand; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphingolipid signaling in melanoma. We found that AC expression is markedly elevated in normal human melanocytes and proliferative melanoma cell lines, compared with other skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) and non-melanoma cancer cells. High AC expression was also observed in biopsies from human subjects with Stage II melanoma. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the subcellular localization of AC differs between melanocytes (where it is found in both cytosol and nucleus) and melanoma cells (where it is primarily localized to cytosol). In addition to having high AC levels, melanoma cells generate lower amounts of ceramides than normal melanocytes do. This down-regulation in ceramide production appears to result from suppression of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. To test whether AC might contribute to melanoma cell proliferation, we blocked AC activity using a new potent (IC50 = 12 nm) and stable inhibitor. AC inhibition increased cellular ceramide levels, decreased sphingosine 1-phosphate levels, and acted synergistically with several, albeit not all, antitumoral agents. The results suggest that AC-controlled sphingolipid metabolism may play an important role in the control of melanoma proliferation. PMID:26553872

  16. Ceramides And Stress Signalling Intersect With Autophagic Defects In Neurodegenerative Drosophila blue cheese (bchs) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Sarita; Sahoo, Ishtapran; Matysik, Artur; Argudo Garcia, Irene; Osborne, Kathleen Amy; Papan, Cyrus; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Fun, Xiu Hui; Wenk, Markus R; Shevchenko, Andrej; Schwudke, Dominik; Kraut, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites are involved in the regulation of autophagy, a degradative recycling process that is required to prevent neuronal degeneration. Drosophila blue cheese mutants neurodegenerate due to perturbations in autophagic flux, and consequent accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that blue cheese mutant brains exhibit an elevation in total ceramide levels; surprisingly, however, degeneration is ameliorated when the pool of available ceramides is further increased, and exacerbated when ceramide levels are decreased by altering sphingolipid catabolism or blocking de novo synthesis. Exogenous ceramide is seen to accumulate in autophagosomes, which are fewer in number and show less efficient clearance in blue cheese mutant neurons. Sphingolipid metabolism is also shifted away from salvage toward de novo pathways, while pro-growth Akt and MAP pathways are down-regulated, and ER stress is increased. All these defects are reversed under genetic rescue conditions that increase ceramide generation from salvage pathways. This constellation of effects suggests a possible mechanism whereby the observed deficit in a potentially ceramide-releasing autophagic pathway impedes survival signaling and exacerbates neuronal death. PMID:26639035

  17. Membrane-spanning lipids for an uncompromised monitoring of membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzmann, Günter; Breiden, Bernadette; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    A Förster resonance energy transfer-based fusion and transfer assay was developed to study, in model membranes, protein-mediated membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer of fluorescent sphingolipid analogs. For this assay, it became necessary to apply labeled reporter molecules that are resistant to spontaneous as well as protein-mediated intermembrane transfer. The novelty of this assay is the use of nonextractable fluorescent membrane-spanning bipolar lipids. Starting from the tetraether lipid caldarchaeol, we synthesized fluorescent analogs with fluorophores at both polar ends. In addition, we synthesized radioactive glycosylated caldarchaeols. These labeled lipids were shown to stretch through bilayer membranes rather than to loop within a single lipid layer of liposomes. More important, the membrane-spanning lipids (MSLs) in contrast to phosphoglycerides proved to be nonextractable by proteins. We could show that the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) is promiscuous with respect to glycero- and sphingolipid transfer. Saposin (Sap) B also transferred sphingolipids albeit with kinetics different from GM2AP. In addition, we could unambiguously show that the recombinant activator protein Sap C x His6 induced membrane fusion rather than intermembrane lipid transfer. These findings showed that these novel MSLs, in contrast with fluorescent phosphoglycerolipids, are well suited for an uncompromised monitoring of membrane fusion and intermembrane lipid transfer. PMID:26269359

  18. 2-Acetyl-5-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI) protects 661W cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Carlotta; Zulueta, Aida; Bonezzi, Fabiola; Casas, Josefina; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Signorelli, Paola; Caretti, Anna

    2017-04-13

    Retinal degeneration and in particular retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated to ceramide (Cer) accumulation and cell death induction. Cer and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) belong to the sphingolipids class and exert a pro-apoptotic and pro-survival activity, respectively. Our aim is to target sphingolipid metabolism by inhibiting S1P lyase that regulates one of the S1P degradation pathways, to reduce retinal photoreceptor damage. The murine 661W cone-like cell line was pretreated with THI, an inhibitor of S1P lyase and exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. 661W cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by Trypan Blue and TUNEL assay, respectively. Protein expression of mediators of the survival/death pathway (ERK1/2, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax) was analyzed by Western blotting. RT-PCR was performed to establish HO-1 transcript changes and LC-MS analysis to measure Cer intracellular content. THI rescues inhibitory H2O2-effect on 661W cell viability and impairs H2O2-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio. THI administration counteracts the oxidative stress effects of H2O2 on 661W cells by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, regulating ERK and Akt phosphorylation levels, and decreasing Cer intracellular content. We conclude that sphingolipid metabolism manipulation can be considered a therapeutic target to promote photoreceptor survival.

  19. The role of sphingomyelin and sphingomyelin synthases in cell death, proliferation and migration-from cell and animal models to human disorders.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2014-05-01

    Sphingomyelin constitutes membrane microdomains such as lipid raft, caveolae, and clathrin-coated pits and implicates in the regulation of trans-membrane signaling. On the other hand, sphingomyelin emerges as an important molecule to generate bioactive sphingolipids through ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase is an enzyme that generates sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylcholine and ceramide. Although ceramide has a well-known role as a lipid mediator to regulate cell death and survival, the only known biological role of sphingomyelin regulated by sphingomyelin synthases was limited to being a source of bioactive lipids. Here, we describe the basic characters of sphingomyelin synthases and discuss additional roles for sphingomyelin and sphingomyelin synthase in biological functions including cell migration, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell survival/proliferation as well as in human disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. It is expected that a better understanding of the role of sphingomyelin regulated by sphingomyelin synthase will shed light on new mechanisms in cell biology, physiology and pathology. In the future, novel therapeutic procedures for currently incurable diseases could be developed through modifying the function of not only sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and ceramide, but also of their regulatory enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology.

  20. Targeting cancer metabolism by simultaneously disrupting parallel nutrient access pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong M.; Roy, Saurabh G.; Chen, Bin; Nguyen, Tiffany M.; McMonigle, Ryan J.; McCracken, Alison N.; Kofuji, Satoshi; Hou, Jue; Selwan, Elizabeth; Finicle, Brendan T.; Nguyen, Tricia T.; Ravi, Archna; Ramirez, Manuel U.; Wiher, Tim; Guenther, Garret G.; Kono, Mari; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Weisman, Lois S.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations drive anabolic metabolism, creating a dependency on nutrient influx through transporters, receptors, and macropinocytosis. While sphingolipids suppress tumor growth by downregulating nutrient transporters, macropinocytosis and autophagy still provide cancer cells with fuel. Therapeutics that simultaneously disrupt these parallel nutrient access pathways have potential as powerful starvation agents. Here, we describe a water-soluble, orally bioavailable synthetic sphingolipid, SH-BC-893, that triggers nutrient transporter internalization and also blocks lysosome-dependent nutrient generation pathways. SH-BC-893 activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to mislocalization of the lipid kinase PIKfyve. The concomitant mislocalization of the PIKfyve product PI(3,5)P2 triggered cytosolic vacuolation and blocked lysosomal fusion reactions essential for LDL, autophagosome, and macropinosome degradation. By simultaneously limiting access to both extracellular and intracellular nutrients, SH-BC-893 selectively killed cells expressing an activated form of the anabolic oncogene Ras in vitro and in vivo. However, slower-growing, autochthonous PTEN-deficient prostate tumors that did not exhibit a classic Warburg phenotype were equally sensitive. Remarkably, normal proliferative tissues were unaffected by doses of SH-BC-893 that profoundly inhibited tumor growth. These studies demonstrate that simultaneously blocking parallel nutrient access pathways with sphingolipid-based drugs is broadly effective and cancer selective, suggesting a potential strategy for overcoming the resistance conferred by tumor heterogeneity. PMID:27669461

  1. Lipid profiles of detergent resistant fractions of the plasma membrane in oat and rye in association with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Imai, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation (CA) results in alteration of the plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition in plants, which plays a crucial role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance via membrane stabilization. Recent studies have indicated that PM structure is consistent with the fluid mosaic model but is laterally non-homogenous and contains microdomains enriched in sterols, sphingolipids and specific proteins. In plant cells, the function of these microdomains in relation to CA and freezing tolerance is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the lipid compositions of detergent resistant fractions of the PM (DRM) which are considered to represent microdomains. They were prepared from leaves of low-freezing tolerant oat and high-freezing tolerant rye. The DRMs contained higher proportions of sterols, sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids than the PM. In particular, one of the sterol lipid classes, acylated sterylglycoside, was the predominant sterol in oat DRM while rye DRM contained free sterol as the major sterol. Oat and rye showed different patterns (or changes) of sterols and 2-hydroxy fatty acids of sphingolipids of DRM lipids during CA. Taken together, these results suggest that CA-induced changes of lipid classes and molecular species in DRMs are associated with changes in the thermodynamic properties and physiological functions of microdomains during CA and hence, influence plant freezing tolerance. PMID:26904981

  2. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Shamroop K; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant.

  3. Systematic lipidomic analysis of yeast protein kinase and phosphatase mutants reveals novel insights into regulation of lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira dos Santos, Aline Xavier; Riezman, Isabelle; Aguilera-Romero, Maria-Auxiliadora; David, Fabrice; Piccolis, Manuele; Loewith, Robbie; Schaad, Olivier; Riezman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory pathways required to maintain eukaryotic lipid homeostasis are largely unknown. We developed a systematic approach to uncover new players in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Through an unbiased mass spectrometry–based lipidomic screening, we quantified hundreds of lipid species, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols, from a collection of 129 mutants in protein kinase and phosphatase genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach successfully identified known kinases involved in lipid homeostasis and uncovered new ones. By clustering analysis, we found connections between nutrient-sensing pathways and regulation of glycerophospholipids. Deletion of members of glucose- and nitrogen-sensing pathways showed reciprocal changes in glycerophospholipid acyl chain lengths. We also found several new candidates for the regulation of sphingolipid homeostasis, including a connection between inositol pyrophosphate metabolism and complex sphingolipid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of AUR1 and SUR1. This robust, systematic lipidomic approach constitutes a rich, new source of biological information and can be used to identify novel gene associations and function. PMID:25143408

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of sphingoid bases by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS with identical (13)C-encoded internal standards.

    PubMed

    Mirzaian, M; Wisse, P; Ferraz, M J; Marques, A R A; Gaspar, P; Oussoren, S V; Kytidou, K; Codée, J D C; van der Marel, G; Overkleeft, H S; Aerts, J M

    2017-03-01

    Free sphingoid bases (lysosphingolipids) of primary storage sphingolipids are increased in tissues and plasma of several sphingolipidoses. As shown earlier by us, sphingoid bases can be accurately quantified using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, particularly in combination with identical (13)C-encoded internal standards. The feasibility of simultaneous quantitation of sphingoid bases in plasma specimens spiked with a mixture of such standards is here described. The sensitivity and linearity of detection is excellent for all examined sphingoid bases (sphingosine, sphinganine, hexosyl-sphingosine (glucosylsphingosine), hexosyl2-sphingosine (lactosylsphingosine), hexosyl3-sphingosine (globotriaosylsphingosine), phosphorylcholine-sphingosine) in the relevant concentration range and the measurements show very acceptable intra- and inter-assay variation (<10% average). Plasma samples of a series of male and female Gaucher Disease and Fabry Disease patients were analyzed with the multiplex assay. The obtained data compare well to those earlier determined for plasma globotriaosylsphingosine and glucosylsphingosine in GD and FD patients. The same approach can be also applied to measure sphingolipids in the same sample. Following extraction of sphingolipids from the same sample these can be converted to sphingoid bases by microwave exposure and subsequently quantified using (13)C-encoded internal standards.

  5. Exercise and Weight Loss Improve Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration, Lipid Partitioning, and Insulin Sensitivity After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Paul M.; Menshikova, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Giovanna; Zheng, Donghai; Tanner, Charles J.; Standley, Robert A.; Helbling, Nicole L.; Dubis, Gabriel S.; Ritov, Vladimir B.; Xie, Hui; Desimone, Marisa E.; Smith, Steven R.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (n = 101) who underwent RYGB surgery and completed either a 6-month moderate exercise (EX) or a health education control (CON) intervention. SI was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Mitochondrial respiration and intramyocellular triglyceride, sphingolipid, and diacylglycerol content were measured in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens. We found that EX provided additional improvements in SI and that only EX improved cardiorespiratory fitness, mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities, and cardiolipin profile with no change in mitochondrial content. Muscle triglycerides were reduced in type I fibers in CON, and sphingolipids decreased in both groups, with EX showing a further reduction in a number of ceramide species. In conclusion, exercise superimposed on bariatric surgery–induced weight loss enhances mitochondrial respiration, induces cardiolipin remodeling, reduces specific sphingolipids, and provides additional improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:26293505

  6. Cell Non-autonomous Function of Ceramidase in Photoreceptor Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Jairaj K.; Dasgupta, Ujjaini; Rawat, Satinder S.; Yuan, Changqing; Sanxaridis, Parthena D.; Yonamine, Ikuko; Karim, Pusha; Nagashima, Kunio; Brodsky, Michael H.; Tsunoda, Susan; Acharya, Usha

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutral Ceramidase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, hydrolyzes ceramide to sphingosine. These sphingolipids are critical structural components of cell membranes and act as second messengers in diverse signal transduction cascades. Here, we have isolated and characterized functional null mutants of Drosophila Ceramidase. We show that secreted Ceramidase functions in a cell non-autonomous manner to maintain photoreceptor homeostasis. In the absence of Ceramidase, photoreceptors degenerate in a light-dependent manner, are defective in normal endocytic turnover of Rhodopsin, and do not respond to light stimulus. Consistent with a cell non-autonomous function, our studies show that over expression of Ceramidase in a tissue distant from the photoreceptors can suppress photoreceptor degeneration in an Arrestin mutant and facilitate membrane turnover in a Rhodopsin null mutant. Furthermore, our results show that secreted CDase is internalized and localizes to endosomes. Our findings are the first to establish a role for a secreted sphingolipid enzyme in the regulation of photoreceptor structure and function. PMID:18184565

  7. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. PMID:27211567

  8. Proving lipid rafts exist: membrane domains in the prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi have the same properties as eukaryotic lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, Timothy J; Pathak, Priyadarshini; Chiantia, Salvatore; Toledo, Alvaro; Silvius, John R; Benach, Jorge L; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al. (2010) Cell Host & Microbe 8, 331-342]. Here, we show that these prokaryote membrane domains have the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts, despite lacking sphingolipids. Substitution experiments replacing cholesterol lipids with a set of sterols, ranging from strongly raft-promoting to raft-inhibiting when mixed with eukaryotic sphingolipids, showed that sterols that can support ordered domain formation are both necessary and sufficient for formation of B. burgdorferi membrane domains that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy or in living organisms by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Raft-supporting sterols were also necessary and sufficient for formation of high amounts of detergent resistant membranes from B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, having saturated acyl chains was required for a biotinylated lipid to associate with the cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in B. burgdorferi, another characteristic identical to that of eukaryotic lipid rafts. Sterols supporting ordered domain formation were also necessary and sufficient to maintain B. burgdorferi membrane integrity, and thus critical to the life of the organism. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of lipid rafts and show that the same principles of lipid raft formation apply to prokaryotes and eukaryotes despite marked differences in their lipid compositions.

  9. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  10. Trichothecenes induce accumulation of glucosylceramide in neural cells by interfering with lactosylceramide synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kralj, Ana; Gurgui, Mihaela; Koenig, Gabriele M.; Echten-Deckert, Gerhild van

    2007-11-15

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by several fungal strains that impair human and animal health. Since sphingolipids were connected with fungal toxicity the aim of the present study was to test the influence of fungal metabolites on sphingolipid metabolism in neural cells. The crude extract of fungal strain Spicellum roseum induced accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and simultaneous reduction of the formation of lactosylceramide (LacCer) and complex gangliosides in primary cultured neurons. Following a bioassay-guided fractionation of the respective fungal extract we could demonstrate that the two isolated trichothecene derivatives, 8-deoxy-trichothecin (8-dT) and trichodermol (Td-ol) were responsible for this effect. Thus, incubation of primary cultured neurons as well as of neuroblastoma B104 cells for 24 h with 30 {mu}M of either of the two fungal metabolites resulted in uncoupling of sphingolipid biosynthesis at the level of LacCer. For the observed reduction of LacCer synthase activity by about 90% cell integrity was crucial in both cell types. In neuroblastoma cells the amount of LacCer synthase mRNA was reduced in the presence of trichothecenes, whereas in primary cultured neurons this was not the case, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action in the latter cell type. The data also show that the compounds did not interfere with the translocation of GlcCer in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that trichodermol and 8-deoxy-trichothecin inhibit LacCer synthase activity in a cell-type-specific manner.

  11. A critical role for ceramide synthase 2 in liver homeostasis: I. alterations in lipid metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Park, Hyejung; Laviad, Elad L; Silva, Liana C; Lahiri, Sujoy; Stiban, Johnny; Erez-Roman, Racheli; Brügger, Britta; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Wieland, Felix; Prieto, Manuel; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-04-02

    Ceramide is an important lipid signaling molecule that plays critical roles in regulating cell behavior. Ceramide synthesis is surprisingly complex and is orchestrated by six mammalian ceramide synthases, each of which produces ceramides with restricted acyl chain lengths. We have generated a CerS2 null mouse and characterized the changes in the long chain base and sphingolipid composition of livers from these mice. Ceramide and downstream sphingolipids were devoid of very long (C22-C24) acyl chains, consistent with the substrate specificity of CerS2 toward acyl-CoAs. Unexpectedly, C16-ceramide levels were elevated, and as a result, total ceramide levels were unaltered; however, C16-ceramide synthesis in vitro was not increased. Levels of sphinganine were also significantly elevated, by up to 50-fold, reminiscent of the effect of the ceramide synthase inhibitor, fumonisin B1. With the exceptions of glucosylceramide synthase and neutral sphingomyelinase 2, none of the other enzymes tested in either the sphingolipid biosynthetic or degradative pathways were significantly changed. Total glycerophospholipid and cholesterol levels were unaltered, although there was a marked elevation in C18:1 and C18:2 fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine, concomitant with a reduction in C18:0 and C20:4 fatty acids. Finally, differences were observed in the biophysical properties of lipid extracts isolated from liver microsomes, with membranes from CerS2 null mice displaying higher membrane fluidity and showing morphological changes. Together, these results demonstrate novel modes of cross-talk and regulation between the various branches of lipid metabolic pathways upon inhibition of very long acyl chain ceramide synthesis.

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase downregulation promotes colon carcinogenesis through STAT3-activated microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Degagné, Emilie; Pandurangan, Ashok; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Eltanawy, Abeer; Zhang, Meng; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Bittman, Robert; Ahmedi, Yasmin; Saba, Julie D

    2014-12-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific Sgpl1 deletion and chemically induced colitis and tumor formation in these animals. Compared with control animals, mice lacking intestinal SPL exhibited greater disease activity, colon shortening, cytokine levels, S1P accumulation, tumors, STAT3 activation, STAT3-activated microRNAs (miRNAs), and suppression of miR-targeted anti-oncogene products. This phenotype was attenuated by STAT3 inhibition. In fibroblasts, silencing SPL promoted tumorigenic transformation through a pathway involving extracellular transport of S1P through S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2), S1P receptor activation, JAK2/STAT3-dependent miR-181b-1 induction, and silencing of miR-181b-1 target cylindromatosis (CYLD). Colon biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease revealed enhanced S1P and STAT3 signaling. In mice with chemical-induced CAC, oral administration of plant-type sphingolipids called sphingadienes increased colonic SPL levels and reduced S1P levels, STAT3 signaling, cytokine levels, and tumorigenesis, indicating that SPL prevents transformation and carcinogenesis. Together, our results suggest that dietary sphingolipids can augment or prevent colon cancer, depending upon whether they are metabolized to S1P or promote S1P metabolism through the actions of SPL.

  13. Dose-Dependent Effects on Sphingoid Bases and Cytokines in Chickens Fed Diets Prepared with Fusarium Verticillioides Culture Material Containing Fumonisins

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Bertrand; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Caha, Sylvia; Moll, Wulf Dieter; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.

    2015-01-01

    In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to disruption of sphingolipid metabolism). Male broilers were assigned to 6 diets (6 cages/diet; 6 birds/cage) from hatch to 20 days containing 0.4, 5.6, 11.3, 17.5, 47.8, or 104.8 mg FB/kg diet. Exposure to FB altered the Sa/So ratio in all tissues analyzed, albeit to varying extents. Linear dose-responses were observed in the kidney, jejunum and cecum. The liver and the ileum were very sensitive and data fit a cubic and quadratic polynomial model, respectively. Gene expression in the small intestine revealed low but significant upregulations of cytokines involved in the pro-inflammatory, Th1/Th17 and Treg responses, especially at 10 days of age. Interestingly, the cecal tonsils exhibited a biphasic response. Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg. In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry. Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed. PMID:25871822

  14. Palmitate Diet-induced Loss of Cardiac Caveolin-3: A Novel Mechanism for Lipid-induced Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Catherine J.; Cebova, Martina; Pinz, Ilka M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate), and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate). We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release. PMID:23585895

  15. Increased Plasma Levels of Select Deoxy-ceramide and Ceramide Species are Associated with Increased Odds of Diabetic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Samar M; Baker, Nathaniel L; El Abiad, Jad M; Spassieva, Stefanka D; Pierce, Jason S; Rembiesa, Barbara; Bielawski, Jacek; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Klein, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Plasma deoxy-sphingoid bases are elevated in type 2 diabetes patients and correlate with the stage of diabetic distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy; however, associations between deoxy-sphingolipids (DSL) and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes have not been examined. The primary aim of this exploratory pilot study was to assess the associations between multiple sphingolipid species including DSL and free amino acids and the presence of symptomatic neuropathy in a DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes subcohort. Using mass spectroscopy, plasma levels of DSL and free amino acids in DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes participants (n = 80), with and without symptoms of neuropathy, were investigated. Patient-determined neuropathy was based on 15-item self-administered questionnaire (Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument) developed to assess distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. Patients who scored ≥4, or reported inability to sense their feet during walking or to distinguish hot from cold water while bathing were considered neuropathic. Plasma levels of ceramide, sphingomyelin, hexosyl- and lactosylceramide species, and amino acids were measured and analyzed relative to neuropathy status in the patient. Deoxy-C24-ceramide, C24- and C26-ceramide were higher in patients with neuropathy than those without neuropathy. Cysteine was higher in patients with neuropathy. No differences in other sphingolipids or amino acids were detected. The covariate-adjusted Odds Ratios of positive patient-reported neuropathy was associated with increased levels of deoxy-C24-, and deoxy-C24:1-ceramide; C22-, C24-, and C26-ceramide; and cysteine. Plasma deoxy-ceramide and ceramide species may have potential diagnostic and prognostic significance in diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Rice OsLCB2a1 Gene and Functional Analysis of its Role in Insect Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Mahfuj A.; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Tan, Ye; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Hannun, Yusuf; Obeid, Lina; Mao, Cungui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    In plants, sphingolipids, such as long-chain bases (LCBs), act as bioactive molecules in stress responses. Until now, it is still not clear if these lipids are involved in biotic stress responses to herbivore. Herein we report that a rice LCB gene, OsLCB2a1 encoding a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a key enzyme responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of sphingolipids, plays a critical role in plant defense response to the brown planthopper (BPH) attack and that its up-regulation protects plants from herbivore infestation. Transcripts of OsLCB2a1 gene in rice seedlings were increased at 4 h, but decreased at 8–24 h after BPH attack. Sphingolipid measurement profiling revealed that overexpression of OsLCB2a1 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased trihydroxylated LCB phytosphingosine (t18:0) and phytoceramide by 1.7 and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared with that of wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also showed higher callose and wax deposition in leaves than that of WT. Overexpression of OsLCB2a1 gene in A. thaliana reduced the population size of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Moreover, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the transgenic plants. The defense response genes related to salicylic acid signaling pathway, remained uplgulated in the OsLCB2a1-overexpressing transgenic plants. Our data highlight the key functions of OsLCB2a1 in biotic stress response in plants. PMID:27990147

  17. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Matthew C W; West, Ryan J H; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T

    2015-12-15

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER-Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1.

  18. Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Frati, Alessia; Landi, Debora; Marinelli, Cristian; Gianni, Giacomo; Fontana, Lucia; Migliorini, Marzia; Pierucci, Federica; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that γ-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which γ-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy.

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase downregulation promotes colon carcinogenesis through STAT3-activated microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Degagné, Emilie; Pandurangan, Ashok; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Eltanawy, Abeer; Zhang, Meng; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Bittman, Robert; Ahmedi, Yasmin; Saba, Julie D.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific Sgpl1 deletion and chemically induced colitis and tumor formation in these animals. Compared with control animals, mice lacking intestinal SPL exhibited greater disease activity, colon shortening, cytokine levels, S1P accumulation, tumors, STAT3 activation, STAT3-activated microRNAs (miRNAs), and suppression of miR-targeted anti-oncogene products. This phenotype was attenuated by STAT3 inhibition. In fibroblasts, silencing SPL promoted tumorigenic transformation through a pathway involving extracellular transport of S1P through S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2), S1P receptor activation, JAK2/STAT3-dependent miR-181b-1 induction, and silencing of miR-181b-1 target cylindromatosis (CYLD). Colon biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease revealed enhanced S1P and STAT3 signaling. In mice with chemical-induced CAC, oral administration of plant-type sphingolipids called sphingadienes increased colonic SPL levels and reduced S1P levels, STAT3 signaling, cytokine levels, and tumorigenesis, indicating that SPL prevents transformation and carcinogenesis. Together, our results suggest that dietary sphingolipids can augment or prevent colon cancer, depending upon whether they are metabolized to S1P or promote S1P metabolism through the actions of SPL. PMID:25347472

  20. Association between CLN3 (Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, CLN3 Type) Gene Expression and Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Makoukji, Joelle; Raad, Mohamad; Genadry, Katia; El-Sitt, Sally; Makhoul, Nadine J; Saad Aldin, Ehab; Nohra, Eden; Jabbour, Mark; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Chelala, Claude; Habib, Robert H; Boulos, Fouad; Tfayli, Arafat; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Elucidation of underlying biology and molecular pathways is necessary for improving therapeutic options and clinical outcomes. CLN3 protein (CLN3p), deficient in neurodegenerative CLN3 disease is anti-apoptotic, and defects in the CLN3 gene cause accelerated apoptosis of neurons in CLN3 disease and up-regulation of ceramide. Dysregulated apoptotic pathways are often implicated in the development of the oncogenic phenotype. Predictably, CLN3 mRNA expression and CLN3 protein were up-regulated in a number of human and murine breast cancer-cell lines. Here, we determine CLN3 expression in non-tumor vs. tumor samples from fresh and formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue and analyze the association between CLN3 overexpression and different clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients. Additionally, gene expression of 28 enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism was determined. CLN3 mRNA is overexpressed in tumor vs. non-tumor breast tissue from FFPE and fresh samples, as well as in mouse MCF7 breast cancer compared to MCF10A normal cells. Of the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor grade, age, menopause status, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), only absence of HER2 expression correlated with CLN3 overexpression. Sphingolipid genes for ceramide synthases 2 and 6 (CerS2; CerS6), delta(4)-desaturase sphingolipid 2 (DEGS2), and acidic sphingomyelinase (SMPD1) displayed higher expression levels in breast cancer vs. control tissue, whereas ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) was underexpressed in breast cancer samples. CLN3 may be a novel molecular target for cancer drug discovery with the goal of modulation of ceramide pathways.

  1. Modulation of ceramide synthase activity via dimerization.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Elad L; Kelly, Samuel; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H

    2012-06-15

    Ceramide, the backbone of all sphingolipids, is synthesized by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) that each use acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. CerS mRNA expression and enzymatic activity do not always correlate with the sphingolipid acyl chain composition of a particular tissue, suggesting post-translational mechanism(s) of regulation of CerS activity. We now demonstrate that CerS activity can be modulated by dimer formation. Under suitable conditions, high M(r) CerS complexes can be detected by Western blotting, and various CerS co-immunoprecipitate. CerS5 activity is inhibited in a dominant-negative fashion by co-expression with catalytically inactive CerS5, and CerS2 activity is enhanced by co-expression with a catalytically active form of CerS5 or CerS6. In a constitutive heterodimer comprising CerS5 and CerS2, the activity of CerS2 depends on the catalytic activity of CerS5. Finally, CerS dimers are formed upon rapid stimulation of ceramide synthesis by curcumin. Together, these data demonstrate that ceramide synthesis can be regulated by the formation of CerS dimers and suggest a novel way to generate the acyl chain composition of ceramide (and downstream sphingolipids), which may depend on the interaction of CerS with each other.

  2. Association between CLN3 (Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, CLN3 Type) Gene Expression and Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Makoukji, Joelle; Raad, Mohamad; Genadry, Katia; El-Sitt, Sally; Makhoul, Nadine J.; Saad Aldin, Ehab; Nohra, Eden; Jabbour, Mark; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Chelala, Claude; Habib, Robert H.; Boulos, Fouad; Tfayli, Arafat; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Elucidation of underlying biology and molecular pathways is necessary for improving therapeutic options and clinical outcomes. CLN3 protein (CLN3p), deficient in neurodegenerative CLN3 disease is anti-apoptotic, and defects in the CLN3 gene cause accelerated apoptosis of neurons in CLN3 disease and up-regulation of ceramide. Dysregulated apoptotic pathways are often implicated in the development of the oncogenic phenotype. Predictably, CLN3 mRNA expression and CLN3 protein were up-regulated in a number of human and murine breast cancer-cell lines. Here, we determine CLN3 expression in non-tumor vs. tumor samples from fresh and formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue and analyze the association between CLN3 overexpression and different clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients. Additionally, gene expression of 28 enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism was determined. CLN3 mRNA is overexpressed in tumor vs. non-tumor breast tissue from FFPE and fresh samples, as well as in mouse MCF7 breast cancer compared to MCF10A normal cells. Of the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor grade, age, menopause status, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), only absence of HER2 expression correlated with CLN3 overexpression. Sphingolipid genes for ceramide synthases 2 and 6 (CerS2; CerS6), delta(4)-desaturase sphingolipid 2 (DEGS2), and acidic sphingomyelinase (SMPD1) displayed higher expression levels in breast cancer vs. control tissue, whereas ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) was underexpressed in breast cancer samples. CLN3 may be a novel molecular target for cancer drug discovery with the goal of modulation of ceramide pathways. PMID:26528430

  3. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Matthew C. W.; West, Ryan J. H.; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER–Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1. PMID:26395456

  4. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  5. Functional characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans glucosylceramide pathway reveals that LCB Δ8-desaturation and C9-methylation are relevant to filamentous growth, lipid raft localization and Psd1 defensin activity.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C M; de Castro, P A; Singh, A; Fonseca, F L; Pereira, M D; Vila, T V M; Atella, G C; Rozental, S; Savoldi, M; Del Poeta, M; Goldman, G H; Kurtenbach, E

    2016-11-01

    C8-desaturated and C9-methylated glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is a fungal-specific sphingolipid that plays an important role in the growth and virulence of many species. In this work, we investigated the contribution of Aspergillus nidulans sphingolipid Δ8-desaturase (SdeA), sphingolipid C9-methyltransferases (SmtA/SmtB) and glucosylceramide synthase (GcsA) to fungal phenotypes, sensitivity to Psd1 defensin and Galleria mellonella virulence. We showed that ΔsdeA accumulated C8-saturated and unmethylated GlcCer, while gcsA deletion impaired GlcCer synthesis. Although increased levels of unmethylated GlcCer were observed in smtA and smtB mutants, ΔsmtA and wild-type cells showed a similar 9,Me-GlcCer content, reduced by 50% in the smtB disruptant. The compromised 9,Me-GlcCer production in the ΔsmtB strain was not accompanied by reduced filamentation or defects in cell polarity. When combined with the smtA deletion, smtB repression significantly increased unmethylated GlcCer levels and compromised filamentous growth. Furthermore, sdeA and gcsA mutants displayed growth defects and raft mislocalization, which were accompanied by reduced neutral lipids levels and attenuated G. mellonella virulence in the ΔgcsA strain. Finally, ΔsdeA and ΔgcsA showed increased resistance to Psd1, suggesting that GlcCer synthesis and fungal sphingoid base structure specificities are relevant not only to differentiation but also to proper recognition by this antifungal defensin.

  6. Ceramide 1-Phosphate Increases P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier via Prostaglandin E2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mesev, Emily V; Miller, David S; Cannon, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven efflux pump, regulates permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Sphingolipids, endogenous to brain tissue, influence inflammatory responses and cell survival in vitro. Our laboratory has previously shown that sphingolipid signaling by sphingosine 1-phosphate decreases basal P-glycoprotein transport activity. Here, we investigated the potential for another sphingolipid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), to modulate efflux pumps at the BBB. Using confocal microscopy and measuring luminal accumulation of fluorescent substrates, we assessed the transport activity of several efflux pumps in isolated rat brain capillaries. C1P treatment induced P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain capillaries rapidly and reversibly. In contrast, C1P did not affect transport activity of two other major efflux transporters, multidrug resistance protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein. C1P induced P-glycoprotein transport activity without changing transporter protein expression. Inhibition of the key signaling components in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 signaling cascade (phospholipase A2, COX-2, multidrug resistance protein 4, and G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E2 receptors 1 and 2), abolished P-glycoprotein induction by C1P. We show that COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 are required for C1P-mediated increases in P-glycoprotein activity independent of transporter protein expression. This work describes how C1P activates a signaling cascade to dynamically regulate P-glycoprotein transport at the BBB and offers potential clinical targets to modulate neuroprotection and drug delivery to the CNS.

  7. Ceramide 1-Phosphate Increases P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier via Prostaglandin E2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mesev, Emily V.; Miller, David S.

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven efflux pump, regulates permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Sphingolipids, endogenous to brain tissue, influence inflammatory responses and cell survival in vitro. Our laboratory has previously shown that sphingolipid signaling by sphingosine 1-phosphate decreases basal P-glycoprotein transport activity. Here, we investigated the potential for another sphingolipid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), to modulate efflux pumps at the BBB. Using confocal microscopy and measuring luminal accumulation of fluorescent substrates, we assessed the transport activity of several efflux pumps in isolated rat brain capillaries. C1P treatment induced P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain capillaries rapidly and reversibly. In contrast, C1P did not affect transport activity of two other major efflux transporters, multidrug resistance protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein. C1P induced P-glycoprotein transport activity without changing transporter protein expression. Inhibition of the key signaling components in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 signaling cascade (phospholipase A2, COX-2, multidrug resistance protein 4, and G-protein–coupled prostaglandin E2 receptors 1 and 2), abolished P-glycoprotein induction by C1P. We show that COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 are required for C1P-mediated increases in P-glycoprotein activity independent of transporter protein expression. This work describes how C1P activates a signaling cascade to dynamically regulate P-glycoprotein transport at the BBB and offers potential clinical targets to modulate neuroprotection and drug delivery to the CNS. PMID:28119480

  8. Dose-dependent effects on sphingoid bases and cytokines in chickens fed diets prepared with fusarium verticillioides culture material containing fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Bertrand; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Caha, Sylvia; Moll, Wulf Dieter; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2015-04-13

    In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to disruption of sphingolipid metabolism). Male broilers were assigned to 6 diets (6 cages/diet; 6 birds/cage) from hatch to 20 days containing 0.4, 5.6, 11.3, 17.5, 47.8, or 104.8 mg FB/kg diet. Exposure to FB altered the Sa/So ratio in all tissues analyzed, albeit to varying extents. Linear dose-responses were observed in the kidney, jejunum and cecum. The liver and the ileum were very sensitive and data fit a cubic and quadratic polynomial model, respectively. Gene expression in the small intestine revealed low but significant upregulations of cytokines involved in the pro-inflammatory, Th1/Th17 and Treg responses, especially at 10 days of age. Interestingly, the cecal tonsils exhibited a biphasic response. Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg. In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry. Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed.

  9. Sphingosine kinase inhibitors decrease viability and induce cell death in natural killer-large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Francis R; Liu, Xin; Hengst, Jeremy; Fox, Todd; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Yun, Jong; Feith, David J; Loughran, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive sphingolipid metabolite produced by sphingosine kinases-1 and −2 (SPHK1 and SPHK2). Elevated SPHK1 has been found in numerous cancer types and been shown to contribute to survival, chemotherapeutic resistance and malignancy. However, its role in large granular Natural Killer (NK) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia has not been investigated. Here, we examine SPHK1 as a therapeutic target in LGL leukemia. We found that SPHK1 is overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from LGL leukemia patients which results in elevated S1P in the sera. The use of SPHK1 inhibitors, SKI-II or SKI-178, decreased leukemic NK cell viability and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. SKI-II and SKI-178 restored the sphingolipid balance by increasing ceramide and decreasing S1P in leukemic NKL cells. SKI-II and SKI-178 also induced apoptosis in primary NK-LGLs from leukemia patients. Mechanistic studies in NK-LGL cell lines demonstrated that SKI-178 and SKI-II induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M. We found that SKI-178 induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at Ser70, and that this was dependent on CDK1. We further show that SPHK1 inhibition with SKI-178 leads to decreased JAK-STAT signaling. Our data demonstrate that SPHK1 represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of NK-LGL leukemia. PMID:26252351

  10. Organelle biogenesis and intracellular lipid transport in eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, D R

    1991-01-01

    The inter- and intramembrane transport of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols involves the most fundamental processes of membrane biogenesis. Identification of the mechanisms involved in these lipid transport reactions has lagged significantly behind that for intermembrane protein traffic until recently. Application of methods that include fluorescently labeled and spin-labeled lipid analogs, new cellular fractionation techniques, topographically specific chemical modification techniques, the identification of organelle-specific metabolism, permeabilized cell methodology, and yeast molecular genetics has contributed to revealing a diverse biochemical array of transport processes for lipids. Compelling evidence now exists for ATP-dependent, ATP-independent, vesicle-dependent, and vesicle-independent transport processes that are lipid and membrane specific. ATP-dependent transport processes include the transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine at the plasma membrane and the transport of phosphatidylserine from its site of synthesis to the mitochondria. ATP-independent processes include the transbilayer movement of virtually all lipids at the endoplasmic reticulum, the movement of phosphatidylserine between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, and the transfer of nascent phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to the plasma membrane. The ATP-independent movement of lipids between organelles is believed to be due to the action of lipid transfer proteins, but this still remains to be proved. Vesicle-based transport mechanisms (which are also inherently ATP dependent) include the transport of nascent cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and glycosphingolipids from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane and the recycling of sphingolipids and selected pools of phosphatidylcholine from the plasma membrane to the cell interior. The vesicles involved in cholesterol transport to the plasma membrane are different from those

  11. Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Bolling, Bradley W

    2015-04-01

    The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported.

  12. 'Cherry red spot' in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de; Ramos, Régia Maria Gondim; Pereira, Felipe Bezerra Alves; Bezerra, Andreya Ferreira Rodrigues; Fernandes, Daniel Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzyme hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called 'cherry red spot' is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic.

  13. Krabbe Disease: Report of a Rare Lipid Storage and Neurodegenerative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Pratyusha; Vadakedath, Sabitha; Gundu, Rajkumar; Uppulety, Sushmitha

    2017-01-01

    Krabbe disease is a rare (one in 100,000 births) autosomal recessive condition, usually noticed among children. It causes sphingolipidosis (dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids) and leads to fatal degenerative changes affecting the myelin sheath of the nervous system. We report a case of a six-year-old male child who presented with symptoms of muscle spasticity and irritability. Diagnosis of this disease can only be made with clinical suspicion. Laboratory diagnosis includes brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and genetic analysis for detecting mutation in genes coding for galactosyl cerebroside (GALC). We report a case of late infantile Krabbe disease. PMID:28168127

  14. Lipid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terry K.; Bütikofer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei membranes consist of all major eukaryotic glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid classes. These are de novo synthesized from precursors obtained either from the host or from catabolised endocytosed lipids. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterisation of several of these lipid biosynthetic pathways, using gene knockout or RNA interference strategies or by enzymatic characterization of individual reactions. Together with the completed genome, these studies have highlighted several possible differences between mammalian and trypanosome lipid biosynthesis that could be exploited for the development of drugs against the diseases caused by these parasites. PMID:20382188

  15. Ceramide as a Target of Marine Triterpene Glycosides for Treatment of Human Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Shin, Sung-Won; Stonik, Valentin A.; Park, Joo-In

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous myeloid clonal disorder exhibiting the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Standard AML therapy requires intensive combination chemotherapy, which leads to significant treatment-related toxicity. The search for new, low toxic marine agents, inducing the generation of ceramide in leukemic cells is a new approach to improve the therapy of leukemia. This review focuses on the metabolism of sphingolipids, the role of ceramide in treating leukemia, and the antitumor activity, related to ceramide metabolism, of some marine metabolites, particularly stichoposides, triterpene glycosides extracted from sea cucumbers of the family Stichopodiidae. PMID:27827870

  16. Divergent syntheses of all stereoisomers of phytosphingosine and their use in the construction of a ceramide library.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Ji Hyung; Li, Qian; Diaz, Kristine; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Sung-Kee

    2008-10-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate have recently attracted intense research interests because of their functional roles as signaling molecules in many important physiological processes, such as growth arrest, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses, and cell proliferation, vascular maturation and trafficking of lymphocytes. The well-defined modular structures of ceramides and related glycosylceramides are ideally amenable to library formation for medicinal chemistry investigation. We have developed divergent synthetic routes to all eight phytosphingosine stereoisomers and then proceeded to prepare phytosphingosine-based ceramide library composed of more than 500 compounds.

  17. Mammalian ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-05-01

    In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their structure and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  19. Inhibition of Ceramide De Novo Synthesis with Myriocin Affects Lipid Metabolism in the Liver of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wiesiołek-Kurek, Patrycja; Piotrowska, Dominika M.; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases. Sphingolipids, which are vitally important constituents of intracellular signal transduction pathways, may be among the most pathogenic lipid moieties intermingled in the origin and development of diabetes. It is now well established that inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis with myriocin exerts positive effects on lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus animal models. However, its influence on type I diabetes still remains unknown. Therefore, the scope of this paper is to fulfill that particular gap in our knowledge. PMID:24701589

  20. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  1. Membrane rafting: from apical sorting to phase segregation.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai

    2010-05-03

    In this review we describe the history of the development of the raft concept for membrane sub-compartmentalization. From its early beginnings as a mechanism for apical sorting in epithelial cells the concept has evolved to a general principle for membrane organisation. After a shaky start with crude methodology based on detergent extraction the field has become increasingly sophisticated, employing a host of different methods that support the existence of dynamic raft domains in membranes. These are composed of fluctuating nanoscale assemblies of sphingolipid, cholesterol and proteins that can be stabilized to coalesce, forming platforms that function in membrane signalling and trafficking.

  2. B-cell receptor triggers drug sensitivity of primary CLL cells by controlling glucosylation of ceramides.

    PubMed

    Schwamb, Janine; Feldhaus, Valeska; Baumann, Michael; Patz, Michaela; Brodesser, Susanne; Brinker, Reinhild; Claasen, Julia; Pallasch, Christian P; Hallek, Michael; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Frenzel, Lukas P

    2012-11-08

    Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is triggered by several stimuli, such as the B-cell receptor (BCR), CD40 ligand (CD40L), or interleukin-4 (IL-4). We identified that these stimuli regulate apoptosis resistance by modulating sphingolipid metabolism. Applying liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we revealed a significant decrease of proapoptotic ceramide in BCR/IL-4/CD40L-stimulated primary CLL cells compared with untreated controls. Antiapoptotic glucosylceramide levels were significantly increased after BCR cross-linking. We identified BCR engagement to catalyze the crucial modification of ceramide to glucosylceramide via UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG). Besides specific UGCG inhibitors, our data demonstrate that IgM-mediated UGCG expression was inhibited by the novel and highly effective PI3Kδ and BTK inhibitors CAL-101 and PCI-32765, which reverted IgM-induced resistance toward apoptosis of CLL cells. Sphingolipids were recently shown to be crucial for mediation of apoptosis via mitochondria. Our data reveal ABT-737, a mitochondria-targeting drug, as interesting candidate partner for PI3Kδ and BTK inhibition, resulting in synergistic apoptosis, even under protection by the BCR. In summary, we identified the mode of action of novel kinase inhibitors CAL-101 and PCI-32765 by controlling the UGCG-mediated ceramide/glucosylceramide equilibrium as a downstream molecular switch of BCR signaling, also providing novel targeted treatment options beyond current chemotherapy-based regimens.

  3. Identification of acyl-CoA synthetases involved in the mammalian sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohkuni, Aya; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio

    2013-12-13

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles both as a bioactive lipid molecule and an intermediate of the sphingolipid-to-glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway. To identify human acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) involved in S1P metabolism, we cloned all 26 human ACS genes and examined their abilities to restore deficient sphingolipid-to-glycerophospholipid metabolism in a yeast mutant lacking two ACS genes, FAA1 and FAA4. Here, in addition to the previously identified ACSL family members (ACSL1, 3, 4, 5, and 6), we found that ACSVL1, ACSVL4, and ACSBG1 also restored metabolism. All 8 ACSs were localized either exclusively or partly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where S1P metabolism takes place. We previously proposed the entire S1P metabolic pathway from results obtained using yeast cells, i.e., S1P is metabolized to glycerophospholipids via trans-2-hexadecenal, trans-2-hexadecenoic acid, trans-2-hexadecenoyl-CoA, and palmitoyl-CoA. However, as S1P is not a naturally occurring long-chain base 1-phosphate in yeast, the validity of this pathway required further verification using mammalian cells. In the present study, we treated HeLa cells with the ACS inhibitor triacsin C and found that inhibition of ACSs resulted in accumulation of trans-2-hexadecenoic acid as in ACS mutant yeast. From these results, we conclude that S1P is metabolized by a common pathway in eukaryotes.

  4. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains.

  5. Targeting ceramide synthase 6–dependent metastasis-prone phenotype in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Cao, Ke; Kato, Seiichi; Komizu, Yuji; Mizutani, Naoki; Tanaka, Kouji; Arima, Chinatsu; Tai, Mei Chee; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Togawa, Norie; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Usami, Noriyasu; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Fukui, Takayuki; Yokoi, Kohei; Wakahara, Keiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Iwaki, Soichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Satou, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Murate, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposome and the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor D-PDMP induced cell death in association with ceramide accumulation and promoted cancer cell apoptosis and tumor regression in murine models. Together, these results indicate that CERS6-dependent ceramide synthesis and maintenance of ceramide in the cellular membrane are essential for lamellipodia formation and metastasis. Moreover, these results suggest that targeting this homeostasis has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CERS6-overexpressing NSCLC. PMID:26650179

  6. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host.

  7. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Contarini, Giovanna; Povolo, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs) in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD) or mass detector (MS), are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed. PMID:23434649

  8. Yeast lipid metabolism at a glance.

    PubMed

    Klug, Lisa; Daum, Günther

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, lipids have gained much attention due to their involvement in health and disease. Lipids are required for the formation of membranes and contribute to many different processes such as cell signaling, energy supply, and cell death. Various organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lipid droplets are involved in lipid metabolism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a reliable model organism to study biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology of lipids. The availability of mutants bearing defects in lipid metabolic pathways and the ease of manipulation by culture conditions facilitated these investigations. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about lipid metabolism in yeast. We grouped this large topic into three sections dealing with (1) fatty acids; (2) membrane lipids; and (3) storage lipids. Fatty acids serve as building blocks for the synthesis of membrane lipids (phospholipids, sphingolipids) and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, steryl esters). Phospholipids, sterols, and sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes. Recent investigations addressing lipid synthesis, degradation, and storage as well as regulatory aspects are presented. The role of enzymes governing important steps of the different lipid metabolic pathways is described. Finally, the link between lipid metabolic and dynamic processes is discussed.

  9. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-02-07

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7-8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC.

  10. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hadi, Loubna; Di Vito, Clara; Marfia, Giovanni; Ferraretto, Anita; Tringali, Cristina; Viani, Paola; Riboni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK) 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.

  11. A Conserved Circular Network of Coregulated Lipids Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Fauster, Astrid; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid composition affects the biophysical properties of membranes that provide a platform for receptor-mediated cellular signaling. To study the regulatory role of membrane lipid composition, we combined genetic perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism with the quantification of diverse steps in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Membrane lipid composition was broadly affected by these perturbations, revealing a circular network of coregulated sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. This evolutionarily conserved network architecture simultaneously reflected membrane lipid metabolism, subcellular localization, and adaptation mechanisms. Integration of the diverse TLR-induced inflammatory phenotypes with changes in lipid abundance assigned distinct functional roles to individual lipid species organized across the network. This functional annotation accurately predicted the inflammatory response of cells derived from patients suffering from lipid storage disorders, based solely on their altered membrane lipid composition. The analytical strategy described here empowers the understanding of higher-level organization of membrane lipid function in diverse biological systems. PMID:26095250

  12. Phytosphingosine induced mitochondria-involved apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yukitoshi; Shinomiya, Takahisa; Kuroda, Sachiko; Kaneko, Naoki; Nishio, Reiji; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2005-02-01

    Sphingolipids are putative intracellular signal mediators in cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Sphingosine, sphinganine, and phytosphingosine are structural analogs of sphingolipids and are classified as long-chain sphingoid bases. Sphingosine and sphinganine are known to play important roles in apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the phytosphingosine-induced apoptosis mechanism, focusing on mitochondria in human T-cell lymphoma Jurkat cells. Phytosphingosine significantly induced chromatin DNA fragmentation, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. Enzymatic activity measurements of caspases revealed that caspase-3 and caspase-9 are activated in phytosphingosine-induced apoptosis, but there is little activation of caspase-8 suggesting that phytosphingosine influences mitochondrial functions. In agreement with this hypothesis, a decrease in DeltaPsi(m) and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol were observed upon phytosphingosine treatment. Furthermore, overexpression of mitochondria-localized anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 prevented phytosphingosine apoptotic stimuli. Western blot assays revealed that phytosphingosine decreases phosphorylated Akt and p70S6k. Dephosphorylation of Akt was partially inhibited by protein phosphatase inhibitor OA and OA attenuated phytosphingosine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, using a cell-free system, phytosphingosine directly reduced DeltaPsi(m). These results indicate that phytosphingosine perturbs mitochondria both directly and indirectly to induce apoptosis.

  13. Up-regulation of Plasma Hexosylceramide (d18:1/18:1) Contributes to Genotype 2 Virus Replication in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Yan; Qu, Feng; Li, Jun-Feng; Liu, Mei; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jing-Yun; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Zheng, Su-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between plasma sphingolipids and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. A cohort of 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients was included. Liver biopsies and the Scheuer scoring system were used to assess hepatic inflammatory activity. Blood biochemical indicators, HCV-RNA load, and immunological markers were also measured. Forty-four plasma sphingolipids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18:1/18:1) level was significantly different between patients with a low HCV load (<106 IU/mL) and a high HCV load (≥106 IU/mL), and it was positively correlated with the HCV-RNA load (r = 0.337, P = 0.001) in CHC patients. Additionally, the plasma HexCer (d18:1/18:1) level (odds ratio 1.302, 95% confidence interval 1.129–1.502) was an independent factor for a high HCV-RNA load. For patients with hepatic inflammation grade ≤2 or HCV genotype 2, HexCer (d18:1/18:1) was independently related to a high HCV-RNA load. Plasma HexCer (d18:1/18:1) might be involved in the high viral replication level in chronic HCV infection, especially for CHC patients with genotype 2. PMID:27281078

  14. Drosophila as a starting point for developing therapeutics for the rare disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, Mario; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Progress into developing therapeutics for rare diseases can be accelerated for those diseases that can be modeled in genetically tractable organisms. Here we comment on one disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), modeled in Drosophila that brought together disparate lines of research toward the goal of developing a therapeutic. Though the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been implicated in many anabolic processes in many cell types and tissues, including muscle, this work confirmed the therapeutic potential of assessing this pathway for DMD. Genetic dissection of sphingolipid metabolism showed the suppression of muscle structural and functional defects in flies. Moreover, improvement of muscle defects using known pharmacological agents that raise S1P levels in vivo highlight the potential of Drosophila as a drug-screening tool for DMD. We and others have extended S1P studies into the mouse model of DMD and have shown a partial amelioration of symptoms associated with DMD. Translation of this work to mammals makes the sphingolipid metabolism pathway a promising target for further drug development that may benefit the human condition.

  15. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wu, Jason H. Y.; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I.; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Arnett, Donna K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Jacobs, David R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10−13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10−40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10−26) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10−21). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis. PMID:25378659

  16. Tonoplast of Beta vulgaris L. contains detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ozolina, Natalia V; Nesterkina, Irina S; Kolesnikova, Ekaterina V; Salyaev, Ryurik K; Nurminsky, Vadim N; Rakevich, Alexander L; Martynovich, Evgueni F; Chernyshov, Michael Yu

    2013-03-01

    The experiments conducted on tonoplast of Beta vulgaris L. roots were performed to identify detergent-resistant lipid-protein microdomains (DRMs, interpreted as lipid rafts).The presence of DRMs can be found when dynamic clustering of sphingolipids, sterols, saturated fatty acids is registered, and the insolubility of these microdomains in nonionic detergents at low temperatures is proven. The elucidation of tonoplast microdomains has been based on results obtained with the aid of high-speed centrifuging in the sucrose gradient. The experiments have shown that tonoplast microdomains are rich in sphingolipids, free sterols and saturated fatty acids (such a lipid content is also typical of lipid-protein microdomains of other membranes), while only few phospholipids are present in tonoplast microdomains. The presence of microdomains has been confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy using filipin and Laurdan as fluorescent probes. The experiments with Laurdan have shown that tonoplast microdomains are characterized by a high order compared to characteristics of the rest of the tonoplast. Thus, the presence of detergent-resistant lipid-protein microdomains in the tonoplast has been demonstrated.

  17. P-type ATPase TAT-2 negatively regulates monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid mediated function in post-embryonic growth and development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Seamen, Emylie; Blanchette, Jennifer M; Han, Min

    2009-08-01

    Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the suppressor mutations defined an unexpected player, the P-type ATPase TAT-2, which belongs to the flippase family of proteins that are implicated in mediating phospholipid bilayer asymmetry. We provide evidence that TAT-2, but not other TAT genes, has a specific role in antagonizing the regulatory activity of mmBCFAs in intestinal cells. Interestingly, we found that mutations in tat-2 also suppress the lethality caused by inhibition of the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We further showed that the fatty acid side-chains of glycosylceramides contain 20%-30% mmBCFAs and that this fraction is greatly diminished in the absence of mmBCFA biosynthesis. These results suggest a model in which a C17ISO-containing sphingolipid may mediate the regulatory functions of mmBCFAs and is negatively regulated by TAT-2 in intestinal cells. This work indicates a novel connection between a P-type ATPase and the critical regulatory function of a specific fatty acid.

  18. Ceramides promote apoptosis for virus-infected lymphoma cells through induction of ceramide synthases and viral lytic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Bai, Aiping; Chen, Yihan; Bielawski, Jacek; Del Valle, Luis; Smith, Charles D.; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressive malignancy arising preferentially in immunocompromised patients. With conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend high mortality, dictating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) represents a key gatekeeper for sphingolipid metabolism, responsible for conversion of ceramides to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). We have previously demonstrated that targeting SphK2 using a novel selective inhibitor, ABC294640, leads to intracellular accumulation of ceramides and induces apoptosis for KSHV-infected PEL cells, while suppressing tumor progression in vivo. In the current study, we sought to determine whether specific ceramide/dh-ceramide species and related ceramide synthases (CerS) impact viability for KSHV-infected PEL cells during targeting of SphK2. We found that several specific ceramide and dihydro(dh)-ceramide species and their associated CerS reduce PEL survival and tumor expansion in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that dhC16-Cer induces PEL apoptosis in part through activation of KSHV lytic gene expression. These data further implicate bioactive sphingolipids in regulation of PEL survival, and provide justification for future studies evaluating clinically relevant ceramide analogs or mimetics for their potential as therapeutic agents for PEL. PMID:26327294

  19. Targeting ceramide synthase 6-dependent metastasis-prone phenotype in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Cao, Ke; Kato, Seiichi; Komizu, Yuji; Mizutani, Naoki; Tanaka, Kouji; Arima, Chinatsu; Tai, Mei Chee; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Togawa, Norie; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Usami, Noriyasu; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Fukui, Takayuki; Yokoi, Kohei; Wakahara, Keiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Iwaki, Soichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Satou, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Murate, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposome and the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor D-PDMP induced cell death in association with ceramide accumulation and promoted cancer cell apoptosis and tumor regression in murine models. Together, these results indicate that CERS6-dependent ceramide synthesis and maintenance of ceramide in the cellular membrane are essential for lamellipodia formation and metastasis. Moreover, these results suggest that targeting this homeostasis has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CERS6-overexpressing NSCLC.

  20. Intracisternal Cyclodextrin Prevents Cerebellar Dysfunction and Purkinje Cell Death in Feline Niemann-Pick type C1 disease

    PubMed Central

    Vite, C. H.; Bagel, J. H.; Swain, G. P.; Prociuk, M.; Sikora, T. U.; Stein, V. M.; O’Donnell, P.; Ruane, T.; Ward, S.; Crooks, A.; Li, S.; Mauldin, E.; Stellar, S.; De Meulder, M.; Kao, M. L.; Ory, D. S.; Davidson, C.; Vanier, M. T.; Walkley, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene, leading to an increase in unesterified cholesterol and several sphingolipids, and resulting in hepatic disease and progressive neurological disease. Whereas subcutaneous administration of the pharmaceutical excipient 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) ameliorated hepatic disease, doses sufficient to reduce neurological disease resulted in pulmonary toxicity. In contrast, direct administration of HPβCD into the cisterna magna of presymptomatic cats with NPC disease prevented the onset of cerebellar dysfunction for greater than a year and resulted in a reduction in Purkinje cell loss and near normal concentrations of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Moreover, administration of intracisternal HPβCD to NPC cats with ongoing cerebellar dysfunction slowed disease progression, increased survival time, and decreased the accumulation of brain gangliosides. An increase in hearing threshold was identified as a potential adverse effect. Together, these studies in the feline animal model have provided critical data on efficacy and safety of drug administration directly into the CNS that will be important for advancing HPβCD into clinical trials. PMID:25717099

  1. Plant Sterols: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions.

    PubMed

    Valitova, J N; Sulkarnayeva, A G; Minibayeva, F V

    2016-08-01

    Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development. Furthermore, sterols participate in transmembrane signal transduction by forming lipid microdomains. The predominant sterols in plants are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. These sterols differ in the presence of a methyl or an ethyl group in the side chain at the 24th carbon atom and are named methylsterols or ethylsterols, respectively. The balance between 24-methylsterols and 24-ethylsterols is specific for individual plant species. The present review focuses on the key stages of plant sterol biosynthesis that determine the ratios between the different types of sterols, and the crosstalk between the sterol and sphingolipid pathways. The main enzymes involved in plant sterol biosynthesis are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, C24-sterol methyltransferase, and C22-sterol desaturase. These enzymes are responsible for maintaining the optimal balance between sterols. Regulation of the ratios between the different types of sterols and sterols/sphingolipids can be of crucial importance in the responses of plants to stresses.

  2. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schrecengost, Randy S.; Keller, Staci N.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Smith, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives several hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, i.e. sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development. ABC294640 is a first-in-class SK2 small-molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given that AR and Myc are two of the most widely implicated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa), and that sphingolipids impact signaling by both proteins, the therapeutic potential for using ABC294640 in the treatment of PCa was evaluated. This study demonstrates that ABC294640 abrogates signaling pathways requisite for PCa growth and proliferation. Key findings validate that ABC294640 treatment of early stage and advanced PCa models downregulate Myc and AR expression and activity. This corresponds with significant inhibition of growth, proliferation, and cell cycle progression. Finally, oral administration of ABC294640 was found to dramatically impede xenograft tumor growth. Together, these pre-clinical findings support the hypotheses that SK2 activity is required for PCa function and that ABC294640 represents a new pharmacological agent for treatment of early stage and aggressive PCa. PMID:26271487

  3. Metabolic profiling of presymptomatic Huntington’s disease sheep reveals novel biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Skene, Debra J.; Middleton, Benita; Fraser, Cara K.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Kuchel, Timothy R.; Rudiger, Skye R.; Bawden, C. Simon; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The pronounced cachexia (unexplained wasting) seen in Huntington’s disease (HD) patients suggests that metabolic dysregulation plays a role in HD pathogenesis, although evidence of metabolic abnormalities in HD patients is inconsistent. We performed metabolic profiling of plasma from presymptomatic HD transgenic and control sheep. Metabolites were quantified in sequential plasma samples taken over a 25 h period using a targeted LC/MS metabolomics approach. Significant changes with respect to genotype were observed in 89/130 identified metabolites, including sphingolipids, biogenic amines, amino acids and urea. Citrulline and arginine increased significantly in HD compared to control sheep. Ten other amino acids decreased in presymptomatic HD sheep, including branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine) that have been identified previously as potential biomarkers of HD. Significant increases in urea, arginine, citrulline, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, alongside decreases in sphingolipids, indicate that both the urea cycle and nitric oxide pathways are dysregulated at early stages in HD. Logistic prediction modelling identified a set of 8 biomarkers that can identify 80% of the presymptomatic HD sheep as transgenic, with 90% confidence. This level of sensitivity, using minimally invasive methods, offers novel opportunities for monitoring disease progression in HD patients. PMID:28223686

  4. Substrate specificity, kinetic properties and inhibition by fumonisin B1 of ceramide synthase isoforms from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Luttgeharm, Kyle D; Cahoon, Edgar B; Markham, Jonathan E

    2016-03-01

    Ceramide makes up the acyl-backbone of sphingolipids and plays a central role in determining the function of these essential membrane lipids. In Arabidopsis, the varied chemical composition of ceramide is determined by the specificity of three different isoforms of ceramide synthase, denoted LAG one homologue 1, -2 and -3 (LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3), for a range of long-chain base (LCB) and acyl-CoA substrates. The contribution of each of these isoforms to the synthesis of ceramide was investigated by in vitro ceramide synthase assays. The plant LCB phytosphingosine was efficiently used by the LOH1 and LOH3 isoforms, with LOH1 having the lowest Km for the LCB substrate of the three isoforms. In contrast, sphinganine was used efficiently only by the LOH2 isoform. Acyl-CoA specificity was also distinguished between the three isoforms with LOH2 almost completely specific for palmitoyl-CoA whereas the LOH1 isoform showed greatest activity with lignoceroyl- and hexacosanoyl-CoAs. Interestingly, unsaturated acyl-CoAs were not used efficiently by any isoform whereas unsaturated LCB substrates were preferred by LOH2 and 3. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a general inhibitor of ceramide synthases but LOH1 was found to have a much lower Ki than the other isoforms pointing towards the origin of FB1 sensitivity in plants. Overall, the data suggest distinct roles and modes of regulation for each of the ceramide synthases in Arabidopsis sphingolipid metabolism.

  5. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Hadi, Loubna; Di Vito, Clara; Marfia, Giovanni; Ferraretto, Anita; Tringali, Cristina; Viani, Paola; Riboni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK) 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC. PMID:26580959

  6. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation study of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase – inhibitor complex in leishmaniasis: Insight into the structure based drug design

    PubMed Central

    Mandlik, Vineetha; Singh, Shailza

    2016-01-01

    Inositol phosphorylceramide synthase (IPCS) has emerged as an important, interesting and attractive target in the sphingolipid metabolism of Leishmania. IPCS catalyzes the conversion of ceramide to IPC which forms the most predominant sphingolipid in Leishmania. IPCS has no mammalian equivalent and also plays an important role in maintaining the infectivity and viability of the parasite. The present study explores the possibility of targeting IPCS; development of suitable inhibitors for the same would serve as a treatment strategy for the infectious disease leishmaniasis. Five coumarin derivatives were developed as inhibitors of IPCS protein. Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of IPCS with these inhibitors were performed which provided insights into the binding modes of the inhibitors. In vitro screening of the top three compounds has resulted in the identification of one of the compounds (compound 3) which shows little cytotoxic effects. This compound therefore represents a good starting point for further in vivo experimentation and could possibly serve as an important drug candidate for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:27853511

  7. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products.

  8. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  9. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of amphenicol-resistant Campylobacter jejuni by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xia, Xi; Li, Xiaowei; Naren, Gaowa; Fu, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wu, Congming; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhang, Suxia; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-02-06

    Campylobacter jejuni, an important foodborne microorganism, poses severe and emergent threats to human health as antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly prevalent. The mechanisms of drug resistance are hard to decipher, and little is known at the metabolic level. Here we apply metabolomic profiling to discover metabolic changes associated with amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) resistance mutations of Campylobacter jejuni. An optimized sample preparation method was combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF/MS) and pattern recognition for the analysis of small-molecule biomarkers of drug resistance. UHPLC-triple quadrupole MS operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantitative analysis of metabolic features from UHPLC-TOF/MS profiling. Up to 41 differential metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were observed in a chloramphenicol-resistant mutant strain of Campylobacter jejuni. A panel of 40 features was identified in florfenicol-resistant mutants, demonstrating changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study shows that the UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics platform is a promising and valuable tool to generate new insights into the drug-resistant mechanism of Campylobacter jejuni.

  10. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Wu, Jason H Y; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S; Tsai, Michael Y; Arnett, Donna K; Psaty, Bruce M; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K; Chu, Audrey Y; Jacobs, David R; Rich, Stephen S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Ridker, Paul M; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10(-13)). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10(-40)) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10(-26)) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10(-21)). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis.

  11. Molecular mechanism for sphingosine-induced Pseudomonas ceramidase expression through the transcriptional regulator SphR

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic, but serious multidrug-resistant pathogen, secretes a ceramidase capable of cleaving the N-acyl linkage of ceramide to generate fatty acids and sphingosine. We previously reported that the secretion of P. aeruginosa ceramidase was induced by host-derived sphingolipids, through which phospholipase C-induced hemolysis was significantly enhanced. We herein investigated the gene(s) regulating sphingolipid-induced ceramidase expression and identified SphR, which encodes a putative AraC family transcriptional regulator. Disruption of the sphR gene in P. aeruginosa markedly decreased the sphingomyelin-induced secretion of ceramidase, reduced hemolytic activity, and resulted in the loss of sphingomyelin-induced ceramidase expression. A microarray analysis confirmed that sphingomyelin significantly induced ceramidase expression in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SphR specifically bound free sphingoid bases such as sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine, but not sphingomyelin or ceramide. A β-galactosidase-assisted promoter assay showed that sphingosine activated ceramidase expression through SphR at a concentration of 100 nM. Collectively, these results demonstrated that sphingosine induces the secretion of ceramidase by promoting the mRNA expression of ceramidase through SphR, thereby enhancing hemolytic phospholipase C-induced cytotoxicity. These results facilitate understanding of the physiological role of bacterial ceramidase in host cells. PMID:27941831

  12. Oxysterol-binding proteins: sterol and phosphoinositide sensors coordinating transport, signaling and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Li, Shiqian

    2013-10-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a family of sterol and phosphoinositide binding proteins conserved in eukaryotes. The mechanisms of ORP function have remained incompletely understood. However, several ORPs are present at membrane contact sites and control the activity of enzymatic effectors or assembly of protein complexes, with impacts on signaling, vesicle transport, and lipid metabolism. An increasing number of protein interaction partners of ORPs have been identified, providing clues of their involvement in multiple aspects of cell regulation. The functions assigned for mammalian ORPs include coordination of sterol and sphingolipid metabolism and mitogenic signaling (OSBP), control of ER-late endosome (LE) contacts and LE motility (ORP1L), neutral lipid metabolism (ORP2), cell adhesion (ORP3), cholesterol eggress from LE (ORP5), macrophage lipid homeostasis, migration and high-density lipoprotein metabolism (ORP8), apolipoprotein B-100 secretion (ORP10), and adipogenesis (ORP11). The anti-proliferative ORPphilin compounds target OSBP and ORP4, revealing a function of ORPs in cell proliferation and survival. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae OSBP homologue (Osh) proteins execute multifaceted functions in sterol and sphingolipid homeostasis, post-Golgi vesicle transport, as well as phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling. These observations identify ORPs as coordinators of lipid signals with an unforeseen variety of cellular processes.

  13. In vivo HMRS and lipidomic profiling reveals comprehensive changes of hippocampal metabolism during aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lejun; Cao, Bofeng; Xu, Zhiying; Sui, Yanbin; Chen, Jiao; Luan, Qiang; Yang, Ruifang; Li, Shanchun; Li, Ke Feng

    2016-01-29

    Aging is characterized by various cellular changes in the brain. Hippocampus is important for systemic aging and lifespan control. There is still a lack of comprehensive overview of metabolic changes in hippocampus during aging. In this study, we first created an accelerated brain aging mice model through the chronic administration of d-galactose. We then performed a multiplatform metabolomic profiling of mice hippocampus using the combination of in vivo 9.4 T HMRS and in vitro LC-MS/MS based lipidomics. We found N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate/glutamine, taurine, choline, sphingolipids (SMs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) and phosphatidylserines (PSs), all of them decreasing with the aging process in mice hippocampus. The changes of sphingolipids and phospholipids were not limited to one single class or molecular species. In contrast, we found the significant accumulation of lactate, myoinositol and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) along with aging in hippocampus. SM (d18:1/20:2), PE (36:2), PG (34:1), PI (36:4), PS (18:0/20:4) and PC (36:0) have the most significant changes along with aging. Network analysis revealed the striking loss of biochemical connectivity and interactions between hippocampal metabolites with aging. The correlation pattern between metabolites in hippocampus could function as biomarkers for aging or diagnosis of aging-related diseases.

  14. Influence of lipids with hydroxyl-containing head groups on Fe2+ (Cu2+)/H2O2-mediated transformation of phospholipids in model membranes.

    PubMed

    Olshyk, Viktoriya N; Melsitova, Inna V; Yurkova, Irina L

    2014-01-01

    Under condition of ROS formation in lipid membranes, free radical reactions can proceed in both hydrophobic (peroxidation of lipids, POL) and polar (free radical fragmentation) parts of the bilayer. Free-radical fragmentation is typical for the lipids containing a hydroxyl group in β-position with respect to an ester or amide bond. The present study has been undertaken to investigate free-radical transformations of phospholipids in model membranes containing lipids able to undergo fragmentation in their polar part. Liposomes from egg yolk lecithin containing saturated or monounsaturated glycero- and sphingolipids were subjected to the action of an HO* - generating system - Fe(2+)(Cu(2+))/H2O2/Asc, and the POL products were investigated. In parallel with this, the effects of monoacylglycerols and scavengers of reactive species on Fe(2+)(Cu(2+))/H2O2/Asc - mediated free-radical fragmentation of phosphatidylglycerols were studied. Hydroxyl-containing sphingolipids and glycerolipids, which undergo free-radical fragmentation under such conditions, manifested antioxidant properties in the model membranes. In the absence of HO groups in the lipid structure, the effect was either pro-oxidant or neutral. Monoacylglycerols slowed down the rate of both peroxidation in the hydrophobic part and free-radical fragmentation in the hydrophilic part of phospholipid membrane. Scavengers of reactive species inhibited the fragmentation of phosphatidylglycerol substantially. Thus, the ability of hydroxyl-containing lipids to undergo free-radical fragmentation in polar part apparently makes a substantial contribution to the mechanism of their protector action.

  15. Critical role for CaFEN1 and CaFEN12 of Candida albicans in cell wall integrity and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Alfatah, Md.; Bari, Vinay K.; Nahar, Anubhav S.; Bijlani, Swati; Ganesan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are involved in several cellular functions, including maintenance of cell wall integrity. To gain insight into the role of individual genes of sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, we have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deleted in these genes for sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents calcofluor white and congo red. Only deletants of FEN1 and SUR4 genes were found to be sensitive to both these agents. Candida albicans strains deleted in their orthologs, CaFEN1 and CaFEN12, respectively, also showed comparable phenotypes, and a strain deleted for both these genes was extremely sensitive to cell wall perturbing agents. Deletion of these genes was reported earlier to sensitise cells to amphotericin B (AmB), which is a polyene drug that kills the cells mainly by binding and sequestering ergosterol from the plasma membrane. Here we show that their AmB sensitivity is likely due to their cell wall defect. Further, we show that double deletant of C. albicans is defective in hyphae formation as well as biofilm development. Together this study reveals that deletion of FEN1 and SUR4 orthologs of C. albicans leads to impaired cell wall integrity and biofilm formation, which in turn sensitise cells to AmB. PMID:28079132

  16. Tight binding of NAP-22 with acidic membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Yuumi; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Suzaki, Toshinobu

    2015-07-23

    Recovery of various signal transduction molecules in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomain (DRM) fraction suggests the importance of this region in cellular functions. Insolubility of the outer leaflet of DRM to the non-ionic detergent is ascribed to the tight association of cholesterol and sphingolipid. Since, poor localization of sphingolipid is observed in the inner leaflet, the physicochemical background of the insolubility of the inner leaflet is hence still an enigma. NAP-22 (also called BASP1 or CAP-23) is a neuron-enriched calmodulin-binding protein and one of the major proteins in the DRM of the neuronal cell membrane. A previous study showed the presence of several lipids in a NAP-22 fraction after the process of extraction and column chromatography. In this study, the effect of lipid extraction on NAP-22 was studied through native-gel electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopic observation. The mobility of NAP-22 in native-PAGE was shifted from low to high after delipidation. Delipidated NAP-22 bound phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinosotol, and ganglioside. Some part of the mixture of PS and NAP-22 was recovered in the insoluble fraction after Triton X-100 treatment and the addition of cholesterol enhanced the amount of NAP-22 in the insoluble fraction.

  17. Characterization of Lipid Rafts from Medicago truncatula Root Plasma Membranes: A Proteomic Study Reveals the Presence of a Raft-Associated Redox System1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Furt, Fabienne; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Michaelson, Louise V.; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Sargueil-Boiron, Françoise; Rossignol, Michel; Napier, Johnathan A.; Cullimore, Julie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have provided new insights into the role of sphingolipid/sterol-rich domains so-called lipid rafts of the plasma membrane (PM) from mammalian cells, and more recently from leaves, cell cultures, and seedlings of higher plants. Here we show that lipid raft domains, defined as Triton X-100-insoluble membranes, can also be prepared from Medicago truncatula root PMs. These domains have been extensively characterized by ultrastructural studies as well as by analysis of their content in lipids and proteins. M. truncatula lipid domains are shown to be enriched in sphingolipids and Δ7-sterols, with spinasterol as the major compound, but also in steryl glycosides and acyl-steryl glycosides. A large number of proteins (i.e. 270) have been identified. Among them, receptor kinases and proteins related to signaling, cellular trafficking, and cell wall functioning were well represented whereas those involved in transport and metabolism were poorly represented. Evidence is also given for the presence of a complete PM redox system in the lipid rafts. PMID:17337521

  18. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7–8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC. PMID:28167839

  19. Regulation of ceramide synthase by casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-16

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease.

  20. Regulation of Ceramide Synthase by Casein Kinase 2-dependent Phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease. PMID:25429105

  1. Drs2p-related P-type ATPases Dnf1p and Dnf2p Are Required for Phospholipid Translocation across the Yeast Plasma Membrane and Serve a Role in Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pomorski, Thomas; Lombardi, Ruben; Riezman, Howard; Devaux, Philippe F.; van Meer, Gerrit; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This asymmetry is maintained by ATP-driven lipid transporters whose identities are unknown. The yeast plasma membrane contains two P-type ATPases, Dnf1p and Dnf2p, with structural similarity to ATPase II, a candidate aminophospholipid translocase from bovine chromaffin granules. Loss of Dnf1p and Dnf2p virtually abolished ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet, leaving transport of sphingolipid analogs unaffected. Labeling with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid revealed that the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine exposed on the surface of Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells increased twofold relative to wild-type cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine exposure by Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells further increased upon removal of Drs2p, an ATPase II homolog in the yeast Golgi. These changes in lipid topology were accompanied by a cold-sensitive defect in the uptake of markers for bulk-phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our findings demonstrate a requirement for Dnf1p and Dnf2p in lipid translocation across the yeast plasma membrane. Moreover, it appears that Dnf1p, Dnf2p and Drs2p each help regulate the transbilayer lipid arrangement in the plasma membrane, and that this regulation is critical for budding endocytic vesicles. PMID:12631737

  2. Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins control vacuole trafficking and developmental programs through the regulation of lipid metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ruixi; Sun, Ruobai; Hicks, Glenn R.; ...

    2014-12-22

    The vacuole is the most prominent compartment in plant cells and is important for ion and protein storage. In our effort to search for key regulators in the plant vacuole sorting pathway, ribosomal large subunit 4 (rpl4d) was identified as a translational mutant defective in both vacuole trafficking and normal development. Polysome profiling of the rpl4d mutant showed reduction in polysome-bound mRNA compared with wild-type, but no significant change in the general mRNA distribution pattern. Ribsomal profiling data indicated that genes in the lipid metabolism pathways were translationally down-regulated in the rpl4d mutant. Live imaging studies by Nile red stainingmore » suggested that both polar and nonpolar lipid accumulation was reduced in meristem tissues of rpl4d mutants. Pharmacological evidence showed that sterol and sphingolipid biosynthetic inhibitors can phenocopy the defects of the rpl4d mutant, including an altered vacuole trafficking pattern. Genetic evidence from lipid biosynthetic mutants indicates that alteration in the metabolism of either sterol or sphingolipid biosynthesis resulted in vacuole trafficking defects, similar to the rpl4d mutant. Tissue-specific complementation with key enzymes from lipid biosynthesis pathways can partially rescue both vacuole trafficking and auxin-related developmental defects in the rpl4d mutant. These results indicate that lipid metabolism modulates auxin-mediated tissue differentiation and endomembrane trafficking pathways downstream of ribosomal protein function.« less

  3. Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins control vacuole trafficking and developmental programs through the regulation of lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ruixi; Sun, Ruobai; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2014-12-22

    The vacuole is the most prominent compartment in plant cells and is important for ion and protein storage. In our effort to search for key regulators in the plant vacuole sorting pathway, ribosomal large subunit 4 (rpl4d) was identified as a translational mutant defective in both vacuole trafficking and normal development. Polysome profiling of the rpl4d mutant showed reduction in polysome-bound mRNA compared with wild-type, but no significant change in the general mRNA distribution pattern. Ribsomal profiling data indicated that genes in the lipid metabolism pathways were translationally down-regulated in the rpl4d mutant. Live imaging studies by Nile red staining suggested that both polar and nonpolar lipid accumulation was reduced in meristem tissues of rpl4d mutants. Pharmacological evidence showed that sterol and sphingolipid biosynthetic inhibitors can phenocopy the defects of the rpl4d mutant, including an altered vacuole trafficking pattern. Genetic evidence from lipid biosynthetic mutants indicates that alteration in the metabolism of either sterol or sphingolipid biosynthesis resulted in vacuole trafficking defects, similar to the rpl4d mutant. Tissue-specific complementation with key enzymes from lipid biosynthesis pathways can partially rescue both vacuole trafficking and auxin-related developmental defects in the rpl4d mutant. These results indicate that lipid metabolism modulates auxin-mediated tissue differentiation and endomembrane trafficking pathways downstream of ribosomal protein function.

  4. Localization of 1-deoxysphingolipids to mitochondria induces mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alecu, Irina; Tedeschi, Andrea; Behler, Natascha; Wunderling, Klaus; Lamberz, Christian; Lauterbach, Mario A R; Gaebler, Anne; Ernst, Daniela; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Al-Amoudi, Ashraf; Latz, Eicke; Othman, Alaa; Kuerschner, Lars; Hornemann, Thorsten; Bradke, Frank; Thiele, Christoph; Penno, Anke

    2017-01-01

    1-Deoxysphingolipids (deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids that are elevated in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1). Clinically, diabetic neuropathy and HSAN1 are very similar, suggesting the involvement of deoxySLs in the pathology of both diseases. However, very little is known about the biology of these lipids and the underlying pathomechanism. We synthesized an alkyne analog of 1-deoxysphinganine (doxSA), the metabolic precursor of all deoxySLs, to trace the metabolism and localization of deoxySLs. Our results indicate that the metabolism of these lipids is restricted to only some lipid species and that they are not converted to canonical sphingolipids or fatty acids. Furthermore, exogenously added alkyne-doxSA [(2S,3R)-2-aminooctadec-17-yn-3-ol] localized to mitochondria, causing mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction. The induced mitochondrial toxicity was also shown for natural doxSA, but not for sphinganine, and was rescued by inhibition of ceramide synthase activity. Our findings therefore indicate that mitochondrial enrichment of an N-acylated doxSA metabolite may contribute to the neurotoxicity seen in diabetic neuropathy and HSAN1. Hence, we provide a potential explanation for the characteristic vulnerability of peripheral nerves to elevated levels of deoxySLs.

  5. Lipidomics of Candida albicans biofilms reveals phase-dependent production of phospholipid molecular classes and role for lipid rafts in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lattif, Ali Abdul; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chandra, Jyotsna; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2011-11-01

    Candida albicans-associated bloodstream infections are linked to the ability of this yeast to form biofilms. In this study, we used lipidomics to compare the lipid profiles of C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, in early and mature developmental phases. Our results showed that significant differences exist in lipid composition in both developmental phases. Biofilms contained higher levels of phospholipid and sphingolipids than planktonic cells (nmol per g biomass, P<0.05 for all comparisons). In the early phase, levels of lipid in most classes were significantly higher in biofilms compared to planktonic cells (P≤0.05). The ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine was lower in biofilms compared to planktonic cells in both early (1.17 vs 2.52, P≤0.001) and late (2.34 vs 3.81, P≤0.001) developmental phases. The unsaturation index of phospholipids decreased with time, with this effect being particularly strong for biofilms. Inhibition of the biosynthetic pathway for sphingolipid [mannosyl diinositolphosphoryl ceramide, M(IP)₂C] by myriocin or aureobasidin A, and disruption of the gene encoding inositolphosphotransferase (Ipt1p), abrogated the ability of C. albicans to form biofilms. The differences in lipid profiles between biofilms and planktonic Candida cells may have important implications for the biology and antifungal resistance of biofilms.

  6. Loss of Ceramide Kinase in Arabidopsis Impairs Defenses and Promotes Ceramide Accumulation and Mitochondrial H2O2 Bursts[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Fang-Cheng; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Jian-Xin; Liang, Hua; Xi, Xue-Li; Fang, Ce; Sun, Tie-Jun; Yin, Jian; Dai, Guang-Yi; Rong, Chan; Greenberg, Jean T.; Su, Wei-Wei; Yao, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants that lack ceramide kinase, encoded by ACCELERATED CELL DEATH5 (ACD5), display spontaneous programmed cell death late in development and accumulate substrates of ACD5. Here, we compared ceramide accumulation kinetics, defense responses, ultrastructural features, and sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in wild-type and acd5 plants during development and/or Botrytis cinerea infection. Quantitative sphingolipid profiling indicated that ceramide accumulation in acd5 paralleled the appearance of spontaneous cell death, and it was accompanied by autophagy and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Plants lacking ACD5 differed significantly from the wild type in their responses to B. cinerea, showing earlier and higher increases in ceramides, greater disease, smaller cell wall appositions (papillae), reduced callose deposition and apoplastic ROS, and increased mitochondrial ROS. Together, these data show that ceramide kinase greatly affects sphingolipid metabolism and the site of ROS accumulation during development and infection, which likely explains the developmental and infection-related cell death phenotypes. The acd5 plants also showed an early defect in restricting B. cinerea germination and growth, which occurred prior to the onset of cell death. This early defect in B. cinerea restriction in acd5 points to a role for ceramide phosphate and/or the balance of ceramides in mediating early antifungal responses that are independent of cell death. PMID:25149397

  7. Abnormal Glycosphingolipid Mannosylation Triggers Salicylic Acid–Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Yu, Xiaolan; Albrecht, Sandra; Sicilia, Francesca; Huichalaf, Mariela; Ampuero, Diego; Michaelson, Louise V.; Murphy, Alex M.; Matsunaga, Toshiro; Kurz, Samantha; Stephens, Elaine; Baldwin, Timothy C.; Ishii, Tadashi; Napier, Johnathan A.; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Handford, Michael G.; Dupree, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana protein GOLGI-LOCALIZED NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR TRANSPORTER (GONST1) has been previously identified as a GDP-d-mannose transporter. It has been hypothesized that GONST1 provides precursors for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, such as glucomannan. Here, we show that in vitro GONST1 can transport all four plant GDP-sugars. However, gonst1 mutants have no reduction in glucomannan quantity and show no detectable alterations in other cell wall polysaccharides. By contrast, we show that a class of glycosylated sphingolipids (glycosylinositol phosphoceramides [GIPCs]) contains Man and that this mannosylation is affected in gonst1. GONST1 therefore is a Golgi GDP-sugar transporter that specifically supplies GDP-Man to the Golgi lumen for GIPC synthesis. gonst1 plants have a dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response with elevated salicylic acid levels. This suggests an unexpected role for GIPC sugar decorations in sphingolipid function and plant defense signaling. Additionally, we discuss these data in the context of substrate channeling within the Golgi. PMID:23695979

  8. Biosynthesis and degradation of mammalian glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Glycolipids are a large and heterogeneous family of sphingolipids that form complex patterns on eukaryotic cell surfaces. This molecular diversity is generated by only a few enzymes and is a paradigm of naturally occurring combinatorial synthesis. We report on the biosynthetic principles leading to this large molecular diversity and focus on sialic acid-containing glycolipids of the ganglio-series. These glycolipids are particularly concentrated in the plasma membrane of neuronal cells. Their de novo synthesis starts with the formation of the membrane anchor, ceramide, at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is continued by glycosyltransferases of the Golgi complex. Recent findings from genetically engineered mice are discussed. The constitutive degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) occurs in the acidic compartments, the endosomes and the lysosomes. Here, water-soluble glycosidases sequentially cleave off the terminal carbohydrate residues from glycolipids. For glycolipid substrates with short oligosaccharide chains, the additional presence of membrane-active sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) is required. A considerable part of our current knowledge about glycolipid degradation is derived from a class of human diseases, the sphingolipidoses, which are caused by inherited defects within this pathway. A new post-translational modification is the attachment of glycolipids to proteins of the human skin. PMID:12803917

  9. Ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 inhibits apoptotic cell death in SCC17B human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells after Pc4 photosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Nithin B.; Kodiha, Mohamed; Stochaj, Ursula; Lin, Ho-sheng; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adrianna; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Divine, George W.; Boyd, John A.; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2014-01-01

    The sphingolipid ceramide modulates stress-induced cell death and apoptosis. We have shown that ceramide generated via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis is required to initiate apoptosis after photodynamic therapy (PDT). The objective of this study was to define the role of ceramide synthase (CERS) in PDT-induced cell death and apoptosis using fumonisin B1 (FB), a CERS inhibitor. We used the silicon phthalocyanine Pc4 for PDT, and SCC17B cells, as a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous carcinoma. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, as well as FB, protected cells from death after PDT. In contrast, ABT199, an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, enhanced cell killing after PDT. PDT-induced accumulation of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria was inhibited by FB. PDT-induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release were also inhibited by FB. These novel data suggest that PDT-induced cell death via apoptosis is CERS/ceramide-dependent. PMID:25266739

  10. Ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 inhibits apoptotic cell death in SCC17B human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells after Pc4 photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; Kodiha, Mohamed; Stochaj, Ursula; Lin, Ho-sheng; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Divine, George W; Boyd, John A; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2014-11-01

    The sphingolipid ceramide modulates stress-induced cell death and apoptosis. We have shown that ceramide generated via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis is required to initiate apoptosis after photodynamic therapy (PDT). The objective of this study was to define the role of ceramide synthase (CERS) in PDT-induced cell death and apoptosis using fumonisin B1 (FB), a CERS inhibitor. We used the silicon phthalocyanine Pc4 for PDT, and SCC17B cells, as a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous carcinoma. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, as well as FB, protected cells from death after PDT. In contrast, ABT199, an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, enhanced cell killing after PDT. PDT-induced accumulation of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria was inhibited by FB. PDT-induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release were also inhibited by FB. These novel data suggest that PDT-induced cell death via apoptosis is CERS/ceramide-dependent.

  11. Rafting trips into the cell.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Knorr, Ruth

    2009-09-01

    Lipid rafts are small, heterogeneous and short-lived assemblies of cholesterol, sphingolipids and few proteins in biological membranes. They can be converted to larger and more permanent membrane domains by coalescence. Cells appear to be able to modulate the size and the longevity of lipid rafts and thus exploit the local enrichment of membrane components for processes ranging from signaling to intracellular sorting and transport. In a recent paper, we provided evidence for the internalization of MHC I and MHC II along two distinct endocytosis pathways in mouse B-lymphocytes. Both pathways were much more dependent on membrane cholesterol than the clathrin-mediated uptake of transferrin receptor, which implicated lipid rafts in the internalization of MHC molecules. Indeed, MHC I and MHC II prefer distinct raft-like membrane environments as revealed by a co-clustering analysis with the sphingolipids G(M)1 and G(M)2. Moreover, MHC I and MHC II distributed to different types of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) prepared by a novel detergent extraction procedure. In this article addendum we discuss the relationship between DRMs, small lipid rafts and stabilized rafts/membrane domains and propose a role for membrane domains in the endocytosis of MHC proteins.

  12. oxLDL and eLDL Induced Membrane Microdomains in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Stefan; Grandl, Margot; Liebisch, Gerhard; Peer, Markus; Orsó, Evelyn; Sigrüner, Alexander; Sobota, Andrzej; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Extravasation of macrophages and formation of lipid-laden foam cells are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The degradation of atherogenic lipoproteins subsequently leads to alterations in cellular lipid metabolism that influence inflammatory signaling. Especially sphingolipids and ceramides are known to be involved in these processes. We therefore analyzed monocyte derived macrophages during differentiation and after loading with enzymatically (eLDL) and oxidatively (oxLDL) modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from healthy, normolipidemic blood donors using leukapheresis and counterflow elutriation. On the fourth day of MCSF-induced differentiation eLDL (40 μg/ml) or oxLDL (80 μg/ml) were added for 48h. Lipid species were analyzed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry. Taqman qPCR was performed to investigate transcriptional changes in enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, membrane lipids were studied using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Results MCSF dependent phagocytic differentiation of blood monocytes had only minor effects on the sphingolipid composition. Levels of total sphingomyelin and total ceramide remained unchanged, while lactosylceramides, cholesterylesters and free cholesterol decreased. At the species level most ceramide species showed a reduction upon phagocytic differentiation. Loading with eLDL preferentially increased cellular cholesterol while loading with oxLDL increased cellular ceramide content. Activation of the salvage pathway with a higher mRNA expression of acid and neutral sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase activation associated factor and glucosylceramidase as well as increased surface expression of SMPD1 were identified as potentially underlying mechanisms. Moreover, flow-cytometric analysis revealed a higher cell-surface-expression of ceramide, lactosylceramide (CDw17), globotriaosylceramide (CD77

  13. Crassaostrea gigas oyster shell extract inhibits lipogenesis via suppression of serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Kang, Se Chan; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2015-02-01

    Oysters are widely consumed seafood, but their shells impose a serious environmental problem. To extend the utilization of oyster shell waste, we investigated the biological role of oyster shell extract. In this study, we verified that the ethanol extract of oyster shell (EOS) contains taurine and betaine, the major components of oyster body. EOS downregulated transcription of Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 mRNA, the subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Suppression of SPT subunits reduced sphinganine and sphingomyelin by inhibiting de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Inhibition of sphingomyelin biosynthesis resulted in downregulation of lipogenic gene expression such as ACC, FAS, SCD1, and DGAT2. Consistent with inhibition of lipogenesis, cellular triglyceride levels were diminished by EOS, but cholesterol levels were not altered. Taken together, these results suggest that EOS has a lipid-lowering effect and could be applied as either a therapeutic or preventive measure for metabolic dysfunction.

  14. Calcium and mitochondrial metabolism in ceramide-induced cardiomyocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Moraga, Francisco; Kuzmicic, Jovan; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Torrealba, Natalia; Criollo, Alfredo; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Ceramides are important intermediates in the biosynthesis and degradation of sphingolipids that regulatenumerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth, differentiation and death. In cardiomyocytes, ceramides induce apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and promoting cytochrome-c release. Ca2+ overload is a common feature of all types of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ceramides on cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial function and cardiomyocyte death. Our data show that C2-ceramide induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured cardiomyocytes by a mechanism involving increased Ca2+ influx, mitochondrial network fragmentation and loss of the mitochondrial Ca2+ buffer capacity. These biochemical events increase cytosolic Ca2+ levels and trigger cardiomyocyte death via the activation of calpains. PMID:23602992

  15. Calcium and mitochondrial metabolism in ceramide-induced cardiomyocyte death.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Moraga, Francisco; Kuzmicic, Jovan; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Torrealba, Natalia; Criollo, Alfredo; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Rothermel, Beverly A; Quest, Andrew F G; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Ceramides are important intermediates in the biosynthesis and degradation of sphingolipids that regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth, differentiation and death. In cardiomyocytes, ceramides induce apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and promoting cytochrome-c release. Ca(2+) overload is a common feature of all types of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ceramides on cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels, mitochondrial function and cardiomyocyte death. Our data show that C2-ceramide induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured cardiomyocytes by a mechanism involving increased Ca(2+) influx, mitochondrial network fragmentation and loss of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffer capacity. These biochemical events increase cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and trigger cardiomyocyte death via the activation of calpains.

  16. Modulation of lipid rafts by Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and cancer: implications for use of lipids during nutrition support.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P; Stillwell, William

    2007-02-01

    Current understanding of biologic membrane structure and function is largely based on the concept of lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are composed primarily of tightly packed, liquid-ordered sphingolipids/cholesterol/saturated phospholipids that float in a sea of more unsaturated and loosely packed, liquid-disordered lipids. Lipid rafts have important clinical implications because many important membrane-signaling proteins are located within the raft regions of the membrane, and alterations in raft structure can alter activity of these signaling proteins. Because rafts are lipid-based, their composition, structure, and function are susceptible to manipulation by dietary components such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and by cholesterol depletion. We review how alteration of raft lipids affects the raft/nonraft localization and hence the function of several proteins involved in cell signaling. We focus our discussion of raft-signaling proteins on inflammation and cancer.

  17. [Cholesterol and lipid rafts in the biological membranes. Role in the release, reception and ion channel functions].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A M; Zefirov, A L

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, membrane protein molecules that form ion channels, transporters, pumps, signaling complexes, machine of exo- and endocytosis is assigned as the main players of the cellular processes. Recently, the findings that indicate the importance of lipids in regulating of cell physiology are accumulated. Attention is attracting to cholesterol molecule because it can directly interact with different proteins and together with sphingolipids to form membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). Many receptors (for neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors), signaling proteins and proteins involved in vesicular and ion transport are concentrated in the lipid rafts. Changes in stability and structure of rafts cause dramatic cellular dysfunction. In the review the current views on lipid variants that make up the biological membrane, the distribution of cholesterol, the organization and the formation of lipid rafts and caveolae are described. Accent is made on researches that focus on the significance of lipid rafts in the extra- and intracellular signaling, neurotransmitters release, receptor and ion channels function at the excitable cells.

  18. The modulation of gap-junctional intercellular communication by lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Defamie, Norah; Mesnil, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Lipid rafts are specific microdomains of plasma membrane which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. These domains seem to favour the interactions of particular proteins and the regulation of signalling pathways in the cells. Recent data have shown that among the proteins, which are preferentially localized in lipid rafts, are connexins that are the structural proteins of gap junctions. Since gap junctional intercellular communication is involved in various cellular processes and pathologies such as cancer, we were interested to review the various observations concerning this specific localization of connexins in lipid rafts and its consequences on gap junctional intercellular communication capacity. In particular, we will focus our discussion on the role of the lipid raft-connexin connection in cancer progression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, composition, structure and characteristics.

  19. Isolation of Lipid Rafts Through Discontinuous Sucrose Gradient Centrifugation and Fas/CD95 Death Receptor Localization in Raft Fractions.

    PubMed

    Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2017-01-01

    Lipid raft domains, enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol, serve as sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction proteins, and show resistance to detergent solubilization. Despite rafts have been involved in survival processes, these membrane domains have also been shown to play a major role in the modulation of death receptor signaling. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for isolating lipid rafts from whole cells by taking advantage of the lipid raft resistance to Triton X-100 solubilization at 4 °C, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, with subsequent analysis of Fas/CD95 death receptor localization in the raft fractions by immunoblotting. This method is also useful to localize additional proteins in membrane rafts.

  20. Lipid rafts, KCa/ClCa/Ca2+ channel complexes and EGFR signaling: Novel targets to reduce tumor development by lipids?

    PubMed

    Guéguinou, Maxime; Gambade, Audrey; Félix, Romain; Chantôme, Aurélie; Fourbon, Yann; Bougnoux, Philippe; Weber, Günther; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Vandier, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Membrane lipid rafts are distinct plasma membrane nanodomains that are enriched with cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides, with occasional presence of saturated fatty acids and phospholipids containing saturated acyl chains. It is well known that they organize receptors (such as Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor), ion channels and their downstream acting molecules to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. Among them are Ca2+ signaling pathways, which are modified in tumor cells and inhibited upon membrane raft disruption. In addition to protein components, lipids from rafts also contribute to the organization and function of Ca2+ signaling microdomains. This article aims to focus on the lipid raft KCa/ClCa/Ca2+ channel complexes that regulate Ca2+ and EGFR signaling in cancer cells, and discusses the potential modification of these complexes by lipids as a novel therapeutic approach in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  1. Glyco- and sphingophosphonolipids from the medusa Phyllorhiza punctata: NMR and ESI-MS/MS fingerprints.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lauro M; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J; Sari, Roger S; Haddad, Maria A; Sassaki, Guilherme L

    2007-02-01

    The medusa Phyllorhiza punctata has been found in Brazilian waters where it is an exotic species, having arrived in ballasts from the Indo-Pacific Ocean in the general region of North Australia and Indonesia. Fatty acids of the intact animal and its component umbrella, oral arms, and mucus were identified. Two different groups of glycolipids and a sphingolipid were isolated by silica-gel column chromatography and characterized using GC-MS, ESI-MS, 1D, 2D (13)C, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. They were sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP). The CAEP long chain base (LCB) and its polar head group (PHG) formed by partial hydrolysis, were analyzed by ESI-MS/MS. The probable origin of MGDG and SQDG in the jellyfish is the result of an endosymbiotic association with a microalga of the Dinoflagellate group, since these lipids are commonly found in photosynthetic membranes.

  2. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    PubMed

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  3. Regulating dyslipidemia effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus on fat-emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhuowei; Jin, Gang; Yang, Xiudong; Zhou, Hongli

    2017-03-18

    This study was conducted to evaluate the regulating dyslipidemia effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus (POP) on fat-emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia rats. A plasma metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to analyze the holistic mechanism of POP in a hyperlipidemia rat model. Multivariate statistical approaches such as principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure square-discriminant analysis revealed distinctions among the control, hyperlipidemia model, and POP groups.The results demonstrated that POP had an effect on regulating dyslipidemia. The mechanism of POP on regulating dyslipidemia was partially relevant with correcting the abnormal levels of fifteen potential biomarkers towards their normal levels. These biomarkers were belong to glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, prenol lipids, sphingolipids metabolism.

  4. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Laboureur, Laurent; Ollero, Mario; Touboul, David

    2015-01-01

    This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium. PMID:26090714

  5. 1-Deoxysphingolipids Encountered Exogenously and Made de Novo: Dangerous Mysteries inside an Enigma*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jingjing; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional backbones of mammalian sphingolipids are 2-amino, 1,3-diols made by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Many organisms additionally produce non-traditional, cytotoxic 1-deoxysphingoid bases and, surprisingly, mammalian SPT biosynthesizes some of them, too (e.g. 1-deoxysphinganine from l-alanine). These are rapidly N-acylated to 1-deoxy-“ceramides” with very uncommon biophysical properties. The functions of 1-deoxysphingolipids are not known, but they are certainly dangerous as contributors to sensory and autonomic neuropathies when elevated by inherited SPT mutations, and they are noticeable in diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, serine deficiencies, and other diseases. As components of food as well as endogenously produced, these substances are mysteries within an enigma. PMID:25947379

  6. A Putative Plant Aminophospholipid Flippase, the Arabidopsis P4 ATPase ALA1, Localizes to the Plasma Membrane following Association with a β-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    López-Marqués, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner leaflet and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This unequal distribution of lipids between leaflets is, amongst several proposed functions, hypothesized to be a prerequisite for endocytosis. P4 ATPases, belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily of pumps, are involved in establishing lipid asymmetry across plasma membranes, but P4 ATPases have not been identified in plant plasma membranes. Here we report that the plant P4 ATPase ALA1, which previously has been connected with cold tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, is targeted to the plasma membrane and does so following association in the endoplasmic reticulum with an ALIS protein β-subunit. PMID:22514601

  7. Bacterial membrane lipids: diversity in structures and pathways.

    PubMed

    Sohlenkamp, Christian; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Escherichia coli was the main model organism for the study of bacterial membrane lipids. The results obtained served as a blueprint for membrane lipid biochemistry, but it is clear now that there is no such thing as a typical bacterial membrane lipid composition. Different bacterial species display different membrane compositions and even the membrane composition of cells belonging to a single species is not constant, but depends on the environmental conditions to which the cells are exposed. Bacterial membranes present a large diversity of amphiphilic lipids, including the common phospholipids phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin, the less frequent phospholipids phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol and a variety of other membrane lipids, such as for example ornithine lipids, glycolipids, sphingolipids or hopanoids among others. In this review, we give an overview about the membrane lipid structures known in bacteria, the different metabolic pathways involved in their formation, and the distribution of membrane lipids and metabolic pathways across taxonomical groups.

  8. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill; Ruckerbauer, David E; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jensen, Ole N; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-03-19

    Elucidating how and to what extent lipid metabolism is remodeled under changing conditions is essential for understanding cellular physiology. Here, we analyzed proteome and lipidome dynamics to investigate how regulation of lipid metabolism at the global scale supports remodeling of cellular architecture and processes during physiological adaptations in yeast. Our results reveal that activation of cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling supports mitochondrial biogenesis in the transition from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, that down-regulation of de novo sterol synthesis machinery prompts differential turnover of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerols and sterol esters during respiratory growth, that sphingolipid metabolism is regulated in a previously unrecognized growth stage-specific manner, and that endogenous synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids constitutes an in vivo upstream activator of peroxisomal biogenesis, via the heterodimeric Oaf1/Pip2 transcription factor. Our work demonstrates the pivotal role of lipid metabolism in adaptive processes and provides a resource to investigate its regulation at the cellular level.

  9. A partial phylogenetic analysis of the "flavobacter-bacteroides" phylum: basis for taxonomic restructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gherna, R.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of small subunit rRNA sequence analyses five major subgroups within the flavobacteria-bacteroides phylum have been defined. These are tentatively designated the cytophaga subgroup (comprising largely Cytophaga species), the flavobacter subgroup (comprising the true flavobacteria and the polyphyletic genus Weeksella), the bacteroides subgroup (comprising the bacteroides and certain cytophaga-like bacteria), the sphingobacter subgroup (which contains the known sphingolipid-producing members of the phylum), and the saprospira subgroup (comprising particular species of Flexibacter, Flavobacterium, Haliscomenobacter, and, of course, the genus Saprospira). These groupings are given not only by evolutionary distance analysis, but can be defined and distinguished on the basis of a simple small subunit rRNA signatures.

  10. Differentiation of Whole Grain from Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using Lipid Profile of Wheat Bran, Germ, and Endosperm with UHPLC-HRAM Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ping; Harnly, James M; Chen, Pei

    2015-07-15

    A comprehensive analysis of wheat lipids from milling fractions of bran, germ, and endosperm was performed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate-mass multistage mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAM-MS(n)) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in both positive and negative modes. About 155 lipid compounds, including free fatty acids (FA), oxylipins, alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs), γ-oryzanol, sphingolipids, triglycerides (TGs), diglycerides (DGs), phospholipids, and galactolipids were characterized from the three milling fractions. Galactolipids and phospholipids were proposed to be potential discriminatory compounds for refined flour, whereas γ-oryzanols, ARs, TGs, and DGs could distinguish whole wheat flour from a refined one based on principal component analysis (PCA).

  11. Early development of sigma-receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Bhat, Rohit; Mesangeau, Christophe; Poupaert, Jacques H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Sigma receptors (σ-1 and σ-2) are non-opioid proteins implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders and cancer. The σ-1 subtype is a chaperon protein widely distributed in the CNS and peripheral tissues. These receptors are involved in the modulation of K(+)- and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling cascades at the endoplasmic reticulum and modulation of neurotransmitter release. σ-1 receptors are emerging targets for the treatment of neurophychiatric diseases (schizophrenia and depression) and cocaine addiction. σ-2 receptors are lipid raft proteins. They are highly expressed on many tumor cells and hence considered potential targets for anticancer drugs. σ receptors bind to a diverse class of pharmacological compounds like cocaine, methamphetamine, benzomorphans like (±)-pentazocine, (±)-SKF-10,047 and endogenous neurosteroids and sphingolipids. In this review we focus on the early development of σ receptor-specific ligands and radiolabeling agents.

  12. Mechanism of Action and Clinical Potential of Fingolimod for the Treatment of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Haoliang; Testai, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720) is an orally bio-available immunomodulatory drug currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Currently, there is a significant interest in the potential benefits of FTY720 on stroke outcomes. FTY720 and the sphingolipid signaling pathway it modulates has a ubiquitous presence in the central nervous system and both rodent models and pilot clinical trials seem to indicate that the drug may improve overall functional recovery in different stroke subtypes. Although the precise mechanisms behind these beneficial effects are yet unclear, there is evidence that FTY720 has a role in regulating cerebrovascular responses, blood–brain barrier permeability, and cell survival in the event of cerebrovascular insult. In this article, we critically review the data obtained from the latest laboratory findings and clinical trials involving both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and attempt to form a cohesive picture of FTY720’s mechanisms of action in stroke. PMID:27617002

  13. Anti-scratching behavioral effects of N-stearoyl-phytosphingosine and 4-hydroxysphinganine in mice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwon-Ryeol; Lee, Bomi; Lee, In-Ah; Oh, Sekwan; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-07-01

    N-Stearoyl-phytosphingosine (SPS) and 4-hydroxysphinganine (phytosphingosine, PS), which are sphingolipids frequently found in mammalian skin, plants, and yeast, have been used as ingredients in cosmetics. In mice, treatment with SPS and PS inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior and vascular permeability. These agents inhibited the expression of the allergic cytokines, IL-4 and TNF-alpha, and the activation of the transcription factors, NF-kappaB and c-jun, in histamine-stimulated skin tissues. These agents also showed potent anti-histamine effects in the Magnus test using guinea pig ileum. Based on these results, SPS and PS may improve scratching behavioral reactions in skin by regulating the action of histamine and the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and c-jun.

  14. Phytosphingosine promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Hee; Kim, Jusong; Her, Yerim; Seong, Ikjoo; Park, Sera; Bhattarai, Deepak; Jin, Guanghai; Lee, Kyeong; Chung, Gukhoon; Hwang, Sungkee; Bae, Yun Soo; Kim, Jaesang

    2015-12-01

    We report that phytosphingosine, a sphingolipid found in many organisms and implicated in cellular signaling, promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Specifically, phytosphingosine induced several hallmark changes associated with megakaryopoiesis from K562 and HEL cells including cell cycle arrest, cell size increase and polyploidization. We also confirmed that cell type specific markers of megakaryocytes, CD41a and CD42b are induced by phytosphingosine. Phospholipids with highly similar structures were unable to induce similar changes, indicating that the activity of phytosphingosine is highly specific. Although phytosphingosine is known to activate p38 MAPK-mediated apoptosis, the signaling mechanisms involved in megakaryopoiesis appear to be distinct. In sum, we present another model for dissecting molecular details of megakaryocytic differentiation which in large part remains obscure.

  15. Pseudomonas syringae infection triggers de novo synthesis of phytosphingosine from sphinganine in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Peer, Markus; Stegmann, Martin; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2010-09-24

    Sphingolipids are important membrane components and also regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. We detected a fast increase of the free sphingobase t18:0 (phytosphinganine) in Arabidopsis leaves after inoculation with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato, characterized by host cell death reactions. The induction of phytosphinganine was more transient in virulent interactions lacking cell death reactions, suggesting a positive role of t18:0 in the plants' response to pathogens, e.g. the hypersensitive response. In the mutant sphingobase hydroxylase 1 (sbh1-1), Pseudomonas induced elevated free d18:0 levels. As total t18:0 contents (after hydrolysis of ceramides) were not reduced in sbh1-1, the pathogen-triggered t18:0 increase most likely results from de novo synthesis from d18:0 which would require SBH1.

  16. Thymic emigration: when and how T cells leave home.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Michael A; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2008-08-15

    The thymus supports the differentiation of multiple distinct T cell subsets that play unique roles in the immune system. CD4 and CD8 alpha/beta T cells, gamma/delta T cells, NKT cells, regulatory T cells, and intraepithelial lymphocytes all develop in the thymus and must leave it to provide their functions elsewhere in the body. This article will review recent research indicating differences in the time and migration patterns of T cell subsets found in the thymus. Additionally, we review current understanding of the molecules involved in thymocyte emigration, including the sphingolipid receptor S1P(1) and its regulation by the Krüppel-like transcription factor KLF2.

  17. The emerging role of acid sphingomyelinase in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Cervia, Davide; De Palma, Clara; Assi, Emma; Pellegrino, Paolo; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy, the main intracellular process of cytoplasmic material degradation, is involved in cell survival and death. Autophagy is regulated at various levels and novel modulators of its function are being continuously identified. An intriguing recent observation is that among these modulators is the sphingolipid metabolising enzyme, Acid Sphingomyelinase (A-SMase), already known to play a fundamental role in apoptotic cell death participating in several pathophysiological conditions. In this review we analyse and discuss the relationship between autophagy and A-SMase describing how A-SMase may regulate it and defining, for the first time, the existence of an A-SMase-autophagy axis. The imbalance of this axis plays a role in cancer, nervous system, cardiovascular, and hepatic disorders.

  18. Ganglioside GM1-mediated transcytosis of cholera toxin bypasses the retrograde pathway and depends on the structure of the ceramide domain.

    PubMed

    Saslowsky, David E; te Welscher, Yvonne M; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Wagner, Jessica S; Wan, Joy; Kern, Eli; Lencer, Wayne I

    2013-09-06

    Cholera toxin causes diarrheal disease by binding ganglioside GM1 on the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells and trafficking retrograde through sorting endosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and into the endoplasmic reticulum. A fraction of toxin also moves from endosomes across the cell to the basolateral plasma membrane by transcytosis, thus breeching the intestinal barrier. Here we find that sorting of cholera toxin into this transcytotic pathway bypasses retrograde transport to the TGN. We also find that GM1 sphingolipids can traffic from apical to basolateral membranes by transcytosis in the absence of toxin binding but only if the GM1 species contain cis-unsaturated or short acyl chains in the ceramide domain. We found previously that the same GM1 species are needed to efficiently traffic retrograde into the TGN and endoplasmic reticulum and into the recycling endosome, implicating a shared mechanism of action for sorting by lipid shape among these pathways.

  19. S1P control of endothelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuquan; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator produced by sphingolipid metabolism, promotes endothelial cell spreading, vascular maturation/stabilization, and barrier function. S1P is present at high concentrations in the circulatory system, whereas in tissues its levels are low. This so-called vascular S1P gradient is essential for S1P to regulate much physiological and pathophysiological progress such as the modulation of vascular permeability. Cellular sources of S1P in blood has only recently begun to be identified. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of S1P in regulating vascular integrity. In particular, we discuss the recent discovery of the endothelium-protective functions of HDL-bound S1P which is chaperoned by apolipoprotein M.

  20. Crystal Structure of a Lipid G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Michael A; Roth, Christopher B; Jo, Euijung; Griffith, Mark T; Scott, Fiona L; Reinhart, Greg; Desale, Hans; Clemons, Bryan; Cahalan, Stuart M; Schuerer, Stephan C; Sanna, M Germana; Han, Gye Won; Kuhn, Peter; Rosen, Hugh; Stevens, Raymond C

    2012-03-01

    The lyso-phospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial development and integrity, heart rate, and vascular tone and maturation by activating G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. Here, we present the crystal structure of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 fused to T4-lysozyme (S1P1-T4L) in complex with an antagonist sphingolipid mimic. Extracellular access to the binding pocket is occluded by the amino terminus and extracellular loops of the receptor. Access is gained by ligands entering laterally between helices I and VII within the transmembrane region of the receptor. This structure, along with mutagenesis, agonist structure-activity relationship data, and modeling, provides a detailed view of the molecular recognition and requirement for hydrophobic volume that activates S1P1, resulting in the modulation of immune and stromal cell responses.

  1. Tamoxifen Augments the Innate Immune Function of Neutrophils Through Modulation of Intracellular Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Corriden, Ross; Hollands, Andrew; Olson, Joshua; Derieux, Jaclyn; Lopez, Justine; Chang, John T.; Gonzalez, David J.; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. In addition to its activity as an estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, tamoxifen also modulates sphingolipid biosynthesis, which has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of neutrophil activity. Here, we find that tamoxifen stimulation enhances several pro-inflammatory pathways in human neutrophils, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The enhancement of NET production occurs via a ceramide/PKCζ-mediated pathway, and treatment with synthetic ceramide is sufficient to promote NET formation. Pretreatment of human neutrophils with tamoxifen boosts neutrophil bactericidal capacity against a variety of pathogens in vitro and enhances clearance of the leading human pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. Our results suggest that tamoxifen, and the lipid signaling pathways it modulates, merit further exploration as targets for boosting host innate immune function. PMID:26458291

  2. Chemical, pharmacological, and biological characterization of the culinary-medicinal honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (Agaricomycetideae): a review.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Wołkowska, Małgorzata; Ekiert, Halina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, studies have been conducted on the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal Honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) P. Kumm. (higher Basidiomycetes). It is considered in Europe and Asia as edible and medicinal, when appropriately prepared, and has demonstrated the presence of different groups of organic compounds, including carbohydrates, sterols, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, non-hallucinogenic indole compounds, peptides, enzymes, adenosine derivatives, and many other components. Most of these metabolite groups possess potential therapeutic and dietary values. The results of quantitative analyses of indole compounds and heavy metals signal potential health hazards for humans. Some of the studies reviewed herein describe in detail the mechanism of symbiosis between A. mellea and the orchid species Gastrodia elata. This orchid is native to Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and is used in therapeutics in official Chinese medicine.

  3. The identification of the endogenous ligands of natural killer T cells reveals the presence of mammalian α-linked glycosylceramides.

    PubMed

    Kain, Lisa; Webb, Bill; Anderson, Brian L; Deng, Shenglou; Holt, Marie; Costanzo, Anne; Constanzo, Anne; Zhao, Meng; Self, Kevin; Teyton, Anais; Everett, Chris; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Zajonc, Dirk M; Bendelac, Albert; Savage, Paul B; Teyton, Luc

    2014-10-16

    Glycosylceramides in mammalian species are thought to be present in the form of β-anomers. This conclusion was reinforced by the identification of only one glucosylceramide and one galactosylceramide synthase, both β-transferases, in mammalian genomes. Thus, the possibility that small amounts of α-anomers could be produced by an alternative enzymatic pathway, by an unfaithful enzyme, or spontaneously in unusual cellular compartments has not been examined in detail. We approached the question by taking advantage of the exquisite specificity of T and B lymphocytes and combined it with the specificity of catabolic enzymes of the sphingolipid pathway. Here, we demonstrate that mammalian immune cells produce constitutively very small quantities of α-glycosylceramides, which are the major endogenous ligands of natural killer T cells. Catabolic enzymes of the ceramide and glycolipid pathway tightly control the amount of these α-glycosylceramides. The exploitation of this pathway to manipulate the immune response will create new therapeutic opportunities.

  4. The Identification of the Endogenous Ligands of Natural Killer T Cells Reveals the Presence of Mammalian α-Linked Glycosylceramides

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Lisa; Webb, Bill; Anderson, Brian L.; Deng, Shenglou; Holt, Marie; Constanzo, Anne; Zhao, Meng; Self, Kevin; Teyton, Anais; Everett, Chris; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Bendelac, Albert; Savage, Paul B.; Teyton, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glycosylceramides in mammalian species are thought to be present in the form of β-anomers. This conclusion was reinforced by the identification of only one glucosylceramide and one galactosylcerhamide synthase, both β-transferases, in mammalian genomes. Thus, the possibility that small amounts of α-anomers could be produced by an alternative enzymatic pathway, by an unfaithful enzyme, or spontaneously in unusual cellular compartments has not been examined in detail. We approached the question by taking advantage of the exquisite specificity of T and B lymphocytes and combined it with the specificity of catabolic enzymes of the sphingolipid pathway. Here, we demonstrate that mammalian immune cells produce constitutively very small quantities of α-glycosylceramides, which are the major endogenous ligands of natural killer T cells. Catabolic enzymes of the ceramide and glycolipid pathway tightly control the amount of these α-glycosylceramides. The exploitation of this pathway to manipulate the immune response will create new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:25367571

  5. An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Forsthoefel, David J.; James, Noelle P.; Escobar, David J.; Stary, Joel M.; Vieira, Ana P.; Waters, Forrest A.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Planarians grow and regenerate organs by coordinating proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells with remodeling of post-mitotic tissues. Understanding how these processes are orchestrated requires characterizing cell type-specific gene expression programs and their regulation during regeneration and homeostasis. To this end, we analyzed the expression profile of planarian intestinal phagocytes, cells responsible for digestion and nutrient storage/distribution. Utilizing RNA interference, we identified cytoskeletal regulators required for intestinal branching morphogenesis, and a modulator of bioactive sphingolipid metabolism, ceramide synthase, required for the production of functional phagocytes. Additionally, we found that a gut-enriched homeobox transcription factor, nkx-2.2, is required for somatic stem cell proliferation, suggesting a niche-like role for phagocytes. Identification of evolutionarily conserved regulators of intestinal branching, differentiation, and stem cell dynamics demonstrates the utility of the planarian digestive system as a model for elucidating the mechanisms controlling post-embryonic organogenesis. PMID:23079596

  6. The acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide pathway: biomedical significance and mechanisms of regulation.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Y H; Hannun, Y A

    2010-07-01

    One of the most intriguing enzymes of sphingolipid biology is acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). In a phospholipase C reaction, ASMase catalyzes the cleavage of the phosphocholine head group of sphingomyelin to generate ceramide. Cumulative efforts of various laboratories over the past 40 years have placed ASMase and its product ceramide at the forefront of lipid research. Activation of the ASMase/ceramide pathway is a shared response to an ever-growing list of receptor and non-receptor mediated forms of cellular stress including: death ligands (TNFalpha, TRAIL, Fas ligand), cytokines (IL-1, IFNgamma), radiation, pathogenic infections, cytotoxic agents and others. The strategic role of ASMase in lipid metabolism and cellular stress response has sparked interest in investigatig the molecular mechanisms underlying ASMase activation. In this article, we review the translational role of the ASMase/ceramide pathway and recent advances on its mechanisms of regulation.

  7. Raft-like membrane domains in pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Farnoud, Amir M; Toledo, Alvaro M; Konopka, James B; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist, and reports on the presence of sterol- or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing. Despite increasing attention, little is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The current literature on characterization of microdomains in pathogens is reviewed, and their potential role in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance is discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of their pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for therapy.

  8. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  9. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD. PMID:26046098

  10. Persistence of psychosine in brain lipid rafts is a limiting factor in the therapeutic recovery of a mouse model for Krabbe disease

    PubMed Central

    White, AB; Galbiati, F; Givogri, MI; Lopez Rosas, A; Qiu, X; van Breemen, R; Bongarzone, ER

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids are intrinsic components of membrane lipid rafts. The abnormal accumulation of these molecules may introduce architectural and functional changes in these domains, leading to cellular dysfunction. Galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) is a pathogenic lipid-raft associated molecule whose accumulation leads to brain deterioration and irreversible neurological handicap in the incurable leukodystrophy Krabbe disease (KD). The relevance of clearing excessive levels of pathogenic psychosine from lipid rafts in therapy for KD has not been investigated. The work presented here demonstrates that psychosine inhibits raft-mediated endocytosis in neural cells. In addition, while in vitro enzyme reconstitution is sufficient for the reversal of related endocytic defects in affected neural cells, traditional in vivo enzyme therapies in the mouse model of KD appear insufficient for complete removal of pathogenic levels of raft-associated psychosine. This work describes a mechanism that may contribute to limit the in vivo efficacy of traditional therapies for KD. PMID:21259322

  11. Disruption of Lipid Rafts Interferes with the Interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Karla Dias; Cruz, Thayana Araújo; Veras de Moraes, Gabriela; Paredes-Santos, Tatiana Christina; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can penetrate any warm-blooded animal cell. Conserved molecular assemblies of host cell plasma membranes should be involved in the parasite-host cell recognition. Lipid rafts are well-conserved membrane microdomains that contain high concentrations of cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI-anchored proteins, and dually acylated proteins such as members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Disturbing lipid rafts of mouse peritoneal macrophages and epithelial cells of the lineage LLC-MK2 with methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) and filipin, which interfere with cholesterol or lidocaine, significantly inhibited internalization of T. gondii in both cell types, although adhesion remained unaffected in macrophages and decreased only in LLC-MK2 cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these observations. Results are discussed in terms of the original role of macrophages as professional phagocytes versus the LLC-MK2 cell lineage originated from kidney epithelial cells. PMID:24734239

  12. Phytosphingosine promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Hee; Kim, Jusong; Her, Yerim; Seong, Ikjoo; Park, Sera; Bhattarai, Deepak; Jin, Guanghai; Lee, Kyeong; Chung, Gukhoon; Hwang, Sungkee; Bae, Yun Soo; Kim, Jaesang

    2015-01-01

    We report that phytosphingosine, a sphingolipid found in many organisms and implicated in cellular signaling, promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Specifically, phytosphingosine induced several hallmark changes associated with megakaryopoiesis from K562 and HEL cells including cell cycle arrest, cell size increase and polyploidization. We also confirmed that cell type specific markers of megakaryocytes, CD41a and CD42b are induced by phytosphingosine. Phospholipids with highly similar structures were unable to induce similar changes, indicating that the activity of phytosphingosine is highly specific. Although phytosphingosine is known to activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated apoptosis, the signaling mechanisms involved in megakaryopoiesis appear to be distinct. In sum, we present another model for dissecting molecular details of megakaryocytic differentiation which in large part remains obscure. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 691-695] PMID:26077028

  13. Hopanoids as functional analogues of cholesterol in bacterial membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz, James P.; Grosser, Daniel; Bradley, Alexander S.; Lagny, Thibaut J.; Lavrynenko, Oksana; Broda, Martyna; Simons, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of cellular membranes relies on the molecular order imparted by lipids. In eukaryotes, sterols such as cholesterol modulate membrane order, yet they are not typically found in prokaryotes. The structurally similar bacterial hopanoids exhibit similar ordering properties as sterols in vitro, but their exact physiological role in living bacteria is relatively uncharted. We present evidence that hopanoids interact with glycolipids in bacterial outer membranes to form a highly ordered bilayer in a manner analogous to the interaction of sterols with sphingolipids in eukaryotic plasma membranes. Furthermore, multidrug transport is impaired in a hopanoid-deficient mutant of the gram-negative Methylobacterium extorquens, which introduces a link between membrane order and an energy-dependent, membrane-associated function in prokaryotes. Thus, we reveal a convergence in the architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic membranes and implicate the biosynthetic pathways of hopanoids and other order-modulating lipids as potential targets to fight pathogenic multidrug resistance. PMID:26351677

  14. Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Neudert, Lars; Simat, Thomas; Salzer, Reiner

    2005-05-01

    Human brain tissue, in particular white matter, contains high lipid content. These brain lipids can be divided into three principal classes: neutral lipids including the steroid cholesterol, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Major lipids in normal human brain tissue are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, sphingomyelin, galactocerebrosides, gangliosides, sulfatides and cholesterol. Minor lipids are cholesterolester and triacylglycerides. During transformation from normal brain tissue to tumors, composition and concentration of lipids change in a specific way. Therefore, analysis of lipids might be used as a diagnostic parameter to distinguish normal tissue from tumors and to determine the tumor type and tumor grade. Raman spectroscopy has been suggested as an analytical tool to detect these changes even under intra-operative conditions. We recorded Raman spectra of the 12 major and minor brain lipids with 785 nm excitation in order to identify their spectral fingerprints for qualitative and quantitative analyses.

  15. Antiproliferative activity of buttermilk lipid fractions isolated using food grade and non-food grade solvents on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, Pilar; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis M; Monteiro, Karin M; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Fontecha, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Buttermilk is a dairy by-product with a high content of milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs), whose protein constituents are reported to be antiproliferative. Lipids represent about half of the composition of MFGM. The aim of this study was to isolate buttermilk lipid fractions and evaluate their potential antiproliferative effect. Selective extraction with food grade or non-food grade solvents was performed. Antiproliferative effectiveness of lipid extracts and their neutral and polar fractions was evaluated on nine human cancer cell lines. Fractions obtained using food grade ethanol gave a higher yield than those obtained using non-food grade solvents, and they effectively inhibited cell viability of the cancer cell lines investigated. These fractions, rich in phospho- and sphingolipids, were strongly antiproliferative against human ovary and colon cancer cells. This observation allowed us to hypothesize further analyses aimed at promoting the use of buttermilk polar lipid fractions as functional food additives.

  16. Molecular-dynamics simulation of a ceramide bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Sagar A.; Scott, H. Larry

    2006-01-01

    Ceramide is the simplest lipid in the biologically important class of glycosphingolipids. Ceramide is an important signaling molecule and a major component of the strateum corneum layer in the skin. In order to begin to understand the biophysical properties of ceramide, we have carried out a molecular-dynamics simulation of a hydrated 16:0 ceramide lipid bilayer at 368K (5° above the main phase transition). In this paper we describe